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by max 'xin' memtade (2005)

2-
(-: .. , : ..)

:
! MS Mincho !
Arial
Arial Narrow
! Arial Unicode MS !
Courier New
Garamond
! SimSun !
Tahoma
Times New Roman

-
,
, Jardic.

*.jpg,

jo:yo:kanji,
-


by max xin memtade

(: ) by max xin memtade (: )


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by max xin memtade

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APP##
APP#x
APPENDIX
CONTENTS
FOREIGNSOUNDS
GRAM###
GRAMMATICS
HIRAGANA
INTRO
KANJIREADING
KATAKANA
LES##
LESSONS
PHONETICSOUND
RADICALS
RULES
TITLEPAGE

, (01-09)
, (0A-0S)


, (001-122)



, (01-24)


by max xin memtade

, , ,
.


: , , , , ,
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by max xin memtade

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( , ,
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: . 2- ., . . / .. . : . , 1994. 448
. ISBN 5020309036. 81.2 .-9 70.
- - / .. , .. . 6- ., .
.: . . , 2004. 864 . ( 15 000 /
/ ). ISBN 5957600768.
811.521374=161.1+811.161.1374=521 81.2 -4 13.
- / . .. , .. , .. , ..
. .: . .-, 2003. 416 . (2300 /
7000 / )
ISBN 5957600261. 811.521374:003.324.2=161.1 81.2-4 40.

.


by max xin memtade

wa
()

ra

ya

ma

ha

na

ta

sa

ka

ri

mi

hi

ni

chi

shi

ki

wi

()
we

ru

yu

mu

fu

nu

tsu

su

ku

re

me

he

ne

te

se

ke

o (wo)

ro

yo

mo

ho

no

to

so

ko

rya

ryu

ryo

pa

pi

pu

pe

po

ba

bi

bu

be

bo

mya

myu

myo

da

ji

zu

de

do

za

ji

zu

ze

zo

hya

hyu

hyo

nya

nyu

nyo

cha

chu

cho

sha

shu

sho

kya

kyu

kyo

bya

byu

byo

ja

ju

jo

ja

ju

jo

gya

gyu

gyo

ga

gi

gu

ge

go

pya

pyu

pyo

- nigori (); - hannigori (-)


(); - maru (); ();( )
wa ha he
. wo o.


by max xin memtade

wa
()

ra

ya

ma

ha

na

ta

sa

ka

ri

mi

hi

ni

chi

shi

ki

wi

()
we

ru

yu

mu

fu

nu

tsu

su

ku

re

me

he

ne

te

se

ke

o (wo)

ro

yo

mo

ho

no

to

so

ko

rya

ryu

ryo

pa

pi

pu

pe

po

ba

bi

bu

be

bo

mya

myu

myo

da

ji

zu

de

do

za

ji

zu

ze

zo

hya

hyu

hyo

nya

nyu

nyo

cha

chu

cho

sha

shu

sho

kya

kyu

kyo

bya

byu

byo

ja

ju

jo

ja

ju

jo

gya

gyu

gyo

ga

gi

gu

ge

go

pya

pyu

pyo

,
( ( )
, ) .
, ( ),
, .
, , .


by max xin memtade

[ ]
:
- ().

:
- o yu, yo
<>+u;
- a, i, u, e ,
<>+<_>.
- k, s, t p tsu
;
- m n n+<>;

:
gakko:
empitsu
To:kyo:
zasschi

g(ka)+_tsu+ko+u
e+n+p(hi)+tsu
to+u+ki+_yo+u
z(sa)+_tsu+shi

()
()

()

()

() :
- i i;
- a, e, u o ;
, ,
. ,
, .

[ ]

(
, )*

( )*
e

sh

* -

ts

+
( - )
t
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ch
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( )

( i), . h
( a, e, o)
f
(
)
m

r
(++)
( )
w
(
)

(
), ( ga)
d

j
b

(.)


by max xin memtade

[ ]
1

91

119

120

30

92

31

62

93

121

32

63

33

(3)->

123

34

65

35
5

124

36

95

125

37

67

96

.
*

126

97

127

98

128

6
2

38

39

40

70

99

129

10

41

71

100

11

42

72

101

43

73

102

132

13

44

133

75

104

134

15

46

.
-
*

131

12

76

105

135

16

47

77

106

136

17

48

78

49

79

19

50

20

51

21

52

22

53

14

23

45

54

24

55

25

56

57

27

58

28

59

29

60

68
69

74

103

107

137

108

138

80

109

139

81

110

82

111

141

83

112

142

84

143

114

144

115

87

116

88

89

117
6

146
7
147

90

118

148


by max xin memtade

149

178

150

179

206
207

- 14-17

152
181
*
,

153
182
209
,
.
*

154
183
210

155
184
211

.

156 * 185
212
,

157 *
186
213 .

10
214
158
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159 * 187

160
188
,
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161 .
189

. 300,


162 *
190

.
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* 191

.
164 *
192

.
165 193

,

-,
166
194

.
8
11
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167 * 195

*
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196
.
169 *
197
1981 .

.
198
jo:yo:kanji, 1945

,
171
199
.


172
200
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12-13
173 *

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174
201
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9
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176 204
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177
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180

208

10


by max xin memtade

, ,
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, ,
().
-, -,
-.
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, ,
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, .
, ,
. 214 .
;
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:
-:

-:

( + )

( + )

(, - )
-:

[]

()
()
()

, ::
she
ti
tsa
fa

je
tu
tsi
fi

che
di
tse
fe

dje
du
tso
fo

she
ti
tsa
fa
va

je
tu
tsi
fi
vi

che dje
di
du
tse tso
fe fo
vu ve vo

11


by max xin memtade

[ 1. -re ]
kore, sore, are, dore ko-, so-, a-, do-,
:
) , ko-, (, ),
,
.
) , so-, (, ),
,
.
) , a-, (, ),
, ;
) do- .

kore
sore
are
dore

( )
, ( )
, ( )
? ( )?

[ 2. ]
(, , )
, (
):
hon
empitsu
neko
seito

,
,
, ; ,
, ; ,

, .
:
, , ..
, ;
. , , ,
.
.
-: , ,
.

1,2

12


by max xin memtade

( ), (
) ( , , ),
, ,
: senseiwa, heyani.

()

()

(? ?)
(?)

heya ni

(?)

heya de

sensei ni

sensei wa
sensei ga

(?)
(? ?)
(? ?)
(? ?)
(? ?)
(?)
(?)
( ? ?)
( ?)

hon o
seito no
gakko: e
empitsu de
Shiberia
kara
To:kyo: made
tomodachi to
shichi yori

[ 3. - desu ]
- , (-)
( , ) ( ). ,
, - to be, , am, are, is: (I am a
student. ).
- desu (, -),
, .
-.
1:

2,3

Kore

wa [ - ]

Kore



wa [ - ]

desu.
[ - ].

dewa
arimasen.
[ - ].

13


by max xin memtade

:
Kore wa hon
desu.

Kore wa neko
desu.

Kore
dewa
Kore
dewa

wa hon
arimasen.
wa neko
arimasen.

().
(.:
, (
) )
( ,
, ).
().

(,
, ).

dewa ja.

[ 4. wa (I) ]
, . wa
; wa . wa
, , . wa
ha.

[ 5. hai iie ]
hai , ,
; , .
:
Kore wa pen dewa
arimasen ka?
Hai, kore wa pen
dewa arimasen.

, . (.: , .
.)

, hai , ,
, , .
aizuchi .
iie , ; ,
.

[ 6. ka ]
ka .
.

3-6

14


by max xin memtade

:
Kore wa hon
desu.
Kore wa hon
desu ka?
Kore wa hon
dewa arimasen.
Kore
dewa
ka.
Kore
desu
desu

wa hon
arimasen
wa hon
ka, zasshi
ka.

?.
?
(.: ?
?)

[ 7. ]
, ;
, : , , ..
, ; , takai
, , , , ..
: , -i
, -na.
, ; .

[ 8. ]
-i, .
,
-, .. Empitsu wa
akai ( ).
;
, (akai , akakatta ),
(akakereba ). , : , .., : ,
. ,
.
, :
-.
, (
):
akai empitsu
takai kuruma
samui tenki
omoi nimotsu

6-8

;
;

15


by max xin memtade

2:

Kore

wa

[ -i ]

Kore

wa

[ -i ]

[ - ] desu.
[ ] [ - ].

[ - ] dewa arimasen.
[ ] [ - ].

:
Kore wa akai
empitsu desu.

Kore wa akai
empitsu dewa
arimasen.

. (.:
(), ( )
.)
( -
).

-i ,
. - (
);
-.
3:

[ - ]

wa [ -i ] desu.
[ - ] [ ].

:
Empitsu wa akai desu.
Kami wa shiroi desu.

..
.

:
-i -ku.
4:

[ - ]

wa [ -ku ] arimasen.
[ - ] [ ].

16


by max xin memtade

:
Empitsu wa akaku
arimasen.
Iie, o:kiku
arimasen.
Iie, kuruma wa
takaku arimasen.
Iie, yoku
arimasen.


..

, .

,
.

, .

:
Kore wa empitsu
dewa arimasen.
Akaku arimasen.

..
.

[ 9. - : -ku ]
-ku -;
:
hayai
samui
osoi
takai

hayaku
samuku
osoku
takaku

ii -ku,
yoi:
yoi

yoku

[ 10. : -kute (I) ]


,
/ .
, ,
, , , -i
-kute; -, -:
Kono hon wa
atsukute kuroi
desu.
Sono hon wa
usukute aoi
desu.

8-10

. (.:
, , )
.

17


by max xin memtade

[ 11. -no ]
kono, sono, ano, dono
; ko-, so-, a-, do-:

kono
sono
ano
dono

, .. ( )
, .. ( )
, .. ( )
? ( )?

:
kono akai empitsu
sono shimbun
ano zasshi

,
,
, ; ,

[ 12. mo ]
mo ( ?, ?) ,
, .
:
Kore mo empitsu
desu.

Kono tokei mo takai


desu.


..

[ 13. ]
:
watakushi

kare

kanojo

konokata

sonokata

anokata

:
anata

;
;
;

watakushi-tachi
anata-gata
kare-ra
kanojo-ra
konokata-gata
sonokata-gata
anokata-gata
donata; dare

()

kata ; watakushi
, watashi; donata , dare.
watakushi u : watak(u)shi, tachi -i
: -tach(i).

11-13

18


by max xin memtade

:
Watakushi wa daigaku
no gakusei desu.
Anata wa o-shigoto wa
nan desu ka?
Anata wa Suzuki-san
desu ka?
Anokata wa donata
desu ka?
Kare wa dare desu ka?

..

?
(.: ,
?)
-?

[ 14. ]

-domo, -tachi, -gata, -ra.
-gata ,
, anatagata.
ra , (
karera, kanojora).
-tachi , ,
:
:
kodomo
seito

,
;

kodomotachi
seitotachi

(
):
hito
ki
kuni
shina
yama

,
,

hito-bito
ki-gi
kuni-guni
shina-jina
yama-yama

()

[ 15. no ]
no (? ?);
, - (
, ,
):

13-15

19


by max xin memtade

watashi no tomodahi
Nata:sha no bo:shi
daigaku no gakusei
Nihongo no hon
Roshiago no sensei

haru no kaze

Nihon no jido:sha

Amerika no tabako

otoko-no-ko

otoko-no-hito

chairo no kaban

Roshiajin no sensei
sensei no Tanaka-san
To:kyo: no chizu
To:kyo: no hito



( )


( )


-



( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

[ 16. ]
,
no, :
watakushi no

anata no

kare no

kanojo no

watakushi
tachi no
anata gata
no
kare ra no
kanojo ra
no
donata no;
dare no

:
Kono kaban wa
donata no desu ka?
Kono kaban wa
watakushi no desu.
Kono nimotsu wa
anata no desu ka?
Kono mono wa dare
no desu ka?
Kono mono wa
watakushi no desu.

?

.
?
?
.

15,16

20


by max xin memtade

[ 17. -san, -sama ]


-san
. , -san ;
, . -sama ,
-san; .
,
-san sensei, .
sensei , ,
, kyo:in , .
:
o-mawari-san

akabo:-san

musume-san

o-kyaku-san
tsu:yaku-san
untenshu-san






()

, , .
-san, -sama
!

[ 18. o-, go- ]


, ,
, ,
. (,
):
okusan
botchan
sensei



()

kanai
musuko
kyo:shi



()

- ,
o- go- ; ,
:

17,18

21


by max xin memtade

kuni

o-kuni

taku

o-taku

genki

shigoto

o-shigoto

shumi

o-shumi

tomodachi

o-tomodachi
o-genki

()

()
()
()

()

()

o-, go-; ,
, , :
o-sake
o-kane
o-furo
o-mocha
o-kusuri

o-tenki
o-cha
go-han
go-chiso:
go-shu

[ 19. , , ]
-jin
( ).

-go ( ).

Amerika
Igirisu
Beroroshia
Burajiru
Doitsu
Ejiputo
Supein
Itaria
Kanada
Chu:goku
Cho:sen
Porando
Roshia
Ukuraina
Furansu
Nihon

Igirisu-jin

Beroroshia
Amerika-jin

jin
Burajiru-jin
Doitsu-jin
Ejiputo-jin
Supein-jin
Itaria-jin
Kanada-jin
Chu:goku-jin
Cho:sen-jin
Porando-jin
Roshia-jin
Ukuraina-jin
Furansu-jin
Nihon-jin

Ei-go

Beroroshia-go

Ei-go

Porutogaru-go
Doitsu-go
Arabia-go
Supein-go
Itaria-go
Eigo/Furansugo
Chu:goku-go
Cho:sen-go
Porando-go
Roshia-go
Ukraina-go
Furansu-go
Nihon-go

18,19

22


by max xin memtade

O-kuni wa nan desu


ka?
Kuni wa Roshia desu.
Watakushi wa
Roshiajin desu.
Watakushi wa Nihongo
o benkyo: shite
imasu.
Nihongo ga yoku
hanasemasen.
Watakushi wa Eigo ga
dekimasu.
Kore wa Nihongo de
nan to iimasu ka?

.
.

.
-.
?

[ 20. ga wa ]
ga
, : Watashi ga seito desu ( ).
wa: Watashi wa seito desu ( - ),
.
- , ,
wa, . ,
wa, ( ),
, ,
(. . 4). - ( ) .
, ,
, ga ( , ga
).
(? ? ..)
ga: -.
:
Anata wa dare desu ka?
Watashi wa seito desu.
Dare ga seito desu ka.
Watashi ga seito desu.

?
.
?
.

?
: ( , ); .
, () .
? , .
.
, ,
, , .

19,20

23


by max xin memtade

, , , -,
wa, ga (, ,
, ).
, -, wa
: Watakushi wa, seito desu ( , () ).

[ 21. aru iru ]


, , aru iru, ..
, , .. iru , aru
.
5:

[ - ]

[ - ]

ga arimasu.
() [ - ].


wa arimasen.
( ) [ - ].


.

() .
?

?
,

?

Heya ni tsukue ga
arimasu.

Heya ni tsukue ga
arimasen.

Pen wa arimasu
ka?
Pen wa arimasen
ka?
Sumimasen ga,
basu no noriba wa
doko ni arimasu
ka?
Sumimasen ga, hen
ni toire wa
arimasen ka?

6:

[ - ]

[ - ]

ga imasu.
() [ - ].


wa imasen.
( ) [ - ].


20,21

24


by max xin memtade

Heya ni seito ga
imasu.

Heya ni seito ga
imasen.

Tsu:yaku-san wa
doko ni imasu ka?

Tsu:yaku-san wa
imasu ka?
Kore wa hon desu.

?
() .
()
.

Koko ni hon ga
arimasu.


.

.

?

[ 22. ni (I) ]
ni ( ) .
, , :
:
( ?) ni;
( ?) de
( ).
ni , , :
heya ni
koko ni
ue ni

mise ni
doko ni
naka ni


? ?
;

:
Koko ni tsukue ga
arimasu.
Tsukue no ue ni
hon ga arimasu.
Tsukue wa doko ni
arimasu ka?
Kono tsukue wa
mado no soba ni
arimasu.
Su:pa: wa ano
ginko: no ushiro
ni arimasu.


..

[ 23. -ko ]
koko, soko, asoko doko ko-,
so-, a-, do- (. 1, 11) :

21-23

25


by max xin memtade

koko
soko
asoko
doko

( )
( )
(, )
?

: ()
, ,
. , ni:
koko ni
soko ni
asoko ni
doko ni

; ;
;
;
? ?

:
Empitsu wa, doko
ni arimasu ka?

Tsukue wa koko ni
arimasu.

Koko ni tsukue ga
arimasu.
Koko wa doko desu
ka?
Moyori no
chikatetsu-eki wa
doko desu ka?
Annaijo wa doko
desu ka?

? (.:
, () ()
?)
. (.:
, ( ) .)
. (.:
() .)
? ( ?)
?
?

[ 24. (I) ]
,
.
, , , ..
( ), ,
, , - ,
.
( ), ni:
ue ni
mae ni
naka ni
tame ni

,
,

shita ni
ushiro ni
soba ni
toki ni

23,24

26


by max xin memtade

no,
. ni,
, . ,
- , , de (. ).
7:

[ - ]

no

[ ]

ni
[ ] [ - ]

:
Tsukue no ue ni
kago ga arimasu.
Kago no naka ni
ringo ga arimasu.

..
..

[ 25. : ]
: , ..
.
,
: (), () ..
ikutsu () ?
(1) hitotsu
(2) futatsu
(3) mittsu
(4) yottsu
(5) itsustsu

(6) muttsu
(7) nanatsu
(8) yattsu
(9) kokonotsu
(10) to:

:
futatsu no ringo
mittsu no heya

[ 26. to ya ]
to , .. .
ya , .. ,
:

24-26

27


by max xin memtade

pen to kami to hon


pen ya kami ya hon

,
, , ( ..)

. (
), ( ), ( ), (
), to ya (pen to
kami) (anata no watakushi).

[ 27. - desu. de ]
- desu,
de; desu .
8:

[ 1 ] de, [ 2 ].
[ 1 ], [ 2 ].


:
Kono jibiki wa takai desu.
Kono jibiki wa takai de,
sono jibiki wa yasui desu.

.
,
.

[ 28. - no (I) ]
, .
- no. ( + no)
, wa, ga, mo .
- one.
:
Atsui hon wa jibiki desu.

Atsui no wa jibiki desu.


..
.

[ 29. ]
;
. -i .
, ,
-na.
, , , ,

26-29

28


by max xin memtade

- .
: -na -i (, chiisai chiisana ; o:kii o:kina ).

-na.
9:

Kore

wa

[ -na ]

Kore

wa

[ -na ]

[ - ] desu.
[ ] [ - ].

[ - ] dewa arimasen.
[ ] [ - ].

:
Kore wa rippa-na kabin
desu.
Kore wa rippa-na kabin
dewa arimasen.

..


( - ).

-
( -na; ).
10:

desu.
[-] wa [ ]
[ - ] [ ].

dewa arimasen.
[-] wa [ ]
[ - ] [ ].

:
Kono kabin wa rippa desu.
Kono kabin wa rippa dewa
arimasen.

..

.

:
marui kabin

rippa-na
kabin
kabin

29

marui
desu
rippa
desu
kabin
desu

maruku
arimasen
rippa dewa
arimasen
kabin dewa
arimasen

29


by max xin memtade

[ 30. ]
.
-i:
shiroi
kiiroi
aoi
kuroi
akai

(, )

:
Kore wa akai
empitsu desu.

Kono empitsu
mo akai desu.

Kono empitsu wa
akaku arimasen.


..

.

.


iro ( ):
cha-iro
momo-iro
bara-iro
sora-iro
midori-iro
hai-iro
nezumi-iro
orenji-iro
murasakiiro
rakuda-iro
remon-iro


()

, -

, -
, -

( )
( )
( )
( )
(
)
( )
( )
( )
(
)
( )
( )

, ,
no:
Kore wa chairo
no empitsu
desu.
Kore wa chairo
no empitsu dewa
arimasen.


..


( - ).

, .. -,
, no:

30

30


by max xin memtade

Donna iro desu ka?


Kono empitsu wa
donna iro desu ka?
Kono empitsu wa
chairo desu.
Kono empitsu wa
chairo dewa
arimasen.

?.

?

.

.

[ 31. to ]
to , - ,
, . iiu (), omou (,
, ), kiku () ..
:
wa,
Nihon-go de nan
to iimasu ka?

Nezumiiro to
iimasu.

Nihongo wa,
muzukashii to
omoimasu ka?


?.
:
nezumiiro.


?.

[ 32. ]
: , -, .; . ,
( , ..),
, ( ), .
; ,
, : , (
), - ( ).
, - .
, - ,
(. ); .
, : ()
. ,
(nomu ). (- - )
(nomimasu ), ,
.

30-32

31


by max xin memtade

[ 33. ]
, , .. :
kakimasu
kakimashita
deshita

, , , , ,
, , .
, , ,

: - ().
( ) , Watashi wa tegami
o kakimasu ( :
).

[ 34. : -u ]
-u (.. -u: yomu, miru ..).
, , (informal, familiar),
(plain) (basic).
.
: .
,

.

[ 35. : -masu ]
(polite, formal) ;
, , ,
, , .
-masu ; .
: I II ; ,
-. II . -iru, -eru (
, ).
II -ru -masu.
:
taberu
miru
miseru
iru

tabemasu
mimasu
misemasu
imasu

, (
)

I ( kuru, suru) ,
-eru -iru.

33-35

32


by max xin memtade

:
iu
kaku
hanasu
matsu
shinu
tobu
nomu
aru
shiru
kiru
kaeru
hairu
iru

iimasu

shirimasu

kimasu

kakimasu
hanashimasu
machimasu
shinimasu
tobimasu
nomimasu
arimasu

kirimasu
kaerimasu
hairimasu
irimasu

, (
)

-:
kuru
suru

shimasu

suru.
:
kekkon
suru

kekkon
shimasu

benkyo:
suru

benkyo:
shimasu

-masen:
yomimasu
yomimasen

-u : kakimas(u).

[ 36. - desu da ]
- desu (, -) - de arimasu: de
; arimasu ( , )
aru ( , ). desu
: de aru, de arimasen (dewa
arimasen wa ja arimasen).
de aru, , , : da.

35,36

33


by max xin memtade

[ 37. o (I) ]
o (?, ?);
, -
.
11:

[ - ] wa [ - ]
[ -masu ].
o
[ - ] [ - ] [ ].


[ - ] wa [ - ]
[ -masen ].
o
[ - ] [ - ] [ ].


:
Watakushitachi
wa oto o
kikimasu.
Watakushitachi
wa nioi o
kagimasen.
Anata wa nani o
shimasu ka?
Watakushi wa
Nihongo o
naraimasu.

()

?

.

o:
wakaru
aru
iru

()

, ( )
, ( )

, o
o.

37

34


by max xin memtade

[ 38. de (I) ]
de (? ?),
. .
12:

[ - ] wa [ - ]
de [ -masu ].
[ - ] [ - ] [ - ].


[ - ] wa [ - ]
de [ -masen ].
[ - ] [ - ] [ - ].



:
Watakushi wa
empitsu de
kakimasu.
Watakushitachi
wa me de mimasu.
Watakushi wa
kono kotoba o
Nihongo de
kakimasu.


.

-.

[ 39. ni (II) ]
ni .
13:

[ - ] wa [ - ] ni [ -masu ].
[ - ] [ - ] [ - ].



[ - ] wa [ - ] ni [ -masen ].
[ - ] [ - ] [ - ].


:
Watakushi wa anata
ni tegami o
kakimasu.
Watakushi wa anata
ni tegami o
kakimasen.
Anata wa watakushi
ni tegami o
kakimasu ka?
38,39


.

.

?

35


by max xin memtade

[ 40. wa (II) ]
, ( ga, mo, o),
wa. , :
, , (
-, ):
Kao niwa, me ga
arimasu.
To:kyo: dewa,
sakura no hana ga
saku.

()

. (.:
, ( ) ).
(.:
, ( )
).

[ 41. : -te (I) ]


-masu ( ) -u ( )
, .
, - ,
, .
-te, -te -tte
-de.
-te (
): kaite , ; yonde , ..
, ;
.
( -te)
, , .
I :
a)

-au, -ou, -uu -tte


iu
()
kau

omou
()
nuu

b) -ku -ite; -gu -ide


kiku
()
oyogu

c) -su -shite
hanasu

desu

d) -tsu, -ru -tte


matsu

aru
()
iru
()
wakaru
()
e) -nu, -bu, -mu -nde
shinu

tobu
()
yomu

:
iku

itte
katte
omotte
nutte

kiite
oyoide

hanashite
deshite

matte
atte
itte
wakatte

shinde
tonde
yonde

itte ( iite!)

40,41

36


by max xin memtade
II :
-

-ru -te
miru

miseru

wasureru
:
kuru

suru
()

mite
misete
wasurete

kite
shite

,
:
iku
iru
[iru]
iu

()
[]
()

[]

itte

itte

itte

itte

[]

( .)

[]

[ 42. : -te imasu ]


, ,
( ) .
,
. ,
.
-te iru
.
:
Watakushi wa
kono hon o
yomimasu.

Watakushi wa
kono hon o
yonde imasu.

(, , )
.
.
(, )
.

:
Watakushi wa
Shiberia ni sunde
imasu.

Watakushi wa gakko:
ni tsutomete imasu.

Watakushi wa
Nihongo o benkyo:
shite imasu.
Watakushi wa kite
imasu.

41,42

(
)

(.: ,
,
().)
.
.

. (
) (.: , ,
.)

37


by max xin memtade

[ 43. o (II) ]
o, , ,
, , , .
:
Watakushi wa
ko:en de sampo
shimasu.
Watakushi wa
ko:en o sampo
shimasu.

.
.

:
Hiko:ki ga sora o
tonde imasu.
Michi o otokonohito
ga aruite imasu.
Shima no soba o
fune ga isso:
to:tte imasu.
Ojii-san ga mori o
itte imasu.
Tsugi no kado o
magatte kudasai.
O:do:ri Ko:en o
to:tte kudasai.

()
()

.
.

..
.
, ,
. (.:
)

() ,
.

[ 44. : rashii desu ]


rashii desu ,
, , , , ..
- .
.
14:

[ ],

rashii desu.
, [ ].

:
Kare wa kono
hon o yomimasu.
Kare wa kono
hon o yomu,
rashii desu.

.
, .

43,44

38


by max xin memtade

:
Onnanohito wa geta
o haite iru, rashii
desu.
Isogashii, rashii
desu.

.
.
, .

[ 45. ga ]
ga (, , ) . ;
.
15:

[ 1 ] ga, [ 2 ].
[ 1 ], [ 2 ].


:
Kono hito wa hataraite
imasu.
Kono hito wa hataraite
imasu ga, sono hito wa
yasunde imasu.


.

,
.

:
Kino: wa ame
deshita ga, kyo:
wa hare desu.
Nihongo wa
muzukashii desu
ga, omoshiroi
desu.

,
.
,
.

[ 46. -: deshita ]
- desu , (-) deshita, .

- desu

desu
dewa arimasen

deshita

44-46

dewa arimasen deshita

39


by max xin memtade

:
Kore wa hon desu.
Kore wa hon
deshita.
Kore wa hon dewa
arimasen.
Kore wa hon dewa
arimasen deshita.

..
.

..
.

[ 47. : -mashita ]
:
- -masu -mashita;
- -masen
- deshita:

-masu
-masen

-mashita

-masen deshita

:
Watakushi wa kono
hon o yomimasu.
Watakushi wa kono
hon o yomimashita.
Watakushi wa kono
hon o yomimasen.
Watakushi wa kono
hon o yomimasen
deshita.
Anata wa doko e
ikimashita ka?
Watakushi wa hon o
torimashita.
Watakushi no namae o
kakimashita.
Watakushi wa empitsu
de kakimasen
deshita.
Arigato:
gozaimashita.

() .
.
.
.
.
.
?
.
.
.
( ,
)!

46,47

40


by max xin memtade

[ 48. : -kunai ]
-i
-kunai:
samui
atsui
takai

()

samukunai

atsukunai

takakunai

[ 49. : -katta, -kunakatta ]


( -i)
, -i -katta ( ):
samui
atsui
takai

()

samukatta

atsukatta

takakatta


: ( -katta) - desu.
16:

[-] wa [ -katta ] desu.


[ - ] [ ].

:
Fuyu wa samukatta
desu.
Kino: wa atsukatta
desu.
Tottemo oishikatta
desu.
Honto: ni
tanoshikatta desu.

..

,
!.


-i -kunakatta:
samui
atsui
takai

()

samukunakatta

atsukunakatta

takakunakatta


: ( -kunakatta)
- desu.

48,49

41


by max xin memtade

17:

[-] wa [ -kunakatta ] desu.


[ - ] [ ].

:
Fuyu wa
samukunakatta desu.

Kino: wa
atsukunakatta desu.


..
.

-i
-kunai
-

-katta

-kunakatta

[ 50. : -te (II) ]


( -te) ,
, .
:
Cho:men o
dashite, anata
no namae o kaite
kudasai.

()

Hi ga higashi
kara dete, nishi
ni hairimasu.


. (.:
.
, )

. (.:
, .
)

[ 51. : -te kudasai ]



( -te) kudasai. . kudasaru (,
), ( , -,
).
:
Watakushi wa
matte imasu.
Chotto matte
kudasai.

()

,
.

49-51

42


by max xin memtade

:
Eigo de
hanashite
kudasai.
Chotto yukkuri
hanashite
kudasai.
Shitsurei desu
ga, mo: ichido
itte kudasai.
Kore o mite
kudasai.
Kore o misete
kudasai.
Hiragana de
kaite kudasai.
Ro:maji de kaite
kudasai.
Nedan o kaite
kudasai.

-.
.

, .
, ,
, .
,
.
,
.
, ,
.
, ,
.
,
.

-. kudasai,
, .
:
Sono ringo o
kudasai.

Ko:hii o kudasai.

Kore o kudasai.

, ,
.
, .
. ,
.

do:zo , . . ,
, - -.
:
Watakushi no
meishi o do:zo.

Ko:hii o
kudasai.

51

.
,
.
, .
, .

