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SERVXXXX November 2005 GLOBAL SERVICE LEARNING TECHNICAL PRESENTATION 966H AND 972H WHEEL LOADERS Service Training

SERVXXXX

November 2005

GLOBAL SERVICE LEARNING

TECHNICAL PRESENTATION

November 2005 GLOBAL SERVICE LEARNING TECHNICAL PRESENTATION 966H AND 972H WHEEL LOADERS Service Training Meeting Guide

966H AND 972H WHEEL LOADERS

Service Training Meeting Guide (STMG)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

5

Similarities and Differences

6

Component Location

9

ENGINE

13

Electrical Block Diagram

16

COOLING SYSTEM

22

POWER TRAIN

27

Power Flow

27

Transmission Hydraulic System

32

Power Train Electrical System

51

Component Locations and Functions

54

IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

71

Pilot System

73

Main Hydraulic System

79

Implement Hydraulic System Schematic

87

Implement Oil Cooling System

90

Autolube System

91

STEERING HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

93

Steering System Components

93

Steering Hydraulic System Schematic

100

STEERING AND BRAKE

107

BRAKE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

108

Brake System Schematic

108

Brake Component Locations

110

CONCLUSION

114

SLIDE LIST

115

HANDOUTS

117

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NOTES

966H AND 972H WHEEL LOADERS

AUDIENCE

Level II - Service personnel who understands the principles of machine system operation, diagnostic equipment, and procedures for testing and adjusting.

CONTENT

This presentation describes the location of the basic components on the engine, and the operation of the power train, implement, steering, and brake systems for the 966H and 972H Wheel Loader. This presentation may be used for self-paced and self-directed training.

OBJECTIVES

After learning the information in this presentation, the technician will be able to:

1. Locate and identify the major components in the C11 and C13 ACERT™ engine,

power train, implement, steering, and brake systems;

2. Explain the operation of each component in the power train, implement, steering, and

brake systems.

3. Trace the flow of oil through the power train, implement, steering, and brake

systems

REFERENCES

"966H Wheel Loader Specalog

AEHQ5657

"972H Wheel Loader Specalog

AEHQ5658

"966H and 972H Wheel Loader Service Manual

RENR8840

966H Wheel Loader Parts Book”

SEBP3743

972H Wheel Loader Parts Book”

SEBP3744

NPI Vol. 9, No. 1 "966H and 972H Wheel Loader

SERV7109

TIM "966G Series II Wheel Loader Power Train"

SERV2739

TIM "966G Series II Wheel Loader Hydraulic System"

SERV2740

Estimated Time: 1 Hour Illustrations: 32 Handouts: 4 Form: SERVXXXX Date: 11/05

© 2005 Caterpillar Inc.

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966H AND 972H II WHEEL LOADERS © 2005 Caterpillar Inc.
966H AND 972H II WHEEL LOADERS
© 2005 Caterpillar Inc.

INTRODUCTION

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1

This presentation discusses the component locations and systems operation of the 966H and 972H Wheel Loader. Basic engine and machine component operation will be discussed. The new C11 and the C13 ACERT™ engines, the power train, proportional priority, pressure compensated implement hydraulics, the steering, and braking system operation will be covered.

The 966H and 972H are medium wheel loaders in the Caterpillar product line. The serial number prefix for the 966H is A6D Aurora built (A6G Gosselies, A6J Sagami) and the serial number for the 972H Wheel Loader is A7D Aurora built (A7G Gosselies, A7J Sagami).

The 966H operating weight is approximately 23,100 Kg (51,000 lbs) and the 972H operating weight is approximately 25,000 Kg (55,400 lbs).

The color codes used for hydraulic oil throughout this presentation are:

Red

- System or high pressure

Red and White Stripes

- First reduced pressure

Orange

- Pilot pressure

Blue

- Blocked oil

Green

- Tank or return oil

Yellow

- Active component

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SERVXXXX - 6 - Text Reference 10/05 Component Location 2 This illustration shows the basic component

Component Location

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2

This illustration shows the basic component locations on the 966H and 972H. The component locations on the 966H and 972H are basically the same as in the G series II Wheel Loaders.

Power for the 966H is supplied by the C11 ACERT™ and the power for the 972H is supplied by the C13 ACERT™ engine. Power flows from the engine to the torque converter, to the Electronic Clutch Pressure Controlled (ECPC) transmission, through the output transfer gear to front and rear drive shafts. From the drive shafts, to the bevel gears in the differentials, and through the axles.

