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NEW GENARATION STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCEMENT BAR FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURE

CONTENTS
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Introduction Stainless Steel Types of Stainless steel Properties of Stainless steel Life Cost Analysis of Stainless Steel Advantages of Stainless steel Applications of Stainless Steel Conclusion References

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DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

M.C.E Hassan.

NEW GENARATION STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCEMENT BAR FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURE

1. INTRODUCTION
Construction builds the basic framework and infrastructure of a country, which stimulates further economic, commercial and industrial activities. In building construction role of steel is same as that of bones in a living being. Reinforced concrete has been used successfully in the construction industry since the beginning of this Century. One of the products traditionally used to reinforce concrete is plain carbon steel. At present a large number of reinforced commercial buildings, domestic dwellings, marine structures, bridges, etc., are starting to show serious signs of deterioration, particularly those over 30 years of age. This deterioration is mainly caused by corrosion of the reinforcement. This carbon steel has low strength and poor resistance to corrosion. Hence, carbon steel corrodes fast and reduces the load bearing capacity of the structure resulting in reduced life and collapse of the structure in extreme case. This necessitates costly and timeconsuming repairs and maintenance of the structure 1.1 What Causes Corrosion? Chloride ion is the main culprit. Corrosion of carbon steel rebars is greatly accelerated when chlorides are present in the concrete (along with the requisite moisture and oxygen levels to sustain the corrosion reactions). In some parts of the world, chlorides may be incorporated into the original mix due to their presence in the sand, aggregate or water. Most often, chlorides penetrate through the "cover" when the external surfaces of the concrete are exposed to seawater, marine atmospheres or de-icing salts. When steel corrodes, it forms an oxide layer. These corrosion products-oxides-have a larger volume than the original steel. This expansion puts pressure on the concrete cover. Since the concrete is already set and hard, it causes cracks as it expands to accommodate the larger volume of steel inside. This is the basic phenomenon of cracking or spalling of any concrete structure. Hence, carbon steel corrodes fast and reduces the load bearing capacity of the structure resulting in reduced life and collapse of the structure in extreme

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

M.C.E Hassan.

NEW GENARATION STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCEMENT BAR FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURE

case. This necessitates costly and time-consuming repairs and maintenance of the structure Deterioration of reinforced concrete caused by corrosion of the carbon steel reinforcing bars (rebars) is a worldwide problem. Here are some pictures showing the deterioration of structures due to carbon steel reinforcement

Several methods are currently employed in an attempt to reduce the corrosion of carbon steel rebars. Rebar coatings Increased concrete cover; Reduced water/cement ratios;

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NEW GENARATION STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCEMENT BAR FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURE

Corrosion inhibiting admixtures added to the concrete mix, Cathodic protection; Application of waterproofing membranes, penetrants and sealers on concrete surfaces, Electrochemical removal of chlorides.

These methods have their own advantages and limitations, but they all represent secondary efforts to control the corrosion However, there is increasing interest in the use of reinforcing materials that have inherently good corrosion resistance, thus minimizing the need for maintenance and monitoring of the structure. To address the problem at its source, we must focus attention on the steel reinforcing bar before it becomes encased in the concrete. In practice, stainless steel rebar has been used in many concrete structures to provide high strength and long term resistance to the corrosive attack of chlorides from road salt and harsh marine environments, as well as chlorides formed by concrete in which the rebar is buried, and may be the preferred option for bridges that are inaccessible for future maintenance (i.e. high traffic areas).

2. STAINLESS STEEL
Stainless steel is low carbon steel. Stainless is an alloy of iron with chromium content over 10.5%. Chromium is the alloying element that imparts to stainless steel their corrosion resistance qualities by combining with oxygen to form a thin, invisible, chromium oxide protective film on the surface. This means improved corrosion resistance, as can be seen in the Fig 1. (Reference 1) In the event that the protective (passive) film is disturbed or even destroyed, in the presence of oxygen in the environment, reform immediately and continue to give maximum protection. The protective film is stable and protective in normal atmosphere or mild aqueous environments, but can be improved by higher chromium and by molybdenum, nickel and