43


by max xin memtade

[ 52. e ]
e ( )
(?, ?) . (
koko), .
e he .
:
Anata wa itsu
Nippon e ikimasu
ka?
Koko e itte
kudasai.

Heya no naka e
haite kudasai.


?
,
.
,
.

[ 53. tokoro ]
tokoro , , .
,
.
:
Tsukue no tokoro
e kite kudasai.

()

, . (.:
, )

52,53

44


by max xin memtade

[ 54. : ]
(. . 25), :
. .
, , :
(1) ichi
(2) ni
(3) san
(4) shi/yon
(5) go
(6) roku
(7) shichi/nana
(8) hachi
(9) kyu:/ku
(10) ju:
(11) ju:ichi
(12) ju:ni
(13) ju:san
(14) ju:shi/ju:yon
(15) ju:go
(16) ju:roku
(17) ju:shichi/ju:nana
(18) ju:hachi
(19) ju:kyu:/ju:ku
(20) niju:

(21) niju: ichi


(22) niju: ni
(23) niju: san
(24) niju: shi
(25) niju: go
(26) niju: roku
(27) niju: shichi
(28) niju: hachi
(29) niju: ku
(30) sanju:
(10) ju:
(20) niju:
(30) sanju:
(40) yonju:
(50) goju:
(60) rokuju:
(70) nanaju:
(80) hachiju:
(90) kyu:ju:
(100) hyaku

shi , yo(n) . ,
shi - . shichi ,
nana .
1 100 .
100 999 (hyaku ):
nihyaku sanju:

roku
yonhyaku nanaju:
hachi
gohyaku ju:ni
roppyaku roku

(236)

(478)

(512)
(606)

1000 9999 (sen ):


nisen gohyaku

niju: roku

sen ju: roku

(2526)

(1016)

, ,
(man) (oku) ,
:

54

45


by max xin memtade

10 000
120 000
1 230 000
12 340 000
123 450 000

1 0000
12 000
123 0000
1234 0000
1 2345 0000

hyaku-man
ju:-oku

man
ju:ni-man
hyaku-niju:-san-man
ju:nihyaku-ju:san-shi-man
oku niju:sam-byaku-shiju:-go-man

( )
( )

:
100
300
600
800
1000
3000
8000

ichi + hyaku

ip-pyaku

san + hyaku

sam-byaku

roku + hyaku

rop-pyaku

hachi + hyaku

hap-pyaku

ichi + sen

is-sen

san + sen

san-zen

hachi + sen

has-sen

:
( ) - (maru)
, . 1016
, 3007 - .
(man ) .

[ 55. ]
-gatsu ( ),
1 12; nangatsu
() ?
-kagetsu;
nankagetsu (///) ?
ichigatsu
nigatsu
sangatsu
shigatsu
gogatsu
rokugatsu
shichigatsu
hachigatsu
kugatsu
ju:gatsu
ju:ichigatsu
ju:nigatsu

/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/

ikkagetsu
nikagetsu
sankagetsu
shikagetsu
gokagetsu
rokkagetsu
shichikagetsu
hachikagetsu
kukagetsu
ju:kagetsu
ju:ikkagetsu
ju:nikagetsu

54,55

46


by max xin memtade

[ 56. kare made ]


kara ( )
(?, ?),
(); , , :
Shiberia kara
uchi kara
ojii-san kara
Nihon kara no tegami
ichigatsu kara
asa kara
kino: kara no ame

made ( )
( ?, ?),
();
, :
To:kyo: made
eki made
Mosukuwa made no
ku:ko:
ju:nigatsu made
hiru made
owari made

()

kara made
, :
ichigatsu kara
ju:nigatsu made

asa kara hiru


made

ichiji kara
sanji made
To:kyo: kara
Sapporo made

[ 57. (I) ]

,
dotchi ? yori , .
18:

[ 1 ]

to

56,57

[ 2 ] to dotchi ga [ ] desu ga?


[ . ], [ 1 ] [ 2 ]?

47


by max xin memtade

:
Pen to empitsu to
dotchi ga nagai desu
ka?
Kono kamera to sono
kamera to dotchi ga
ii desu ka?
Kono kuruma to sono
kuruma to dotchi ga
takai desu ka.

,
?

, ?
,
?

- desu , .
:
Hachigatsu to
shigatsu to dotchi
ga hayaku kimasu ka?

()

,
?

: dotchi dochira .

19:

[ 1 ] wa [ 2 ] yori [ ] desu.
[ 1 ] [ . ], [ 2 ].

:
Roku wa shichi yori
chiisai desu.
Shiberia wa Hokkaido
yori samui desu.
Kono zubon wa ano
zubon yori yasui
desu.

,
.

.

ho: , .
20:

[ - ]

no ho: ga [ ] desu.
[ - ] [ . ].

:
Go no ho: ga
o:kii desu.
Kore no ho: ga
yasui desu.

. (
.)

57

48


by max xin memtade

[ 58. : -kute (II) ]


, (..
-i) -, , -kute
( ).
:
Ichigatsu wa samui desu.
Ichigatsu wa samukute,
yuki ga furimasu.

.
,
.

:
Natsu wa atsukute,
fuyu wa samui desu.
Haru wa attakakute,
aki wa suzushii desu.

()

,
.
,
.

[ 59. ]
nani ? ?
yo:bi : nani-yo:bi ? ().
.
, yo:bi:
nichi-yo:bi
getsu-yo:bi
ka-yo:bi
sui-yo:bi
moku-yo:bi
kin-yo:bi
do:-yo:bi

:
Kino: wa naniyo:bi
deshita ka?
Kino: wa kayo:bi
deshita.
Kyo: wa naniyo:bi
desu ka?
Kyo: wa suiyo:bi
desu.
Ashita wa naniyo:bi
desu ka?

58,59


?

.

?
.

?

49


by max xin memtade

[ 60. ]
-me: hitotsu-me
, futatsu-me ..
-me,
-ban, -bamme dai-:
ikkaime
nikaime
sankaime
ichibamme no hi
nibamme no hi
sanbamme no hi
migi kara ni-bamme
hidari kara sam-bamme
oku kara ni-bamme
temae kara ni-bamme
ue kara ni-bamme
shita kara ni-bamme

: ,
ato kara ushiro kara

[ 61. kara ]
kara ,
, , .
(

-).
21:

[ ] kara, [ ].
[ ], [ ].


:
Kyo: wa yasumi desu.
Kyo: wa yasumi da
kara, gakko: e
ikimasen.

.
,
.

60,61

50


by max xin memtade

:
Fuyu wa samui kara,
yuki ga furimasu.
Ito:-san wa byo:ki
desu kara, kimasen.
Wakarimasen deshita
kara, mo: ichi-do
itte kudasai.
Takai desho: kara,
kaimasen.

()

,
..
,
.
,
,
.
, , ,
.

, ( ),
-.
22:

[ ] kara desu.
, [ ].

:
Isogashii kara, desu.
Yasumi kara, desu.
Samui kara, desu.
Kono hon o mimashita
kara, desu.

, ..
, .
, .
,
.

- naze ?.
23:

Naze [ ] ka?
[ ]?

:
Naze gakko: e
ikimasen ka?
Naze desu ka?

61


?
?

51


by max xin memtade

[ 62. : ]
nanji nan ?, ?
-ji .
Nanji desu ka?

:
[Cho:do] rokuji
desu
Rokuji-han desu.

()

6:05

Rokuji gofun sugi


desu.

6:55

Rokuji goju:gofun
sugi desu.

6:55

Shichiji gofun mae


desu.

a)

6:00

b)

6:30

c)
d)

[].
(
)

( )

.
.

gozen gogo
:
8:00
20:00

Gozen hachiji desu.


Gogo hachiji desu.

.
.

1
ichi

ichi-ji

ni

ni-ji

san

san-ji

yon/shi

yo-ji/shi-ji

go

go-ji

roku

roku-ji

shichi

shichi-ji

hachi

hachi-ji

kyu:

kyu:-ji

10

ju:

ju:-ji

11

ju:ichi

ju:ichi-ji

20

niju:

niju:-ji

30

sanji:

sanjip-pun

40

yonju:

yonjip-pun

50

goju:

gojip-pun

60

rokuju:

rokujip-pun

ip-pun
ni-fun
sam-pun
yom-pun
go-fun
rop-pun
schichi-fun
hachi-fun
kyu:-fun
jip-pun
ju:ichi-fun

nijip-pun

62

52


by max xin memtade

:
Gohan wa, nanji kara
desu ka?.
To:kyo: niwa, nanji
ni tsukimasu ka.


?

.

[ 63. - to ]
to
; , , , .
.
24:

[ ] to, [ ].
[ ], [ ].


:
Hi ga deru to,
akaruku narimasu.
Hi ga hairu to,
kuraku narimasu.
Kado o migi e magaru
to, byo:in ga
arimasu.

,
.
,
.

,
.

[ 64. - noni ]
noni ;
, , ; , ,
.
.
25:

[ ] noni, [ ].
, [ ], [ ].

62-64

53


by max xin memtade

:
Tokei wa, jikan o shiru
noni irimasu.
Mijikai hari wa,
hitomawari suru noni,
ju:nijikan kakarimasu.

.
.
,
.
.

[ 65. (I) ]

( ). , (, ,
..) -hon ( :
, , ..).
:

(, ..)
(, ..)
(, ..)
(, ..)
(, ..)
(, ..)
(, ..)
(, ..)
(, ..)
(, ..)
(, ..)

ippon
nihon
sambon
yonhon
gohon
roppon
nanahon
happon
kyu:hon
juppon
nambon

26:

[ ]

-[ ] no [ ].
[ ] [ ].

:
Tokei wa, ni-hon no
hari ga arimasu.
Hyaku-man hon no
bara no hana

.
(.:
).

64,65

54


by max xin memtade

[ 66. ]

-u -i:
mawaru
hanasu
hashiru
yasumu

mawari

hanashi

hashiri

yasumi

()
()

[ 67. ]
nannichi ? nan ?,
-nichi .
Kino: wa nannichi
desu ka?
Kyo: wa nannichi
desu ka?
Ashita wa
nannichi desu ka?

:
Kino: wa futsuka
deshita.
Kyo: wa mikka desu.
Ashita wa yokka
desu.

- .
()
.

( ) (
-(t)tsu) -ka ( );
:

66,67

hitotsu

tsuitachi

futatsu

futsuka

mittsu

mikka

yottsu

yokka

itsutsu

itsuka

muttsu

muika

nanatsu

nanoka

yo:tsu

yo:ka

kokonotsu

kokonoka

10

to:

to:ka

55


by max xin memtade

-nichi
:
11

ju:ichi-nichi

12

ju:ni-nichi

13

ju:san-nichi

20

hatsuka

21

niju:ichi-nichi

31

sanju:ichi-nichi

( )
( )
( )

( )
( )
( )

- , :
san-gatsu yo:ka
roku-gatsu ju:ni-nichi

8
12

nannichi ?;
-ka/-nichi .
:
Kyo: wa nannichi
desu ka?
Nanoka desu.
Isshu:kan wa
nannichi desu ka?
Nanoka desu.

.

?

[ 68. mo, ka, demo ]


mo ,
.
[?]
dare
nani
doko ni
doko e
itsu

[+]

?
?
?
?
?

dare mo
nani mo
doko nimo
doko emo
itsu mo

[-]

ka ; : ?
-.
demo ; : ?
.
[?]
dare
nani
doko
itsu

[ka]

?
?
?
?

dare ka
nani ka
doko ka
itsu ka

-; -
-; -
-; -
-; -

[demo]
dare demo
nan demo
doko demo
itsu demo

67,68

56


by max xin memtade

[ 69. shi ]
shi (; )
:
27:

[ 1 ] shi, [ 2 ].
[ 1 ], [ 2 ].


:
Sanju:-ichinichi no
tsuki mo arimasu shi,
niju:-hachinichi no
tsuki mo arimasu.

[ 70. (II) ]
(. . 65) -hon
; , ,
.
:
-chaku
-dai
-hai
-hako
-hiki
-kai
-ken
-ko
-kyaku
-mai
-satsu
-soku
-to:
-wa

()

()


; ,
, ; ,


,
,
, ,
,
, ,

69,70

57


by max xin memtade

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

ichi-mai
ni-mai
sam-mai
yo-mai
go-mai
roku-mai
schichi-mai
hachi-mai
kyu:-mai
ju:-mai

-mai

ip-pai
ni-hai
sam-bai
yon-hai
go-hai
rop-pai
schichi-hai
hachi-hai
kyu:-hai
jip-pai

-hai

-satsu

is-satsu
ni-satsu
san-satsu
yon-satsu
go-satsu
roku-satsu
schichi-satsu
has-satsu
kyu:-satsu
jis-satsu

:
Tsukue no ue ni
empitsu ga ippon
arimasu.
Kisha no kippu ga
nimai arimasu.
Ippon no empitsu
wa nagai desu.
Watashi wa jibiki
o nisatsu
kaimashita.
Mosukuwa-yuki no
hiko:ki no kippu o
yomai totte oite
kudasai.


.

.

.
.


, .

[ 71. ]
-i -sa:
:
hiroi
nagai
o:kii
omoi
takai

()

hirosa

nagasa

o:kisa

omosa

takasa

[ 72. : -masho: ]
:
;
;
.

70-72

58


by max xin memtade

-masho: . . ,
-masu:
yomu

yomimasho:

:
So: shimasho:.
Kono hon o
yomimasho:.
Issho ni
ikimasho:.
Issho ni
hiru gohan o
tabemasho: ka?
Doko de
aimasho: ka?
Nanji ni
aimasho: ka?

Kono shashin o
agemasho:.
Kono shashin o
agemasho: ka?
O-hiki
itashimasho:.

.

.
.

()


?

? (

?)

.

?
.


(
?)

[ 73. ]
:
, , , ..,
ichiban .
28:

[ - ]

ga

ichiban [ ] desu.
[ - ] [ ].

:
Kono kamera ga
ichiban yasui
desu.
Kono kamera
naka ni, dore
ga ichiban ii
desu ka?

72,73


.
,
,
?

59


by max xin memtade

[ 74. de (II) ]
de , .
( ):
Kono saifu wa
kawa de
koshiraete
imasu.
Kono bin wa
garasu de
koshiraemasu.
Ginka wa gin
de
koshiraemasu.


.

.

[ 75. (II) ]
- gurai (kurai)
, , , .
29:

[ 1 ]

wa [ 2 ] gurai [ ] desu.
[ 1 ] [ ], [ 2 ].

:
Gin wa kin
gurai takai
desu ka?


, ?

hodo , ; , .
-ku (
).
30:

[ 1 ]

[ 1 ]

wa [ 2 ] hodo [ -i ]
desu.
[ 1 ] [ ], [ 2 ].

wa [ 2 ] hodo [ -ku ] arimasen.


[ 1 ] [ ], [ 2 ].

74,75

60


by max xin memtade

:
Kono hon wa,
sono hon hodo
takai desu.
Gin wa, kin
hodo takaku
arimasen.

,
.
,
.

[ 76. ]
, : , ,
: kamo sherimasen, desho: yo: desu.
kamo shiremasen , ,
( ). shiremasen
shireru .
31:

[ ] kamo shiremasen.
[ ] ( ).

:
Gaikokujin kamo
shiremasen.

Ano hito wa oisha-san kamo


shiremasen.

Chiisai kamo
shiremasen.

,
.
,

.
,
.

- desho: (desu )
, : ,
, ;
.
32:

[ ] desho:.
, [ ].

:
Gogo watakushi
wa sampo suru
desho:.

75,76

()

, ,
.

61


by max xin memtade

yo: desu , ,
- ;
.
33:

[ ], yo: desu.
, [ ].

:
Onna-no-hito
da, yo: desu.
To:kyo: hito wa
Hakone e iku,
yo: desu.
Kono kamera wa
takai, yo:
desu.

, .

, ,
.
,
.

[ 77. : ]
: . ,.
.

. ,
( ).
34:

[ -u ] [ ]
[ - ], [ - ]

- :
nemuru bijin
utau onna-no-hito
iku hito
:
chichi no tateta uchi
yogoreta kutsu
katta mono
Nihon kara kita hito
to:rikakatta hito (too-)
uma o nusumareta hito
:
jido:sha o unten shite
iru hito
katte iru hito

(/)


, ;
. ;

()

,
, ;
;
,
, ;
,

, ;

76,77

62


by max xin memtade

, , , ,
, (
). .
,
no.
:
Tori ga utaimasu.
Tori no utau mori
desu.

.
,
.

, ,
ga, ,
no.
, -
,
( ). , :
.
, , ,
( -masu).
35:

[ ] [ ]
[ - ], [ ]

:
Sensei ga Nihon de
hon o kaimashita.
Seito wa, sensei
ga Nihon de katta
hon o yonde imasu.

.
,
(.:

).

[ 78. : -ta ]
, , ( -ta)
; ,
.
( -ta) , -te
(. 41, 42, 50).

77,78

63


by max xin memtade

kau
katte
katta

( )
( )
( )

- desu datta.

[ 79. de (III) ]
de (
). , , :
:
( ?) ni (. . 22, 39);
( ?) de;
de , ( koko, soko) :
heya de
koko de
ue de

,
,

mise de
doko de
naka de


? ?
,

:
Ie no chikaku
de kodomo ga
asonde imasu.
To:kyo: de wa
sakura no hana
ga sakimasu.
Kudamono wa
doko de utte
imasu ka?


.
.
?

[ 80. ]
-nin,
; : nannin ?:
hitori
futari
sannin
yonin
gonin

rokunin
shichinin
hachinin
kyu:nin
ju:nin

:
Heya niwa,
nannin desu ka.
Watashi o ireru
to, ju:ichinin
desu.

,
.

78-80

64


by max xin memtade

[ 81. : -tai ]
: : -tai.
.

, , ,
-tai :
I :
wakaritai
nomitai
shiritai
ikitai

wakaru
nomu
shiru
iku

(/)
()

iru
taberu
miru

II :
,
itai

tabetai

mitai

()

:
kuru
suru

kitai
shitai

-tai -i.
- (. . 49):
yomitai
yomitakunai
yomitakatta
yomitakunatta

-takunai

-tai

-takatta

-takunakatta

-tai.
36:

[-] wa [ -tai ] desu.


[ - ] [ - ].

:
Watakushi wa
Nihongo o benkyo:
shimasu.
Watakushi wa
Nihongo o benkyo:
shitai desu.

81

.
.

65


by max xin memtade

:
Kotoshi wa yama e
ikitai desu.
Watakushi wa motto
Nippon ni itai
desu.
Anata wa Nippongo o
benkyo: shitai desu
ka?
Watakushi wa uchi
ni kaeritakunai
desu.
Watakushi wa Nippon
o motto shirikatta
desu.
Roshia de mata o-ai
shitai desu.


.

?


.
()

.

-, ga
hoshii desu (. ).

[ 82.: ho: ga ii desu ]


: : ho: ga ii desu.
.

ho: ga
ii desu ; , ho: ga ii desho: ; .
, -
no.
37:

[ ]

ho: ga ii desu.
[ ].

(/)

:
Watakushi wa kono
sutereo no ho: ga
ii desu.

Anata wa ju:su no
ho: ga ii desu ka?

Watakushi wa eki e
aruku ho: ga ii
desu.
Watakushi wa sake o
nomanai ho: ga ii
desu.
Watakushi wa akai
ho: ga ii desu.

( ,
).
?

( ,
).
.
.

81,82

66


by max xin memtade

38:

[ ]

ho: ga ii desho:.
[ ].

(/)

:
Eki kara wa aruku
ho: ga ii desho:.

Nikko: wa itsu
iku ho: ga ii
desho: ka.
Doko ga ii
desho:.

, ,
. (
).

?
? (
?)

[ 83. : tsumori desu ]


: : tsumori desu.
.

tsumori desu tsumori


.
.
39:

tsumori desu.
[-] wa, [ ...-u ]
[ - ] [ - ].

[-] wa, [ ...-nai ] tsumori desu.


[ - ] [ - ].

:
Watakushi wa,
rainen Nihon e
ikimasu.
Watakushi wa,
rainen Nihon e iku
tsumori desu.

82,83


.

.

67


by max xin memtade

:
Watakushi wa,
iku tsumori
desu.
Watakushi wa,
iku tsumori
deshita.
Watakushi wa,
ikunai tsumori
desu.
Ashita wa kare
ni au tsumori
desu.
Iku tsumori
datta ga, byo:ki
deshita.

.
.

.
,
.

[ 84. : so: desu ]


: , : so: desu.
.

so: desu, ,
: , ..., , ..., , ... ..;
.
40:

[ ], so: desu.
, [ ].

:
Anata wa byo:ki
deshita.
Anata wa byo:ki
datta, so: desu.

,
.

:
Sakura no hana
wa taihen kirei
da, so: desu ne?
Tomodachi wa
Nippon ni kaette
kuru, so: desu.

,
?
,
..

[ 85. : -nai, -nakatta ]


-masen -
deshita (kakimasen deshita ) (. . 47).

83-85

68


by max xin memtade

( ) -nai -nakatta
;
.
-nai , ,
-nai :
utau
wakaru
nomu
saku
naru
furu
shiru
:
aru

()

I :

utawanai

wakaranai

nomanai

sakanai

naranai
( )
furanai

shiranai

nai ( aranai)
II :

-ru -nai
taberu

miru

iru

:
kuru

suru
()

tabenai
minai
inai

konai
shinai

-nai
-i, .. -i -katta:
wakaranai
tabenai
shinai
konai
nai
dewa nai

wakaranakatta

tabenakatta

shinakatta

konakatta

nakatta

dewa nakatta

wakaranakatta

shinakatta





( )
( )

:
wakaranai
shinai

: -nai

[ 86. - ]
- da de nai (de aru de nai), dewa nai (
wa). - dewa nai , -
, : dewa nakatta ,
-. - da, datta, dewa nai, dewa nakatta
.

85,86

69


by max xin memtade

:
Ashita wa yasumi
da kara,
ikimasen.
Byo:ki datta
kara, yomimasen
deshita.

, dewa nai

da

datta

dewa nakatta

,
.
,
.

,
,

[ 87. ni (III) ]
, -
ni, ( , ),
; : -masu
.
41:

[ ] ni [ ]
, [ - ].


:
Hanami ni
dekakemasu.

Ban niwa
tomodachi ga
asobi ni
kimasu.

Kozutsumi o
dashi ni
yu:binkyoku e
ikimashita.
Depa:to e kai
ni itte imasu.

Musume o kai
ni yarimasen
deshita.
Watakushitachi
wa hiruhan no
ato de sampo
ni dekakimasu.

Suzuki-san wa
nimotsu o tori
ni ikimashita.


.

.(.:
,
)
,
.

(.: ,
)

.

.
-
.

86,87

70


by max xin memtade

[ 88. - no (II) ]
- no, ,
( ):
hanasu

utau
oyogu

hanasu no

utau no

oyogu no

[ 89. - koto ]
koto (, ),
:
iku
oyogu
yomu

iku-koto

oyogu-koto

yomu-koto

( )
( )
( )

[ 90. : -koto ga arimasu ]


: : -koto ga arimasu.
.

-koto ga arimasu koto ,


, , ;
.
42:

[ ]

-koto ga arimasu.
() [ ].

[ ] -koto ga arimasen.
() [ ].

:
O-naka ga itai
desu.
O-naka no
itai-koto ga
arimasu.

88-90

,
.

71


by max xin memtade

:
Anata wa,
Nippon e kitakoto ga
arimasu ka?

Takushii de
iku-koto ga
arimasu.

Watakushi wa,
ichido mo
Nihon e ittakoto ga
arimasen.

?
(.:
,
?)
,
.(.:
)
.
(.: ,
,
.)

[ 91. -tari ]
-tari , ,
, .
suru , .
-tari -ri -ta (. .
78):
kaku
au
yomu
kiku
suru
miru

()
(//)

()

kaitari

attari

yondari

kiitari

shitari

mitari

()
()
()
()
()
()

:
Kaisha dewa,
tegami o kaitari,
hito ni attari
shite, hiru made
hatarakimasu.
Hon o yondari,
rajio o kiitari
shimasu.
Doyo:bi no gogo
wa kaimono o
shitari, eiga o
mitari shimasu.


: ,
.

,
.

,
.

90,91

72


by max xin memtade

[ 92. ]
, , :
tama ni
tokidoki
taitei
nan-kai mo; nan-do mo
yoku
itsu mo; itsu demo
maimai-asa
mai-nichi
mai-tsuki
mai-nen
-kai
ichi-nichi ni ikkai
isshu:kan ni nikai
ichi-nen ni yon-kai

, ,
,
,

, ,

...




...


()
()
[]

,
.

[]

:
Tama ni atama ga
itai-koto ga
arimasu.
Taitei ju:ji goro
yasumimasu.
Tokidoki osoku made
kaisha ni nokorukoto mo arimasu.
Watakushi wa itsu
mo karada ni ki o
tsukete imasu.

, , ,
( -masen):
ichido mo [-masen]
zenzen [-masen]
metta ni [-masen]
tama ni shika [-masen]
tokidoki shika [-masen]
[n] shika [-masen]
hotondo arimasen

()

:
Watashi wa, ichido mo
soko e itta-koto ga
arimasen.
Watashi wa, tokidoki
shika soko e iku-koto
ga arimasen.
Watashi wa tama shika
ni budo:shu o
nomimasen.

92


.

.

.

73


by max xin memtade

, :
sugu
sorekara
sorekara sukoshi
hachiji mae ni
toki ni
ichiji to niji aida
osoku made
mo:
ichido
mo: ichido
rockuji goro
ban ni
hayaku
sonna toki ni
hajime ni
sue ni
ato de

()

();
,


, ,

,

,

[ 93. ]
43:

[-] wa [ - ] ga itai desu.


[ - ] [ - ].

:
Watakushi wa,
atama ga itai
desu.

Anata wa, o-naka


ga itai desu ka?

Watakushi wa, onaka wa itaku


arimasen.
Hai, itai desu.

(.:
, ()
).
?
.
, .

92,93

74


by max xin memtade

[ 94. nara ]
nara,
..., , ..., , ..., ....
44:

[ ] nara, [ ].
[ ], [ ].


:
Iku nara, ima desu.
Ima nara, ikimasu.
Warui nara,
kaimasen.
Jitensha nara,
gofun desu.
Aruite nara,
jugo:fun desu.
Shiawase nara, te o
tatako:.

, .
, .
,
.

.

.

,

( )

[ 95. niwa ]
niwa : ..., ,
..., ... ..;
.
45:

[ ] niwa, [ ].
[ ], [ ].


:
Hagaki ya tegami
o dasu niwa,
yu:binkyoku made
ikimasu.
Hagaki ya tegami
o dasu niwa,
yu:binkyoku made
ikimasu.

94,95

,
,
..
,

, .

75


by max xin memtade

[ 96. ]
() ,
- , , ,
. .
: -masu :
(a)

hajimeru
yomu

yomihajimeru

kakaru ( )
iku

ikikakaru

tsuzukeru ()
hanasu

hanashitsuzukeru

yomu

yomitsuzukeru

owaru
kaku

kakiowaru

taberu

tabeowaru

kaeru
noru
;
norikaeru

toru
torikaeru
;
-komu ( -)
tobu

tobikomu

oboeru

oboekomu


()

dasu ( ; )
tobu

tobidasu

nigeru

nigedasu

kaku

kakidasu

(h)

mawaru
aruku

arukimawaru

(i)

-sugiru ( )
taberu

nomu

tabesugiru
nomisugiru

(b)
(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

, ; -i:
-sugiru ( )
omoi
omosugiru

takai
takasugiru

[ 97. ]
:
:
-fun
-jikan
-ka/-nichi
-shu:kan
-kagetsu
-nen

(//)

96,97

76


by max xin memtade

:
nan-fun
nan-jikan
nan-nichi
nan-shu:kan
nan-kagetsu
nan-nen


, - , , :

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
2

11

...

-nichi(-ka)
()
ichi-nichi

-shu:kan

is-shu:kan

-kagetsu

ik-kagetsu

-nen
()
ichi-nen

futsuka

ni-shu:kan

ni-kagetsu

ni-nen

mik-ka

san-shu:kan

san-kagetsu

san-nen

yokka

yon-shu:kan

yon-kagetsu

yo-nen

itsu-ka

go-shu:kan

go-kagetsu

go-nen

mui-ka

roku-shu:kan

roku-kagetsu

roku-nen

nano-ka

shichi(nana)-shu:kan

schichi(nana)-kagetsu

shichi(nana)-nen

yo:-ka

has-shu:kan

hak-kagetsu

hachi-nen

kokono-ka

kyu:-shu:kan

kyu:-kagetsu

kyu:-nen

to:-ka

jus-shu:kan

juk-kagetsu

ju:-nen

ju:ichi-nichi

ju:is-shu:kan

ju:ik-kagetsu

ju:ichi-nen

...

...

...

...

:
Nannichi
(nanshu:kan;
nankagetsu; nannen)
gurai kakarimasu
ka?
Futsuka (nishu:kan;
nikagetsu; ninen)
kakarimasu.

(/
/)

(/
/)


(; ; )
?

(/
)

(/
/)

Mikka (sanshu:kan;
sankagetsu; sannen)
mae ni kimashita.

(/
/)

(//
)

Ku:ko: made dono


kurai jikan ga
kakarimasu ka?

Hiko:-jikan wa dono
gurai desu ka?

Sapporo niwa
nannichikan taizai
shimasu ka?

(
; ;
).

( ;
; ).
()

?
()
?

?

97

77


by max xin memtade

[ 98. shika ]
shika , (. . . 85).
:
Aruite ju:gofun
shika kakarimasen.

[ 99. ]

.
, ,

chichi
haha
ryo:shin
sofu
sobo
oji
oba
tsuma, kanai
otto, shujin
kodomo
musuko
musume
ani
oto:to
ane
imo:to
kyo:dai
kazoku

/*
/*
/
/

/**

, , ; , ,
oto:san
oka:san
go-ryo:shin
ojiisan
oba:san
oji-san
oba-san
okusan
go-shujin
okosan, kodomo-san
botchan, musuko-san
ojo:san, musume-san
oni:san
oto:to-san
one:san
imo:to-san
go-kyo:dai
go-kazoku

()
()
()

/
/
/

. * (), (-) (, ()
()), (), (-) .
** /, , ..:
, , , ... ( ),
, (itoko)

:
Watashi wa, kodomo
ga futari arimasu.
Otoko-no-ko ga
sannin desu.
Kore wa musume desu.