The wheel loader is equipped with a steering pump, steering valve and steering cylinders. Also, the machine is equipped with electrohydraulic implement control with a variable displacement implement piston pump supplying oil to the 3PC hydraulic valve located in the loader frame.

The machine may be equipped with an optional electric secondary steering pump that is installed inside the rear frame.

The wheel loader is equipped with an on demand hydraulic fan system and brake system that share a common variable displacement piston pump and accumulator charging valve. The oil uses a priority valve with the brake system having priority over the hydraulic fan system. The brake system includes the front and rear service brakes and hydraulically released parking brake.

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- 7 - Text Reference Vol. 5, No. 2, 2004 3 IMPLEMENT ELECTROHYDRAULIC SYSTEM The "H"
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3

IMPLEMENT ELECTROHYDRAULIC SYSTEM

The "H" Series Medium Wheel Loader is equipped with a Proportional Priority, Pressure Compensated (3PC) implement electrohydraulic system. The 3PC electrohydraulic system will sense a demand for a flow change and the implement pump will upstroke or destroke in order to provide the demanded flow.

The following components make up the 3PC electrohydraulic system.

- Implement Electronic Control Module (ECM)

- Lift and tilt position sensor

- Implement pump

- 3PC electrohydraulic control valve

- Lift and tilt cylinders

- Ride control accumulator

- Implement control levers

- Hydraulic tank (hydraulic tank is common to all the hydraulic systems)

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SERVXXXX - 8 - Text Reference 10/05 4 Implement Electronic Control System This diagram of the
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Implement Electronic Control System

This diagram of the Implement Electronic Control System shows the components which provide input and output signals to the Implement ECM

The Implement Electronic Control Module (ECM) receives input signals from the various sensors and switches on the machine, processes the input signals, makes decisions, and provides a corresponding signal voltage to the proportional solenoid valves. The Implement ECM stores information from the calibrations, machine settings and operational functions. The Implement ECM monitors diagnostic conditions and reports events to the Cat Monitoring System or to Cat Electronic Technician (ET). Also, the Implement ECM provides a means of calibrating the electrohydraulic components for optimal operation.

The Implement ECM shares operational data with the other ECMs and the Cat Monitoring System through the Cat data link.

The Implement ECM shares operational data with the other ECMs and the Cat Monitoring System through

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+24 Volts: Unswitched power supplied to the Power Train ECM from the battery.

Location code enable (grounded): The location code enable is a grounded input signal to the Implement ECM that enables the location code detection feature to become active.

Location code 4 (grounded) : The location code pin number 4 is a grounded input signal that establishes the ECM is dedicated to the Implement operation.

The output components which receive signals from the Implement ECM are:

Pilot solenoid valve: This ON/OFF solenoid valve is an output from the Implement ECM. This valve opens the flow of pilot oil to the pilot valves.

Raise solenoid valve: This proportional solenoid valve is an output from the Implement ECM. This solenoid valve sends a proportional amount of pilot oil to the raise end of the lift stem depending on the amount of current applied to the solenoid.

Lower solenoid valve: This proportional solenoid valve is an output from the Implement ECM. This solenoid valve sends a proportional amount of pilot oil to the lower end of the lift stem depending on the amount of current applied to the solenoid.

Dump solenoid valve: This proportional solenoid valve is an output from the Implement ECM. This solenoid valve sends a proportional amount of pilot oil to the dump end of the tilt stem depending on the amount of current applied to the solenoid.

Tilt back solenoid valve: This proportional solenoid valve is an output from the Implement ECM. This solenoid valve sends a proportional amount of pilot oil to the tilt back end of the tilt stem depending on the amount of current applied to the solenoid

Auxiliary HE solenoid valve: This proportional solenoid valve is an output from the Implement ECM. This solenoid valve sends a proportional amount of pilot oil to the head end of the auxiliary stem depending on the amount of current applied to the solenoid.

Auxiliary RE solenoid valve: This proportional solenoid valve is an output from the Implement ECM. This solenoid valve sends a proportional amount of pilot oil to the rod end of the auxiliary stem depending on the amount of current applied to the solenoid.

Low fuel pressure indicator: This indicator is illuminated when the fuel pressure is reported low from the engine ECM over CAT datalink.

