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Momentum, Energy, Work

and Power
Section 1
Momentum
Momentum
• Momentum is related to how
much force is need to change
the movement of an object
• Momentum equals mass times
velocity
• Momentum is a vector
p=mv
Momentum
• In collisions or other
encounters, momentum is
transferred between objects
• In any encounter, the total
momentum of the objects does
not change – it is conserved
Law of Conservation of
Momentum
Conserving Momentum
How is momentum conserved when
a cannon is fired?
The mass and velocity of the cannon
ball must equal the mass and
velocity of the cannon
Units for Momentum
• mv = kg m / s
• The SI unit for momentum is a
kilogram meter per second
• Is that the only way to get
momentum?
• F = N = kg m / s2
• Ft = kg m / s2 X s = kg m / s
Ft = Δmv
Impulse
• Ft is known as inpulse measured in
Newton seconds
• In a collision or other interaction
Impulse = change in Momentum
• Seatbelts, airbags and crumple
zones increase the time of
acceleration in a crash decreasing
the force on you making the crash
more survivable
J = Ft
Momentum, Energy, Work
and Power
Section 2
Energy
Energy
• Energy is the ability to make
change
• The total energy of a system is
called mechanical energy
• Energy is divided into two
types: Kinetic and Potential
Mechanical Energy = KE + PE
Kinetic Energy
• Energy in motion
• For objects in motion, the amount
of kinetic energy is dependent on
its mass and its velocity
• The kinetic energy of something in
motion =1/2 mass times velocity
squared
KE = ½ mv 2
Kinetic Energy
• KE = ½ mv2 or = ½ kg(m/s)2
• kg m2/s2 = 1 Joule
• Joule is the SI unit used to
measure energy
James Joule 1818 - 1889
Question?
• Does 10 kg moving a 5 m/s
have the same energy as 5 kg
moving at 10 m/s?
• Remember KE = ½ mv2

NO
Potential Energy
• Stored energy in a motionless
object – has the potential or
ability to cause change
–Elastic - objects that are
stretched or compressed
–Chemical – chemical bonds
–Gravitational – Height
Potential Energy
• PE - energy stored in things
above the earth
• PE depends on mass, height
and acceleration due to gravity

PE = mgh
PE
• PE = m X 9.8 m/s2 X height
• That’s kg X m/s2 X m or kg m2/s2
• kg m2/s2 = 1 Joule, the same as
kinetic energy
• What is the PE of a 10 kg mass
5 m above ground?
• PE = 10 X 5 X 9.8 = 490 J
Law of Conservation of Energy
• Energy may change from one form
to another, but the total amount
never changes
• As an example, what happens in a
swing?
• If the energy of a swing decreases,
some other object must increase
its energy by an equal amount
Momentum, Energy, Work
and Power
Section 3
Work
Work - Defined
• Transfer of energy that occurs
when a force makes an object
move
• The object must move for work
to be done
• The motion of the object must
be in the same direction as the
applied force
Work is Related to Energy
• Energy is always transferred
from the object doing the work
to the object on which the work
is done
• Work is done on an object only
when a force is being applied to
the object and the object
moves
Calculating Work
• Work equals force (in Newtons)
times distance

W=FXD
Work Units
• W = FXD
• W = N X m or kg m2/s2
• Kg m2/s2 are the same units as
energy
• Therefore work is measured in
Joules
Question Time

If you hold 100 kg over


your head, are you doing
any work?

NO!
Momentum, Energy, Work
and Power
Section 4
Power
Work and Time
• The relationship between work
and time is called power
• Power equals work / time

P=W/
Power Units
• P = W/T
• P = Joules/sec
• Joule/sec = Nm/sec = watt (W)
• Since work and energy are
related, power also can be
calculated by dividing energy by
time
James Watt

Scottish scientist and inventor 1736 - 1819