().

98,99

78


by max xin memtade

[ 100. ]
( 10 ) (c 10
) :













()

[]

issai
nisai
sansai
yonsai
gosai
rokusai
shichisai
hassai
kyu:sai
ju:sai
ju:issai
ju:nissai
hatachi
niju:issai

hitotsu
futatsu
mittsu
yottsu
itsutsu
muttsu
nanatsu
yattsu
kokonotsu
to:

:
Anata wa o-ikutsu
desu ka?
Anata wa nan-sai
desu ka?
Musume wa yattsu
desu.
Musume wa hassai
desu.
Watashi wa
sanju:roku-sai
desu.

[ 101. ]

: - (), . - (
).
- (
) ( ,
).

100,101

79


by max xin memtade

:
A. Go-shujin wa
irasshaimasu ka?
B. Hai, orimasu.
A. Bucho: wa
irasshaimasu ka?
B. Hai,
irasshaimasu.

? (.:
?)

. (.: , )
? (.:
?)
. (.: , )


irassharu , ; ,
oru , .
(
), irassharu , .

iru

oru

oide ni naru/
aru; irassharu

suru

()

itasu

nasaru

kuru

mairu

miru

taberu
morau

haiken
suru
itadaku

irassharu

kiku

shiru

iku;
yuku

iu

ageru

mairu

mo:su
ukagau; okiki suru

itadaku

zonjiru

sashiageru

o-kiki ni naru

()

[]

goran ni naru

meshiagaru

oide ni naru;
irassharu

ossharu

kureru
o-morai
naru
go-zonjiru

ni

- ,
( ):
kiku
morau
yomu
kau
suki de aru

o-kiki ni naru

o-morai ni naru

o-yomi ni naru

o-kai ni naru

o-suki de aru

- : -
, .
(, , ) , ,
( -u); ( -masu).
.

101

80


by max xin memtade

:
Oku-san wa o-ide
desu ka?
Hai, orimasu.
Zonjimasen.
Mata mairimasu.

, .
.
.

-masu :


ossharu
()
irassharu


osshaimasu

irasshaimasu

[ 102. tame (ni) ]


tame (ni) ( , ..., ...,
....), , ,
, ;
.
46:

[-] wa [ ] tame desu.


[ - ] , [ ].

:
Ura no deiriguchi
wa genkan o
to:ranaide, dehairi
suru tame desu.
Kono yo:ma wa
Nihonjin no okyaku
o tomeru tame desu.

()

(/)

,
( )
, .

,
.

tame ni , ,
;
.
47:

[ ]

101,102

tame ni, [ ].
[ ], [ ].

81


by max xin memtade

:
Pan o kaimasu.
Pan o kau tame
ni, pan-ya e
yorimasu.

.
,
.

:
Ko:ku:bin o dasu
tame ni,
yu:binkyoku e
yorimashita.
Watashi wa Nihon no
kagaku zasshi o
yomu tame ni,
Nihongo o naratte
imasu.
Kono hon o kau tame
ni, o-kane ga
hitsuyo: desu.

,

.

()


,

.
,

.

[ 103. : -nai de ]
: ...: -nai de.

-, , -
( -nai; . . 85) - de :
-nai de.
:
Genkan o to:ranai
de, dehairi suru
tame desu.

Nani mo iwanai
de, demashita.

Benkyo: shinai
de, sampo ni
ikimashita.

,
,
.
, .
,
, .

, -nai de : ,
.
:
Chotto matte
kudasai.

Matanai de
kudasai.

,
.
, .

102,103

82


by max xin memtade

:
Koko de tabako
o suwanai de
kudasai.
Shashin o
toranai de
kudasai.
Soko o kawanai
de kudasai.

()

Isoganai de,
kudasai.

Wasurenai de
kudasai.

Asoko ni ikinai
de kudasai.

,
!
,
!
,
!
,
!
,
!
,
!

[ 104. (II) ]
( ni).
chikaku ni
saki ni
ura ni
naka ni
soto ni
hidari(-gawa) ni
migi(-gawa) ni
mawari ni
kochira(-gawa) ni
ushiro(-gawa) ni
muko: ni

[]
[]

[]
[]

[]
[]
()
[]
[]


,

,

;
;
;

[ 105. ]
- .
: 0,6 1,8 , , 1,5 ..
:
Ni-jo: no
chiisa-na heya
ga arimasu.
Sono heya no
migi wa,
kyakuma de,
hachi-jo: desu.

103-105


.

,
.

83


by max xin memtade

[ 106. : -koto ga dekimasu ]


: : -koto ga dekimasu.

(, , , )
-koto ga dekiru (dekiru ).
48:

[ ...-u ] -koto ga dekimasu.


[ - ] () [ - ].

wa, [ ...-u ] -koto ga dekimasen.


[ - ] ( ) [ - ].

[-] wa,

[-]

:
Watashi wa Roshia-go
o hanashimasu.
Watashi wa Roshia-go
o hanasu-koto ga
dekimasu.

([])

([])


-.

-.

:
Anata wa Nihongo
o hanasu-koto ga
dekimasu ka?
Watakushi wa
Nihongo o hanasukoto ga dekimasu.
Akari ga
nakereba, yoru
hon o yomu-koto
ga dekimasen.

Watashi wa piano
o hiku-koto ga
dekimasu.
Ima wa iku-koto
ga dekimasu.
Ima wa iku-koto
ga dekimasen.

(
) -?

,

.

()[]
(//)

(
) -.


.
.

106

84


by max xin memtade

-, ..,
koto . ,
, , .
49:

[-] wa, [ - ] ga dekimasu.


[ - ] [ - ].

[-] wa, [ - ] ga dekimasen.


[ - ] [ - ].

:
Watashi wa Nihongo o
hanasu-koto ga
dekimasu.
Watashi wa Nihongo
ga dekimasu.


-.
-.

:
Anata wa tenisu
ga dekimasu ka?
Anata wa
Nihongo ga
dekimasu ka.
Iie, amari
dekimasen.
Hai, sukoshi
dekimasu.
Watashi wa
Nihongo ga
dekimasen.

?
( ?)
-?
, .
, .
-.

48 suru, ( unten suru


), suru-koto ga dekiru dekiru.
:
Watashi wa jido:sha
o unten suru-koto ga
dekimasu.
Watashi wa jido:sha
o unten ga dekimasu.

106


.

.

85


by max xin memtade

[ 107. : -nakereba narimasen ]


: : -nakereba narimasen.

(, , )
-nakereba ikemasen (narimasen), .. (nakereba)
ikemasen , , narimasen , .
-
(.: ( ), -).
50:

narimasen.
[-] [ -nakereba ]
[ - ] [ - ].

:
Watashi wa Nihongo
de hanashimasu.
Watashi wa Nihongo
de hanasanakereba
narimasen.


-
()
-.

:
Watashi wa
Nihon-go de
hanasanakereba
narimasen ka.
Watashi wa ofisu
e ikanakereba
narimasen.


-?

Anata wa kippu o
kawanakereba
narimasen.

.
(
)
.
( )

[ 108. : -ba, -nakereba ]


-u -e -ba.
iu
tsukeru
kesu
kieru
shiru
tojiru
fusagu
suru
kuru

()

()
()

ieba

tsukereba

keseba

kiereba

shireba

tojireba

fusageba

sureba

kureba

107,108

86


by max xin memtade

- -nakereba
-nai (. . 85) :
tsukau
shiru
tsukeru
suru

()

tsukawanakereba

shiranakereba

tsukanakereba

shinakereba

[ 109. : -kereba, -ku nakereba ]



-i -kereba ( -ku areba ):
akarui
kurai
osoi
hayai
akai

[]

akarukereba

kurakereba

osokereba

hayakereba

akakereba

[]

:
Watakushitachi
wa, akarukereba,
miemasu
Watakushitachi
wa, kurakereba,
miemasen.
Warukereba,
kaimasen.

,
.
,
.
,
.

-
-i -ku nakareba:
akarui
samui
akai

[]

akaruku nakereba

samuku nakereba

akaku nakereba

[]

nakereba , nai ,
( aru , ), ..., :
akari ga nakereba
me ga nakereba
hima ga nakereba

108,109

([])
()
()

87


by max xin memtade

[ 110. : suki (kirai) desu ]


: : suki (kirai) desu.

- ga suki desu suki


, ; suki desu ski dess.
51:

[ - ] ga suki desu.
[ - ] [ - ].

[-] wa,

:
Watakushi wa,
banana ga suki
desu.

Anata wa,
no ryo:ri
desu?
Anata wa,
suki desu

Roshiaga suki
nani ga
ka?

Anata wa. eiga ga


suki desu ka?
Iie, amari suki
dewa arimasen.
Hai, suki desu.

(.:
, ()
.

?
?
?
, .
, .

- ga kirai desu
kirai , .
52:

[-] [ - ] ga kirai desu.


[ - ] [ - ].

:
Watashi wa ame
ga kirai desu.

- ,
- no ,
(. . 88).

110

88


by max xin memtade

53:

[ -u ] no ga suki (kirai) desu.


[ - ] ( ) [ - ].

()

()

[-] wa,

:
Watashi wa, hon o
yomimasu.
Watashi wa hon o
yomu no ga suki
desu.

.

.

:
Watashi wa,
oyogu no ga suki
desu.

Watashi wa,
oyogu no kirai
desu.
Watashi wa,
kuruma o untensuru no ga suki
desu.

(.:
, ()

.
.

.

[ 111. : hoshii desu ]


: : hoshii desu.

hoshii desu
hoshii , , , , .
- hoshikunai
, .
54:

[-] wa,

[-] wa,

110,111

[ - ] ga hoshii desu.
[ - ] [ - ].

[ - ] ga hoshikunai desu.
[ - ] [ - ].

89


by max xin memtade

:
(.:
, ()

.
?

Watashi wa,
jibiki ga
hoshii desu.

Anata wa, kono


jibiki ga
hoshii desu ka?
Hai, hoshii
desu.
Iie, amari
hoshiku
arimasen.
Iie, hoshikunai
desu.
Watashi wa,
tokei ga
hoshiknai desu.

, .

, .

, .

[ 112. : mo ii desu ]
: : mo ii desu.

-te mo ii desu -te mo yoroshii desu -


-; ii, yoroshii .
55:

[ -te ] ga mo ii desu.
[ - ] [ - ].

[-] wa,

:
Watashi wa,
tabako o
suimasu.
Watashi wa,
tabako o sutte
mo ii desu.

(/
)

.

.

:
Koko de tabako o
sutte ii mo desu
ka?
Mochiron, ii desu.
Iie, koko de
tabako o sutte wa
ikemasen.
Anata ni o-denwa
shite mo yoroshii
desu ka?

?
.
, .

?

111,112

90


by max xin memtade

-nakute mo ii desu - -.
56:

[-] wa, [ -nakute ] mo ii desu.


[ - ] [ - ].

:
Anata wa
ikimasen.
Anata wa,
ikanakute mo
ii desu.

:
Iie, so: shinakute
mo ii desu.
Watashi wa,
kotaenakute mo ii
desu ka?
Hai, ii desu.

()

, (
) .
?
, .

[ 113. -nakute ]
-nakute
-nai -i -kute,
.
iwanai
hanasanai
kakanai
wakaranai

tabenai
minai

I :

iwanakute

hanasanakute

kakanakute

wakaranakute
II :

tabenakute

minakute

:
shinai
konai

112,113

shinakute
konakute

91


by max xin memtade

[ 114. : jo:zu (heta) desu ]


: : jo:zu (heta) desu.

-
jo:zu , , heta , .
57:

[-] wa, [ - ] ga jo:zu desu.


[ - ] [ - ] .

[-] wa, [ - ] ga heta desu.


[ - ] [ - ] .

:
Watakushi wa
ryo:ri ga jo:zu
desu.
Komuro-san wa
Roshiago o hanasu
no ga jo:zu desu.
Sensei wa uta o
utau no ga jo:zu
desu.
Eigo wa amari
jo:zu dewa
arimasen.
Anata wa Nihongo o
hanasu no ga jo:zu
desu.
Iie, mada heta
desu.

()(
)

-
-.

Watakushi wa
Nihongo ga heta
desu.


.

.
.

.
-.
( ).

[ 115. : -emasu ]
: : -emasu.

/
/ ,
-u -eru ( eru , ):
kaku
hanasu
yomu

()

kakeru

hanaseru

yomeru

,
,
,

114,115

92


by max xin memtade

:
Watashi wa
Nihongo de
hanashimasu.
Watashi wa
Nihongo de
hanasemasu.

()
-.
.

:
Nihongo no hon ga
yomemasu ka?
Iie, mada jo:zu-ni
yomemasen.
Yoku wa
hanasemasen.
Anata wa kanji ga
kakemasu ka?
Hai, kakemasu.
Iie, kakemasen.

,
( ).
.

, ().
, ().

[ 116. -nikui -yasui ]


-nikui, , ,
-, -:
wakaru

oboeru

()

I :
wakarinikui

II :
oboenikui

()

()

-yasui ,
-:
wakaru
oboeru

()

I :
wakariyasui

II :
oboeyasui

()

()

:
Roshiago no kotoba
wa oboenikui desu.
Kono kotoba wa
oboeyasui desu.
Ginza no wakariyasui
tokoro desu.

115,116

(
)()
()
()
(
)()


.

.
, ,
.

93


by max xin memtade

[ 117. : -nagara ]
-nagara , ,
, ;
, ..., ... (yominagara
).
-nagara (
: -masu : yomu
yomimasu yomi):
hanasu
yomu
warau
utau
miru

()
(/)
(/)

hanashinagara

yominagara

warainagara

utainagara

minagara

:
Shimbun o yominagara,
asahan o tabemasu.
Hanashinagara,
arukimashita.

,
.
,
.

( : . . 41)

[ 118. -tara ]
-tara -ra -ta
(. . 78) : ..., ...:
yoru
yomu
yomu
suru
suru
desu

()
()
()
()

yottara

yondara

yomanakattara

shitara

shinakattara

deshitara

:
Yu:binkyoku e
yottara, Hayashisan ni aimashita.

()

Doyo:bi hima
deshitara, shokuji
ni kimasu.

()


,
-.

,
.

117,118

94


by max xin memtade

[ 119. node ]
node (..., ; , ...;
, ...; ... ..), ,
;
.
58:

[ ] node, [ ].
[ ], [ ].


:
Kino: wa kaisha ga
yasumi desu.

Kino: wa kaisha ga
yasumi datta node,
asanebo: o
shimashita.



.


,
.

:
Watakushi wa, hoka ni
yakusoku mo nakatta
node, sampo ni
dekakemashita.

()

Ototoi ame ga futta


node, hokori wa
tachimasen deshita.

()

Hayashi-san mo hima
datta node,
arukimashita.
Hayashi-san wa
yakusoku ga atta node,
basu de kaerimashita.

119


,

.

,
.
-
,
..
-

,
.

95


by max xin memtade

[ 120. : hazu desu ]


hazu desu hazu () ,
, ,
, ,
, .
.
59:

[ ]
hazu desu.
(, ) [ ].

:
Kare wa kippu
o kaimasu.
Kare wa kippu
o kau hazu
desu.


.

.

:
Tanaka-san wa
kuru hazu desu.
Gogo watashi o
tazunete kuru,
hazu deshita.

()

-
.

.

[ 121. kuru, shimau, iku, miru, oku ]


. 96 () ,
, , , , ,
.
,
-te , , ,
; -. ,
.
-te kuru ,
(kuru , ):
tazuneru
kaeru
toru
tsureru
deru
motsu

()
(/)

tazunete kuru

kaete kuru

totte kuru

tsurete kuru

dete kuru

motte kuru

120,121

96


by max xin memtade

-te shimau , (
owari [] )
(shimau //, ):
taberu
yomu
iku

()

tabete shimau

yonde shimau

itte shimau

()
( )
( )

-te iku
- (iku , ):
deru

dete iku

-te miru (miru ,


):
yomu
kiru
haku
kaburu

()

(//)

yonde miru

kite miru

haite miru

kabutte miru


, ..
, , ..

-te oku , (oku


, , ):
kau

katte oku

[ 122. -so: ]
-so: ,
; -na :
amai
oishii
kashikoi

amaso:-na

oishiso:-na

kashikoso:-na

( )

( )

-so: , - , ,
,
( -masu
-masu):
furu

furi-masu

furiso:

hareru

hare-masu

hareso:

()

,
,

:
Ame ga furimasu.
Ame ga furiso:
desu.

121,122

. .
,
( .)

97


by max xin memtade

DAI-IKKA
HAJIMEMASHO:
Ohayo: gozaimasu.
Ohayo: gozaimasu.
Ikaga desu ka?
Genki desu.
Sore wa kekko: desu.
Sa: hajimemasho:
Kore wa hon desu.
Sore wa isu desu.
Are wa mado desu.
Kore wa tsukue desu
ka?
Hai, so: desu.
Sore wa kaban desu ka?
Iie, so: dewa
arimasen.
Are wa nan desu ka?
Doa desu.
Kore wa pen desu ka,
empitsu desu ka?
Empitsu desu.
Hai, kekko: desu.
Kyo: wa sore dake desu.
Arigato:
gozaimashita.
Do: itashimashite.
Sayo:nara.
Sayo:nara.
dai-ikka
ichi
daihajimeru
tsukue
hayai ( ohayo:)
ikaga
genki
sa:
sore
sore dake
Kekko: desu
nan
kyo:
Arigato:
gozaimashita

HAJIMEMASHO:

1. (1-6)

!
.
.
?
, .
.
.
.
.
.
?
, .
?
, .
?
.

?
.
.
.
.

.
.
.

? ?
,
, -, ,
, ()
;
! !
?

( ,
)!
1

98

DAI-NIKA
KONNICHI WA
Konnichi wa.
Konnichi wa.
Ii o-tenki
desu ne:.
So: desu ne:.
O-genki desu ka?
Ee, o-kage-sama de.
Sa: hajimemasho:.
Ii desu ka?
Do:zo yukkuri itte
kudasai.
Kore wa akai empitsu
desu. Kono empitsu wa
akai desu.
Sore wa aoi kami desu.
Sono kami wa aoi desu.
Are wa shiroi kabe desu.
Ano kabe wa shiroi
desu. Sono kami mo
shiroi desu ka?
Iie, shiroku arimasen.
Kuroi desu.
Kono tokei wa chiisai
desu ka?
Iie, chiisaku arimasen.
O:kii desu.
Hai, kekko: desu.
Kyo: wa kore de
o-shimai desu.
Arigato:
gozaimashita.
Sayo:nara.
Mata ashita.
Sayo:nara.
konnichi
ne:; ne
ii; yoi
o-tenki; tenki
o-genki
do:zo
kudasai
2


by max xin memtade

KONNICHI WA

2. (7-12)
!
.
.
,
?
, .
?
, .
, .
?

,
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
?

, .
.
?
, .
() .
, .
.
.
.
.
.
, .
? (
)

() ,

99


by max xin memtade
iu ( itte)
ee
yukkuri
shimai
shimau
mata
ashita
Mata ato de
warui
takai
hikui
yasui
atsui
usui
karui
omoi
furui
atarashii

KONNICHI WA

,
,
,
,

100

DAI-SANKA


by max xin memtade

Iie, watakushi no ja
arimasen.
Donata no desu ka?
Suzuki-san no desu.
Hajimemashite. Iwanofu
desu.

Hajimemashite. Suzuki
desu.

HAJIMEMASHITE
Komban wa.
Komban wa.
Ikaga desu ka?
Genki desu. Anata wa?
Watakushi mo. Dewa,
hajimemasho:.
Do:zo hakkiri itte
kudasai.
Anata wa seito desu.
Watakushi wa seito ja
arimasen.
Kyo:in desu. Anata
wa donata desu ka?
Watakushi wa Iwanofu
desu. Anata wa sensei
desu. Watakushi wa
seito desu.
Watakushi wa Nihonjin
desu. Anata wa
Amerikajin desu ka,
Igirisujin desu ka?
Watakushi wa Roshiajin
desu.
Anokata wa donata desu
ka?
Shummito-san no
okusan desu. Anokata
wa Doitsujin desu.
Anata no tomodachi
desu ka?
Hai, so: desu. Watakushi
no tomodachi desu.
Sono bo:shi wa anata
desu ka?

3. (13-19)
!
.
.
?
(,) .
?
. ,
.
,
.
.
. () .
?

. .
.

.

?


. .

HAJIMEMASHITE

?
, .
.
?
, .
()?
-.

.
.
.
.

101


by max xin memtade

Do:zo yoroshiku.

Kochira koso do:zo


yoroshiku.

Chu:goku

Do:zo yoroshiku

O-yasumi nasai

gaikoku
gaikoku-jin
gauikoku-go
dewa
hakkiri
kata ( anokata)
sensei
kutsu
uwagi
zubon
chokki
kutsushita
gaito: (ko:to)
waishatsu (shatsu)
nekutai

yasumu
watakushi koso
gaku ( gakusei)

HAJIMEMASHITE


.
.


; ;
, ,
, ,
(.:
)


(. jupon)

,
(. coat)
(. white shirt)
(.necktie)
(.:
)
!
.
!
;
.:

102


by max xin memtade

DAI-YONKA
ICHI
Konnichi wa.
Konnichi wa.
Warui o-tenki
desu ne:.
So: desu ne:.
Samui desu ne:.
Sa:, hajimemasho:.
Koko ni tsukue ga
arimasu. Watakushi no
tsukue desu. Kono
tsukue wa yuka no ue ni
arimasu. Tsukue no ue
ni kago ga arimasu.
Kago no naka ni nani
ga arimasu ka?
Ringo ga arimasu.
Ikutsu arimasu ka?
Hitotsu, futatsu, mittsu,
yottsu, itsutsu, muttsu,
nanatsu, yattsu,
kokonotsu, to: to:
arimasu.
Mado wa doko ni
arimasu ka?
Asuko ni arimasu.
Mado no soba ni nani
ga arimasu ka?
Tsukue ga arimasu.
Tsukue no shita ni nani
ga arimasu ka?
Nani mo arimasen.
Soko ni hon ga arimasu.
Atsui hon to yusui hon
desu. Atsui no wa jibiki
de, usui no wa Nihongo
no hon desu. Koko ni
shimbun mo arimasu
ka?
Hai, arimasu.
Nihongo no shimbun
desu ka?
Iie, Eigo no shimbun
desu.

4. (20-28)

.
?

, , , ,
, , , ,
, ()
.

ICHI

.
.
,
s ?
, .
, ? ,
.
.

.
() .

. ?

.
?
.
?
.
.
.
,
.
?
, .
?
, .

103


by max xin memtade

Sono ringo o kudasai.

Ikutsu agemasho: ka?


Hitotsu, kudasai.

()

ichi
o-tanki, tenki
tsumetai
samui
koko ni
arimasu
aru
arimasen
ue ni
naka ni
soba ni
shita ni
yuka
kago
nani, nan
warui
ringo
ikutsu
asuko; asoko
nani mo
soko ni
jibiki
o kudasai
Ikutsu agemasho: ka
agemasu
ageru
kuremasu
kureru
shimbun
moyori no
chikatetsu no eki
eki
Sumimasen ga
ga
torie
hen ni
basu no noriba
su:pa:
ginko:

ICHI

,
.
() ?
, .

( , )
( )
,
, ( )
, ( )
, ( )
,
,
,

?
;
, ( .
)
,

, , !
?
(, , ) ( .)
(, , ) ( .)
(, ) ( .)
(, ) ( .)

,

,


( supermarket)

104


by max xin memtade

DAI-GOKA

5. (29-31)

IRO
Koko ni dai ga arimasu.
Donna iro desu ka?

.
?

, . ()
.
.
,

Chairo desu.
Kono dai wa marui
desu ka?
Iie, maruku arimasen.
Shikaku desu.
Dai no ue ni kabin ga
arimasu. Marui
rippa-na kabin desu.
Kono kabin mo chairo
desu ka?
Iie, chairo ja arimasen.
Aoi desu.
Kabin no naka ni kireina hana ga arimasu.
Minna onaji iro no hana
desu ka?
Iie, iroiro no iro no hana
desu. Akai hana ya kiiroi
hana ya murasaki no
hana ga arimasu. Shiroi
no ya momoiro no mo
arimasu.
Kusa ya ki no ha wa
donna iro desu ka?
Midoriiro desu.
wa, Nihongo de nan to iimasu ka?
Nezumiiro to iimasu.
Jo::zu desu ne:.
Iie, heta desu. Kore de ii
desu ka?
Sore wa machigai desu.
Naoshite kudasai
Sho:chi shimashita.
dai
donna iro
konna
marui
shikaku-na
shikaku

IRO

.
?


?
, .
() .

.

?
, ()
. ,
.,
.
(
) .

?
() ().

-
?
() Nezumiiro.
?
, .
?
(,) ()
.
, .
(,) .

105


by max xin memtade
rippa-na
kirei-na
kabin
hana
minna onaji
iroiro no iro
iroiro (no)
murasaki no hana
ya
kusa
ki no ha
to iimasu
iu
Nihon-go de
jo:zu desu
jo:zu
heta desu
heta
kore de
machigai
machigau
naosu
sho:chi shimashita
sho:chi suru
sho:chi
suru
ha
onaji
te
iie

()

()()

IRO


( ..)


-
,
, -

, ,

106


by max xin memtade

6. (32-40)

() ()



. .
.

.

. ()
, ,
..
?

() .

?

()
. ()
.

Dewa, shitsurei shimasu.

Sayo:nara. Mata do:zo.


O-kusan ni yoroshiku.

()

Arigato: gozaimasu.
Sayo:nara.

()
()

DAI-ROKKA
ME TO MIMI
Kao niwa, me ya hana ga
arimasu. Kuchi ya mimi
mo arimasu.
Watakushitachi wa, me
de mimasu. Hon ya
zasshi o yomimasu.
Kuchi de gohan ya iroiro
no mono o tabemasu.
Mizu ya ocha ya ko:hii
mo nomimasu. Sono
hoka kuchi de nani o
shimasu ka?
Kuchi de hanashimasu.
Watakushitachi wa mimi
ya hana de nani o
shimasu ka?
Mimi de oto o kikimasu.
Hana de nioi o
kagimasu.
Te ya ashi de nani o
shimasu ka?
Te de iroiro no mono o
torimasu. Ashi de
arukimasu.
Inu ya neko nimo ashi
wa arimasu. Keredomo,
te wa arimasen.
Sakana niwa te mo ashi
mo arimasen.

kao
hana
kuchi
mimi
miru
miseru
yomu
taberu
mono
ko:hii

ME TO MIMI

()
.
() .

,
.
,
.
,
.
.
,
.
.
. .

,
, , ()

107


by max xin memtade
nomu

te mo ashi mo

()

Shitsurei shimasu

mizu

()

sono hoka
suru
hanasu
kiku
kagu
te
ashi
aruku
toru
keredomo
shitsurei
mata
okusan
yoroshii
me
gohan
o-cha; cha
oto
nioi
inu
neko
sakana

zasshi
O:do:ri Ko:en
o:do:ri
ko:en
sumu
benkyo:
kado
magaru

ME TO MIMI

,
,

, (
-
)
(.:
)

.
,

,
()
-,
()

108

DAI-NANAKA
IMA NANI O SHITE
IMASU KA?
Watakushi wa ima
Nihongo o hanashite
imasu. Anata wa
Nihongo o kiite imasu.
Watakushi wa anata ni
Nippongo o oshiete
imasu ga, anata wa
Nihongo o naratte
imasu. Nihongo ga yoku
wakarimasu ka?
Iie, mada yoku
wakarimasen.
Nihongo wa muzukashii
desu ka?
Iie, muzukashii
arimasen. Keredomo
yasashiku mo arimasen.
Kono e o goran nasai.
Migi no ho: no hito wa
hataraite imasu ga,
mannaka no hito wa
yasunde imasu. Kono
hito wa tatte imasu ka?
Iie, benchi ni
koshikakete imasu.
Hidari no michi o
otoko-no-hito to onnano-hito ga aruite imasu.
Kono hitotachi wa,
kodomo o tsurete sampo
shite imasu. Otoko-nohito wa yo:fuku o kite,
bo:shi o kabutte imasu.
Onna-no-hito wa
kimono o kite imasu.
Geta o haite iru rashii
desu, keredomo yoku
wakarimasen. Hiko:ki ga
sora o tonde imasu.
Nomimono wa ikaga
desu ka?
Do:mo. Itadakimasu.
Wain to bi:ru to ko:hii ga
arimasu kedo Dore ga
ii desu ka?
Ja, ko:hii onegai
dekimasu ka?
7


by max xin memtade

()(
)

()

IMA NANI O SHITE IMASU KA?

7. (41-45)

?
.
.

,
.
?

,
.

?
, .
.

.
()
,
- .
?
,
.

.

.

.
.
, , ,
,
( ).
.

?
, .
, ,
.
?
?

109


by max xin memtade

Hai.
keiko
ima
hanasu
oshieru
narau
wakaru
muzukashii
yasashii
e
yoku
migi no ho:
ho:
hataraku
mannaka
yasumu
tatsu
benchi
koshikakeru
hidari
michi
otoko
onna
hito
otoko-no-hito
aruku
hito-tachi
kodomo
tsureru
sampo
yo:fuku
kiru
bo:shi
haku
rashii
mono
kimono
kaburu
Ikaga desu ka?
hiko:ki
sora
tobu
hameru
kakeru
nugu
negau
dekiru
nomu

()

()

()

()

()

IMA NANI O SHITE IMASU KA?

().

,
,
,

()

( bench)

,
,

().


., ()
,
, (,
)
,

, (.:
)
, ()
: ?