Lower anti drift solenoid valve: This ON/OFF solenoid valve is a current output from the Implement ECM. The solenoid valve drains oil from the anti drift valve allowing the poppet to unseat and lift cylinder head end oil to flow through the valve.

oil from the anti drift valve allowing the poppet to unseat and lift cylinder head end

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The input components to the Implement ECM are:

Key switch ON: Input to the Implement ECM signaling the ECM to power ON.

Lift linkage position sensor: Sends a PWM signal to the implement ECM communicating the position of the lift linkage in relation to the loader frame.

Tilt linkage position sensor: Sends a PWM signal to the implement ECM communicating the position of the tilt linkage in relation to the lift linkage.

Lift lever position sensor: Sends a PWM signal to the implement ECM communicating the angle of the lift lever position sensor away from the calibrated HOLD position.

Tilt lever position sensor: Sends a PWM signal to the implement ECM communicating the angle of the tilt lever position sensor away from the calibrated HOLD position.

Auxiliary lever position sensor: Sends a PWM signal to the implement ECM communicating the angle of the auxiliary function lever position sensor away from the calibrated HOLD position.

Kickout set switch lift/tilt: Sends an input to the Implement ECM to recognize the desired raise/lower/tilt back kickout position.

Autodig trigger switch: Sends an input signal to the Implement ECM when the operator has pressed the switch to indicate that the loading cycle should begin.

Autodig select mode switch: Sends an input signal to the Implement ECM to signal if autodig should be off or in which mode it should operate (auto, operator trigger or record).

Autodig dig mode switch: Sends an input signal to the Implement ECM to recognize what type of operation is currently desired due to the type of material that is being handled.

Autodig kickout set switch: Sends an input signal to the Implement ECM to set the current position of the lift arms to be the position where autodig stops after a completed autodig cycle.

Lift head end hydraulic pressure sensor: Measures the pressure of the head end of the lift cylinder to determine operation of autodig.

Fine modulation switch: Sends an input signal to the Implement ECM to reduce the amount of current to the raise solenoid valve.

Hydraulic lockout switch: Sends an input signal to the Implement ECM to not energize the pilot solenoid valve to protect from inadvertent movement of the lift arms

Auxiliary continuous flow switch: Sends an input signal to the Implement ECM keep the auxiliary function output to the solenoid valve at the current that was being commanded at the time of the switch being depressed. This mode can be exited by depressing the switch again or moving the auxiliary lever.

time of the switch being depressed. This mode can be exited by depressing the switch again

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Dump anti drift solenoid valve: This ON/OFF solenoid valve is a current output from the Implement ECM. The solenoid valve drains oil from the anti drift valve allowing the poppet to unseat and tilt cylinder head end oil to flow through the valve.

Autodig operator trigger mode indicator: This indicator is illuminated when the Implement ECM recognizes that autodig operator trigger mode is activated.

Autodig Auto Trigger mode indicator: This indicator is illuminated when the Implement ECM recognizes that autodig auto trigger mode is activated.

Autodig audible indicator: This audible indicator beeps when the Implement ECM recognizes that a different autodig mode have beeen activated and to confirm a setting or to warn about failed autodig operations.

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1
1
2 3
2
3

The upper illustration shows the lift linkage position sensor (1). The lift linkage position sensor is located on the right side of the loader frame. The lower illustration shows the location of the tilt linkage position sensor (2). The lift linkage position sensor is located on the right side of the lift linkage. The tilt linkage position sensor shaft is attached to the tilt lever pin reflecting the rotation of the tilt linkage compared to the lift linkage.

NOTE: In order to calibrate the lift or tilt linkage position sensors, refer to the Service Manual module “966H and 972H Wheel Loaders Electrohydraulic System, troubleshooting ,testing and Adjusting - Position Sensor for the Lift and Tilt Linkage (Electronic Technician) - Calibrate or Position Sensor for the Lift and Tilt Linkage (Operator Monitor) - Calibrate” (Form RENR 8858)

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SERVxxxx - 13 - Text Reference 6/05 Implement C ontrol Levers 7 The implement control levers

Implement Control Levers

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7

The implement control levers send a pulse with modulated signal to the Implement ECM with the position of the control lever. In the HOLD position, the sensor in each lever sends a 50% duty cycle. The movement of each lever in the forward or reverse direction will increase the duty cycle to 90% or decrease to 10% depending to the direction that the lever is moved. The "H" Series machines are a self-contained single axis lever equipped with a single sensor and no mechanical or electrical detents. The frequency of the sensor is 500Hz.