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NEW GENARATION STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCEMENT BAR FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURE

other alloying elements. Nickel is added to enhance corrosion resistance and also to improve engineering properties (cold and hot working, bending, welding etc.). Addition to molybdenum enhances resistance to pitting. This film protective layer is Uniform, Stable, Tenacious, Continuous, Self-repairing and Transparent

Effect Of Chromium

Fig 1.Corrosion Resistance of Stainless steel

3. TYPES OF STAINLESS STEEL Austenitic Ferritic Austenitic-Ferritic (Duplex) Martensitic

Some of the commonly used grades of stainless steel for rebar applications are type 304,316(austenitic) and 2205(duplex). The alloy is selected based on mechanical

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

M.C.E Hassan.

NEW GENARATION STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCEMENT BAR FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURE

properties and the expected exposure or corrosivity of the service environment, i.e. the level of corrosion resistance required. 3.1 Austenitic Austenitic is the most widely used type of stainless steel. It is made by adding nickel (from 8 to 25 percent) and increasing the chromium level (from 17 to 25 percent). Molybdenum can also be added (up to 7 percent) to increase the corrosion resistance. These stainless steels are not magnetic. They can be easily welded. Austenitic have exceptional resistance to high and low temperatures. The most common example is Type 304 (S30400)-the most widely used stainless steel in the world. The lower carbon version, Type 304L (S30403) is always preferred in more corrosive environments where welding is involved. Molybdenum (Mo) is added to some stainless steels to increase their corrosion resistance, particularly in marine and acidic environments. It increases an alloy's pitting and crevice corrosion resistance. These corrosion forms are caused by the common and highly aggressive chloride ion (Cl), which is present in salts, such as sea salt and table salt. When 2-3% molybdenum is added to Type 304 or 304L, we create Type 316 (S31600) or 316L (S31603) stainless steel. They are sometimes referred to as the marine grades of stainless steel. Basic properties: Excellent corrosion resistance in organic acid, industrial and marine environments. Excellent weldability (all processes) Excellent formability, fabricability and ductility Excellent cleanability, and hygiene characteristics Good high and excellent low temperature properties (high toughness at all temperatures) Non magnetic (if annealed) Hardenable by cold work only (These alloys are not hardenable by heat treatment

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NEW GENARATION STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCEMENT BAR FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURE

3.2 Ferritic Ferritic stainless steel has properties similar to mild steel but with the better corrosion resistance. These alloys are somewhat less ductile than the austenitic types. These are plain chromium stainless steels with varying chromium content between 12 and 18%, but with low carbon content. A commonly used grade is Type 430 (S43000) Basic properties: Moderate to good corrosion resistance increasing with chromium content Not hardenable by heat treatment and always used in the annealed condition magnetic Weldability is poor Formability not as good as the austenitic

3.3 Austenitic-Ferritic (Duplex) Austenitic-Ferritic (Duplex) Duplex stainless steels have a metallurgical structure that is a combination of both ferritic and austenitic. They have a high chromium content (from 18 to 26 percent) and a low nickel content (from 4 to 7 percent). Most grades also contain some molybdenum (from 2 to 3 percent). A common grade is 2205. Nitrogen (N) is added to some stainless steels, but is very important in duplex grades. It has several beneficial effects. Like nickel, nitrogen promotes austenite (especially important for welding) and, like molybdenum, it improves resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion. It also increases strength. Duplex stainless steels are inherently stronger, but a grade such as 2205, which contains about 0.15% nitrogen, has over twice the yield strength of Type 316L.

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

M.C.E Hassan.

NEW GENARATION STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCEMENT BAR FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURE

Basic properties: High resistance to stress corrosion cracking Increased resistance to chloride ion attack Higher tensile and yield strength than austenitic or ferritic steels Good weldability and formability

3.4 Martensitic Martensitic stainless steel contains mostly 11 to 13% chromium and is both strong and hard with moderate corrosion resistance. Martensitic stainless steels were the first stainless steels commercially developed (as cutlery) and have relatively high carbon content (0.1 - 1.2%) compared to other stainless steels. Type 420 (S42000) is a typical example Basic properties Moderate corrosion resistance Can be hardened by heat treatment and therefore high strength and hardness levels can be achieved Poor weldability Magnetic