, ()
, ()
(, ,)
,

110

DAI-HACHIKA
IRAI
Iwanofu-san, anata wa
ima nani o shite imasu
ka?
Nihongo o benkyo:
shite imasu.
Do:zo tatte kudasai.
Koko e kite kudasai.
Anata wa doko e
kimashita ka?
Koko e kimashita.
So: desu. Dewa, doa
no tokoro e itte
kudasai. Doa o akete,
soto e dete kudasai.
Heya no naka e haitte,
doa o shimete kudasai.
Watakushi no tsukue
no tokoro e kite
kudasai. Tsukue no ue
ni hon o totte kudasai.
Sono hon o tsukue no
ue ni oite kudasai.
Anata wa sakki doko e
ikimashita ka?
Doa no tokoro e
ikimashita.
Anata wa ima doko e
kimashita ka?
Anata no tsukue no
tokoro e kimashita.
Nani o torimashita ka?
Hon o torimashita.
Sono hon o doko ni
okimashita ka?
Tsukue no ue ni
okimashita.
So: desu. Yoku
dekimashita. Dewa
anata no seki e
modotte kudasai.
Koshikakete kudasai.
Cho:men o dashite,
anata no namae o kaite
kudasai. Anata wa ima
nani o shimashita ka?
Watakushi no namae o
kakimashita.
Nani ni kashimashita
ka?
8


by max xin memtade

8. (46-53)

,
?

() .

(
)

, .
,
.
?
.
. ,
,
.
,
.

, .
,
. (
)
, .
,
.
?
.

()
.

?
() .

?
.

.
. ,
,
. ,
.
, ,
.
?

() ?

IRAI

111


by max xin memtade

Cho:men ni
kakimashita.
Mannenhitsu de
kakimashita ka?

() .

()
?

,
.

Kutsu no uriba wa
nangai desu ka?

Gokai de gozaimasu.
Do:mo.

()

?
( !)


?
.
.

Iie, mannenhitsu de
kakimasen deshita.
Nani o tsukaimashita
ka?
Empitsu o
tsukaimashita.
Sumimasen.
Hai, irasshaimase.

irai suru
benkyo: suru
tatsu
kudasaru
kuru
tokoro
akeru
deru
soto e
hairu
heya
shimeru
tsukue no tokoro e
mannenhitsu
toru
oku
iku
dekiru
seki
modoru
koshikakeru
dasu
cho:men o dashite
namae
kaku
tsukau
kai
itsu
irassharu
kutsu
de gozaimasu
uriba

IRAI

() ?

,
,
.,

( )

,
,
,

, -
.

112

DAI-KYU:KA
KARENDA:
Kore wa karenda: desu.
Ichigatsu
kara
ju:nigatsu
made
arimasu. Ichigatsu wa
hajime no tsuki de,
ju:nigatsu wa owari no
tsuki desu. Ichigatsu to
nigatsu wa samukute,
yuki ga furimasu.
Sangatsu,
shigatsu,
gogatsu wa haru de,
rokugatsu, shichigatsu,
hachigatsu wa natsu
desu. Kugatsu, ju:gatsu,
ju:ichigatsu wa aki de,
ju:nigatsu,
ichigatsu,
nigatsu wa fuyu desu.
Natsu wa atsukute,
fuyu wa samui desu.
Haru wa attakakute, aki
wa suzushii desu.
Kongetsu wa nangatsu
desu ka?
Ju:gatsu desu.
Dewa, raigetsu wa
ju:ichigatsu desu ne:?
So: desu.
Sengetsu wa nangatsu
deshita ka?
Kugatsu deshita.
Ichinen
niwa,
nankagetsu arimasu ka?
Ju:nikagetsu arimasu.
Do:zo ichi kara ju:ni
made kazoete kudasai.
Ichi, ni, san, shi, go,
roku, shichi, hachi, ku,
ju:, ju:ichi, ju:ni.
So:
desu.
Yoku
dekimashita.
Dewa,
ichi to ni de, ikutsu ni
narimasu ka?
San ni narimasu.
Shi to go to, dotchi ga
o:kii desu ka?


by max xin memtade

9. (54-58)

(
)

()

.

.
,
().

.
. ,
, , ,
. ,
,
,

.
, .
,
.
?

()

.
.

,
?
(,) .

?

()

()

(/
)

KARENDA:

() .
?
.

, .
, , , ,
, , , ,
,
,
, .
, .
,
,
?
() .
,
?

113


by max xin memtade

Go no ho: ga o:kii
desu.
Roku wa shichi yori
o:kii desu ka, chiisai
desu ka?
Roku wa shichi yori
chiisai desu.
Hachigatsu to kugatsu
to dotchi ga hayaku
kimasu ka?
Hachigatsu no ho: ga
hayaku kimasu.
Ju:gatsu wa ju:ichigatsu
yori samui desu ka,
attakai desu ka?
Attakai desu.
Shitte imasu ka?
Shirimasen.
Oboete imasu ka?
Oboete imasen.
karenda:
hajime
hajimeru
tsuki
owari
owaru
yuki
furu
haru
natsu
aki
fuyu
atsui
samui
attakai
suzushii
kon-getsu
rai-getsu
sen-getsu
gatsu
nen
kazoeru
yoku
dekiru
ni naru
o:kii
chiisai
hayai
shirimasen
oboete imasen

,
?

()


, ?

()

()

.
?
(), .
?
(), .

KARENDA:

( )

()
-,

(hayaku - )
(. ) shiru
( . ) oboeru

114


by max xin memtade

10. (59-61)

()


()
.

.
.
,
.

?

.

?

().

?
.
,
.

?

Fuyu wa yuki ga furimasu.


Naze desu ka?
Samui kara desu.
Kino: kimasen deshita
ne:.
Do:mo sumimasen.
Wasuremashita. Itsu
kimasho: ka?

Kayo:bi ni kite kudasai.

yo:bi

DAI-JU:KA
YO:BI
Ikkagetsu niwa, yaku
yonshu:kan arimasu.
Nichiyo:bi wa isshu:kan
no hajime no hi de,
doyo:bi wa owari no hi
desu. Nibamme no hi wa
getsuyo:bi de, sambamme
no hi wa kayo:bi desu.
Isshu:kan no mannaka no
hi wa, naniyo:bi desu ka?
Suiyo:bi desu..
Mokuyo:bi wa kinyo:bi
no mae desu ka, ato desu
ka?
Mae desu.
Kyo: wa naniyo:bi desu
ka?
Kinyo:bi desu.
Kino: wa mokuyo:bi de,
ototoi wa suiyo:bi deshita.
Ashita to asatte wa
nichiyo: desu ka?
Ashita wa doyo: de, asatte
wa nichiyo: desu.
Naze nichiyo:bi niwa seito
wa gakko: e ikimasen ka?
Yasumi da kara desu.

-hi
-kagetsu
yaku
-shu:kan
isshu:kan
nanshu:kan
hajime no hi

10

YO:BI

()

.

.

?
( )
.
. ?
, .
,
?

. .
?
, ,
.

;
()

()

?

115


by max xin memtade
owari no hi
kyo:
mannaka no
mae
ato
kino:
ototoi
ashita
asatte
seito
gakko:
iku
yasumi
da ( da kara)
Do:mo sumimasen
wasureru
itsu
kimasho:
kuru

(/)

()

YO:BI

()
.
,

,
,
, ( )
!

10

116


by max xin memtade

DAI-JU:IKKA

11. (62-66)

JIKAN
Kore wa tokei desu. Tokei wa,
jikan o shiru noni, tsukaimasu.
Tokei niwa, nihon no hari ga
arimasu. Ryo:ho: no hari ga ju:ni o
sasu to, cho:do ju:niji desu.
Ichijikan wa rokujippun desu.
Nagai hari wa ichijikan ni
hitomawari shimasu. Ju:ni kara
ichi made wa gofun de, ichi kara
ni made mo gofun desu. Ju:ni kara
san made wa ju:gofun de, shi
made wa nijippun desu. Mijikai
hari wa, hitomawari suru noni,
ju:nijikan kakarimasu. Ima mijikai
hari wa san to shi no aida o
sashite imasu. Nagai hari wa roku
o sashite imasu. Nanji desu ka?
Sanjihan desu.
Nagai hari ga kyu: o sasu to, nanji
ni narimasu ka?
Yoji ju:gofun mae ni narimasu.
Ichinichi wa niju:yojikan de, sore
o gozen to gogo ni wakemasu.
Desukara, ichinichi niwa onaji
jikan ga nido arimasu. Tatoeba
rokuji wa gozen nimo, gogo nimo
arimasu. Gozen no rokuji wa asa
de, gogo no rokuji wa yu:gata
desu. Asa kara yu:gata made ga
hiruma de, yu:gata kara asa made
yoru desu. Hi wa higashi kara
dete, nishi ni hairimasu. Hi ga
deru to, akaruku narimasu. Hi ga
hairu to, kuraku narimasu.
Suzuki-san, raishu: no doyo:bi
o-hima deshitara, uchi e shokuji ni
kimasen ka.

. .
.
.
.
.
.
,
.

, .
.
.
.
.
. ?

.

, ?
.
.

.

. ,
( ) .
,
.
,
.
.
, .
, .
-,
.
?

Do:mo arigato: gozaimasu. Demo


raishu: no doyo:bi wa chotto
tsugo: ga warui ndesu ga
Sore ja, nichiyo:bi wa do: desi ka?
Nichiyo:bi deshitara, daijo:bu
desu. Nanji goro desu ka?
Goji goro do: desu ka?
E:, kekko: desu.
tokei
jikan
shiru nori

11

(
)

JIKAN

.

, ?
. .
( )?
?
.

(; )
,

117


by max xin memtade
tsukau
ni-hon no hari
ryo:ho:
sasu
cho:do
ju:ni-ji
ichi-jikan
-jikan
nagai
hari
hito
mawaru
mijikai
hitomawari suru
kakaru
aida
-han
kyu: o sasu to
naru
mae
ichinichi
wakeru
gogo
gozen
desukara
onaji
ni-do
tatoeba
gogo to gozen ni
gogo nimo
gozen nimo
gozen no rokuji
asa
yu:gata
hiruma
yoru
higashi
deru
nishi
hairu
akarui
kurai
sugi
raishu:
o-hima
hima
deshitara ( desu)
shokuji
ni kuru

()

()

()
()

( )
, .

,
( )
()
()

,
,
,


, ,
; ; ;


,
.
() ; ()

,
,

,
,

, (.: )

, (.: )

;

()

, -

,

JIKAN

11

118
demo
chotto
tsugo:
warui
ga
sore ja
daijo:bu
goro
ee
kekko: desu

11


by max xin memtade

(/)

; ;

,
, ,

;

( ), ,
.
; ?; ?; ?
.

JIKAN

119


by max xin memtade

DAI-JU:NIKA

12. (67-69)

GAPPI
Ikkagetsu
niwa
sanju:nichi
arimasu. Maigetsu sanju:nichi
arimasu ka?
Iie, sanju:ichinichi no tsuki mo
arimasu shi, niju:-hachinichi mo
arimasu.
Tsuki no hajime no hi wa, nan to
iimasu ka?


.
?

,

.
?

Ichijitsu to iimasu. Mata tsuitachi


to mo iimasu.
Ichijitsu kara sanju:ichinichi made
jun ni itte kudasai.
Ichijitsu, futsuka, mikka, yokka,
itsuka, muika, nanuka
Chotto matte kudasai. Nanuka
to mo iimasu, ga futsu: nanoka
desu. Do:zo tsuzukete kudasai.
Yo:ka,
kokonoka,
to:ka,
ju:ichinichi, ju:ninichi, ju:sannichi,
ju:yokka, ju:gonichi, ju:rokunichi,
ju:shichinichi, ju:hachinichi, ju:kunichi, hatsuka, niju:ichinichi,
niju:ninichi, niju:sannichi, ni:juyokka, niju:gonichi, niju:rokunichi, niju:shichinichi, niju:hachinichi, niju:kunichi, sanju:nichi,
sanju:ichinichi.
Kyo: wa nannichi desu ka?
Yokka desu.
Raishu: no getsuyo:bi wa,
nannichi ni narimasu ka?
Yo:ka ni narimasu.
Anata wa senshu: no doyo:bi ni
doko e ikimashita ka?
Doko emo ikimasen deshita.
Ichinichiju: uchi ni imashita.
Byo:ki datta kara desu.
Sakuban mo uchi ni imashita ka?
Iie, dekakemashita.
Komban mo dekakemasu ka?
Iie,
keredomo
myo:ban
dekakemasu.
Anata no tanjo:bi wa itsu desu ka?
Watakushi no tanjo:bi wa
rokugatsu niju:shichinichi desu.
Okusan no tanjo:bi wa itsu desu
ka?

()

(
)

()

GAPPI

ichijitsu.
tsuitachi.
, , ,
-.
, , ,
, ,

, .
nanuka,
nanoka. , .
,
,
,
, , , , ,
, , , , , , ,
, - ,
, , , , . .
?
.
, ,
?
.
?
. .
.
?
, .
?
, .
?

.
?

12

120
Kanai no tanjo:bi wa ju:ichigatsu
ju:ninichi desu.
tsukihi
gatsuhi -> gappi
mai-getsu
nan to iimasu ka?
mata
tsuki no hajime no hi
tsuki
jun ni
jun
iu
chotto
futsu:
tsuzukeru
kyo:
nannichi ni
naru
senshu:
konshu:
raishu:
seniku
doko e mo
-ju:
ichi-nichi-ju:
uchi
da
datta
sakusakuban
komban
myo:ban
dekakeru
tanjo:bi
okusan
kanai

12


by max xin memtade

(/)
()

(/)

()

()

GAPPI




?
.
()

,
,

?
,

()

,

, - ( )
, ( )
,



() .
()

121


by max xin memtade

DAI-JU:SANKA

13. (70-71)

JO:SU:SHI
Kore wa kippu desu. Nan no
kippu desu ka?
Kisha no kippu to basu no kippu
desu.
Densha no kippu mo arimasu ka?
Iie, densha no kippu wa arimasen.
Minna de ikumai arimasu ka?
Ju:mai arimasu.
Tsukue no ue ni hon ga nisatsu to
empitsu ga nihon arimasu. Hidari
no hon wa, atsukute kuroi desu
ga, migi no wa, usukute aoi desu.
Atsui no wa jibiki de, usui no wa
kaiwa no hon desu. Kono jibiki
wa, haba ga hiroi desu ga, kaiwa
no hon wa, haba ga semai desu.
Kono empitsu wa, onaji nagasa
desu ka?
Iie, ippon wa nagakute, mo: ippon
wa mijikai desu.

()


. ?


.
?
, .
?
().
.
,
. ()
, .
,
.
?

Kiiroi empitsu to chairo no


empitsu to dotchi ga nagai desu
ka?
Kiiroi empitsu no ho: ga nagai
desu.
Kamakura made ikura desu ka?
Sanzen-en desu.
Kamakura nito: nimai o onegai
shimasu.
O:fuku desu ka?
Iie, katamichi o onegai shimasu.
jo:su:shi
kippu
kisha
basu
nan no
minna de
minna
iku-mai
iku
atsui
usui
haba
semai
ga
kaiwa

, ,
.

,
?

, ()
?
.
() ()
.
() ?
, , .

()

JO:SU:SHI

()

()?
?

13

122
hiroi
onaji
nagai
mo:
mo: ippon
dotchi
dotchi ga nagasa
to:
o-negai shimasu
kata
michi
katamichi
o:fuku
hon ga nisatsu
empitsu ga nihon
totteoku
totteoki
Kamakura

13


by max xin memtade

()

JO:SU:SHI

, (, ..)
( )?
?
(); ,
;

,




,
, ,

123


by max xin memtade

DAI-JU:YONKA

14. (72-75)

O-KANE
Kore wa watakushi no saifu desu.
Kawa de koshiraete arimasu.
Kono naka ni o-kane ga haitte
imasu. Ikura haitte iru desho:?
Shirimasen.
Soredewa akete mimasho:. Goran
nasai. Kore wa ju:en de, kore wa
hyakuen desu. Hyakuen no ju:bai
wa sen-en de, sen-en no ju:bai wa
ichiman-en desu. Ichimanen no
hambun wa ikura desu ka?
Gosen-en desu.
Dewa, sen-en no shibun-no-ichi
wa ikura desu ka?

. ()
. . ,
?

() .
, .
: ,
.
,
.
?
.
,
?

Nihyaku goju:-en desu.


Kore wa sen-en-satsu de, kore wa
ju:-en no do:ka desu. Saifu no
naka ni sen-en satsu ga sammai,
ju:en wa yottsu irete arimasu.
Minna de ikura desu ka?
Sanzen yonju:-en desu.
Go-en to ju:-en to goju:-en no
naka de dore ga ichiban o:kii desu
ka?
Goju:-en ga ichiban o:kii desu.
Satsu wa kami de koshiraemasu
ga, do:ka wa do: de koshiraemasu.
Kinka wa kin de, ginka wa gin de
koshiraemasu. Kin ya gin wa kane
desu. Do: ya tetsu mo kane desu.
Gin wa kin gurai takai desu ka?
Iie, gin wa kin hodo takaku
arimasen.
Bin ya koppu wa, nan de
koshiraemasu ka?
Garasu de koshiraemasu.
Kono bin niwa, nani ga irete
arimasu ka?
Inki ga irete arimasu.
Bin no omote ni nani ga hatte
arimasu ka?
Kami ga hatte arimasu.
O-negai shimasu.
Kore desu ka?
Ee.
Do:zo.
Kore wa ikura desu ka?

.
,
.


. ?
.

, .
.
,
.
() , .
.
.
, ?
, ,
.
?

()

() .
?

.
, ?
?
.
.
?

O-KANE

.
?

14

124
Sanzen-en desu.
Chotto kurai desu ne. Motto
akarui no wa arimasu ka?
Kore wa ikaga desu ka? Kore wa
akarui desu. Sen nanahyaku-en
desu.
Kore wa ii desu ne. O-negai
shimasu. Nisen-en desu.
Arigato: gozaimasu. Sambyaku-en
no o-tsuri desu.
saifu
kawa
koshiraeru
o-kane; kane
hairu
desho: ( desu)
akeru
-bai
han
-fun
-satsu
sam-mai
ireru
minna de ikura?
kane
kami
do:
tetsu
kin
gin
kinka
ginka
gurai
takai
hodo
bin
koppu
garasu
inki
omote
o-tsuri
nedan
kai mono
reji
hiku
kurai
akarui
motto
itadaku
haru
14


by max xin memtade

/()

()

()

()

O-KANE

.
.
?
? .
.
, . .
.
.
().
,

.
(, ); ()

; -; ,

() ( )
,
?

( . glas)
( . ink)
(, , )

125


by max xin memtade

DAI-JU:GOKA

15. (76-80)

TOCHI
Kono e o goran nasai. Migi no
ho: ni ikken no ie ga arimasu.
Nihon no ie desu ka?
Iie, yo:kan desu.
Entotsu kara kemuri ga dete
imasu. Ie no soba ni ki ga nihon
arimasu. Ie no chikaku de
kodomo ga asonde imasu. Ie no
mae ni michi ga arimasu. Semai
michi desu ka?
Iie, kanari hiroi massuguna michi
desu. Keredomo ie no soba no
michi wa magatte imasu.
Muko: kara ichidai no jido:sha ga
kimasu. Ima uchi no mae e kuru
tokoro desu. Dare ga unten shite
imasu ka?
Wakarimasen. Onna-no-hito no
yo: desu. Gaiko-kujin kamo
shiremasen.
Hidari no ho: wa umi desu.
Shima no soba o fune ga isso:
to:tte imasu. Kaigan ni hito ga
imasu. Nannin imasu ka?
Schichinin imasu..
Kono e no naka ni hito ga
nannin imasu ka?
Hitori, futari, sannin, yonnin,
gonin, rokunin, shichinin, hachinin, kunin, ju:nin, ju:ichinin
ju:ichinin imasu.
Jido:sha o unten shite iru hito o
ireru to, nannin desu ka?


.
. () ?

, .
.
.
.
. () ?

()

(/)

, ()
.
.

.
.
?
. , .
, .

()

.
. .
?

.
?

, , , , ,
, , , , ,
: ()
.
, ,
?

Ju:ninnin desu.
To:ku no ho: ni yama ga arimasu.
Hikui yama desu ka?
Iie, kanari takai yama desu.
Kono michi wa Ginza e ikimasu
ka?
Ikimasu.
Koko wa doko desu ka?
Tamachi-eki no chikaku desu.
Ginza made dono gurai arimasu
ka?
Nikiro gurai desu.
tochi
Goran nasai
e

.
.
?
, .
() ?

()

, .
? ( ?)
.
?

()

!
,

TOCHI

15

126
-ken
ie
uchi
yo:kan
entotsu
kemuri
soba ni
chikaku de
asobu
semai
hiroi
kanari
massugu-na
sugu-na
magaru
muko:
jido:sha
keredomo
uchi no mae
kuru tokoro
unten suru
gaikokujin
umi
shima
fune
to:ru
kaigan
ireru
yama
hikui
eki
Ginza
kiro
nemuru
bijin
tateru
yogoreru
kau
kuru
to:ri-kakaru
nusumu
isha
utau

15


by max xin memtade

()

()

()

()

(/)

TOCHI

. .
(- ),
,

,
, , (chikai - )

, , ,
()

,

,


,

,

, , ,
, () (tooru)

, , (),

,
, /

( kilo),

, ,

,

127


by max xin memtade

DAI-JU:ROKKA

16. (81-88)

TENKI TO KIKO:
Sakura no hana wa, sangatsu no
sue goro sakimasu ka?
To:kyo: dewa, mada sakanai
desho:. Taitei shigatsu no hajime
ni sakimasu.
Sakura no hana wa taihen kirei
da, so: desu ne.
So: desu.
Sakura no hana wa saku to,
hitobito wa do: shimasu ka?
Hanami ni dekakemasu.

Anata mo hanami ni ikimasu ka?

Tokidoki ikimasu. Keredomo


kyonen wa ikimasen deshita.



?
, , .

.
,
?
, .
,
?

()
.
()
?
. ()
.

Naze desu ka?


Iku tsumori deshita ga, byo:ki
deshita.
So: desu ka? Sore wa ikimasen
deshita ne:. Kotoshi wa issho ni
ikimasho: ka?
Ikimasho:. Doko ga ii desho:?
Kamakura wa to:i desu ka?
Densha de iku to, ichijikan gurai
de tsukimasu. Eki kara wa aruku
ho: ga ii desho:.
Nihon dewa, rokugatsu ni
takusan ame ga furu, so: desu ne.
So: desu. Rokugatsu wa, tenki ga
warukute, ame ga takusan
furimasu. Ame no furanai hi
demo, kumotte imasu.
Rokugatsu no owari niwa, tenki
ga yoku narimasu ka?
Sono koro niwa, mada yoku
naranai desho:.
Nikko: wa itsu iku ho: ga ii
desho: ka?
Ju:gatsu no owari goro iku no ga
ichiban ii rashii desu. Shikashi
gogatsu ka rokugatsu mo ii yo:
desu.
Atsuku naru to, hitobito wa do:
shimasu ka?
Aru hito wa yama ya umi e
ikimasu. To:kyo: no hito wa
Hakone ya Karuizawa e iku yo:

()

()

()

()
()

()

TENKI TO KIKO:

?
, .
! ( , )
.
.

?
?

. ,
, .

, ?
, .
.
, .

?
, ,
.

?
,
. , ,
.
,
?
,
. , ,
.
16

128


by max xin memtade

desu. Soshite suzushiku natte


kara, kaerimasu.
Anata wa kotoshi wa, yama e
ikimasu ka?
Ikitai desu ga, isogashii desu kara,
iku-koto ga dekiru ka, do: ka
wakarimasen.
Do:zo meshi-agatte kudasai.
Arigato gozaimasu. Itadakimasu.
Gochiso:-sama deshita. Tottemo
oishikatta desu.
Iie, osomatsu-sama deshita.
Honto:-ni tanoshikatta
Do:mo arigato:.

desu.

Kochira koso. Do:mo arigato:


gozaimashita. Zehi mata kite
kudasai.
Ee. Uchi e mo asobi ni kite
kudasai.
Do:mo.
O-yasumi nasai.
O-yasumi nasai.
kiko:
sakura
sue
saku
To:-kyo:
mada
desho:
taitei
taihen
kirei-na
kirei de aru
hana ga saku to
...to
hitobito
do:
hanamiru
tokidoki
naze
tsumori
ikimasho:
ikimasen deshita
ikemasen deshita
ikeru
ikimasen deshita ne:
issho ni
Kamakura
den-sha

16

()

TENKI TO KIKO:

,
.
?
,
, ,
.
, !
, .
, .
, ,
.

. .
, .
.
() .
.
.
( ).
( ).

(. )

( )

,
,
, ...
..., , ...

?
(miru - )
, (toki - )
?




.: ;
,
,
- 50.

129


by max xin memtade
densha
...to
ichi-jikan de
tsuku
takusan
ame no furanai hi
demo
kumotte imasu
owaru
yoku
koro
Nikko
ii desho:
iku no
shikashi
...ka...
ka
...mo ii desu
yo:
atsui
aru
yama ya umi e
Hakone
Karuizawa
soshite
suzushii natte kara
atsuku naru to
kaeru
ikitai
isogashii desu kara
iku koto ga dekiru
do: ka wakarimasen
shashin
meshi
agaru
chiso:
somatsu-na
honto:-ni
honto:
tanoshii
kochira koso
zehi
kuru
asobu
asobi ni kuru
sute:ki
konsome
su:pu
karashi

()

()

()

()

()

TENKI TO KIKO:

()
..., ...

,
,
,
, , ...

,
.


... ( )

, ( ..)

.
,


,
()


(.: )

, ,
.: , ( )
,
,
,

,
(),


( . steak)
( . consomme)
(. . soup)

16

130
tamago
cha
ko:hii
biiru
budo:shu
budo:
shampan
mineraru-uo:ta
supu:n
fo:ku
naifu
hashi
sara

16


by max xin memtade

TENKI TO KIKO:

( . coffee)
( . beer)

( . champagne)
( . mineral water)
( . spoon)
( . fork)
( . knife)

131


by max xin memtade

DAI-JU:NANAKA

17. (89-93)

NICHIJO: SEIKATSU
Watakushi wa maiasa rokuji no
okimasu. Okiru to sugu, ha o
migaite, kao o araimasu. Hige mo
sorimasu. Sorekara sukoshi tatte,
asahan o tabemasu. Hachiji sukoshi mae ni uchi o dete, kaisha e
ikimasu. Taitei aruite ikimasu ga,
osoi toki niwa, basu ka densha de
ikimasu. Basu to densha ni noranaide, takushii de iku-koto mo
arimasu. Kaisha dewa tegami o
kaitari, hito ni attari shite, hiru
made hatarakimasu. Hiruhan wa
ju:niji to ichiji no aida desu. Uchi
kara obento: o motte ikimasen
kara, taitei kinjo no shokudo: de
tabemasu. Ichiji kara mo: ichido
kaisha de shigoto o shite, yu:gata
uchi e kaerimasu. Tokidoki osoku made kaisha ni nokoru koto
mo arimasu ga, taitei rokuji goro
uchi e kaerimasu. Shichiji goro
yu:han o tabete, o-furo ni haitte
kara, hon o yondari, rajio o kiitari
shimasu. Doyo:bi no gogo wa
yasumi desu kara, kaimono o shitari, eiga o mitari shimasu. Ban
niwa, tomodachi ga asobi ni
kimasu. Watakushi ga tazuneru
toki mo arimasu. Taitei ju:ji goro
yasumimasu ga, doyo:bi no ban
wa, osoku made okite imasu. Shikashi, tsukareta toki niwa, osoku
made okite inaide, hayaku yasumimasu. Watakushi wa karada ga
jo:bu desu shi, itsumo karada ni
ki o tsukete imasu kara, hotondo
byo:ki ni narimasen. Keredomo,
tama ni atama ga itai koto ya onaka no itai koto ga arimasu.
Sonna toki niwa, kusuriya kara
kusuri o katte kite, nomimasu.
Hidoi byo:ki no toki niwa, isha e
iku ka isha o yobu ka shimasu ga,
sonna koto wa hotondo arimasen
Doko ga warui desu ka?
O-naka ga itai desu.
Netsu ga arimasu ka?
Sukoshi arimasu. Taionkei o
motte kite kudasai.

()



.
,
. .

. ,
,
. ,

, .
:
, .

.
,
.
, .

, .
,
,
.
,
,
.

.
.
,
.
, .
,
. ,
.
, .
,
,
.
?
.
?.
(,) . , .

NICHIJO: SEIKATSU

17

132
Isha o yobimasho: ka?
Iie, watakushi ga ikimasu.
Takushii o yonde kudasai.
Do:zo odaiji ni.
nichijo:
seikatsu
okiru to
ha
migaku
kao
arau
hige
soru
kami-sori
denki-kamisori
sukoshi
sorekara
tatsu
asahan
kaisha
aruite
osoi
noru
tegami
kaku
au
hataraku
hiru
hiru-han
aida
obento:
uchi kara
motte iku
motsu
kinjo
shoku-do:
shoku
shi-goto
yu:gata
nokoru
yu:-han
yu:tomodachi
o-furo; furo
o-furo ni haitte
rajio
doyo:bi no gogo
kai-mono
kau

17


by max xin memtade

[]

[]

()

NICHIJO: SEIKATSU

?
, ( ).
, , .
, .
, ,

, ;

,
,

, (. )

,

,
,
,
,

( )

133


by max xin memtade
kaimono o suru
eiga
ban ni
asobi ni kimasu
asobi ni iku
asobu
tazuneru
taitei ju:ji goro
yasumu
okite iru
okiru
tsukareru
okite inai
hayaku
karada
jo:bu
karada ga jo:bu desu
ki
tsukeru
itsu mo
hotondo
...ni naru
itai
koto
sonna toki ni
kusuri
-ya
katte kiru
...te kiru
...te kuru
hidoi
isha e iku
isha o yobu
sonna koto
warui
netsu
taionkei
motsu
motte kuru
yobu
o-daiji ni
kyu:kyu:sha
hakike
hanakaze
zutsu:
chu:doku
kega
byo:ki
byo:in

()

[]

[[]]
()

[]

NICHIJO: SEIKATSU

,
,



,
,

;
;
,
,
;

, ,
, ,

:

,
-
; ;
,
,

,
( )


, ,


, ()
, ;
,

( );

,
,

17

134
shoho:sen
kusuri
kusuri-ya
ho:tai
yo:do-chinki
atama
ha
me
mimi
nodo
hana
shinzo:
mune
senaka
o-naka
kanzo:
jinzo:

17


by max xin memtade

()

NICHIJO: SEIKATSU

135


by max xin memtade

DAI-JU:HACHIKA
YU:BIN TO YU:BINKYOKU
Watakushi wa kino: kozutsumi o
dashi
ni
yu:binkyoku
e
ikimashita.
Yu:binkyoku wa o-taku kara to:i
desu ka?
Iie, amari to:ku arimasen. Kanari
chikai desu. Aruite ju:nisampun
shika kakarimasen. Jitensha nara,
goroppun desu.
Hagaki ya tegami o dasu nimo
yu:binkyoku made ikimasu ka?
Aruite shigofun no tokoro ni
posuto ga arimasu kara, sore ni
iremasu.
Yu:binkyoku wa, doko desu ka?
Kyo:kai no kado o migi e
magatte, massugu iku to, byp:in
ga arimasu. Yu:binkyoku wa,
sono tonari desu.
Kono kozutsumi o dashitai no
desu ga, ikura kakarimasu ka?
Kakitome desu ka?
Iie, futsu: de kekko: desu.
Futsu: nara, hyakuen desu.
Kono tegami, wa goju:en de ii
desu ka?
Omosugimasu kara, kitte o mo:
ichimai hatte kudasai.
Kono ko:ku:bin wa, ikura desu
ka?
Sambyaku yonju:en desu.
Roshia made nannichi kakarimasu ka?
Isshu:kan gurai kakarimasu.
Tegami ga arimasu ka?
Kyo: wa arimasen.
Kore
o
dashite
kudasai.
Sokutatsu de o-negai shimasu.
yu:bin
yu:bin-kyoku
-kyoku
dasu
kozutsumi
dashi-ni iku

()

(
)

()

()

[][]

()

()

()

YU:BIN TO YU:BINKYOKU

18. (94-98)


.
?
, .
. .
.