The self contained single axis lever is equipped with "Soft detents". With "Soft detents" the control levers are no longer held in place mechanically. The detents are software controlled within the Implement ECM. When the control lever is moved in either direction into a area of movement with a slight resistance and the lever is released within 1 second, the actuator will continue to move until the software controlled kickout is reached.

When the control lever is moved in either direction and the lever is not released within 1 second, the actuator will continue to move under lever control.

During troubleshooting of a control lever or joystick, always move the control lever both fast and slow through lever movement. The duty cycle for the control lever can be viewed through Caterpillar ET.

The following are the functions of the control levers: Tilt control lever (1), Lift control lever (2), and Auxiliary control lever (3).

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SERVXXXX - 15 - Text Reference 10/05 9 Fine Modulation allows the operator to reduce the
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Fine Modulation allows the operator to reduce the lever sensitivity for the first 2/3 of lever travel (adjustable range) to provide better control of the linkage for smaller movements. The last 1/3 of lever travel increases to maximum modulation current to provide full flow to the cylinder.

The fine modulation value can be adjusted independently for the lift and tilt levers using the configuration screen in the ET Service Tool. The fine modulation default setting is 59 percent of the normal lever modulation current.

The fine modulation feature can be turned ON and OFF using the fine modulation switch in the cab on the right side armrest.

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1
1
10
10

The kickout set switch (1) is an input to the Implement ECM.

The kickout set switch is a momentary three position rocker switch located on the operator panel. The kickout set switch is used to set the kickout positions for the raise and lower kickout. When the switch is pushed, the ECM records the current position of the lift arm. The ECM uses the recorded position for the raise kickout position or the lower kickout position. If the upper position of the kickout set switch is depressed and the lift arm is above midway, the kickout will be set for raising the lift arm. If the upper position of the kickout set switch is depressed and the lift arm is midway below halfway, the lower kickout will be set. If the lower position of the kickout set switch is depressed the rotation of the tilt back will be set.

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1 2
1
2
8
8

The two switches that are located to the right of the operator’s seat control functions of the implement hydraulic system.

The hydraulic lockout switch (1) sends an input to the Implement ECM to shift the hydraulic lockout solenoid valve to the OPEN position.

The fine modulation switch (2) is an input to the Implement ECM. The fine modulation switch allows the operator to request a lower ramp up current relative to the standard lever curves during the first two-thirds of control lever movement. In the final one-third of the control lever travel, the commanded current is the same as the standard control lever curve.

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
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Autodig Control Arrangement

Autodig automatically controls the implement system cycles. At the same time Autodig limits the tire slippage by keeping the front tires loaded. There are three modes that Autodig can operate in: Automatic Pile Detection Mode, Operator Triggered Mode, and Record Mode.

The Autodig operation mode switch (2) activates Autodig when the top of the switch is pressed and deactivates Autodig when the bottom of the switch is pressed. When Autodig is ON, the spring-loaded switch is held in the center position. Pressing the top of the switch will allow the operator to toggle between the three operating modes. Autodig is disabled by default when the key start switch is turned ON.

The automatic pile detection mode indicator (5), operator triggered mode indicator (6), and the record mode indicator (7) flash ON and OFF to indicate the mode that is currently active.

mode indicator (6), and the record mode indicator (7) flash ON and OFF to indicate the

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The Autodig horn also indicates which mode is active by beeping once in the automatic pile detection mode, twice in the operator triggered mode, and three times in the record mode. The Autodig horn also sounds to indicate when Autodig begins and ends a bucket loading cycle.

The Autodig kickout position set switch (3) is used to set the lift cylinder kickout position when Autodig is activated.

The Autodig dig mode switch (1) is a 10 position rotary switch which provides a range of dig modes from the lightest material in position 1, to heavier or larger material in position 9. Position 10 on the Autodig dig mode switch is used for the record/playback position. By default, position 10 is identical to position 9 until the operator has recorded a bucket loading cycle.

Autodig will downshift the transmission to an appropriate gear for loading, based on the position of the autodig material selector switch. In positions 1 or 2 (light material), the transmission will downshift only to 2nd gear. The machine will load in 1st gear if already in that gear when bucket loading starts. With the Autodig material selector switch in positions 3 through 9, the transmission will automatically downshift to 1st gear upon pile entry, regardless of the position of the autoshift selector switch if the machine is in 2nd or 3rd gear.

Automatic pile detection mode automatically controls bucket loading. When loading is complete, the bucket and linkage return to the Autodig kickout position.