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NEW GENARATION STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCEMENT BAR FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURE

4 PROPERTIES OF STAINLESS STEEL Physical and Chemical Properties of stainless steel are Presented in the Table 1 (Reference 2) Yield strength MPa (min)b 205 1480c 205 170 205 170 450 Tensile strength MPa (min)b 450 1720 515 485 515 485 620 Elong % (min)b 22 8c 40 40 40 40 25

Grade 430 420 304 304L 316 316L 2205


b c

UNS No. S43000 S42000 S30400 S30403 S31600 S31603 S31803 S32205

Family Ferritic Martensitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Duplex

Cr 17 13 18 18 17 17 22

Ni

Mo

C (max) 0.12 0.15 min

9 9 11 11 5 2.1 2.1 3 0.1 5

0.08 0.03 0.08 0.03 0.03

Annealed condition except for grades 420 Typical values

Table 1.Physical and Chemical Properties Of stainless Steel

4.1 Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel In terms of mechanical properties, stainless steels can be roughly divided into four groups with similar properties within each group: martensitic and ferritic-martensitic, ferritic, ferritic-austenitic, austenitic. The difference in the mechanical properties of different stainless steels is seen more clearly in the stress-strain curve below Fig 2 (Reference 3d)

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NEW GENARATION STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCEMENT BAR FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURE

From the graph we can say that, For austenitic grade as ultimate strength increases ductility also increases hence energy absorbing capacity also increases. But in case of martensitic as the ultimate strength increases ductility decreases at a very gradual rate and hence the percentage elongation also decreases

Fig 2 Stress-Strain Curve

IS STAINLESS STEEL COSTLY? It is a commonly held perception that stainless steel is "costly". There is only a grain of truth in this perception because the initial cost of stainless steel products will definitely be higher. However to work out the cost of ownership and usage over the design life of the structure, say 50 or 80 years, one has to include the initial cost and add the cost of maintenance, repair, replacement, downtime and other factors. This method called as the

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NEW GENARATION STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCEMENT BAR FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURE

life cycle costing (LCC) analysis, will show how much the choice of different materials is actually going to affect the cost of ownership and use of the structure. Viewed in this manner stainless steel always proves itself to be the most cost-effective choice over the design life of the structure or the product. The application could be a kitchen utensil, a railway coach, a handrail or an RCC structure. The end result is always the same stainless steel is cost-effective to the user.

5. LIFE COST ANALYSIS OF STAINLESS STEEL


UNEXPECTED COST ADDITIONAL OPERATING COST REPLACEMENT COST LOST PRODUCTION COST MAINTANANCE COST INSTALATION COSY MATERIAL COST

INSTALATION COSY MATERIAL COST

STAINLESS STEEL

CARBON STEEL

In developed countries, bridges, which were built about 50 years ago, are crumbling. Expensive repairs, which cost much more than the original cost of the project itself, are imposed on hapless governments, which have no other choice. Repairs also lead to largescale disruption of traffic, the economy and the lives of the commuting public. Because

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NEW GENARATION STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCEMENT BAR FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURE

of these reasons, they are now specifying stainless steel reinforcement bars for concrete for such mega projects. (Reference 3b) Take for instance the repair cost of Old Thane Creek Bridge. A-5 year life extension after just 10 years of service cost eight times the original cost (800% increase) Partial repair to Janak Sethu built in 1981 in Delhi cost Rs 32 crore in 1999, whereas the initial cost of the bridge was only Rs. 9 crore (250% increase). All of us witness the amount of distress in concrete in infrastructural projects in India. And at a time when infrastructure is being expanded in our country, introduction of stainless steel reinforcement bars for concrete may prove to be an ideal solution. We can also avoid the mistakes committed by the developed countries. The increase in overall cost of the project by the introduction of stainless steel reinforcement bars can vary from 0.5% to 15% depending on the design. But given the huge amount of savings in repair and maintenance, we feel that this increase is nominal and justified. Selective substitution: Maximum durability is obtained with total substitution of stainless steel rebar in the structure. However, recognition of the benefits of using stainless steel rebar has greatly increased interest in its application and stimulated research and development activity leading to selective substitution being considered as a means of achieving enhanced durability at minimum increase in initial cost. For example, enhanced durability can be achieved by substituting stainless steel for carbon steel rebar in the parts of the bridge considered to be at high risk to corrosion while the remainder of the reinforcement will be normal carbon steel. (Schaffhausen Bridge - Only half percent increase in initial project cost). Actual life costing Example-Oland Bridge, Sweden.