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,
.
?

,
. .
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.

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,
.
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.
()
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.
?
.
,
,
.
, .
,
,
,
()

18

136
o-taku kara
amari
to:i
kanari
chikai
aruku
shika
kakaru
goroppun
posuto
ireru
kyo:kai
kado
magaru
massugu
tonari
dashitai
kakitome
futsu:
kekko:
omosugimasu kara
omoi
haru
nori
ko:ku:bin
ko:ku:dempo:
kokusai dempo:
shikyu: dempo:
tegami
fu:to:
hagaki
denwa
kozutsumi
sokutatsu
negau
kurai; gurai
taizai suru
taizai

18


by max xin memtade

()

[]

()

()

YU:BIN TO YU:BINKYOKU

()


,
( , )
-
( post)
,

()

()
,

( )
,
: ,
,

()

,
,

137


by max xin memtade

DAI-JU:KYU:KA

19. (99-101)

KAZOKU
Suzuki-san wa aru ginko: ni
tsutomete ite, Aoyama ni sunde
imasu. Suzuki to iu no wa myo:ji
de, namae wa Haruo to iimasu.
Okusan wa Akiko-san to iimasu.
Suzuki-san wa, kodomo ga sannin arimasu. Otoko-no-ko ga
futari to onna-no-ko ga hitori
desu. Cho:nan no Taro: wa
kotoshi nanatsu de, cho:jo no
Kinuko wa itsutsu desu. Jiro: wa
kyonen umareta bakari de, mada
akambo: desu. Kono sannin wa
kyo:dai de, Taro: wa Kinuko to
Jiro: no ani de, Jiro: wa Taro: to
Kinuko no oto:to desu. Kinuko
wa Jiro: no ane de, Taro: wa
imo:to desu. Suzuki-san wa
kodomotachi no chichi de,
Akiko-san wa haha desu. Kono
futari wa kodomotachi no oya
desu. Taro: to Jiro: wa musuko
de, Kinuko wa musume desu.
Suzuki-san no oto:san to oka:san
wa kodomotachi no ojiisan to
oba:san de, kodomotachi wa
mago desu.
Suziki-san wa sannin kyo:dai
desu. Niisan to imo:to-san ga
hitorizutsu arimasu. Ne:san mo
oto:to-san mo arimasen. Ne:san
mo oto:to-san mo arimasen.
Niisan wa, Suzuki yori toshi ga
futatsu ue de, imo:tosan wa
mittsu shita desu. Niisan wa,
Takeo to itte, imo:to-san wa,
Michiko to iimasu. Takeo-san
wa, Taro:-san-tachi no oji de,
Michiko wa oba desu. Takeo-san
wa, kodomo ga yonin arimasu.
Ichiro:, Akira, Yukiko, Sachiko
to iimasu. Kono kodomotachi
wa, Taro:-san-tachi no itoko
desu. Ichiro:-san to Akira-san wa
Suzuki-san no oi de, Yukiko-san
to Sachiko-san wa mei desu.
Suzuki-san no oka:san wa,
kotoshi shichiju: desu kara,
kanari toshiyori desu. Takeo-san
no kazoku to issho ni inaka ni
sunde imasu. Suzuki-san no
oto:san wa ototoshi nakunari-

()
()

()

()

-
.
,
. .
- .
.
, ,
,
, ,
.
,
.
;

,
.

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.
.
, .
-
,
.
-
.
,
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.
,

.
,
.

, .
.
, ,
.


.
- -
-,
- -
.
-
,

.
.
-

KAZOKU

19

138
mashita. Michiko-san wa mo:
kekkon shite, chikaku no machi
ni sunde imasu.
Goshujin wa, o-taku desu ka?
Hai, orimasu. Do:zo kochira e.

Shitsurei shimasu.
Do:zo o-kake kudasai.
Okusan wa o-ide desu ka?
Kanai wa rusu desu.
Dewa, mata mairimasu.

Do:zo goshujin ni yoroshiku.

aru

[]

()

ginko:
tsutomeru
sumu
sunde iru
to iu no
myo:ji
namae
otoko-no-ko
onna-no-ko
cho:nan no Taro
cho:jo
umareru
bakari
mada
akambo:
kodomotachi no oya
mago
niisan to imo:tosan
hitori-zutsu
yori toshi
yori
toshi
to itte
oi
mei
kazoku to issho ni
...to
inaka
ototoshi ni
nakunaru
kekkon
chikaku no
machi
oru
Do:zo kochira e

19


by max xin memtade

()

()

KAZOKU

.

.
?
,
.

.
.
, .
?
(,) .
( ,)
.
,

.
, ,

,
,
( )

(.:
)
(.: )
,

;

()


...
()

,

,
,
, !

139


by max xin memtade
kakeru
oide de aru
rusu
mairu
yoroshiku
Suzuki-san
Ichiro:
Jiro:
Taro:
Haruo
Takeo
Akira
Kinuko
Sachiko
Michiko
Akiko
Yukiko

()

[]

KAZOKU

,
-
(. )
(. )
(. )
(. )
(. )
(. )
(. )
(. )
(. )
(. )
(. )

19

140


by max xin memtade

DAI-NIJU:KA

20. (102-105)

JU:TAKU
Watakushi no ie wa Aoyama ni
arimasu. Densha ya basu no teiryu:jo ni chikakute benri-na tokoro
desu. Genkan o hairu to, nijo: no
chiisa-na heya ga arimasu. Sono
heya no migi wa, kyakuma de,
hachijo: desu. Kono heya no mae
niwa, engawa ga atte, sono mae wa
niwa desu. Niwa niwa, iroiro no ki
ga uete arimasu. Benjo wa engawa
no saki ni arimasu. Nijo: no heya
no saki ni kaidan ga arimasu. Nikai
niwa, heya ga futatsu arimasu.
Nijo: no heya no hidari wa, rokujo:
de, chanoma desu. Watakushitachi
wa, kono heya de shokuji o
shimasu. Taitei chabudai no mawari ni suwatte, gohan o tabemasu.
Chanoma no muko: ni daidokoro
ga arimasu. Daidokoro niwa, todana ya nagashi ya reizo:ko nado ga
arimasu. Daidokoro no soto ni ura
no deiri-guchi ga arimasu. Genkan
o to:ranai de, dehairi suru tame
desu.
Watakushi no oji no ie wa, Shibuya
ni arimasu. O:kina mon no aru
yo:kan de, heya wa, daidokoro ya
furoba o nozoite, ju:shigo arimasu.
Genkan ni hairu to, hiroi ro:ka ga
arimasu. Ikkai no o:setsuma,
kyakuma, shokudo: nado wa,
yo:ma desu ga, jochu:beya wa
nihomma de, tatami ga shiite
arimasu. Nikai no shinshitsu wa,
yo:ma de, shindai ga oite arimasu
ga, hitotsu wa tokonoma no aru
nihomma desu. Nihonjin no
okyaku o tomeru tame desu. Nikai
nimo semmenjo ya gofujo: ga
arimasu.
O-taku wa, dochira desu ka?
Kore wa watakushi no ju:sho to
denwa bango: desu.
Hoteru kara to:i desu ka?
Aruite gofun shika kakarimasen.
Chizu o kaite agemasho: ka?

(
)

[]

()

,
,
.

( )
.
, .
, .
.
.
( ) . .
, .
.
. .
, ,
. .
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.
.

. ,
.
. , ,
,
, .
, ,
,
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.
.
?
.

Ee, o-negai shimasu.

20

JU:TAKU

?
. ?
, .

141


by max xin memtade
teiryu:jo
chikaku
benri-na
...to
genkan
-jo:
kyaku-ma
kyaku
ma
engawa
atte
sono mae
niwa
ueru
benjo
...saki ni
kaidan
-kai
chanoma
muko:
shokuji o suru
shokuji
cha-budai
suwaru
to-dana
tana
nagashi
reizo:ko
nado
daidokoro no soto ni
deirigushi
to:ru
dehairi
mon
mon no aru
yo:kan
yo:-ma
nihom-ma
...o nozoite
nozoku
furoba
ba
furo
hiroi
ro:ka
o:setsu-ma
o:setsu
jochu:-beya
jochu:

[]
(/)
[]

JU:TAKU

..., ...
, ,
(0,3 0,6)

, , ,

,

, ,
,

..., ...

(: )
,
,

( )
(-)

..; .
,





...

()
,

20

142
heya
tokonoma
toko
tatami
shiku
shinshitsu
shindai
oku
o-kyaku
tomeru
semmenjo
semmen
go-fujo:
dochira
ju:sho
denwa bango:
chizu

20


by max xin memtade

JU:TAKU

(
)

()

? (, doko)

143


by max xin memtade

DAI-NIJU:IKKA

21. (106-109)

JO:KEN
Watakushitachi wa, me de mono
o mimasu. Moshi me ga nakereba, nani-mo miru-koto ga dekimasen. Mekura o hito wa mirukoto ga dekimasen. Me ga mienai
kara desu. Watakushitachi wa
akarukereba, miemasu keredomo,
kurakereba yoku miemasen.
Makkura nara, chittomo miemasen. Yoru wa, akari o tsukereba,
miemasu ga, akari o keseba, miemasen. Desukara yoru wa, akari
ga irimasu. Akari ga nakereba,
yoru hon o yomu-koto ga dekimasen. Desukara yoru wa dento:
o tsukenakereba narimasen. Moshi dento: ga kiereba, ro:soku ya
kaichu:-dento: o tsukawanakereba narimasen. Akari ga atte mo,
me o tojireba, nani-mo miemasen. Shikashi, me o akereba, sugu
ni miemasu.
Watakushitachi wa mimi de oto o
kikimasu. Moshi mimi ga
nakereba, nani-mo kiku-koto ga
dekimasen. Tsumbo no hito wa,
nani-mo kiku-koto ga dekimasen.
Mimi ga kikoenai kara desu.
Mimi ga atte mo, sore o
fusageba, nani-mo kikoemasen.
Roshiago ni mo Nihongo ni mo
takusan no kotoba ga arimasu.
Kotoba niwa minna imi ga
arimasu. Desukara imi o
shiranakereba, kotoba o kiite mo,
wakarimasen. Bunsho: o yonde
mo, imi ga wakarimasen. Jibiki
niwa, kotoba no imi ga kaite
arimasu. Desukara jibiki o
hikeba, kotoba no imi ga
wakarimasu.
Moshi-moshi, Suzuki-san imasu
ka?
Denwa ga to:i desu ga ... Mo:
sukoshi o:kina koe de hanashite
kudasai.
Kikoemasu ka?
Kikoemasu.
Kochira wa Ivanofu desu.
Suzuki-san o-negai shimasu.

[]
()
()()

()

()

.
,
. .
, ()
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,
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.
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.

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.
.
-, .

JO:KEN

.
, .
,
.
,
, .

21

...

144
Chotto o-machi kudasai.
jo:ken
moshi
...nakereba
nai
dekiru
mekura no hito
mieru
akarui
-kereba
kurai
yoku miemasen
makkura
mamakkura-na
masshiro(i)
...nara
chittomo
yoru
tsukeru
kesu
desukara / dakara
akari ga irimasu
dento:
kieru
ro:soku
kaichu:-dento:
kaichu:
tsukau
tojiru
akeru
akari ga aru
sugu ni
oto
tsumbo
kikoeru
fusagu
takusan no
takusan
kotoba
minna
imi
kotoba o kiite mo
bunsho:
hiku
matsu
moshi-moshi
denwa
denwa bango:

21


by max xin memtade

[]

[]

(///)
[]

[]
[]

()

/
([])[]
()

()

()
()

()

JO:KEN

, .

...; ...
; ( aru)
;
;
;


( )
,

,
...
, ,

; ()
,

,
;
()
( .: )

,
,

,

,

(-)!

145


by max xin memtade

DAI-NIJU:NIKA

22 (110-113)

MISE
Anata wa, kudamono ga suki
desu ka, kirai desu ka?
Daisuki desu.
Donna kudamono ga o-suki desu
ka?
Ringo, biwa, momo, nashi, kaki,
mikan, nado nandemo suki desu.

.
?

(): ,
, , , ,
.
?

Kudamono wa, futsu: doko de


utte imasu ka?
Kudamonoya de utte imasu ga,
yaoya de mo kau-koto ga
dekimasu.
Yaoya dewa, nani o urimasu ka?
Jagaimo, ho:renso:, kabu, ninjin,
kyabetsu nado no yasai o
urimasu.
Hoka no shinamono wa, donna
mise de kaimasu ka?
Pan wa panya de, sara wa
setomonoya de, gyu:niku ya
butaniku wa nikuya de kaimasu.
Gyu:niku to iu no wa, nan desu
ka?
Ushi no niku desu.
Nikuya dewa toriniku ya tamago
mo utte imasu ka?
Taitai utte imasu.
Shio ya sato: ya biiru ya sake
nado ga hoshii toki niwa, donna
mise e ikanakereba narimasen ka?
Shokuryo:hinya e ikanakereba
narimasen.
Nani ka hoshii toki niwa, itsumo
jibun de kai-ni ikanakereba
narimasen ka?
Iie, so: shinakute mo ii desu.
Denwa ga areba, denwa de
chu:mon shite, mo ii desu.
Sono akai sute:reo o misete
kuremasen ka?
Hai. Do:zo.
Do:mo. Ikura desu ka?
Gosen-en desu.
Ii desu kedo, chotto takai desu
ne:? Mo: sukoshi yasui no wa
arimasen ka?
Hai. Kore wa ikaga desu ka?

()

()

()

MISE


,
( ).
(
)?

,
,
,
, .

?
,
,
.
gyu:-niku?
.

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.
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, ..,
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.
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,
.

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, .
. ?
.
,
...
?
. .
22

146
Yonsen-en desu.
Sore ja, kore o kudasai.
Arigato: gozaimasu.
kudamono
...ga daisuki desu
...ga o-suki desu
suki-na
suku
kirau
donna
konno, sonno, anno
biwa
momo
nashi
kaki
mikan
nan-demo
futsu:
uru
jagaimo
ho:renso:
kabu
ninjin
kyabetsu
yasai
hoka no
nani o
yao-ya
shina-mono
donna
mise de kaimasu
pan
pan-ya
sara
setomono-ya
gyu:-niku
niku
...to iu no
buta
niku-ya
ushi
tori-niku
tamago
taitei
...toki ni
shio
sato:
biiru
hoshii

22


by max xin memtade

[]

()()

()

()

()

MISE

.
, .
.

.-., .-.
()
,

,
? ...?

,
?

,
?

, ...

,
..., ...

, -

147


by max xin memtade
ikanareba narimasen
shoku-ryo:hin
ya
jibun de
denwa ga areba
denwa ga aru
chu:mon
sore ja
kureru
miseru
sute:reo
nado
nadonado
itsumo
kedo
depa:to
su:pa:
kamera-ya
denki-ya
kutsu-ya
dekiai-yo:fuku-ten
shokuryo:hin-ya
kite miru
kabutte miru
haite miru
nedan
o-kane
o-tsuri
kanjo:
dempyo:

()

[]

MISE



,
,

()

,
(, )

, ,
...
,
;
( department store)
( supermarket)
( camera)






, ,

()

22

148

DAI-NIJU:SANKA
NIHONGO NI TSUITE


by max xin memtade

Anta wa mo: Nihongo o dono


kurai benkyo: shimashita ka?
Mo: nikagetsu benkyo: shimashita.

Kanari jo:zu-ni hanasemasu ka?


Iie, mada desu. Yoku wa
hanasemasen.
Nihongo no hon ga yomemasu ka?
Iie, mada jo:zu-ni yomemasen.
Tabitabi machigaimasu.
Nihongo wa, muzukashii to
omoimasu ka?
Iie, kanari yasashii to omoimasu.
Nihongo no hatsuon wa, Eigo no
yori zutto yasashii desu. Nihongo
dewa, kanji ya kana o tsukaimasu.
Anata wa kanji ga kakemasu ka?

()

Iie, mada kakemasen.


Mo: takusan no kotoba o
oboemashita ka?
Iie, mada tarimasen.
Ikutsu gurai shitte imasu ka?
Yoku
wakarimasen.
Takusan
naraimashita ga, sugu wasuremasu
kara. Tabun shigohyaku oboete iru
desho:.
Nihongo no kotoba wa, oboenikui
desu ka?
Oboenikui kotoba mo, oboeyasui
kotoba mo arimasu ga, yoku
benkyo: shinakereba, dame desu.
Teiryu:jo to iu no wa, do: imi
desu ka?
Densha ya basu no tomaru tokoro
to iu imi desu.
Kore kara dekakemasu.
Nanji ni o-kaeri desu ka?
Tabun osoku narimasu. Komban
shokuji o shimasen.
Sayo: desu ka?
Matanaide kudasai.
...ni tsuite
tsuku
benkyo: suru
jo:zu-na
23

()

()

(/)()

()

()

(/)

NIHONGO NI TSUITE

23 (114-116)


()
?
() []
.
?
. .
?
, (
). .

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.

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, .
?
, .
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, .

.
?

, ,
.
teiryu:jo?

, .
.
?
, .
().
?
, .
...; ...
-

149


by max xin memtade
jo:zu-ni
hanaseru
yomeru
tabitabi
machigau
kanari yasashii
...to omoimasu
omou
Nihongo no hatsuon
zutto
...yori yasashii
kanji
kana
tsukau
kakeru
oboeru
taru
narau
sugu
shiru
wasureru
tabun
oboete imasho:
shinakereba
dame
...to iu no
do:
imi
densha
tomaru

()

()
()
()

()()

()

()

(/)

NIHONGO NI TSUITE

;
;
, ...

, ...

( )
,

(),

,
,

,

,
, ...
? ? ?
,
;

23

150


by max xin memtade

DAI-NIJU:YONKA

24. (117-122)

SAMPO
Kino: wa, kaisha ga yasumi datta
node, asanebo: o shimashita.
Shimbun o yominagara, asahan o
tabete iru to, yu:binya ga sokutatsu
no tegami o motte kimashita.
Gogo watakushi o tazunete kuru
hazu deshita ga, yo:ji ga atte, kurukoto ga dekinai to kaite arimashita.
Asahan ga sunde kara, Eikoku no
tomodachi ni tegami o kakimashita. Konoaida moratta tegami
no henji deshita. Kono tomodachi
wa rainen no owari ka sarainen
mata Nippon ni kaette kuru, so:
desu. Asa no uchi wa kumotte ite,
ame ga furiso: deshita ga, ju:ji goro
kara hareso: ni narimashita. Soshite
hiru-sugi niwa, sukkari harete, ii
tenki ni narimashita. Suzuki-san wa
konai shi, hoka ni yakusoku mo
nakatte node, hiruhan no ato de
sampo ni dekakemashita. Ototoi
ame ga hidoku futta tame to, kaze
ga amari nakatta tame ni, hokori
wa tachimasen deshita. Ko:ku:bin
o dasu tame ni tochu: de
yu:binkyoku e yottara, Hayashi-san
ni aimashita. Dempo: o uchi ni itta
no da, so: desu. Cho:do Hayashisan mo hima datta node, iroiro
hanashinagara, nimairu bakari saki
no ko:en made arukimashita. Sanji
goro ni naru to, nodo ga kawaite,
onaka mo sukoshi suite kimashita.
Sokode oishiso:-na ryo:ri ya okashi nado o mado ni narabeta
mise e haitte, karui shokuji o
shimashita. Hayashi-san wa goji
goro no yakusoku ga atta tame,
soko kara basu de kaerimashita.
Watakushi wa basu ni noranaide,
hitori de aruite kaerimashita.

()

()

()

()

()

Kono basu wa doko-yuki desu ka


Yokosuka-iki desu.
Kono densha wa Atami e ikimasu
ka?
Ikimasen.
Doko de norikae desu ka?
Kono tsugi desu.

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151


by max xin memtade

Sumimasen ga, orimasu.


asanebo: o suru
asanebo:
yu:bin-ya
sokutatsu
tazuneru
yo:ji ga aru
kuru-koto ga dekinai
...to kaite arimashita
sumu
konoaida
morau
henji
rainen
ka
sa-rai-nen
mata
kaeru
...so: desu
...no uchi
kumoru
kumori
kumo
ju:ji goro kara
hareru
...ni naru
hirusugi
sukkari
ii tenki
konai
shi
hoka ni
yakusoku
na-katta
na-i
hidoi
kaze
amari
dasu tame ni
hokori
tatsu
yoru
...ni au
dempo:
itta no da
hima
hanashinagara
bakari
saki

[]()

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24

152
ni-mairu
ko:en made
nodo ga kawaku
nodo
kawaku
onaka ga suku
onaka
suku
naraberu
oishii
o-kashi
karui
shokuji o suru
goji goro no
hitori de
doko-yuki
-iki
tsugi
norikae
norikaeru
noru
-kaeru
oriru
Sumimasen ga...
sokode
nado
mado
cho:do

24


by max xin memtade

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153

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154


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1 KANJIDIC
KanjiDic
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1

003

004

005

006

007

008

009

010

011

012

013

014

015

016

017

018

019

020

021

001
002

one

()

dot

kana-no
/
the latter

feathered stick

two

kettle lid

person

legs
enter

eight

upside-down box

wa-shaped crown
/ 2-
ice / two-stroke water

table

open box enclosure

sword

power

wrapping enclosure

spoon

KANJIDIC

155


by max xin memtade

022

023

024

025

026

027

028

029

030

031

032

033

034

036

037

038

039

040

041

042

043

044

045

046

047

048

049

050

051

052

053

035


box-on-side enclosure

hiding enclosure

ten

divining

seal
/
wild goose

I
/
or again

mouth

box / enclosure
/
soil

gentlemen

winter

evening

large

woman

child

sharped crown

measurement

little

crooked-big

corpse

old grass

mountain
/
curving river

craft

self
/
towel

dry

short thread

dotted cliff

KANJIDIC

156


by max xin memtade

054

055

056

057

058

059

060

061

062

063

064

065

066

067

068

069

070

071

072

073

074

075

076

077

078

079

080

081

082

083

084

085

/
long stride/stretching

twenty
/
pilling

bow

pigs head
/
three
/
stop

heart
/
halberd

door

hand

branch

strike
/ -
sentence

Big Dipper

axe

direction

nothing
/
day

say
/
month

tree

lack

stop
/
bare bone

pike
/
do not

compare
/
fur
/
family name
/
spirit

water

KANJIDIC

157


by max xin memtade

086

087

088

089

090

091

092

093

094

095

096

097

098

099

100

101

102

103

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

112

113

115

116

117

104

114

fire
/
claw

father

to mix with

left-side kata

one-side

tusk

cow

dog
/
misterious

jewel

melon

tile

sweet

life

utilize

rice field
head

()
/ .
dotted tent

white

pelt

dish

eye

halberd
/
dart

stone

show

2-branch tree /
/
hole

stand up

KANJIDIC

158


by max xin memtade

118

119

120

121

123

124

125

126

127

128

129

130

131

132

133

134

135

136

137

138

139

140

141

142

143

144

145

146

147

148

149

122

bamboo

rice

thread

tin can
/

()
/
sheep
/
feathers

old man

rake
/
come

ear

brush

meat
/
retainer

oneself

climax
/

mortar

tongue

dancing

boat
/
northeast

color

grass

tiger spots

insect

blood

going
/
garment
/
west / cover

see
/
angle
/
say

KANJIDIC

159


by max xin memtade

150

151

152

153

154

155

156

157

158

159

160

161

163

164

165

166

167

168

169

170

171

172

173

174

175

176

177

178

179

180

181

162

182

valley

beans

pig
/
snake
/
shellfish

red

run

leg

somebody

car

spicy

sign of the dragon

()

village
/
west

separate

ri
/
gold

long

gates

hill
/
extend

bird

rain

blue
un /
mask
()
leather

tanned leather
-
leek

sound

page /
: wind

KANJIDIC

160


by max xin memtade

183

184

185

186

187

188

189

190

191

192

193

194

195

196

197

198

199

200

201

202

203

204

205

206

207

208

209

210

()

15

211

()

16

212

()

18

213

()

17

214

10

11

12

13

14

()

fly

eat

neck
/
incense

horse
/
skeleton

tall

hair hanging long



broken gates

fragrant herbs

tripod

ghost

fish

bird

salt

deer

wheat

hemp

yellow

millet

black

sewing

green frog /

three-legged kettle

drum

rat

nose

adjusted

tooth

dragon

turtle
/
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KANJIDIC

161


by max xin memtade

A JIS
, JIS,
japan.inf (Ken Lunde),
Understanding Japanese Information Processing,
OReilly 1993 . japan.inf:
, JIS X 0208-1990
6 879 ; 6 355 ( 1: 2 965 ,
; 2: 3 390 ,
), 86 , 83 , 10 , 52
, 147 , 66 , 48 32 (
).
1978 1983
( , ,
2 JIS), 1990 ( 2
). .
JIS X 0208-1990 Shift-JIS,
EUC JIS.

JIS

162


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B - UNICODE
Unicode 1992
(Lee Collins) Taligent.
( Unicode ) ,
JIS, CJK-JRG (Chinese, Japanese, Korean
Joint Research Group) Unified Repertoire and Ordering Version 2.0,
Han, ISO 10646
Unicode. , Unicode (Apple, IBM, Microsoft, NeXT, Taligent
.) .
. Unicode
UniHan, HCS (Han Character Set), ISO
Ideographic CJK Character Unified Repertoire and Ordering. ISO
Han ,
( ,
Kanji) ,
ISO WG2 . ,
, .
CJK-JRG ISO 1990 ,
Han ISO 10646.
Han , , ,
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, ISO WG2.
Unicode GB
13000, URO,
. .
21 000 Han,
, , JIS X 0208-1990 JIS X
0212-1990. Unicode
. ,
Steve Greenfield ( )
unicode-inc@HQ.M4.Metaphor.COM
URO/UniHan, , ,
"The Unicode Standard Version 1.0 Vol II".,
Addison Wesley, ISBN 0-201-60845-6.
. 10646
"Ideographic CJK Character Unified Repertoire and Ordering Version 2.0",
ISO WG2.

UNICODE

163


by max xin memtade

C SKIP
S K I P - SYSTEM OF KANJI INDEXING BY PATTERNS

[ New Japanese-English
Character Dictionary, (Jack Halpern)
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D: -
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2 (Electronic Bodhidharma No 2), 1992,
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172


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. ,
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173


by max xin memtade

F. SKIP
(Jack Halpern / jack@kanji.org)
, (Kenkyusha 1990, NTC 1993) (New Japanese-English Character Dictionary, NJECD),
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(System of Kanji Indexing by Patterns, SKIP)
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SKIP COPYRIGHTS

175


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G DE ROO
DE ROO
[ , 2001 Kanji,
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8
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10 /ON BOX

11 /SMALL
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12
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13 /HAND TO THE LEFT

14 /CROSS
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DE ROO

176

15
16
17
18
19


by max xin memtade

/ON BOX
/KANA KA
/WOMAN
/TREE
H/LETTER H

()
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/DIAGONAL LINE ():


20 /KANA NO
()

21 /MAN
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22 /THOUSAND
()

23 /MAN TO THE TOP



24 /COW
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25 /KANA KU
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26 /HILL TOP

27 /LEFT ARROW ()

28 /ROOF
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29 /X
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/HORIZONTAL LINE
30
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31 /FOURTH
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32 /BALD
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33 /CLIFF
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34 /TOP-LEFT
35 /TOP-RIGHT

36 /CAN
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37 /MOUTH
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38 /SUN
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39 /EYE TOP

():

DE ROO

177


by max xin memtade

2. .
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kanji.
/DOT ():
40 /FOUR DOTS
41 /SMALL
42 /WATER

()
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/LEFT HOOK ():


43 /KANA RI
()
44 /SEAL
()
45 /SWORD ()
46 /MOON
()
47 /DOTLESS INCH

48 /INCH
()
49 /MOUTH HOOK
50 /BIRD BOTTOM
51 /ANIMAL
()
52 /BOW BOTTOM
53 /LEFT HOOK
()

/VERTICAL LINE ():


54
()

55 /CROSS
()


/RIGHT HOOK:
56 /RIGHT HOOK

57 /LEGS
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58 /HEART
()

59 /TASSELED SPEAR BOTTOM



/DIAGONAL LINE ():
60 /KANA NO
()

/BACK DIAGONAL LINE ():
61 /SMALL PODIUM

62 /NO
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63 /BIG
()

64 /TREE
()

65 /SMALL SPOON

66 /GOVERN
()

67 /AGAIN
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DE ROO

178

68
69


by max xin memtade

/WINDYGAIN()
/WOMAN
()

/HEAD BOTTOM:
70

()/WATAKUSHI BOTTOM:
71

/HORIZONTAL LINE
72
()
73 /STANDING
74 /DISH BOTTOM
75 /BOTTOM CORNER

76 /MOUNTAIN
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77 /MOUTH
()
78 /SUN
()
79 /EYE
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( ). (
) , ,
. , 1262, 2177, 979, 2755.
) (gate),
. , 3848,
1864.