The operator triggered mode is used if the operator wants to control the loading cycle. In the operator triggered mode, Autodig is activated when the operator presses the trigger switch (4) to indicate when the pile has been contacted. After the trigger switch is pressed, the system automatically loads the bucket and returns the bucket and linkage to the Autodig kickout position.

Record mode allows the operator to record the bucket loading cycle and replay the cycle if the preprogrammed modes are not acceptable. Autodig records all lever movements while loading the bucket. The lever movements are stored in the record/playback position of the Autodig selector switch.

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SERVXXXX - 19 - Text Reference 10/05 12 The following conditions are required to properly load
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The following conditions are required to properly load the bucket with Autodig:

- Autodig is ON

- Lift linkage is less than 2 feet off the ground

- Bucket angle is less than 10 degrees from level

- Machine speed is greater than 0.7 kph and less than 12.3 kph

- Transmission is in 1st, 2nd or 3rd gear FORWARD

- No directional changes in last 2.0 seconds

- No gear changes in last 0.5 second

- Neutralizer is not active, and has not been active for the last 0.5 second

- Lift and tilt levers are centered

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SERVXXXX - 20 - Text Reference 10/05 13 IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM Implement Hydraulic System - Hold
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IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Implement Hydraulic System - Hold

The "H" series Medium Wheel Loaders are now equipped with a Proportional Priority, Pressure Compensated (3PC) implement hydraulic system. The 3PC hydraulic system is load sensing with a signal duplication valve, signal relief valve, pressure compensator valves, pressure differential relief valve, pressure reducing valve and a resolver network. Also, the 3PC valve has anti-drift solenoid valves for the lift and tilt functions.

The implement control valve is a closed center valve. The 3PC hydraulic system will sense a demand for a change in flow and the implement pump will upstroke or destroke to provide the flow.

The machine may also be equipped with an optional auxiliary function. The auxiliary section is installed between the ride control valve and the cover manifold.

an optional auxiliary function. The auxiliary section is installed between the ride control valve and the

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When the engine is started and the implement control levers are in the HOLD position, the implement pump supplies standby oil flow to the 3PC valve group.

The oil flows into the inlet manifold and is divided into two paths. The supply path for the implements flows through the inlet manifold into the tilt section where the flow path is divided again. One path flows to the tilt stem and is blocked. The second path flows to the lift control section, to the ride control section, to the optional auxiliary section, and to the cover manifold. Within the cover manifold, the oil flows to both the pilot pressure reducing valve (PRV) and the differential pressure relief valve. The differential pressure relief valve maintains a difference between the load sensing pressure and the pump supply oil pressure of 3000 kPa (435 psi). When all of the control valves are in the HOLD position, the implement pump is at low pressure standby. The differential pressure relief valve maintains the minimum pressure for low pressure standby. The standby pressure is directed to the pilot pressure reducing valve (PRV), and the pilot pressure reducing valve provides a regulated pilot oil pressure to activate the control valves as needed.

The pilot oil flows from the PRV through the check valve to the pilot accumulator and the hydraulic lockout solenoid valve. If the wheel loader is equipped with the optional Command Control Steering (CCS), the oil flow will be shared by the implement pilot system and the steering pilot system.

The hydraulic lockout solenoid valve is in the CLOSED position until the hydraulic lockout switch in the cab is activated. When the solenoid valve is energized, the solenoid valve opens and pilot oil flows to the various implement function solenoid valves.

The second path of oil in the inlet manifold flows through the screen to the signal duplication valve. The signal duplication valve uses highest work port pressure in the resolver network to supply an identical pressure to the pump control valve.

When all implement control valves are in the HOLD position, there is no load sensing signal in the resolver network. With no load sensing pressure present, the implement pump supplies low pressure standby.

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SERVXXXX - 23 - Text Reference 10/05 15 Implement Hydraulic System - DUMP When the tilt
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Implement Hydraulic System - DUMP

When the tilt lever is moved to the DUMP position, the Implement ECM energizes the dump proportional solenoid and the tilt anti-drift valve. As the control valve initially shifts to the left, and there is pressure in the rod end of the tilt cylinder, the pressure goes around the control spool to the bridge passage. The pressure in the bridge passage goes to the resolver network and to the signal duplication valve to upstroke the implement pump. The pressure also goes to the spring chamber in the center of the pressure compensator valve. The lower half of the pressure compensator valve shifts down to block the oil flow from the bridge passage to the feeder passage.