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Fig 4

NEW GENARATION STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCEMENT BAR FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURE

The situation with the bridges in Sweden is given in the Fig 4. On an average, most bridges need a repair between 18-22 years, at an average cost of the original cost of the bridge itself. If selective use of stainless steel rebar were to be made in the initial stages, there would have been tremendous savings for the government concerned, and the bridge would easily last over a hundred years -- trouble free. In the above example, the initial capital cost increase amounts to 4% for Type 304 and 8% for Type 316

To illustrate the point further, the costs associated with the UK Midlands Link Viaduct are given: Built in 1972 at a cost of 28 million, evidence of corrosion became apparent after two years of operation. By 1989, 45 million had been spent on repair. By 2010 it is estimated that a further 120 million will be spent on repair. Estimated first cost of installing stainless steel reinforcement in critical locations -- 3.4 million (i.e. a 12% increase in the initial cost of the via duct). The total cost of repair of the carbon steel reinforcement till the year 2010 would be 45 plus a further 120 million = 165 million or nearly six times the original

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cost of building the viaduct. For a 40-year service life of the viaduct, the price to be paid for not using stainless steel rebar is indeed exorbitant. Although the initial cost of stainless steel rebar is higher than carbon steel the use of stainless steel reinforcement in the viaduct would have been an extremely cost effective solution and an ensured trouble free life for over a century Marine pier in Progresso, Mexico

The marine pier in Progresso, Yucatan (Mexico), was built in 1937-1941A detailed account of the history and remarkable performance of this pier has been provided by Torben Skovsgaard (ARMINOX) and Asger Knudsen (RAMBLL) in the August/September 1999 issue of Concrete Engineering International. According to this publication, the 2.1 km long pier was constructed by a Danish contractor. Stainless reinforcement (Type 304) was incorporated in view of the severely corrosive exposure conditions and the relatively high porosity of the concrete. According to the Progresso Port Authority, no major repairs or significant maintenance activities have taken place over the lifetime of this structure. In contrast, severe degradation has occurred on an adjacent pier built much later, in the 1960's, with carbon steel reinforcement. The photograph shows the destruction of the conventional structure in the foreground, with the stainless steel reinforced pier in the background. An excellent comprehensive report on the history, inspection and condition of the Progresso pier has also recently been published by ARMINOX. This report documents inspection work performed in December 1998 by RAMBLL Consulting Engineers and Planners on the initiative by ARMINOX.

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NEW GENARATION STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCEMENT BAR FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURE

6. ADVANTAGES
The following benefits of stainless rebar inherently good corrosion resistance Corrosion resistance: Stainless steel's ability to resist corrosion has been well established in hundreds of applications in numerous industries. When embedded in concrete, rebar made of S31600, for example, shows superior (five to ten times better) resistance than that of carbon steel. Stainless steel rebar has been used in several highway overpasses and parapets in the U.K., Michigan, Oregon, New Jersey, and Ontario; in concrete structures constructed in aggressive marine environments; and in the repair and renovation of historic buildings. Ease of handling and shipping: Unlike coated rebar, stainless steel is much easier to work with during shipment and while on site. Its inherent protective oxide layer is resistant to damage; it cannot chip, crack or fail. Stainless steel is also easily welded and can be bent into desired shapes. Lighter structure (greater strength): When bridge-builders make use of either duplex stainless steel rebar or austenitic stainless steel that has been cold-worked, several design changes are possible. For instance, a thinner concrete cover could potentially be used on the deck of a bridge (reduced to, say, 50 millimeters), and because its mechanical properties (specifically, yield and tensile strengths) are superior to those of carbon steel, smaller-diameter stainless rebar can be employed. Also, if carbon steel rebar is replaced with stainless steel of a similar size, the space between the rebar latticework can be widened. Stainless is being considered in many expansion joint designs as well. Economical cost (life cycle cost analysis): Bridges constructed of stainless steel rebar can be expected to last more than 100 years. So when the total cost of repairing and maintaining carbon steel rebar in a concrete structure over this length of time is taken into account, the higher up-front cost of stainless is justified. Stainless rebar is so durable that new high-strength concrete mixes (containing, for example, bentonite,