DE ROO

179


by max xin memtade

2
.
- , ,
.
1.

ichi
one

73.

2.

74.

3.

75.

4.

b
line

ten
dot

no[-kanmuri]
slash

76.

5.

77.

6.

78.

7.

79.

8.

80.

9.

81.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

otsu,
tsuribari;
second

hane-b,
kagi;
hook

ni
two

nabebuta,
keisan-kanmuri;
lid

hito,
nin-ben,
hito-gashira;
man

hito-ashi
legs

iru,
iri-gashira;
enter

hachi,
hachi-gashira;
eight

d-gamae,
maki-gamae,
kei-gamae;
down box

wa-kanmuri
cover

15.

16.

ni-sui,
kri;
ice

tsukue,
ki-ny,
kaze-gamae;
table :

iwaku,
hirabi;
say

tsuki[-hen]
moon

ki[-hen]
tree

akubi,
kakeru;
lack

tomeru,
tome-hen;
stop

ichi-ta[-hen],
gatsu[-hen];
death

ru-mata
weapon
-
haha
do not

145.

koromo[-hen]
clothes

146.

147.

148.

nishi
west

miru
see

tsuno[-hen]
horn

149.

150.

151.

152.

kuraberu
compare

153.

82.

154.

83.

ke
fur

uji
clan

155.

84.

ki-gamae
steam

156.

85.

157.

86.

158.

mi[-hen]
body

87.

sui,
mizu,
sanzui (left),
shita mizu (bottom);
water

hi[-hen],
yotsu ten (bottom);
fire

tsume[-kanmuri]
claw

159.

kuruma[-hen]
cart

88.

chichi
father

160.

karai
bitter

kotoba,
gon-ben;
speech

tani[-hen]
valley

mame[-hen]
bean

buta,
inoko[-hen];
pig

mujina[-hen]
badger

kai[-hen]
shell

aka
red

hashiru,
s-ny;
run

ashi[-hen]
foot

180


by max xin memtade
17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

89.

majiwaru
double x

161.

90.

162.

91.

163.

zato[-zukuri]
city

tsutsumi-gamae
wrap

92.

hidari kata,
sh-hen;
half tree trunk

migi-kata,
kata-hen;
slice

kiba[-hen]
fang

164.

saji,
hi;
spoon
/
hako-gamae
right open box

93.

ushi[-hen]
cow

165.

94.

166.

95.

167.

96.

168.

97.

inu,
kemono-hen
dog

gen
profound

tama[-hen]
jade

uri
melon

tori[-hen]
sake-zukuri;
wine

nogome[-hen]
distinguish

sato[-hen]
village

169.

98.

kawara
tile

170.

99.

amai
sweet

171.

rei-zukuri
slave

100.

172.

101.

umareru
life

mochiiru
use

173.

furutori
short tailed bird;

ame[-kanmuri]
rain

102.

174.

103.

175.

104.

176.

105.

ta[-hen]
field

hiki[-hen]
bolt of cloth

yamai[-dare]
sickness

hatsu-gashira
dotted tent

177.

106.

shiroi
white

178.

107.

kegawa
skin

179.

ukebako,
kan-gamae;
open-box

katana,
ritt;
knife

chikara
power

kakushi-gamae
hiding enclosure

j
ten

uranai,
to;
divination

warifu,
fushi-zukuri;
seal

dan-dare,
ichi-dare;
cliff

mu
private

mata
again

kuchi[-hen]
mouth

kuni-gamae
enclosure

tsuchi[-hen]
earth

samurai
scholar

fuyu-gashira,
natsu-ashi;
go

sui,
yuku;
go slowly

tatsu;
shin-no-tatsu;
morning

shin-ny
walk

kane[-hen]
cold

nagai[-hen]
long

mon[-gamae],
kado[-gamae];
gate

kozato[-hen]
mound

aoi
blue

arazu
wrong

men
face

tsukuri kawa,
kawa-hen;
leather

nameshigawa
tanned leather

nira
leek

181


by max xin memtade
36.

37.

38.

39.

40.

41.

42.

43.

44.

45.

46.

47.

48.

49.

50.

51.

52.

53.

54.

108.

180.

oto[-hen]
sound

109.

181.

182.

183.

184.

185.

186.

nogi[-hen]
grain

187.

gai
leaf

kaze,
f-ny;
wind

tobu
fly

shoku[-hen]
eat

kubi
head

nioi,
kaori
fragrant

uma[-hen]
horse

110.

111.

112.

113.

114.

dai-no-mage-ashi,
mottomo;
lame

shikabane,
kabane;
corpse

furukusa
sprout

yama-hen
mountain

kawa
river

e,
takumi-hen;
work
/
onore
oneself

115.

116.

ana-kanmuri
cave

188.

hone[-hen]
bone

117.

189.

118.

190.

119.

191.

120.

tatsu[-hen]
stand

take[-kanmuri]
bamboo

kome[-hen]
rice

ito[-hen]
silk

192.

takai
tall

kami[-kanmuri]
hair

t-gamae,
tataki-gamae;
flight
kaorigusa
sacrifical wine

121.

193.

ashi-kamae
cauldron

haba[-hen],
kin[-ben],
kire;
turban

kan
dry

122.

194.

oni,
ki-ny;
ghost

123.

hitsuji[-hen]
sheep

195.

ito-gashira,
y-hen;
short thread

madare
dotted cliff

124.

hane[-kanmuri]
feather

196.

sakana,
uo[-hen]
fish

tori
bird

125.

197.

shio
salt

en-ny,
in-ny;
long stride

126.

oi[-kanmuri],
oi[-gashira];
old

shikashite
and

198.

shika[-hen]
deer

ybe,
ta;
evening

dai[-kashira]
big

onna[-hen]
woman

ko[-hen]
child

u-kanmuri
roof

sun[-zukuri]
inch

sh
small

sara,
shitazara (bottom);
dish

me[-hen]
eye

hoko[-hen]
spear

ya[-hen]
arrow

ishi[-hen]
stone

shimesu[-hen]
spirit

j,
ashiato
track

mizugame,
hodogi-hen
jar

ami-gashira,
me-gashira;
net

182


by max xin memtade
199.

mugi,
baku-ny
wheat

200.

201.

202.

asa[-kanmuri]
hemp

kiiroi
yellow

kibi
millet

203.

kuroi
black

204.

nuu
embroidery

205.

aogaeru
frog

usu
mortar

206.

kanae
tripod

shita[-het]
tongue

207.

tsuzumi
drum

136.

208.

137.

mai-ahi
oppose

fune-hen
boat

209.

nezumi
rat

hana
nose

138.

ne-zukuri
stopping

210.

139.

211.

140.

iro
color

kusa[-kanmuri]
grass

212.

141.

213.

kame
turtle

142.

214.

fue
flute

143.

144.

tora-kanmuri,
tora-gashira;
tiger

mushi[-hen]
insect

chi[-hen]
blood

yuki-gamae
walker enclosure

55.

nij-ashi
two hands

127.

56.

128.

57.

129.

58.

130.

59.

131.

60.

132.

61.

133.

62.

134.

63.

135.

64.

65.

66.

shiki-gamae
shoot

yumi[-hen]
bow

kei-gashira,
i-no-kashira,
yo;
shout

kami-kazaki,
san-zukuri;
bristle

gynin-ben
step

kokoro,
risshin-ben,
shita-gokoro(bottom);
heart

hoko,
hoko-zukuri,
hoko-gamae;
halberd

to,
to-gashira,
to-kanmuri,
to-dare;
door

te[-hen]
hand

shi,
eda,
j-mata;
branch

boku[-zuruki]
rap

67.

68.

69.

70.

71.

72.

bun
script

to masu,
to[-zukuri]
dipper

kin,
ono[-zukuri];
axe

h[-hen],
kata[-ben];
square;
mu,
nashi;
not;
hi[-hen],
nichi[-hen];
sun

suki-hen,
rai-suki
plow

mimi[-hen]
ear

fude
brush

niku,
niku-zuki (left);
meat

shin,
kerai;
minister

mizukara
self

itaru
arrive

sai,
hitoshii;
even

ha
tooth

tatsu
dragon

183


by max xin memtade

1)
.
. (/)
, ,
;
.
2)
hen () ; kamae
(gamae) ()
; tsukuri (zukuri) () ;
kashira (gashira) () kanmuri ()
; ny () ;
ashi () ; dare ()
.
3) () .

184


by max xin memtade

3 - -
[JO:YO:KANJI]

____________________________________________________

JO:YO:KANJI

185


by max xin memtade

JO:YO:KANJI

186


by max xin memtade

JO:YO:KANJI

187


by max xin memtade

JO:YO:KANJI

188


by max xin memtade

4 -
0

rei, (zero)

ichi

ni

san

yon, shi

go

roku

nana, shichi

hachi

kyu:, ku

10

ju:

11

ju:ichi

12

ju:ni

13

ju:san

14

ju:yon , ju:shi

15

ju:go

16

ju:roku

17

ju:nana, ju:shichi

18

ju:hachi

19

ju:kyu:, ju:ku

20

niju:

21

niju:ichi

30

sanju:

40

yonju:, shiju:

50

goju:

60

rokuju:

70

nanaju:, shitiju:

80

hachiju:

90

kyu:ju, kuju

100

hyaku

200

nihyaku

300

sanbyaku

600

roppyaku

800

happyaku

1,000

sen, issen

2,000

nisen

3,000

sanzen

8,000

hassen

10,000
100,000
1,000,000
10,000,000
100,000,000
1,000,000,000
100,000,000,000

man, ichiman
ju:man
hyakuman
senman, issenman
oku, ichioku
ju:oku
cho:, ittyo:

/
/

189


by max xin memtade
10^x

ichi

juu

hyaku

sen

man

oku

12

cho:

16

kei

20

gai

24

shi

28

jo:

32

ko:

36

kan

40

sei

44

sai

48

goku

52

kougasha

56

asougi

60

nayuta

64

fukashigi

68

muryo:

72

taisu:

/
/

/[0212:4906]

190


by max xin memtade

5 -

()

()
()
()

-cho:

()

-cho:

-da

()
(, , , , )
, ,
,
, ,
()
() ,
, ,

()

-hon

-hun

()


()
()
()

()
()
() ,
-

(, , )

()

-ji

()

() ( )

(, )
(, )


()
()
() ()
()

-ko

-kyaku

() ( )

,

() ,

-bi
-bu
-byo:
-chaku

-dai

-do
-en
-hachi
-hai
-hako
-haku
-hatsu
-hiki

-ho

-josu:shi
-kagetsu
-ka
-ka
-kai
-kai
-kan
-ken
-ki
-kire
-ko

,
(. 1/360
)
, ,
, , ,
,

, ,
, , ,
,
,

, , , ,
[]

, , , ,
, , , ,

, ,
, , , , ,

(. 1/60
)

, ,
,
, , , ,
,
, ,

, , ,
[]

191


by max xin memtade
-mai

-mon

-shitsu

-sho:

-shu

-mune
-nin
-nichi
-rin
-ryo:
-sara
-satsu
-seki
-shiai
-shina

-shurui
-shu:
-so:
-soku
-sen
-tai
-tawara
-ten
-to:

-to:
-to:
-tsu:
-tsu:wa
-yo:
-wa
-wa
-zen

() ,

()
()
()
(, )
()
()
, ,
() ,
()


()
( ) ,


(, )

()
()
() ,
()
()

()
;
() .
-

()
()
() ,
()
(, ) ,

()

( )

, , ,
,

-,
,
,
, ,
, ,

, ,

,
, ,
, ,
, ,

, , ,

-,

, []

192


by max xin memtade

6 -

, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .

, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, -
, -
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, -
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
6

Aichi-ken
Akita
Akita-ken
Aomori
Aomori-ken
Wakayama
Wakayama-ken
Gifu
Gunma-ken
Ko:-kai
Ibaraki-ken
Iwate-ken
Ishikawa-ken
Yokohama
Kagawa-ken
Kagoshima
Kagoshima-ken
Kanagawa-ken
Kanazawa
Kanto:
Kinki
Kyo:to
Kyo:to-fu
Ko:be
Ko:chi
Ko:chi-ken
Ko:fu
Kumamoto
Kumamoto-ken
Kyu:shu:
Matsue
Matsuyama
Maebashi
Mito
Mie-ken
Miyagi-ken
Miyazaki
Miyazaki-ken
Morioka
Nagano
Nagano-ken
Nagasaki
Nagasaki-ken
Nagoya

193


by max xin memtade

, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, -
, .
, .
, -
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, -
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .

, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, -
, .
, .
, -
, -
, .
, .
,
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .

()

Nara
Nara-ken
Niigata
Niigata-ken
O:ita
O:ita-ken
Okayama
Okayama-ken
Okinawa
O:saka
O:saka-ken
Ryu:kyu:-retto:
O:tsu
Saga
Saga-ken
Saitama-ken
Sapporo
Shiga-ken
Shizuoka
Shizuoka-ken
Shikoku
Shimane-ken
Sendai
Takamatsu
Chiba
Chiba-ken
Taihei-yo:
To:kyo:
To:kyo:-to
Tokushima
Tokushima-ken
Tochigi-ken
Tottori
Tottori-ken
To:hoku
Toyama
Toyama-ken
Chu:bu
Chu:goku
Urawa
Utsunomiya
Fuji-yama
Fukui
Fukui-ken
Fukuoka
Fukuoka-ken
Fukushima
Fukushima-ken
6

194
, .
, .
, .
, -, -
, -
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .


by max xin memtade

Hyo:go-ken
Hiroshima
Hiroshima-ken
Hokkaido:
Honshu:
Tsu
Ehime-ken
Yamagata
Yamagata-ken
Yamaguchi
Yamaguchi-ken
Yamanashi-ken
Nihon-kai

:
.
-
-
.
-

195


by max xin memtade

7 -
-teki

-ka
-sei

-sei
-ryo:
-sha
-cho:
-in
-jo:
-ka
-nin, -jin
-shi

-kan
-ron
-go
-kyaku, kaku
-ya

-jo:

,
,

..., ...

-hin

-iro
-shi

-i
-chu:, -ju:
-kin
-gaku
-butsu
-sho, -jo
-shugi
-ki
-ki

...
-

-kai
-jo:
-sho
-sha
-byo:

-ho:

196


by max xin memtade

8 - 1

sun
shaku

mirime:toru
senchi(me:toru)
me:toru
kiro(me:toru)

monme
kanme

guramu
kiro
ton

jo:

heiho:...

byo:
fun
ji
hi/nichi
shu:
tsuki
toshi
seiki

do

()

...

~3,03
~30
~2,5x10-4
~5,3x10-4
~9,1x10-3
~0,33 (36 )
~0,55 (60 )
~3,3 (360 )
~33 (3600 )
~41,7

[]

[]

~5,543
~55,43 (10 )
~554,33 (100 )
~5543,53 (1000 )
~3,75
~3,75
~5,5x10-3
~0,27
~1,67
~266,67

~1,5.. (0,6 1,8)


~110-4 ..
~110-3 ..
~110-2 ..
~0,302 ..

()
()

()


, .
8

197


by max xin memtade

H - -2
/
.

.
?
.
.
.
?
.
.
.
.
, ?
( :)
,
- ABC.
(,)
.

1. //
Hajimemashite.

Do:zo yoroshiku.

ABC

O-namae wa nan to iimasu ka?


Tanaka to mo:shimasu.
Watakushi wa Iwanofu desu.
Kanai no Ryujimira desu.
O-Kuni wa dochira desu ka?
Kuni wa Nihon desu.
Kuni wa Roshia desu.
Watakushi wa Roshia-jin desu.
Watakushi no meishi o do:zo.
Shitsurei desu ga, nan to
osshaimasu ka?
Iwanofu-san, kochira wa ABC no
Kodama-san desu.

Shitsurei desu ga, jikosho:kai sasete


itadakimasu.

()

2. //
!
O-Hayo: gozaimasu.

!
Konnichi wa.

!
Komban wa.

?
Ikaga desu ka?

, !
Arigato:. Genki desu.

, !
Shibaraku desu ne:.

?
Do: desu ka?

?
O-Genki desu ka?

?
Go-Kazoku
ni minna

o-Genki desu ka?


, .
Hai, o-Kage-sama de.
()
, .
Genki desu.

... ( )
()/ Gomen nasai / O-Jama shimasu.

3, H I ,
- , 2- .; - ..

198


by max xin memtade

3. //
!
Sayo:nara.

!
Mata o-Me ni kakarimasho:.

, !
O-Saki-ni shitsurei shimasu.

,
Mata oide kudasai.

!
!
O-Yasumi nasai.

, ( )
Mina-san, o-Miokuri do:mo

.
arigato: gozaimasu..

!
Do:chu: go-buji de.

4. //
...
Sumimasen.

!
Chotto o ukagashimasu.

...
Shitsurei desu ga...

?
O-Negai itashimasu.

...
Ano ne:.

!
O-Negai shimasu.

, .
O-Jama
shimasu.

, .
.
.
.
,
.
, .

5. //
Shitsurei itashimashita.

Do:mo sumimasen.

Gomen
nasai.

Gomen
kudasai.

O-Matase
itashimashita.

Sumimasen ga, watakushi no


machigai desu.

6. //
!
Arigato: gozaimasu.

!
Do:mo arigato: gozaimasu.

!
O-Sewa-sama de gozaimashita.

!
Go-Kyo:ryoku arigato: gozaimasu.

!
Go-Sho:tai arigato: gozaimasu.

!
Taihen kekko:-na purezento

arigato: gozaimasu.

!
Go-Sinsetsu arigato:.

!
Go-Seicho: arigato: gozaimasu.

!
Iroiro to do:mo
arigato: gozaimasu.
!
Do: itashimashite.

Sekkaku desu ga...


()
( ).
H

199


by max xin memtade

7. //()
, !
O-Hairi kudasai..

, !
Do:zo kochira e.

, !
Do:zo o-Kake kudasai.

!
Do:zo meshiagatte kudasai.


[Mise] e issho ni ikimasho:.
[].
,
Issho ni shashin o torimasho:.

!
8. //
Watashi wa Nihongo o benkyo:

shite shimasu.
, ?
Watashi no hanasu kotoba ga

wakarimasu ka?
.
Yoku wakarimasu.

.
Yoku wakarimasen.

.
Wakarimasen.

.
Wakarimashita.

- -.
Tanaka-san wa Roshia-go
ga wakarimasu.
-?
Anata wa eigo (o) o-Hanashi ni
[]
narimasu ka?

-.
Eigo wa, hanasemasu.

-.
Nihongo wa, yoku hanasemasen.

-.
Nihongo
wa, hanasemasen.

?
Nan
to
osshata
no desu ka?

?
Kare wa, nan to itta no desu ka?

?
Koko niwa, nan to kaite

aru no desu ka?

?
Sore wa do: iu imi desu ka?

.
Kono tango wa wakarimasen.

-?
Kore wa Nihongo de nan to
iimasu ka?
,
Do:zo sukoshi
.
yukkuri itte kudasai.
,
Do:zo sukoshi hakkiri itte kudasai.
.
, .
Mo: ichi-do itte kudasai.
, ,
Tsu:yaku-san o yonde kudasai.

.
.

200


by max xin memtade

9. //
Nani mo gozaimasen ga,

goenryonaku o-Meshiagari kuda

O-Kuchi ni awanai
desho: ga, do:zo.
?
Nihon no o-Cha wa ikaga desu ka?

!
Itadakimasu.

, .
Do:zo o-Meshiagari kudasai.

,
Dewa, enryonaku itdakimasu.

.
?
Nomimono wa, nani ni

nasaimasu ka?
.
Watakushi wa, tsuyoi
sake wa nomimasen.
, ?
Ko:hii
to, ko:cha to, dochira

yoroshii desu ka?


.
Ko:hii o itadakimasu.

, .
Iie, watakushi wa nomemasen.

!
Kampai.

.
Kore
mo o-Tameshi kudasai.

?
Motto
ikaga desu ka?

, ,
Mo:
kekko:
desu.

.
, , . Iie, arigato: takusan itadakimashita.
.
Dewa, honno sukoshi.

?
O-Kuchi ni aimashita desho: ka?
!
Taihen oishii desu.

, ,
Karashi o totte kudasaimasen ka?
.
.
Do:mo gochiso:-sama deshita.

.
Jitsu ni oishikatta desu.

.
O-Naka ga sukimashita.

.
O-Nodo ga kawakimashita.

,
( )!
!

10. //
Kono chikaku ni ko:shu:-denwa ga
?
arimasu ka?

Chotto denwa o o-Karishite

?
mo yoroshii desu ka?


Kono denwa o tsukatte
?
ii desho: ka?
?
Donata ni kaketai ndesu ga?.

!
Moshi-moshi!

, , .
Mosh-moshi, kochira wa Tanaka
desu ga...
?
Dochira-sama desho: ka?


Kore wa Roshia-daihyo:dan no
.
Iwanofu desu..
, ,
N-san o o-Negai shimasu.
N
N.
N.
Hai, tadaima N-san ni kawarimasu.
N
H

201


by max xin memtade

, ,
, .
.
, .
.

.
...
.
( .)

11. //


?
?
.
.
?
, .
, .
, .
?
, ,
?
?
, .
?
.
?


, .

?
,
.

.
,
.

Yoku kikoemasen node, motto


o:kina koe de hanashita kudasai.
Bango: ga chigai desu.
Ainiku ima orimasen.
Ima o shigoto-chu: de
irasshaimasu ka.
Iie, chotto de kakemashita ga...
Watakushi no denwa-bango: wa ...
Mata ato de denwa shimasu.

Watashi wa michi ni mayotta no


desu ga.
Hoteru e wa,
do: ittara ii desho: ka?
Koko wa doko desu ka?
O:do:ri Ko:en desu.
Michi ga chigatte imasu.
Koko kara to:i desu ka?
Hai, to:i desu.
Iie, to:ku arimasen.
Iie, chikai desu.
Aruite ikemasu ka?
Soko e wa aruite dono-gurai
kakarimasu ka?
Sono michi desu ne:?
Mo: ichi-do oshiete kudasai.
Asoko ni ginko: mieru desho: ka?
Sono tonari desu.
Ginko: wa, dono
tatemono desu ka?
Eki ni ikitai ndesu ga, michi ga
wakarimasen.
Chotto, chizu o kaite
kadasaimasen ga?
Kono michi o massugu
itte kudasai.
Tsugi o migi e magatte kudasai.
Roshia no taishikan made
o-Negai shimasu.

12. //
N e iku ni wa, donna norimono
N
ga arimasu ka?

? Chikatetsu no moyori no eki wa


doko desu ka?
,
N-yuki no basu no teiryu:jo wa
N
N?
doko desu ka?

Niju:ni-ban no basu no teiryo:jo
22?
wa doko desu ka?
N?

202


by max xin memtade


N?
N?


N?

?

?
?

N?

N.

,
,
N.

13. //

[].

[].

?
[].

[].

, [].
?
, ?
?
?
...

?
?
.
,
?

?
,
( ).
.

N e iku niwa, dono basu ni


nottara ii desho: ka?
N teiryu:jo made wa,
to:i desu ka?
N wa, ikutsu-me no
teiryu:jo desu ka?
Tsugi wa, doko desu ka?
Kono basu wa,
toshin o to:rimasu ka?
Kono basu wa,
doko-yuki desu ka?
N made no kippu wa,
ikura desu ka?
N made no kippu o
ichi-mai kudasai.
N teiryu:jo ni tsuitara
oshiete kudasai.

Watashi wa kai-mono o
shinakereba narimasen.
Watashi wa [kutsu] o
kaitai ndesu ga.
[Tokei] o mitai ndesu ga.
Sono [kamera] o misete kudasai.
O-Negai shimasu.
[Kamera] ga hoshii desu.
Sono [pure:ya:] o misete
kuremasen ka?
Ano [akai] no o misete
kuremasen ka?
Ikura desho: ka?
Sumimasen ga, ikura desu ka?
Kono hon wa, ikura desu ka?
Zembu de ikura desu ka?
Sukoshi takai desu ga...
Mo: sukoshi yasui no wa
arimasen ka?
Donna saizu desu ka?
Saizu wa wakarimasen.
Tsukai kata oshiete kudasai.

Eibun no setsumeisho: ga
arimasu ka?
Do:mo. Mata kimasu.

A:, ii desu ne:. Sore ja,


kore o kudasai.

203


by max xin memtade

.
, .

.
?
.
.
.
.
, .
.
?
.

?
?

?
.
, ?
.
,
()?
()?

14. //
Watashi wa kibun ga warui desu.

Do:zo, isha o yonde kudasai.

Shikyu: kyu:kyu:sha o

yonde kudasai.
Doko ga itai no desu ka?

Memai ga shimasu.

Atama ga itai desu.

Watashi wa, hakike ga shimasu.

Ha ga itamimasu.

Shoku-atari no yo: desu.

Kega o shimashita.

Netsu wa dono-gurai desu ka?

Koko wa itaku arimasen.

Kono chikaku ni kusuri-ya wa


arimasen ka?
Kusuri
wa, itsu dekimasu ka?

15. //

, .
.

().
?
?
.

().

()

, .
?
, ,
.
?
,
.

Dochira ni o-sumai desu ka?


Nowoshibirusuku ni sunde imasu.
Shitsurei desu ga, anata wa oikutsu desu ka?
Sanju:roku-sai desu.
Shitsurei desu ga, kekkon shite
imasu ka?
Anata wa kekkon shite
irasshaimasu ka?
Iie, hitori desu.
Wataskushi wa, mada
dokushin desu.
Watakushi wa, mada kekkon shite
imasen.
Ee, kekkon shite imasu.
O-ko-san wa, nan-nin desu ka?
Kodomo-san wa imasu ka?
Watakushi wa, kodomo
ga arimasen.
Watakushi ni wa, musuko
(musume) ga hitori arimasu.
Watakushi wa, musume to
musuko to futari kodomo ga
arimasu.
E:, futari arimasu.
Dochira mo otoko-no-ko desu ka?
Iie, ue wa, otoko-no-ko de, shita
wa onna-no-ko desu.
O-ikutsu desu ka?
Hitori wa ju: de, mo: hitori wa
ju:ni desu.

204


by max xin memtade

16. //

[ ].


()


[].

[300 ]
.

?
?
?

O-Shumi wa, nan desu ka?


Doko de hataraite
irasshaimasu ka?
Donna shigoto o shite
irasshaimasu ka?
Anata no go-Shokugyo: wa nan
desu ka?
Watakushi wa, [sho:sha] de
hataraite imasu.
ko:jo:
daigaku
shimbun-sha
gakko:
Watakushi wa, [gakusei] desu.
bengoshi
isha
enjinia
hisho
kenkyu:-in
ro:so:-sha
kaisha-in
kyo:shi
Ima no kyu:ryo: wa [sanju:man] en
gurai desu.

205


by max xin memtade

I -
A. //
1.

Bo:san ga byo:bu ni jo:zu-na bo:zu no bo:shi no e o kaita.


.

,
bo:-san

byo:bu
()

jo:zu-na
,

bo:zu no bo:shi

kaku
,

2.

Nihongo no kaiwa wa, kanari o-wakari ni narimasu ka?


?


Nihongo

kaiwa

kanari
,

wakaru

naru
,

o-wakari ni naru

3.

Niwa ni wa iroiro no iro no niwatori ga imasu.


.

niwa

iroiro

iro

niwatori

iru

Shikashi sukoshi dekimasu.


, , .

shikashi
sukoshi
dekiru

4.

206

5.


by max xin memtade

Sono rippa-na rappa ga uraremashita ka?


?

sono

rippa-na

rappa

urareru

uru

6.

To:kyo:-no tokkyo-kyoku kyoku-cho:.


.

To:kyo:

,
tokkyo

kyoku
,

,
kyoku-cho:

7.

Tonari no kyaku wa, kaki kuu kyaku.


Uchi no kyaku wa, kaki kuwan kyaku.
Kaki kuu kyaku to kaki kuwan kyaku.
, .
, .
, , , .

kyaku

, ,
tonari

uchi
() ,

kaki

kuu

kuwan

8.

Yo:ji ga yoji ni yo:ji ni kimashita.


.

yo:ji

yo:ji

yoji

kuru

207


by max xin memtade

B. //

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Amadare ishi mo ugatsu.


.
amadare

ishi

ugatsu

Ato no matsuri.
[] .
.
ato
,
matsuri

Baka ni tsukeru kusuri wa nai.


.
baka

tsukeru

kusuri

nai

Donguri no seikurabe.
[ , ] .
.
.
donguri

seikurabe
Fukusui bon ni kaerazu.
.
fukusui

bon
,
kaeru

Go: ni itte wa, go: ni shitagae.


, .
.
go:

iku

shitagau.

Hayaoki wa sammon no toku.


.
, .
haya-oki

sammon
(mon
)
toku

Ichi o kiite, ju: o shiru.


, .
.
ichi

kiku
,
ju:

shiru

208


by max xin memtade

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

Ikkoku senkin.
.

ikkoku

senkin
, ;
kin

Issun no shita ni goshaku no mi o sonzu.



.
,
shita

sun
3 ( )
mi

shaku
30 ( )
sonjiru

Kiku wa ittoki no haji, kikanu wa matsudai no haji.


,
..
kiku

ittoki

toki

haji

matsudai
Kita, mita, katta..
, , .
kuru

miru

katsu

Meijin nimo shisonjiru ga aru.


, .
.
meijin

shisonjiru
Mekura hebi ni ojizu.
.
mekura

hebi

ojizu

ojiru

Neko o koroseba, shichidai tataru.


,
.
korosu

shichi-dai
tataru

Neko yori mashi.
, .
.
neko

yori

mashi

209


by max xin memtade

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

O-Sake wa mambyo: no kusuri.


..
mambyo: ()
kusuri

Saigetsu hito o matazu.


.
saigetsu

hito

matsu

Sake wa hyaku-doku no cho:, hyaku-yaku no cho:


.
hyaku

doku
,
yaku

cho:

Saru mo ki kara ochiru.


.
.
saru

mo
,
ki

ochiru

Saru-mono wa hibi ni utoshi.