As the tilt control spool continues shifting to the left, pump supply oil flow around the center land on the control spool to the feeder passage. Oil pressure in the feeder passage lift the pressure compensator valve up. Pump flow goes the through the opening in the lower end of the compensator valve to the bridge passage. From the bridge passage the pump flow goes around the right end of the control spool into the work port to the rod end of the tilt cylinder.

Return oil from the head end of the tilt cylinder flow around the tilt anti-drift valve and the left end of the control spool to the tank port.

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- 24 - Text Reference Vol. 5, No. 2, 2004 16 Pressure Compensator Valve - HOLD
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Pressure Compensator Valve - HOLD Position

When the control spool is in the HOLD position, the load check spool and the pressure compensator valve are held down by the spring force on top of the load sense spool. Pump supply oil in the supply passage is blocked by the control spool. No supply oil from the supply passage flows to the feeder passage. Therefore, no load sensing pressure is directed to the implement pump control valve. The implement pump is destroked.

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- 22 - Text Reference Vol. 5, No. 2, 2004 14 Tilt Control Valve - HOLD
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Tilt Control Valve - HOLD

With the tilt control valve in the HOLD position, the springs on each end of the control spool keep the spool centered. The control spool blocks the flow of pump supply oil to the pressure compensator valve.

The bridge passage is open to tank through the internal passage in the control spool and there is no oil flow to the resolver valve. With no oil flow to the resolver network, there is no signal to the signal duplication valve and the signal pressure to the pump control valve is matching the oil pressure in the resolver network. The implement pump is supplying low pressure standby.

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- 25 - Text Reference Vol. 5, No. 2, 2004 Load Check Operation 17 This illustration

Load Check Operation

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This illustration shows the pressure compensator and load check valve in the load check operation. When the control spool is initially shifted to the left, work port pressure from the rod end of the cylinder (if any) flows around the right end of the control spool into the bridge passage. The pressure goes through the holes between the pressure compensator valve and the load check spool. The pressure moves the pressure compensator spool down and the load check spool up. With the pressure compensator valve shifted down, no pressure can go from the bridge passage to the feeder passage. The pressure compensator valve serves as a load check valve to hold the load up to prevent it from dropping.

The pressure in the bridge passage is directed through the resolver network to the signal duplication valve. The signal duplication valve generates a load sensing signal pressure equal to the work port pressure. The load sensing signal pressure is directed to the top of the spring chamber on top of the load sense spool. The load sensing signal pressure is also directed to the pump control valve to upstroke the pump.

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SERVXXXX - 221 - Text Reference 10/05 15 Pressure Compensator Operation Three compensators are shown in
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Pressure Compensator Operation

Three compensators are shown in various states in this illustration. The pressure compensator valve for valve "A" is in HOLD. The circuit with the highest work port pressure keeps the resolver valve closed.

The circuit with the highest work port pressure regulates the oil flow through all activated control valves. The highest work port pressure is directed through the ball resolver network to the pump control valve as the load sensing pressure

When a high pressure circuit is activated as shown for valve "C", the control spool is shifted and pump supply oil enters the feeder passage below the pressure compensator valve. Pressure increases and the pressure compensator valve moves up. When the valve moves up, supply oil enters the bridged passage of the control valve. Supply oil in the bridged passage enters the signal network sending the work port pressure to the signal duplication valve.

oil in the bridged passage enters the signal network sending the work port pressure to the

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The work port oil pressure goes to the signal duplication valve. The signal duplication valve is

a shock absorber. The valve uses work port pressure signal and the pump system pressure

signal to generate a stabilized load sensing signal which is sent to the pump control valve. The

pump control valve directs a pressure signal to the actuator piston to UPSTROKE the pump. The increased flow lifts the pressure compensator spool up. The flow goes through the bridge passage, around the control spool and out to the work port.

The signal oil also flows to the chamber above the compensator. The signal oil on the top of the pressure compensator valve works against the forces working below the pressure compensator. When the forces are in balance, the supply oil is metered through the cross- drilled holes in the pressure compensator to provide work port oil. The pressure of the signal oil is limited by the signal relief valve.

When more than one circuit is activated at the same time, the highest work port pressure is directed to the signal duplication valve. The signal duplication valve sends the signal oil to the chamber at the top of all pressure compensators valves.

With the same circuit pressure working on all pressure compensators, the pressure differential across all shifted control stems is the same, as shown in the illustration for the pressure compensator for valve "C" and for valve "B." The pressure differential across the control stems will be the same value whether the pump can supply the flow demand for all activated circuits or not.