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NEW GENARATION STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCEMENT BAR FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURE

plasticisers, superplasticisers or polypropylene) would likely be used in conjunction with the stainless rebar to utilize its long-life potential. Also, to reduce costs, stainless steel may be used only in those areas of a structure where carbon steel is judged to be at high risk of corroding. Fire and heat resistance: Special high chromium and nickel-alloyed grades resist scaling and retain strength at high temperatures. Impact resistance: The austenitic microstructure of the 300 series provides high toughness, from elevated temperatures to far below freezing, making these steels particularly suited to cryogenic applications Environmentally friendly: Once their service is complete, they should be 100% Recyclable, thereby completing the life cycle to be used once again. Stainless Steel is such a material. The longevity of stainless is the result of the alloying composition and, therefore, it has a natural corrosion resistance. Nothing is applied to the surface that could add additional material to the environment. It does not need additional systems to protect the base metal; the metal itself will last. Stainless steel products complete their service life. There is less concern about disposal since this material is 100% recyclable. In fact, over 50% of new stainless steel comes from old remelted stainless steel scrap, thereby completing the full life cycle. Durability: In composite structures like RCC bridges, 125 years of trouble-free service life can be guaranteed if stainless steel rebar is used Available in many different product forms - plates, sheets, strips, bars, rods, wires, wire products, tubes, angles, sections, fasteners, castings, extrusions etc. Good strength Good weldability for common rebar grades Good ductility for common rebar grades (capable of 3D 180E bends)

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NEW GENARATION STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCEMENT BAR FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURE

No coatings to chip, crack, deteriorate No coatings to damage and repair Good mechanical properties for common rebar grades at high and low temperatures

7. APPLICATIONS
Possible applications for corrosion resistant stainless rebar could include A host of marine structures such as bridge decks, sidewalks, ramps, parapets, pilings, barriers, retaining walls, anchoring systems, parking garages, sea walls, columns, piers, jetties and moorings Supports for reinforced concrete (i.e., bridge decks) Balconies and frames for front-elevation units Anchorages and any kind of joints Offshore platforms Framers and anchorages for damp environments, tunnels, Underpasses and subways Bridges, viaducts, overpasses Cement frameworks with magnetic characteristics Frameworks which are prone to breaking up due to frost or because of low temperatures Concrete slabs for drainage in environments with corrosive agents Supports/restoration for statues, monuments, cement, stone and marble works

Stainless steel rebar applications in various countries is listed below

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1) The marine pier in Progresso, Yucatan (Mexico), was built in 1937-1941.

2) A coastal replacement bridge under construction at North Bend, Oregon has used 2205 stainless steel rebar instead of carbon steel rebar for critical structural elements in a harsh marine environment. Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT), which has chosen to use 2205 duplex stainless, expects the new bridge to provide maintenance-free service for an amazing 120 years. That is 2.5 times the service life of the bridge it is replacing!

3) New Haynes Inlet Slough Bridge Completed state of the New Haynes Inlet Slough Bridge from north bank of the inlet, with retired timber trestle bridge at right and contractor's partially dismantled work bridge in left background.

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NEW GENARATION STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCEMENT BAR FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURE

4) More than 75 tons of Type 316LN stainless rebar was used for the Brush Creek highway bridge in Oregon (1998).

5) 165 tons of 2205 (duplex) stainless rebar were supplied for the new ramp of the Garden State Parkway in New Jersey (1998).