.
, .
saru
,
mono
,
hibi ni
,
utoi

Shippai wa seiko: no moto.


.
.
.
shippai

seiko:

moto
,
Shiru mono wa iwazu, iu mono wa shirazu.
, .
, .
shiru

mono
,
iu

Uma no mimi ni nembutsu.


.
.
uma

mimi

nembtsu

210


by max xin memtade

C. ()//

Haru ga kita,
Haru ga kita,
Doko ni kita?
Yama ni kita,
Sato ni kita,
No ni mo kita.
Tori ga naku
Tori ga naku.
Doko de naku?
Yama de naku,
Sato de naku,
No de mo naku.
Hana ga saku.
Hana ga saku.
Doko ni saku?
Yama ni saku,
Sato ni saku,
No ni mo saku.
haru
kuru
yama
sato
no
tori
hana
naku
saku
mo

,
!
?
,
,
.
,
.
?
,
,
.
,
,
?
,
,
.

,
,

211


by max xin memtade

D. ( )//

212


by max xin memtade

O:KINA KABU
(Roshia no o-hanashi)
Ojiisan ga kabu no tane o makimashita.
Amai, amai kabu ni nare. O:kina, o:kina kabu ni nare.
Amaso:na, genki to ii,
totetsumonaku o:kina kabu ga dekimashita.
Ojiisan wa, kabu o nuko: to shimashita.
Untokosho, dokkoisho.
Tokoroga, kabu wa nukemasen.
Ojiisan wa, oba:san o yonde kimashita.
Oba:san ga ojiisan o hippatte,
ojiisan ga kabu o hippatte...
Untokosho, dokoisho.
Soredomo, kabu wa nukemasen.
Oba:san wa, mago o yonde kimashita.
Mago ga oba:san o hippatte,
oba:san ga ojiisan o hippatte,
ojiisan ga kabu o hippatte...
Untokosho, dokoisho.
Mada mada, kabu wa nukemasen.

( )
.
-.
,
-,
.
,
,
,
-,
.
,
,
,
,
-,
.

Mago wa, inu o yonde kimashita.


Inu ga mago o hippatte,
mago ga oba:san o hippatte,
oba:san ga ojiisan o hippatte,
ojiisan ga kabu o hippatte...
Untokosho, dokoisho.
Mada mada, mada mada, kabu wa nukemasen.

,
,
,
,
,
-,
.

Inu wa, neko o yonde kimashita.


Neko ga inu o hippatte,
inu ga mago o hippatte,
mago ga oba:san o hippatte,
oba:san ga ojiisan o hippatte,
ojiisan ga kabu o hippatte...
Untokosho, dokoisho.
Soredemo, kabu wa nukemasen.

,
,
,
,
,
,
-,
.

Neko wa, nezumi o yonde kimashita.


Nezumi ga neko o hippatte,
neko ga inu o hippatte,
inu ga mago o hippatte,
mago ga oba:san o hippatte,
oba:san ga ojiisan o hippatte,
ojiisan ga kabu o hippatte...
Untokosho, dokoisho.
Yatto, KABU wa NUKEMASHITA.

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
-
!

213


by max xin memtade

o:ki-na
kabu
o-hanashi
tane
maku
amai
naru
nare
ama-so:-na
genki to ii
totetsumonai
dekiru
nuko: to suru

nuku
untokosho
dokkoisho
nukeru
yobu
kuru
yonde kimashita
hippatte (imasu)
hipparu
soredomo
mago
mada mada
yatto

(. )

E. !//

Hitori no ojiisan ga ichiwa no o:mu o katte imashita. Sono


ojiisan wa Sore ni chigainai to iu no ga kuchiguse deshita. O:mu
wa, itsunomanika, ojiisan no kuchiguse o sukkari oboekonde
shimainashita. Soshite hoka no kotoba wa, sappari oboemasen
deshita.
Aru hi, kono ie no mae ni to:rikakatta hito ga tachidomatte,
Nanaka kasikoso: na o:ma desu ne to iimashita. Suruto, o:ma wa
Sore ni chigainai to iimashita.
Sono hito wa taiso: kanshin shite, kono o:mu o kaitorimashita.
Tokoroga o:mu wa, mainichi, tada Sore ni chigainai to iu dake de,
sono hoka no kotoba o chittomo iimasen. Sono hito wa gakkari shite,
Watashi wa, naze, motto yoku tashikamete kara, kawanakatta no
daro:. Warashi wa zuibun awatemono da to hitori-goto o iimashita.
Suruto, o:mu ga Sore ni chigainai to o:kina koe de iimashita.

214


by max xin memtade

.
: !.
.
.
:
.
: !.
.
!,
.
: , !
!. :
!.
ichi-wa no o:mu
-wa
katte imashita
kau
ni chigainai
chigai-nai
chigau
kuchiguse
itsu-no-mani-ka
sukkari
oboende deshita
oboekomu
oboeru
soshite
hoka no kotoba
sappari
aru
to:rikakatta hito
to:ri-kakaru
tachidomatte
tachidomaru
nakanaka
kasikoso:-na
kasikoi
suruto
taiso:
kanshin shite
kanshin suru
kanshin
kaitorimashita
kaitoru
kau
-toru
tokoroga
mai-nchi
tada
dake
chittomo
iimasen
I



( )

( )

, ,

,
; ,

,

, ,

215


by max xin memtade

iu
gakkari shite
gakkari suru
naze
motto yoku tashikamete
motto
yoku
tashikameru
kawa-nakatta
kawa-nai
kau
daro:
desho:
zuibun
awate-mono
awateru
mono
hitorigoto o iu
hitorigoto
hitori
o:kina koe de
koe de
koe


, ()

, (
)
,
( )
, ,

216


by max xin memtade

F. //

Aru mura de hyakusho: ga ippiki no uma o katte imashita.


Tokoroga aru ban dorobo: ni kono uma o nusumarete shimaimashita.
Yokuasa hyakusho: ga uma-ya e itte miru to, uma ga miemasen.
Shikashi ta o tagayasu tame niwa, do: shite mo uma ga hitsuyo:na node, betsu no uma o ippiki kao: to omoimashita. Umaichi de wa,
uma o uri ni kita hitotachi ga uma o tsurete, narande imashita. Uma o
nusumareta hyakusho: wa achikochi arukimashita. Suruto, takusan no
uma no naka ni konoaida nusumareta no ga imashita.
Hyakusho: wa yorokonde, soba e yotte, Kore wa watashi no
uma desu to iimashita. Umauri wa okotta kao o shite, Watashi wa
ichinen ijo:mo kono uma o motte imasu to hantai shimashita.
Uma o nusumareta hito wa damatte ryo:te de uma no me o
kakushite, Kono uma wa, me ga warui desu. Dochira no me ga
warui ka shitte iru desho: to toimashita. So: towarete umauri wa
komatte shimaimashita. Soshite, detarameni Hidari no me da to
kotaemashita.
Suruto, uma o nusumareta hyakusho: wa warainagara,
Chiaimasu. Hidari no me wa sukoshimo waruku wa arimasen to
I

217


by max xin memtade

iimashita. Dorobo: wa awatete A:, machigaimashita. Honto: wa migi


no me ga warui no desu to iinaoshimashita. Hyakusho: wa ryo:te o
hanashite, Iie, migi no me mo waruku wa nai no desu to iimashita.
Dorobo: wa uso o mitsukerareta node, mo: nani mo iu: koto ga
dekiamsen deshita. Mawari no hitobito ni warawarete, to:to
nigedashimashita.
. .
, .
,
, .
,
. , , . [ ] ,
.
, :
. :
.
, ,
: .
? .
. , .
, ,
: . . ,
, : , .
. , , :
, .
, .
, .

218


by max xin memtade

G. //.

Nippon niwa mukashi, mazushii hyakusho: no aida ni ubasute


to iu fu:shu: ga arimashita. Mazushikute ro:jin ni gohan o tabesaseru
koto ga dekinai kara, yama ni ro:jin o sute ni ikasemashita. Kore mo
Narayama-bushi-ko: to iu sho:setsu ni kakarete imasu. Kore wa
mukashi no hanashi de wa konno koto wa arimasen.
UBASUTE no HANASHI
Aru oba:san ga musuko ni seowarete yama no naka e suterare ni
iku toki, nan-do-mo ki no eda o otte, michi ni sutemashita. Sono
wake o musuko ni tazunerarete, oba:san wa Omae ga kaeru toki no
michishirube da to iimashita. So: iwarete, musuko wa namida o
nagashite, mata oba:san o seotte, ie e kaerimashita.


.
, ,
. --.
; , ,
.
()
, ,
,
. , ,
: .
, ,
.

219


by max xin memtade

J - 1
. .
( )
(, 1997. - 44 .)

1.
, 1000
, 83,5% , . ,
1000 , 60% .
90%, 22000 ,
5000 .
( ) 5 , 21
. ,
, . 120.
. ,
, . , ..
.
- , . ,
, , .
.
, .
. (,
, , , ).
,
.
, :
, , ; ,
, , , , ;
, ,
. ,
.
,
: ,
; ; -
. ,
: , . ,
.
,
, "" .
1

: ... (, 1997. - 44 .)

220


by max xin memtade

, ,
. , -,
" ".
,
, ,
. ,
.
: , ,
. 46 , 1850.
, .. -,
().
4 - 5
., 8 -10.
(, , , , )
, .
, , 120
. .
2.

, , .

,
- .
,
, . ,
.
, ,
. ,
.
, .
.
, ,
. ,
, , ,
,
, ,
. , 2-3
, .
. ,
, ,
.
.
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.
. -
, - ", ",
J

221


by max xin memtade

. -
, ,
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""
. ,
.
-
.
cac- " ", ,
. ,
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, :
"-", " ", "-", "",
"-", - "- " ..

222


by max xin memtade

. ,
,
.
- ,
, , : ... " ,
"; ... ", , ..."; ...
- " , , ..."; ...
o ", ,
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.
.
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:
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.
:
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.
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- - " ".

.
,
, , .. :
J

223


by max xin memtade

- .
( , ,
).
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, ( ,
, - , ).
, , , , , ,
, . ,
(- ""),
(- "").
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, "", "
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:
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.
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.
( )
, ,
()
,
.
. 50
, 50 , 40 ,
20 . 16
"" "".
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, , .. - , ,

224


by max xin memtade

. , ,
, .
, , .
. ,
, , .
. , , , .
.

.
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. (),
, ,
.
.
.
1. .
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3. - , - .
, .
4. , -
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..
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6. .
.
7. , , ,
, .

, , , .
1. ", , , ".
, , , , , , -.
2. " () ()". :
- - .
.

225


by max xin memtade

- -
.
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( ),
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3. " ". ,
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:
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.
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: 1) "" ( ,
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, , - .
,
,
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"" "".
,
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""
. , . ,
, . , :

226


by max xin memtade

- - .
? ( , , ).
- .
:
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? ( ""
.)
, .
. : "",
" " . "
" " ".
, "", ""
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: , .
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.
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, (
).
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-
, .
.
, "" ""
. ""
, "" - , "" - , "" - ,
"" - ..
.
,
(. 1), , "-" (. 2).
J

227


by max xin memtade

" - "
()
()
()
()

()
()
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
()

()

()
()
()

( )
()
()
()
()
()
()

, (), , ,
( )
, , , (
)
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, , (
), ( ),
( )
. , ,
,
, (), () - (
);
occaa,
, , (), - ( )
, ,
, , - ( )

, - ( )
()
oo, , , .
, , . ,
,
, , -.
,
(
" -")
, , , ( wife).
,
, (, )
, , , (
), ( ).

+ (), ( )
+
, , ( ), (
).
, , , +
(), ( ) +
,
,
, -, ,
,

228


by max xin memtade

" - "

( )

( )

(,
) ( )

(,
) ( )
(, ,
,
.
)
( )
(, ,
,
.
)
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() ( )
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, ,

, ,
)
(
, ,

)
(,
) ( )
(,
J

(), (), (
), ( ), (
)
, , , , .

, ""
" ".
, , ,
..
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"", "",
,
( ). -
"","", ( ).
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", " "
,

, ,
,
,
,
, ( ), (
)
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, ( ), ( )

, , ( )

, ( )
, ,

229


by max xin memtade

) ( )
(,
) ( )
(,
) ( )
(
, )
()
(
, ) (
)
{) ()
() (
)
() ()

() ( )
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() ( )

( ), , ,
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, ,

, , ( )
, ,
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"" , "" .

, , ,
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( ), (, ).
.
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( ), ( ).
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5.

. .
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.
,
. ,
, .
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.
" ".
" ".
- -,
. : "
"; - - "
".
- , .
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:
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, , .
- - .
, .

230


by max xin memtade

-a .
, .
, ,
, , , ,
, :
.
, , .
, - ,
, ,
, .
,
, .
1. .
" ", "", " ",
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.
.
.
2. .
:
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, ,
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:
... - .
, ?
,
:
- -- - , - ,
popo-o - - , .
.
, .
.
, .
, . .
, sac - .
, .
:
J

231


by max xin memtade

- - - .
( ).
:
- , .
, .
.
:
...
...
:
.
: " ", " ".
,
. .
. ,
:
Kopa-a - , - - , -a --
.
, , .
, -,
- ( ).
,
, :
-, -- - xoc - .
, .

:
- - - .
, , .
:
- - .
, .
, ,
. ,
(). ,
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3. .
, ,
.

232


by max xin memtade

"" ""
,
, .
, , .
:
1) . .
,
:
- .
;
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;
2) .
.
. ,
" " "' ";
3) - .
, , .
.
- .
;
4) - . ,
. (
);
5) . ,
;
6) . "
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, ;
- .
, .
" ".

" , ".
-
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.
.

233


by max xin memtade

4. .
, , ,
. , ,
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, , ,
-, . "", "".
", ". ,
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" ". - -
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- .
, .
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. -
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5. - .
. .
, ,
" ".
, "", " ".
, " ()".
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, ).
: " ()"
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, () "
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, :
-, .
. , , .
.
.
, ,
, :
- - .
, ?

234


by max xin memtade

6. .
, ,
, , , . ,
.
- ,
, ..,
.
, - ,
: " ", " ", " , ...",
", ".
- ,
, , ",
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, , .
, .
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: "",
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,
.
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, , , .
, -
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, "".
, - " ".
, , , :
-- - , - .
, , , ,
.
, - -
:

235


by max xin memtade

- .
, , , .
, - ,
:
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( ,
), .
- , -
, ( ):
-- , -sa ,
.
. ?
, ? ( ,
.)
:
- - .
, , . , .
, :
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. , , .

:
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, (
), :
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?
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? ( .)
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7 . .
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. ,
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:

236


by max xin memtade

- .
.
- - , .
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:
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. .
:
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.
8. .

. .
: , ,
. ,
: - ", ".
, - , , - :
- .
?
, : " ".
,
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" " ( : " ").
"" (
). ",
".
9. .
"", "",
"", . , "
". . ,
. ,
, .
, , , ,
", ".
-, , ",
" ", , ".
", ".
- "-", "",
- . ", ".
10. .
-,
", " -.
"", "-", : " -,
J

237


by max xin memtade

, ". , -
-, :
...
...
...
:

, , ?
.
, - , , -
, , , - ,
- .
, " ", - "- ",
, :
- - .
, . .
- - .
, , .

" " - "
" ", ".
,
.
.
,
.
, ,
. ,
.
. , -
, .
, ,
, - . ,
.
6.
,
.
.
" "
.

.
() -
, , .

238


by max xin memtade


, .
, ,
. ,
, - .
.
,
.
, .
.

, .
, . ,
. ""
, : ( ), ;
: , , , .
"". , ,
.
.
, , ,
.
.
.
, ,
.

.

-, , ,
, .
, , -
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( ,
, - ).
" ", " - ",
,
, .
.
- . " - "
, " - ".
, "" ( , )
, .
- ( ).
,
( ). - .
, - ( "", "").

239


by max xin memtade

, ,
.

. ,
. ,
"", "".

, ,
, .
"-" :
() , . ""
.
,
, .
" ", .
, ,
, .., ,
, . .
.
1. - - .
, .
, ,
. ... :
" ?" ... : " " ( ). .
,
" - ", " - ".
, .
2. - ,
, -.
, , .
- .
:
) + + :
-
? ( );
) :
- .
? ( );
) , . :
"" ( "", "",
""), ( ""), (
""}, ( "", "").

240


by max xin memtade

) - + : xumo-o " ", - + : " ".


;
) , :
"", "" "", " ", " ",
" ";
) , : " ( ) ", - ;
" ", -
; " ", - " "
. - " ", -
, .
.
3. - ,
, ,
, " ...":
) ,
( , , ).
, , , ,
.
: 1) " " {
""), 2) " ", , (
""); 1) "" (
""), 2) "" (
""); "" "" (
""),
, ;
) : - +
+ ( - ) , , " "; + +
: - " ".
- +
. , - "
";
) , "".
, , ,
.
: "" ( ) , " ",
" ", " ", "
" ( ). ,
- "", "", "", - "",
"", - "", -"".
, "" "".
4. .
. , , ,
-. .
. ,
"" "", "" "" (
J

241


by max xin memtade

, );
"", .
- .
, , , , .
. : ""
; " " ; ""
. .
. : "", "", "",
"".

. .
,
.
, .
, ,
, .
, ,
,
. . .
.
, .
.
- ,
.
"".
.
. "" ,
.
, "", "".
"" . : - "
", - " ", - " ",
" ". ,
"", , .
, ,
. , , ,
, . .
: , ", ,
, , , " . ,
.

.
,
. , , .
, ,
, - , .
, , ,
. - -,
, .
- .

242


by max xin memtade

, , ,
, . ,
, , .
.
, - "
, " " ". - ,
. , ,
, , . :
Baac- - .
.
, . ,
, ,
.
7.
XX . .
. .
, ,
, .
( ), .. , .
,
. ,

. , ,
,
. ,
.
. . , , ,
, ,
, .
. ,
, , - ,
. , ,
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, ,
, ,
, . ,
. -, ,
, , , ,
.. ,
.
, .
.
, .
,

243


by max xin memtade

, , .
, .

, , ,
, .
.
.
, , .
.
.
.
. ""
.
"". (), (),
(, ). ( )
(), (). -
, , -
. , .

- , .
, , ,
. .
, , , (). (
-), ( ),
, , ,
. - . :
" ?" ,
, .
: " !?" ,
, - ,
: - - " ( ),
, ".
: .
.
, .
"" ,
.
, ,
: " ",
" ", "", "". , ,
, , .
,
, .

- , .
, , .

244


by max xin memtade

,
, :
" (), - ".
: , .
: , .
. "" ( }, a "" ( );
"" ( }, "" (
, );
"" - "";
"" - ,
, ;
"" , a ""
; "" - , ,
; "" - ,
; - - ,
- - .

245


by max xin memtade

K - 1

- .
. -,
(). , ,
, . -,
.
, .
, , .
, ,
, .
- ,
,
,
.
124 .
- 125-.
( " "
" "). , .


( ),
. , "" ( " ").
"" VII .
.
.
. , .
, -
. , 8 21 .
, .

, .

( ) (
) http://anime.dvdspecial.ru,
(Kensuke), . ,
( info),
, (
http://www.komi.com/japanese,
). plus 13
.

246


by max xin memtade


( ),
.
.
, VII .
,
, .
.

.


,
.
( )


()

/Akihito Shinnou/ () /Heisei/

1989 (1990)

/Hirohito Shinnou/ () : /Shouwa Tennou/

1926 (1928)

1989

/Yoshihisa Shinnou/ () /Taisho Tennou/

1912 (1915)

1926

/Mutsuhito Shinnou/ () /Meiji Tennou/

1866 (1868)

1912

/Koumei Tennou/

1847

1866

/Ninkou Tenou/

1817

1846

( - Kokaku)

1780

1817

( Gomomozono)

1771

1779

( Gousakuramachi)

1763

1770

( Momozono)

1747

1762

( Sakuramchi)

1735

1747

( Nakamikado)

1710

1735

( Hitachiyama)

1687

1709

( Reigen)

1663

1687

( Gosai)

1656

1663

1643

1654

( Meisho)

1630

1643

- ( Gomizunoo)

1611

1629

247


by max xin memtade

( Go Youzei)

1586

1611

( Ochimachi)

1557 (1560)

1586

( Go Nara)

1526 (1536)

1557

( Go Kashiwabara)

1500 (1521)

1526

( Go Tsuchimikado)

1465? (1465)

1500

( Gohanazono)

1429? (1429)

1464

( Shokou)

1412 (1414)

1428

( Go Komatsu)

1392

1412

( Go Kameyama)

1383

1392

( Choukei)

1368

1383

( Go Murakami)

1339

1368

/Godaigo Tennou/

1318

1339

( Hanazono)

1308

1318

( Go Nijou)

1301

1308

( Go Fuchimi)

1298

1301

( Fushimi)

(1288)

1298

( Go Uda)

1274

1287

( Kameyama)

1259

1274

( Go Fukakusa)

1246

1259

( Go Saga)

1242

1246

( Shijou)

1232

1242

( Go Horikawa)

1221

1232

( Chuukyo)

1221

1221

( Juntoku)

1210

1221

( Tsuchimikado)

1198

1210

( Go Toba)

1183 (1184)

1198

/Antoku Tennou/

1180

1183

/Takakura Tennou/

1168

1180

( Rokujou)

1165

1168

( - Nijou)

1158

1165

248


by max xin memtade

/Goshirakawa Tennou/

1155

1158

/Konoe Tennou/

1141

1155

/Sutoku Tennou/

1123

1141

( Toba)

1107

1123

( Horikawa)

1086

1107

( Shirakawa)

1072

1086

1068

1072

1045

1068

( Gosuzaku)

1036

1045

( Go Ichijou)

1016

1036

( Sanjou)

1011

1016

( Ichijou)

986

1011

( Kazan)

984

986

- ( En-yuu)

969

984

( Reiji)

967

969

( Murakami)

946

967

( Suzaku)

930

946

( Daigou)

897

930

( Uda)

887

897

( Koko)

884

887

( Yosei)

876 (877)

884

( Seiwa)

858

876

( Montoku)

850

858

( Ninmyou)

833

850

( Junna)

823

833

( Sata)

809

823

( Heizei)

806

809

( Kanmu)

781

806

( Kounin)

770

781

( Shoutoku Taishi)

764

770

249


by max xin memtade

( Junnin)

758

764

( Kouken)

749

758

( Shoumu)

724

749

( Genshou)

715

724

( Genmei)

707

715

( Monmu)

697

707

( Jigou)

(690)

697

/Tenmu Tennu/

(673)

686

/Koubun Tennou/

671

672

(662)

671

( Saimei)

(655)

661

( Kotoku)

645

654

(642)

645

( Jomei)

(629)

641

( Suiko)

592

628

( Sushun)

587

592

( Youmei)

585

587

( Bidatsu)

(572)

585

( Kinmei)

539

571

( Senka)

535

539

( Ankan)

531

535

( Keitai)

(507)

531

( Buretsu)

498

506

( Ninken)

(488)

498

( Kenzou)

(485)

487

( Seinei)

(480)

484

456

479

( Ankou)

453

456

( Inchou)

(412)

453

(406)

410

250


by max xin memtade

( Richuu)

(400)

405

( Nintoku)

(313)

399

(270)

310

201

269

(192)

210

( Seimu)

(130)

190

/Keiko Tennou/

(71)

130

( Suinin)

29 . ..

70

( Sujin)

(97 . ..)

30 . ..

( Kaika)

158 . ..

98 . ..

( Kogen)

214 . ..

158 . ..

( Korei)

290 . ..

215 . ..

( Koan)

392 . ..

291 . ..

( Koshou)

475 . ..

393 . ..

( Itoku)

510 . ..

477 . ..

( Annei)

549 . ..

511 . ..

( Suizei)

581 . ..

549 . ..

/Jinmu Tennou/

(660) . ..

585 . ..


( 40 .. - 13 ..):
. .
( 13 .. - 300 . . .):
. , , .
(300 . . . - 250 . . .):
( ) ,
.
(300 - 710): /Asuka (550-710)/
300 - .
538-552 - .
604 - " " - .
645 - . " " .
(710 - 784):
710 - - .
K

251


by max xin memtade

784 - .
(794 - 1185):
794 - ( - ).
1016 - .
1159 - .
1175 - - " ".
1180-1185 -
.
(1185 - 1333):
1191 - .
1192 - (
) .
1221 -
. , ,
- .
1232 - - " ".
1274, 1281 - ,
.
1333 - .
(1338 - 1537) /Ashikaga (1333-1568)/:
1334 - - .
1336 - .
1337 - " " .
1338 -
(" " ).
1392 - (Nanbokucho:).
1467-1477 - .
1542 -
.
1568 - .
1573 - .
(1573 - 1603):
1575 - .
1582 - ,
1588 - .
" ".
1590 - . .
1592-98 - .
1598 - .
1600 - .
(1603 - 1867):
1603 - .
( - ).
1614 - .
1615 - , .
1639 - .
1688-1703 - : .
1792 - .
1854 -
.

252


by max xin memtade

(1868 - 1912):
1868 - ..
1872 - .
1889 - .
1894-95 - .
1904-05 - .
1910 - .
1912 - .
(1912 - 1926):
1914-18 - .
1923 - .
(1926 - 1989):
1931 - .
1937 - - .
1941 - .
1945 - .
1946 - .
1952 - .
1956 - - .
1972 - .
1973 - .
( 1989 . ):
1993 - -
.
1995 - . "
" .
Schauwecker's Guide to Japan, - . Kanji
inserted by max xin memtade.


(40000 . . . - 300 . . .)
(40000 . . . - 13000 . . .).
.
.
(13000 . . . - 300 . . .)
, , . "" -
. .
(300 . . . - 250 . . .)
, " " .
, ( ).
100 ..

253


by max xin memtade

.
.
, (,
) .
, ( ). ,
( - ).
660 ..
..
(300 - 710)
300 ..
(300 - 710). ,
(. "" ).
, . , ,
- , .
,
.
- ,
, , .
,
. .

. 662
, .
538 552 .
.
.
.
- ,
. 604 " ",
. , ,
.

. .
645 -- ,
XI ()
. :
,
, ( ) .
, - .
622 " " -
.

254


by max xin memtade

(710 - 1185)
710
.

.
,
784 , 794 - ( ),
.

. ,
"": ,
, .
. ""
.

, ,
"".
,

. ,
.
,
.

,
. 1016 ,
( ).

. ,
.
, .
1068 ,
. 1086
, .
("-"). -
1156 , .
XII : ( )
( ) .
. , ,
(1050 - 1059)
(1083 - 1087) .
(1159 .), ,
1168 1178 , .
.

255


by max xin memtade

-,
.

(1180 - 1185). , .

(1185 - 1333)
1192 , ,
, ( ).
. ,
, .
1199
.
1221 , .
( ) .
, ,
.
.
. :
( 1191 ) ,
. -
- 1253 .
.
.
1232 " " (" ").
.
, .
,
. .
,
.
1259 "" .
, .
1274 .
- .
,
.

1281 . - .
,
, .
,
.
, .

.

256


by max xin memtade

(1333 - 1573)
1333 ,
.
(1334 ) -
,
.
, ,
1336 . .
.
1272 .
1338 .
, 1378 ,
.
( ) .
. ,
.
1392 ,
.
(1368 - 1408)
, .
.
, . ,
, .
XV XVI .
.
- - "-". ,
, .
"" .
( - " ").

.

1542 -
.
1549-1550 . ,
( ).
.
XVI .
.
(1573 - 1603)
1559 (
). , .
1568 .

257


by max xin memtade

, .
, ,
. 1571 . .
1580 . 1573
.
:
, .
1575 ,
, .
1582 .
, ,
. .
1583, 1587 .
1590 .
,
, . 1588
" ".
.
. , 1583
, 1590 .
.
1587 . .
1593 , . 1597
, ,
, 26 . ,
; ,
: .
. 1592
,
.
1598 . .


(1603 - 1867)
, ,
. ,
- .
, ,
. 1600
.
. 1603 .
( - ).
250 .

258


by max xin memtade

. :
(, )
.
5- :
, , .
-"" , "" ,
, . .
.
. 1614
, .
1615
, .
( ) , , , . ,
.
1633
1639 ,
. .
,
, .
, - - .
,
. ,
.
, . ,
.
1720 ,
().
XVIII .
. XIX
.
, , 1853 1854
,
1868 .

, .
" " (" ! !")
.
, ,
. ,
, .

259


by max xin memtade

(1867 - 1912)
1867-1868 ,
.
- .

.
.
.
. ,
, . ,
. , ,
1873 .
-
, . 1870
. .
, .
. 20-30
"" :

( ).

. , ,
. ,
, - .

,
. .
, -
, .
1880-,
.
.
,
,
- "".
1889 . ,
: , ,
. -
.
, - - .
- -
1894-1895 . ,

260


by max xin memtade

.
.
, , -
1904-1905 . ,
. 1910
. .
1912

. .


(1912 - 1926)
.
,
.
.
1923 1929 .
:
.
1930- ,
. , .
.
.
.
. ,
, .
1931 .
- .
, , , .
1933 , .
1937 - .
,
.

, . ,
1945 .
- "
" , - .
1940 () (
). ,
, .
() - , ,
.
K

261


by max xin memtade

1941 -
- .
1942 .
,
.
.
1944 ,
- ( ). 1945
.
27 1945 ,
. , ,
6 9 ,
8 .
14
.


.
( ), , .
1945 1952 .

-.
1868 - ,
, , ,
.
. 1948 . 500
,
. .
- . 1947
.
"" . .
- , ,
.
. , .
.
.
, :
,

. ,
.

262


by max xin memtade

1952 .
-
. ,
, ,
. 1954 . ,
.
.
. , ,
.
- ()
. ,
.
1956 ,
- 1972 . (
).
1973 ,
. .
1980- . 1990-
, . ,
( ).
Schauwecker's Guide to Japan, - . Kanji inserted by max xin memtade

263


by max xin memtade

L -

, ,
, , .
,
, .
, : ,
. ...


, 12
"12 " ( )5. "10
" ( ) - (, , ,
, ). , , :

()

()

()

--
( )

---

()

--
( )

---

()

--
( )

---

()

--
( )

---

()

--
( )

---

()

--
( )

---

()

--
( )

---

()

--
( )

---

()

--
( )

---

10

()

--
( )

---

() ( 2
, (23.-1.) ( 1.-3. , 3.-5. ..),
, ),
( , --, --,
, ..) , , ,
( , ..) (. .)