For example, if the margin pressure is 2100 kPa (300 psi) the pressure differential between the pump supply passage and the feeder passage is approximately 2100 kPa (300 psi) regardless of what the circuit pressure is. With multiple valves activated, the individual circuit pressures will vary.

When the pump cannot meet the flow needs of all activated circuits, the pressure compensators will move down to proportion the pump flow in relation to the amount of control spool travel and pressure for each circuit. The pressure differential will be less than described in the example, but the pressure differential will be the same for all spools.

Valve "B" pressure compensator shows what occurs when an additional circuit is activated with

a lower circuit pressure than the first activated valve.

The pressure compensator valve will respond to changes in the circuit pressure by opening and closing off the passage between the feeder passage and the bridged passage to maintain a constant flow rate for a given control stem displacement. As the compensator opens and closes, the pressure differential across the compensator will vary in order to maintain a constant flow rate to the implement. The pressure differential across the main control spool is the same for all activated main control spools.

the implement. The pressure differential across the main control spool is the same for all activated

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The load signal from the valve "C" pressure compensator is directed to the top of the valve "B" pressure compensator valve with the lower circuit pressure. When the control spool is moved, pressure oil in the feeder passage moves the pressure compensator valve up. The pressure compensator valve does not move up enough to open the resolver valve to the signal network due to the higher forces working on the resolver valve.

The pressure compensator valve will respond to changes in the circuit pressure by opening and closing off the passage between the feeder passage and the bridged passage to maintain a constant flow rate for a given control spool displacement. As the compensator opens and closes, the pressure differential across the compensator will vary in order to maintain a constant flow rate to the implement, while the pressure differential across the main control spool is the same for all activated main control spools.

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- 26 - Text Reference Vol. 5, No. 2, 2004 18 Pressure Compensator Operation When the
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Pressure Compensator Operation

When the control spool is shifted farther to the left, the pump supply oil in the supply passage is directed around the center land of the control spool to the feeder passage. When pressure in the feeder passage increases to more than the pressure on top of the load sense spool plus the spring force, the pressure compensator valve and the load sense spool shift up. Pump flow in the feeder passage goes through the orifices in the bottom of the pressure compensator valve to the bridge passage. From the bridge passage the flow goes around the control spool to the passage to the rod end of the cylinder.

The tilt anti-drift valve is activated to allowing flow from the head end of the cylinder to be directed around the left end of the control spool to the tank return passage.

During a stall condition, the signal limiter valve in the load sensing signal valve and the margin spool maintains pump discharge pressure approximately 2100 kPa (300 psi) higher than the work port pressure. The pressure compensator valve can direct full pump flow to the bridge passage if demand for flow is great enough.

The pressure compensator valve can direct full pump flow to the bridge passage if demand for

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SERVXXXX - 27 - Text Reference 10/05 19 Implement Hydraulic System - Dump When the tilt
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Implement Hydraulic System - Dump

When the tilt control lever is moved into the DUMP position, a load sensing signal pressure equal to work port pressure is directed to the resolver network. The signal oil goes through the resolver to the top of the signal duplication valve. The signal duplication valve shifts down. Pump flow goes through the signal duplication valve to the bottom of the duplication valve and the orifice. The duplication valve and the orifice stabilizes the load sensing signal pressure to the pump control, the spring chamber on each compensator valve, and to the pressure differential relief valve. The load sensing pressure acting on the bottom of the pressure differential relief valve, the pressure setting is increased. The pilot pressure reducing valve limits maximum pilot pressure to 3450 ± 170 kPa (500 ± 25 psi). The implement pump oil flows through the cover manifold, regulated pilot oil is directed to the various implement function solenoid valves.

The load sensing signal moves the pump load sensing spool in the pump control valve to up stroke the pump. The signal circuit is also equipped with a choke check valve. The valve will allow free flow to the pump control valve. Also, the choke check valve will slow the signal flow return back to the hydraulic tank.

flow to the pump control valve. Also, the choke check valve will slow the signal flow

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With the control lever moved to DUMP direction, current proportional to the movement of the control lever is directed to the coil on the dump pilot solenoid valve. The solenoid valve sends a proportional amount of pilot oil to the dump end of the tilt stem. The tilt spool begins to shift upward. The lower end of the tilt spool is active.