6)

Nuclear Plant in France: Stainless steel has been used to build ferroconcrete drums

for disposal of radioactive nuclear wastes. In this application, for safety reasons, is mandatory the use stainless steel in order to avoid cracks in the concrete (caused by reinforcing bars corrosion) and subsequent waste leaking

7)

Stainless steel reinforcement has been used in order to minimize future maintenance

work of the buildings. The Guildhall Yard East project in London, England (1996),

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NEW GENARATION STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCEMENT BAR FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURE

one of the most famous historic buildings in the center of the City of London utilized over 140 tons of Type 304 rebar. Although the new structures will not be exposed to deicing salts or a marine environment, the design engineers were looking for a very long design life, in keeping with the famous historic buildings on the site

8) 240 tons of Type 316 stainless steel rebar used in the road slab of an underpass at Cradlewell, UK (1995).

9) 46 tons of austenitic stainless rebar were used in a new laboratory building of the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington, United Kingdom . The austenitic grade reportedly used was 316S33 ribbed bar, in accordance with BS 6744. Sizes ranged from 8 to 40 mm diameter, with a dominant size range of 10 to 12 mm diameter.

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Stainless steel is also used in restoration works


10) Colosseo, Roma - Italy The work involved the partial restoration of the arena floor. The foundations in roman concrete were reinforced by stainless steel ribbed bars type AISI 304L in diameters 6, 8, 10, and 14 mm. The Archeological Superintendence of Rome supervised the works.

11) Rocco Church, Dolo, Venezia - Italy The work of restoration was realized employing stainless steel as the wall tie for the supporting structure.

12) San Benedetto Po bridge, Mantova - Road 43, Romana, Anas Milano Italy

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Maintenance work in the foundation decks and piers of the reinforced concrete bridge. The Stainless steel reinforcing was joined with existing mild steel reinforcing.

13) Glandstone Bridge, Queenslans, Australia The Gladstone Bridge was built in 1960 and showed corrosion of the reinforcing mild steel on the deck. The maintenance works have seen the use of 12 mm diameter stainless steel ribbed bars type 316L joined with the original carbon steel

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14) Stainless steel rebars were used in a Sea-front building restoration in Scarborough, UK (early 1980's). They were selected for stabilization of the sea wall, in-situ concrete on the promenade, and pre-cast units around the main entrance. Type 316 stainless steel rebar was utilized immediately adjacent to the sea, while Type 304 stainless reinforcing was applied further inshore. Conventional rebar was used well back from the sea front.

8. CONCLUSIONS
The primary intention of this paper is to create awareness on the substantial advantage one can get by using stainless steel as reinforcement in concrete structures. The following are the conclusions drawn from the study, Despite the initial cost, there is considerable potential in savings of life cycle cost, especially infrastructures, which are exposed to corrosive environment. Best suited material at all temperatures. Also stainless steel are suited for cryogenic applications.

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NEW GENARATION STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCEMENT BAR FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURE

Available in different grades and hence significant savings can be done. Also the material is available in different forms, which is more advantageous. Material is new generation and environmental friendly hence can be very rightly utilized as a new generation material for all applications.

9. REFERENCES
1. K Mani and P Srinivasan-Service life of RC structures in Corrosive Environment: A comparison of carbon steel And Stainless steel Bars - Indian Concrete Journal, Volume 75,1-12,2001. 2. Y Sakumoto, T Nakazato and A Matsuzaki- Properties of Stainless Steel For Building Structures- ASCE Journal Of Structural Engineering, Volume 122,16,199

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3. Web Site References: a. Use of Stainless Steel Reinforcement Bars for Concrete Structures-By Dr. N.C Mathur (President), Ramesh R Gopal (General Manager), Nickel Development Institute & Secretary Indian Stainless Steel Development Association, 55-A, Uday Park (ff) Khel Gaon Marg, New Delhi - 49 (Published in New Building Materials & Construction World - September 2000) b. www.ISSDA.com-Stainless Steel Assures Durability And Enhances Aesthetics Of Structures-By Ramesh R Gopal, Secretary, ISSDA and General Manager of NiDi. c. www.SSINA.com- Stainless Steel Bridge-New Bridge Uses Stainless Steel Rebar To Last 120 Years, CNC West Feature Article, August September 2002 Vol. XX No. 6 An Arnold Publication d. www.Outokumpu.com e. www.sustainable-development.gov.uk f.www.Key-to-Steel.com

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