264


by max xin memtade

11

()

--
( )

---

12

()

--
( )

---

13

()

--
( )

---

...
. ,
. (


) .

"-" 1984 . , 2000 - "--" .


, , 4 ,
.


, . ,
, ( ), .
, ,
- .
.
.
.
, .
(" "),
1989 . , 2000 - 12 .


,
660 .., -
. , ,
.
- .
.

.
, " A6M2 21 "" ("" ""
) " 0", 2600
, , , 1940 .

265


by max xin memtade

14 ( ) ,
. ,
.
, - .
- ,
, , .
"" . ( )
, ( ).
: , , , , .
"",
, .
, - .
, .
.

1 - ( ),
. 30 3 .
- , .
.
, 2 .
- (" ")
. - .
2 3 "" (
) ( - 216,4
, 10 ). 1917 1867
.
7 " " (
). . ,
.
11
- ( -) .
. , .
, ( ).
( 2000 - 15 ) (
). , 20 .
, . 1876
15 13 .
.

: shichifukujin.

266


by max xin memtade

3 4 ( ).
- (" ").
, , - .
, .
.
4 5
.

11 - (- ).
1873 .
1966 . ( )
14 - .
- , - - .
. 1958
.

3 - ( ). .
.
, . ,
, ,
.
14 - .
. 1965 .
20 21 - ( ). ,
, .
. .
.

8 - (-) ( ).
, ,
- . , ,
-. .
. .
, .
29 - ( ). . 1988
. 1989
, .
. 29 " ".
, - .
.
L

267


by max xin memtade

29 5
" " . 1 - . 3 - ( ),
1947 . 4
(-- ), . " "
- .
5 - ( ).
. , ,
( / / ). ,
, .
C 10

- .
1913 ( ).
.

1 - ( ).
4 - .
, .
(5 )
- . ,
. , , , .
, ( )
, .
- ( ).

1 - ( ).
, , ,
.
7 - . ,
() (), .
, .
7 .
20 - ( ). 1996
, 1941
1876 . .

268


by max xin memtade

15 - (9 1945 )
(9 1945 ). .

, - . ,
, .
- ,
- . - .
.
, .
.
.
.

31 1 - - .
, . 210-
.
, ( ).
1 1923 ,
140 , . 1960
.
. .
15 - (
1951 1966 .

).

14 15 - ( ).
. .
23 24 - ( ). ,
, ( ).
.

1 - . ,
. .
( 2000 - 10 ) -
( ). 1964 .
.
27 9 . 1947
.

269


by max xin memtade

3 - ( ), . 1946
.
.
15 - -- ("--"). ,

. ,
- , - .
.
- . ,
- . ""
" ".
23 - ( ).
1948 ( ).
.
.

23 - (

).

25-28 - - , .
. - .
31 - , .
, . -
(" "), , .
108 , 108 ,
. 108 . ,
, - .

270


by max xin memtade

M -
8 , 47 3300 6.
.
.
, .
, .
, ,
.
.
, , .
! ,
(). ,
"" "", "" "".


, . - .
- . .
- 6. , , 25.
- 6 . .
.

54-

.
- ,
. .
- .
.

- "" . ,
.

:
, ( - ), ( - ), ,
.
- 10 . .
, .
, - .

, .

-ken ( , ,
) -shi ( (-fu () ; -to ),
, , , , ) .
-chiho: (. .).
M

271


by max xin memtade

:
- ( - ), ( - ), ,
- , , .
- 21 . .
,
- .

- , .
. ,
,
- , .


: ( - ),
( - ), ( - ), ( - ),
( - ).
- 40 . .
- , .
, ,
. , , .
/ ()
:
( - ), ( - ), , , ,
( - ).
- 23 . .
- .
- ,
.
- ,
. -
.
.
- - - .
(- ),
- , "" (-).
- .
,

, .

:
,
, ( - ) - ,
, ,
.

272


by max xin memtade

- 8 . .
.
,
.
. , ,
.

:
, ( - ) .

( -

- 4 . .
12 .

),

, , ,
,
.

: , , , ,
, , .
( - ).
- 15 . .
- .
, .
-
.

- .
,
.
XIX ,
.
"" .

273


by max xin memtade

N -
3 1946 ,
- 3 1947 .
, -.
, .
.

, ,

,
,
, , .
,
, , .
- , , .
, , , .
, , ,
;
, .
,
, . ,
, .
, ,
,
,
. ,
, , , ,
.

I.
1. ,
, .
2.
, .
3. , ,
, .
4. , ,
, ,
. , ,
- , .

274


by max xin memtade

5. ,
, , .
.
6. - .
.
7.
, : , ,
; ; ;
;
,
;
, ; ;

; ; .
8. ,
.

II.
9. , ,
,
.
, ,
, - , .
.

III.
10. .
11. .
, ,
.
12. , ,
.

.
13. . ,
, ,
.
14.
, , , ,
, .
. ,
, ,
.

275


by max xin memtade

15.
. ,
- .
.
. ,
.
16. ,
, , ,
, ; -
.
17. , ,
,
- .
18. - .
.
19. .
20. .

. - , ,
.
- .
21. , ,
. ,
.
22. ,
, .
.
23. .
24.
, .
, , ,
, , ,
.
25. .

, , .
26.
, . , ,
, .
.

276


by max xin memtade

27. . , ,
. .
28. ,
.
29. .
, .

.
30. .
31. -
, .
32. .
33. , ,
,
, , .
34. ,
.
, ,
,
.
35. , 33,
, ,
, , ,
, , ,
. ,
.
36.
.
37.
.
;
.
; ,
, .
38. . ,
,
, .
,
.

277


by max xin memtade

39. ,
.
.
40. ,
, .

IV.
41.
.
42. : .
43. , .
.
44. ,
. , , ,
, , , .
45. . , ,
.
46. ,
.
47. , ,
, .
48. .
49.
.
50. , , ,
; , ,
.
51.
, .
52. .
53. .
,
.
54. ,
,
.
.

278


by max xin memtade

, . ,
, ,
,
.
55. , .
- ,
.
56.
. ,
,
; .
57. .
,
. .
,
, .

.
58. .
, ,
, .

.
59. , , ,
.
, ,
,
.
, ,
.
, , ,
, ,
.
60. .
, ,


, , ,
,
.
61. ,
.
62.
,
.

279


by max xin memtade

63. - , ,
,
.
, .
64.
, .
, , .

V.
65. .
66. , , -,
, . -
.
.
67. - .
.


,
,
, .
68. - ,
. -
.
69.
, ,
.
70. -
,
.
71. , ,
, -.
72. -
,
,
.
73.
: , ;
; ; ,
, ;
, ;
;
;

280


by max xin memtade

,
; ,
.
74.
-.

75.
-.
.

VI.
76.
, . .

. , ;
.
77. ,
, , .
, ,
.
78.
, ,
.
.
79. ,
; , , .

-
;
. , ,
- , .
, , .
, .
.
.
80. ,
.
. , ,
.
.
.
81. ,
, , .
82.
.
,
N

281


by max xin memtade

, .
) , , ,
, III ,
.

VII.
83.
.
84.
, .
85. ,

.
86.
.
87.
, ,

.
88. .
.
89.
, -
, - ,
, .
90.

) .
.
91. ,
, .

VIII.
92.
.
93.
. ,
, ,
, ,
.

282


by max xin memtade

94. ,
;
.
95. ,
,
,
.

IX.
96.
;
, ,
, - .

.

X.
97. , ,
.
,
.
98. , , ,
, ,
.
.
99. , , ,
.

XI.
100.
. , ,
,
, ,
, .
101.
,
.
102. ,
, . , ,
.
103. , ,
,
, , ,
,
N

283


by max xin memtade

, . ,
,
.
, " "

284


by max xin memtade

O -

- , , ,
. , " " ( ), .
, (- ).
. . ,
, .

7
( )
( ). .
,
. , - ,
.
- .
,
. .
: , ,
, . *
- "" . ( )
( ) , - .
, , , ,
, , , .
. ,
( ).
.
VI
XI , .
* ( *), * ( *), *, *,
*, , , , .
( ) .

,
( , .)
. .
VI-XI , ,

. , (.
.)


by max xin memtade

285


() "" .

- "". , - , - , - , - ..
, "-" , "-" , "-" , "-" /,
"-" ,"-" /.
, ,
. , ,
(
). .
, .
,
, . ,
, .
"-" .
"", .
"-" .
.
.
"-.


. ,
,
. , ,
.
- , , ,
, , , , , , ,
, /, , , , , ,
? .
. " "
. "-" "-" , " ",
"-" (" ") "-" (" ").
, "", , "" - "" ().
"-" ("") "-"
(""). , , , ,
. ,
, .
"-"
. , "" "" .

286


by max xin memtade

, ,
. 98% .
,
. .
, ( ),
( ).
. -
.



, ,
, , , ,
.
, .
(, , ), (
, , , , ),
, ( , , ,
, ). (
"") .
- (chan) - "-" .
,
.
"". ,
, , .
, , - . ,
, " ",
. , -, " " -
, .
- (kun) - "".
. , , "", ,
. , , .
,
.
- (yan) - "-" "-".
- (pyon) - "-".
- (cchi) - "-" (. "").
- - , "". , .. ,
. - ,
"" ( - ).
- (san) - "/". .
,
O

287


by max xin memtade

. , (,
, ).
- (han) - "-".
- (shi) - "", .
- (fujin)
.

- "",

- (kouhai) - . - ,
, .
- (senpai) - . - ,
, .
- (dono) - . ,
.
.
.
- (sensei) - "".
, .
- (senshu) - "". .
- (zeki) - " ". .
- (ue) - "". ,
. -
("", "", "").
- (sama) - . ,
, , , ..
", , ".
- (jin) - " ". "-" - " ".
- (tachi)
- (gumi)

- " ". "-" - " ".


", , ". "-" - " ".


,
.
.
.

288


by max xin memtade

""
(Watashi) - . .
. ,
" ".
(Atashi) - . .
. .
.
(Watakushi)
(Washi)

. .

(Wai) - "".
(Boku) - . ,
"". .
(Ore) - . . , .
- (Ore-sama) /- " ". , .
(Daikou/Naikou) - "-", .
(Sessha) - .
.
(Hishou) - "". , .
(Gusei) - "", .
(Oira) - . .
(Chin) - , .
(Ware) /- () , "[//] ". ,
"". , (" ").
"" .
, , - " " - " ".
[ ] - , .
, " ". ,
, " ". "",
.

c ""
- (Watashi-tachi) - .
- (Ware-ware) - , .
O

289


by max xin memtade

(Bokura) - .
(Touhou) - .

c "/":
(Anata)
("").
(Anta)
.

/ -

. .

(Otaku) - " ". . -



- ", ".
(Kimi) - , . .
(Kijou) - "". .
(Onushi) - "". .
(Omae) - ( - ) .
( , ).
/ (Temae/Temee) /- .
. "" "".
(Onore) - .
(Kisama) - . c .
" ".

290


by max xin memtade

P -
: .
.

- . "" - " ".
- .
- :

( , , , ..);
, ;
, (, );
.

.
-. -
. .
- ( ),
.
-- (" ") - (" ").
- . ,
, .

. , ,
- .
- ( ) ( ),
, .
- - , .
,
, .
-
. , .
( XX ) .

. .

, .
(" ") ,
(" ") .
, ,
- . ,
- ,
.
P

291


by max xin memtade

, (" ")
( ), (, " ") .
" "
(" "). ,
.
,
" " (" ").
" " -
.
.
, - ,
, . .
. . .
( ) (
).
, , .
( ).
, , , - (,
).

. ,
.
" ".
(""),
. - .
. - ,
, .
, " "
, " ". , ,
"" . , , , .
.
(" ")
- , , ,
.

XVI ,
.
, ( )
.
.
1867 , .

292


by max xin memtade

.
, "" ,
.
, .
.

XIX .
( )
. " "
. - ,
, , ( ),
, , , .
, .
, ,
.


,
.
( ),
. -
, , .
.
, , .
. ,
( , ),
. -
, ...

8

. - - " , ",
. (
) . ,
" " - ", ".
,
(VII ) - "" " " . " "
.
.

, , ,
. , ( ,
; ) (. .)
P

293


by max xin memtade

--. , , , .
E " ". .
(
) , ,
-- ,
- , . , ,
. .
.
. , . ,
- , .
.
. (?) , , . ,
. . , -- ,
. .
. - . ,
. " ", ", ".
, - .
. . ( )
. .
. , .
. . , .
. . , , .
,
.
. . ,
(845-943).
. ,
.
. , ,
.
, .
.
. .
. .
.
. .
. ,
.
. , .
. ,
. , .

294


by max xin memtade

(-). , .
: ( , ,
), ( , , ,
, ), ( ,
-, , ,
, ), (
, ), (
, ), (
,
), ( , ( ), , ,
, -
). - ,
. , .
, .
.
(-). ,
. , . , - , - (
).
(rjujin). ,
, . -
.
(kaijin / otatsumi) .
, ,
- ,
.


. .
. ( ) - .
. - . . ,
.
. / - .
- . . ,
, , 48 ,
, ,
("" ) - , .
. -
(" " ).
. , (" "). ,
, "
". . .
- (- ).
XVI . .
-
.
P

295


by max xin memtade

. ,
. ,
.
(-).
(jakumetsu). : , ,
, .
- (-). -
- - .
,
.
. ,
- .
. ,
, ,
.
: ( ),
, (
) - .


-. - - (" "). ,
. .
. ,
.
. "".
, .
, . ,
, .
. .
. ,
( ). , .
( ).
. , , .
. , , , .
. .
"" (" "). -
"" . (. .: , - )
. ,
, . ,
. - .
.
. / , .
, .

296


by max xin memtade

, . , ,
. , .
--.
. , - -.
. (. ) - , .
-.
. , . , .
. ,
. .
-. ? -,
, . , -
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297


by max xin memtade

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298


by max xin memtade

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299


by max xin memtade

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300


by max xin memtade

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301


by max xin memtade

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302


by max xin memtade

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303


by max xin memtade

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304


by max xin memtade

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305


by max xin memtade

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306


by max xin memtade

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307


by max xin memtade

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308


by max xin memtade


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309


by max xin memtade


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310
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by max xin memtade
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311


by max xin memtade

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312


by max xin memtade

1760
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313


by max xin memtade

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314


by max xin memtade

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315


by max xin memtade

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317


by max xin memtade

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318


by max xin memtade

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319


by max xin memtade

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320


by max xin memtade

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321


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322


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323


by max xin memtade

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324


by max xin memtade


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325


by max xin memtade

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326


by max xin memtade


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327


by max xin memtade

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328


by max xin memtade

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329


by max xin memtade

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330


by max xin memtade

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331


by max xin memtade

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332


by max xin memtade

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13.
14.
15.
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333


by max xin memtade

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334


by max xin memtade



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335


by max xin memtade

, (Jaa, mata) - " ". .


(Jaa) - .
(De wa) - .
(Oyasumi nasai) - " ". .
(Oyasumi) - .

"" ""
, ,
.

""
(Hai) - "". . ""
"". , .
(Haa) - ", ". .
(Ee) - "". .
(Ryoukai) - " ". .

""
(Ie) /- "". .
.
(Nai) - "". -.
(Betsu ni) - "".

"":
(Naruhodo)

(Mochiron)

(Yahari)

(Yappari)

- "", " ".


"!" .

" ".

" "
... (Maa) - " ..."
... (Saa) - "..." - ", ".

336


by max xin memtade

"?"
? (Hontou desu ka?)

"?" .

? (Hontou?) - .
? (Sou ka?) - " ..." " !"
? (Sou desu ka?) - .
... (Sou desu nee) - " ..." .
... (Sou da naa) - .
... (Sou nee) - .
! (Masaka)

/-

" !"

,
, .

""
(Onegai shimasu) - .
. " ". ,
"" , ,
" ".
(Onegai)

- , .

- (kudasai) - . . , "-"
- ", ".
- ? (kudasaimasen ka) - .
. " ?". , "- ?"
- " ?".

""
(Doumo) - , "" ,
, .
(Arigatou gozaimasu) - , .
, "" , ,
" ".
(Arigatou) - .
(Doumo arigatou) - " ". .
R

337


by max xin memtade

(Doumo arigatou gozaimasu)


, .
(Katajikenai)

" ".

, .

(Osewa ni narimashita)
.

" - ".

(Osewa ni natta) - .

""
(Dou itashimashite) - , .
(Iie) /- " ". .

""
(Gomen nasai) - ", ", " ", " ".
. , , -
. (
"").
(Gomen) - .
(Sumimasen) - " ". . ,
.
/ (Sumanai/Suman)

/ -

, .

(Sumanu) - , .
(Shitsurei shimasu) - " ". .
, , .
(Shitsurei) - ,
(Moushiwake arimasen) - " ".
. .
(Moushiwake nai) - .


(Douzo) - "". , , .
- "" .
... (Chotto) /- " ". . ,
.

338


by max xin memtade

, ,
.

" "
(Itte kimasu)
.

(Chotto itte kuru)


" ".
(Itte irashai)

- " , ".

" ".

(Tadaima) - " , ". .


"" .
(Okaeri nasai) - " ". "" .
(Okaeri) - .

""
(Itadakimasu) - , . - "
[ ]". , "" ,
, "".
(Gochisousama deshita)
.

", ".

(Gochisousama) - .

,
, .
! (Kawaii) - " !" , ,
. , " , ,
( )". , "" - - .
! (Sugoi) - "" "/!"
"".
! (Kakkoii!)

- ",

, !"

! (Suteki!) - ", , !" ,


"" , ,
"!".
! (Kowai)

"!" .

339


by max xin memtade

! (Abunai)
! (Hidoi!)

"!" "!"

- "!", ", ".

! (Tasukete) /- " !", "!" ,


"" , ,
"!".
!/! (Yamero/Yamete)
! (Dame)

/-

! (Hayaku)
! (Matte)

/-

"!"

", !"

/- "!"
-

"!"

! (Yoshi) /- "!", "!". "!".


! (Ikuzo)

- "!",

"!"

!/! (Itai/Itee) /- "!", "!"


! (Atsui)

/- "!"

! (Daijoubu) - " ", "".


! (Kanpai) - " !" .
! (Ganbatte) - " !", "!", " !", "
!" .
! (Hanase) /- "!"
! (Hentai)

"!"

! (Urusai) /- "!"
! (Uso)

- "!"

! (Yokatta!) - " !", " !"


! (Yatta) - "!"

340


by max xin memtade


. .
- (ban-ban ) - "-" "-", .
- (bari-bari ) - .
- (boki-boki ) - .
- (boko-boko ) - .
- (bo-bo ) - .
- (butsu-butsu ) - .
- (wan-wan ) - "-", .
- (zaa-zaa ) - .
- (zuki-zuki ) - .
(dosun ) - .
- (dosun-dosun ) - "-", .
- (gaku-gaku ) - .
- (gasa-gasa ) - , " " .
- (gaya-gaya ) - .
- (gocha-gocha /) - "-", .
- (gusa-gusa ) - ( ).
- (gero-gero ) - "-", .
- (gyaa-gyaa ) - .
- (hiin-hiin ) - "-", .
- (kacha-kacha /) - "-", .
(kikii/ ) - , .
- (kera-kera /) - "-", .

341


by max xin memtade

- (mishi-mishi ) - .
(moo ) - "-", .
- (niko-niko ) - , .
(nyaan/) - "", .
- (pachi-pachi ) - "-", .
- (pan-pan ) - .
- (piyo-piyo /) - .
- (pika-pika /) - .
- (chuu-chuu /) - "-", .


- " ".
- " ".
- ( - ).
, - .
- .
- ,
" ".
( " ") - " ", "".
, , (-) - .
, , - - .
- .
- "" "".
- " ".
- " ". " "!
- .
- " ".

342


by max xin memtade

"" ( ) -
, , .
.
"V" ( , ) - " "
.
- " " "" ( ).
- , ,
.
- .
- " ".
- " ( )" "
( )".
- - " ".
- " - ".
- " , ".
- " , ".
- .
, ""
.
() - " ".
3-3-3-1 () - " ,
". -
"". .


- ,
( ), - (-).
, ( ).
1947 ,
- .
( 1989 , 125- ) , ""
(" "). - ,
.
- ( , ,
) ( 6800) . (11,5 . ).
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343


by max xin memtade

- 377 . . . ,
. . , . .
(125 . ) - 99,4% , ,
) .

- . .
- 5000 ( ), (
) 46 ( ). .
- ( ) .
. ,
" " . - .
10 .
400 . . /.
, .
660 . . - .
, 1$ 100 (,
). - , ,
. .
( ),
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.
- , . - , (
) . ,
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( ). - .
, .
- .
(6 ) () () (3 ) -
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- .
, .
. , ,
, "",
. .
- . - . 1

, info, ( )
, .
, maininfo,
j-pop, . , soft
, 9, . pics
, .

344


by max xin memtade

S
(.. )

1.

.
, ,
. ,
(), (. ) ,
..
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(. ) . , ,

(), VII
VIII .

. ,

. .

,
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.
, , ,
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,
.
.
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(.
3). ,
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.
1900 1954 .
,
2190 . ,
, .
,
, , . ,

, , 50- ,
3329 . , ,
3000 . ,
, , ,
.
, , 90%
, 99%.
().
, ,

.

345


by max xin memtade


, 1946 ,
, , 1850 (--
). ,
. , ,
, , ,
. - , ,
, , , , ,
. - ( )
. ,
( )
,
,
.
(), , 1961

- .
1946 . --
, , , , ,
.
1954
(),
() , .
.
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. 95
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10. . ,
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).
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11. -- 4817.
. , , ,
12, .

10

-- 36
, --. - 59 .
11
fja,
.
12
--
(- ), , ,
.

346


by max xin memtade

2.
.
() (. ): shkei
, ; shiji . ,
-; kaii . , ;
keisei . , ; tench .
, .. ; kasha .
, .
,
. ,
, . , hito
, hi
, kawa . , ,
( ) - ,
. - .
, ,
. , ue
, .
. ,
, ,
; .
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(, ) - , .

. ,
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( ), (
).
.

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,
.
.

.. ,
, .

,
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. 214, 13.

13

. 5 .

347


by max xin memtade

, ,
, .
. ,

. ()
14
,
, .
, , ,
. ,
.
, ki moku
.
( 75 ).
ki-hen. ki ()
hen ( ).
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"" 15.
,
, .
hayashi , mori , , matsu , sakura (. ), eda
; . , ,
, y ; ,
yoko , , ken . sanzui
umi , kawa , nagareru , ,
, sabishii
, heru , , en ; () ..
,
, .. ,
, .
, .
, ,
. (
. 3). ,
.

. ,
.
, ,
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(. ), - (. , )
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, kashi ,
, goza , tge
14

. ,
, (. 3). ( ) ,
(). : , , kaku; , ,
r; , , kan ..
.
15
, : kujhihen , tsuchi-hen , hi-hen .. ,
, .

348


by max xin memtade

-.
. 15016,
,
.
3.
, ,
, .
, .
( ).
, , (),
.
.
, .
.
( ) :
1)
nagareru (
) ;
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nagare (
;
3)
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) ;
4)
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). ,
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,
. 17 ,

,
.
, ,
18.
. .
:
1) agaru (
);
2) ageru (
)19;
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4) () j , ;
() .
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jry (. ); den
- ( ), shin (
16

200 ,
,
, .
17
on .
18
kun .
19
,
.
S

349


by max xin memtade

), roku ( ), denshinroku
.
, ,
. ,
aoi ; ;
yomu ..
,
: ki (), moku - (); ie ;
(), ka (., seijika
).

, .
,
, (. )
(. ).
, ,
,
.
, ,
, (.. )
40%.
4.
(.. )
.
.
,
.
. , , ()
() ,
.. ,
. , ki
, .
,
, - .
. ,
, . ,
:
hayashi , matsu , mura .
, , .
,
. ..
.
: -,

, , -, ,
. ,
( ) .20 ,
, :21
20

.

.
21

350


by max xin memtade

1) , () . :

2) , () :

3) ,
( )

4) () (
) :

5) , () , :

6) , , , ,
:

.
, . ,
.
S

351


by max xin memtade

5. .
:
, , .
, (. 2),
. ,
, ,
. , ,
. ,
.
,
, , .
.

. , .
. , . :
. 155.
167 ..
. ,
( , ,
, ). :
31;
156 .. .
. ,
, . :
, . (,
, 72).
. ,
. : ,
181.
.
. : (
) 40.
.
, . :
. ,
61.
. , : 75 (ki-hen ), / 85 (sanzui
), / 140 (kusa-kanmuri ), / 162 (shin-ny )
. ,
, . .

352


by max xin memtade

9 -
NJStar Communicator(, NJStar Word Processor) : http://www.njstar.com
(,
, ), -
- ( ), Unicode, JIS ;
(, ). Internet
Explorer, Microsoft Word , Windows (
// ). : (
, - , ,
(o-negai shimasu )) ,
(, ,
), -
, , , ,
( , ) .
( )
,
. . P.S. WordProcessor - ,
Microsoft Word NJStar Communicator.
Wakan by Filip Kbrt : http://www.wakan.manga.cz
. ,
. : ) /, ,
, , ( -
, ),
Unicode, JIS, SKIP, ;
, , ,
; ) - - , EDict, ; ,
- ; /
, ( ,
) ; ) -,

; )
, .
. ,
( ).
JarDic : http://www.jardic.com, http://www.jardic.ru
- - , ,
. ,
. Unicode, ,
/ - .
. - , , .
.
KanjiGold by Denton Hewgill : http://web.uvic.ca/kanji-gold/, http://www.parotto.com
- .
, - ,
. , ,
.
, (
) , , .
( ).
. , -
.
9

353


by max xin memtade

Japanese Platinum 1 : http://www.1c.ru


1. , , English
Oxford Platinum - .
. ;
( :) )
-; ;
( /
/ ..); ;
, . . , ,
. . CD-ROM.
ReadWrite Hiragana, ReadWriteKatakana(, ReadWrite Kanji) : http://www.declan-software.com/japanese/
,
( ,
), ( ) .
. ( )
, , (
).
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KanjiGold ( ),
( Japanese Platinum,
).

.
, ( :) )
, , ,
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, , ?,
? , , ,
, ( :) ) ,
, .
( , ) ,
. ,
. JarDic
, , NJStar; Japanese Platinum. ,
.
2004 . ,
, , -
( ). ,
- , ( Japanese
Platinum :) ) 125 .
. .
http://www.susi.ru http://www.komi.com/japanese,
- . -
, 2005- .
,
(
) . ,
, , http://petals.oriantal.ru ,
. , -
( , , ,
).

354


by max xin memtade

001
005
006
007
007
008
009
010

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

011
011
012
013
013
013
014
014
016
016
017
017
017
018
018
019
020
020
021
022
023
024
024
025
026
027
027
027
027
029
030
030
031
031
031
032
033
034
034
035

-re

- desu
wa (I)
hai iie
ka


- : -ku
: -kute (I)
-no
mo


no

: -san, -sama
: -o, -go
, ,
ga wa
aru iru
ni (I)
-ko
(I)
:
to ya
- desu. de
- no (I)

to

: -u
: -masu
- desu da
o (I)
de (I)
ni (I)
wa (II)


by max xin memtade

41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.

: -te (I)
: -te imasu
o (II)
: rashii desu
ga
-: deshita
: -mashita
: -kunai
: -katta, -kunakatta
: -te (II)
: -te kudasai
e
tokoro
:

kara made
(I)
: -kute (II)


kara
:
- to
- noni
(I)


mo, ka, demo
shi
(II)

: -masho:

de (II)
(II)

:
: -ta
de (III)

: -tai
: ho: ga ii desu
: tsumori desu
: so: desu
: -nai, -nakatta
-
ni (III)
- no (II)
- koto
: -koto ga arimasu
-tari

nara
niwa

355
035
036
037
037
038
038
039
040
040
041
041
043
043
044
045
046
046
048
048
049
049
051
052
052
053
054
054
055
056
056
057
057
058
059
059
060
061
062
063
063
064
065
066
067
067
068
069
070
070
070
071
072
073
074
074

356


by max xin memtade

96.
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
111.
112.
113.
114.
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.
120.
121.
122.



shika


tame (ni)
: -nai de
(II)

: -koto ga dekimasu
: -nakereba narimasen
: -ba, -nakereba
: -kereba, -ku nakereba
: suki (kirai) desu
: hoshii desu
: mo ii desu
-nakute
: jo:zu (heta) desu
: -emasu
-nikui -yasui
: -nagara
: -tara
node
: hazu desu
kuru, shimau, iku, miru, oku
-so:

075
075
077
077
078
078
080
081
082
082
083
085
085
086
087
088
089
090
091
091
092
093
093
094
095
095
096

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

!
!
!

Hajimemasho:
Konnichi wa
Hajimemashite
Ichi
Iro
Me to mimi
Ima nani o shite imasu ka
Irai
Karenda:
Yo:bi
Jikan
Gappi
Jo:su:shi
o-Kane
Tochi
Tenki to kiko:
Nichijo: seikatsu
Yu:bin to yu:binkyoku
Kazoku
Ju:taku
Jo:ken
Mise
Nihongo ni tsuite
Sampo

(1-6)
(7-12)
(13-19)
(20-28)
(29-31)
(32-40)
(41-45)
(46-53)
(54-58)
(59-61)
(62-66)
(67-69)
(70-71)
(72-75)
(76-80)
(81-88)
(89-93)
(94-98)
(99-101)
(102-105)
(106-109)
(110-113)
(114-116)
(117-122)

097
098
100
102
104
106
108
110
112
114
116
119
121
123
125
127
131
135
137
140
143
145
148
150


by max xin memtade

1.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
N.
O.
P.
Q.
R.
S.
9.

KanjiDic
JIS
Unicode
SKIP


SKIP
De Roo

-



-









,

357

154
161
162
163
167
170
173
175
179
184
187
189
191
194
195
196
204
218
244
262
269
272
283
289
299
318
344
352
354

358


by max xin memtade

, ,
.

Microsoft ,
( , ) ,
.

9
.

, , , ,
,
, - .

, , , ...

, ...