Supply oil flowing through the inlet manifold is directed around the lands of the tilt spool to the load check valve. The check valve unseats. Supply oil flows to the tilt pressure compensator valve. The oil flow through the compensator valve is blocked. As the pressure at the top of the compensator valve increases, the oil pressure shifts the compensator spool downward. The supply oil flows through the compensator valve and back around the tilt spool to the rod end of the tilt cylinder.

The supply oil is directed to rod end of the tilt cylinder. Also, as the tilt lever is moved, the solenoid for the tilt anti-drift valve is energized. The oil from the head end of the tilt cylinder flows around the load check valve, through the tilt spool and back to tank.

Oil directed to the rod end of the tilt cylinder through the bridge passage is also directed to the tilt ball resolver in the resolver network. The work port pressure increases the pressure in the resolver network, the resolver ball shifts and blocks oil from any other resolvers in the network. The oil at the tilt ball resolver is directed to the top of the signal duplication valve.

The dump operation is also equipped with a makeup and line relief valve. The line relief valve regulates the pressure spikes caused by outside forces acting on the work tool. This allows the pressure spike to return to the hydraulic tank. This will prevent high pressure from damaging any components in the work tool or actuator. The line relief valve acts like a makeup valve, when the pump can not supply the amount of oil needed to fill the void in the cylinder. When the negative pressure occurs in the tilt cylinder, the valves moves off the seat and tank oil flows around the valve to fill the void in the cylinder.

NOTE: The pilot line used on the optional Command Control Steering has been removed form the illustration.

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SERVXXXX - 29 - Text Reference 10/05 20 Implement Hydraulic System - Raise When the lift
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Implement Hydraulic System - Raise

When the lift control lever is moved to the RAISE position, the lift lever position sensor sends a proportional electronic signal to the Implement ECM. The Implement ECM sends a corresponding proportional signal to the raise pilot solenoid valve. The Implement ECM also sends a fixed signal to the lift anti-drift valve. A proportional amount of pilot oil is directed from the raise pilot solenoid valve to the top of the lift spool. The lift spool shifts downward.

Initially, as the lift spool begins to shift, any work port pressure will enter the control valve and is directed around the spool to the feeder passage. The work port oil pressure goes through the holes in the pressure compensator valve to the area between the compensator valve and the load check spool. The oil pressure helps the spring force hold the pressure compensator valve down to function as a load check valve.

As the control spool shifts down, supply oil flows through the throttling slots into the supply passage. The pressure compensator valve will move up to the load check spool as the pump discharge pressure increases above the the work port pressure. The pump system oil pressure flows through the orifices in the pressure compensator valve to the feeder passage, around the lift anti-drift valve, and to the head end of the lift cylinder.

compensator valve to the feeder passage, around the lift anti-drift valve, and to the head end

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The pressure at the work port begin to increase which increases the pressure in the lift resolver network. The ball resolver moves downward and oil flows through the resolver network to the top of the signal duplication valve.

The signal duplication valve shifts and sends a matching resolver network pressure out of the duplication valve over the choke check valve to the pump control valve. The implement pump upstrokes to supply the flow demand.

Also, matching oil from the signal duplication valve flows to the pressure compensator valve working on the bottom of the compensator valve. As the pressure changes in the head end of the lift cylinders, the pressure compensator valve opens and closes to maintain a constant flow for a given control spool displacement.

If the machine is equipped with the optional ride control, the balance valve solenoid will be energized, allowing oil on the right side of the balance valve to go to the hydraulic tank. As the pressure in the head end of the lift cylinders increases to raise, the oil pressure on the left side of the balance valve will force the balance valve to shift to the right. Supply oil flows over the check valve, through the balance valve to the ride control accumulator, charging the accumulator.

With ride control not active, the head end solenoid valve is de-energized and the accumulator charge oil will block the flow of oil between the head end of the lift cylinders and the accumulator.

NOTE: The pilot line used on the optional Command Control Steering has been removed form the illustration.

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SERVXXXX - 31 - Text Reference 10/05 21 Implement Hydraulic System - Float When the lift
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Implement Hydraulic System - Float

When the lift lever is moved to the FLOAT position, the lift lever position sensor sends a proportional electronic signal to the Implement ECM. The Implement ECM sends a corresponding proportional electronic signal to the lower/float pilot solenoid valve. The Implement ECM also sends a fixed electronic signal to the lift load check valve.

Pilot oil flows from the lower/float pilot solenoid valve to the bottom of the lift spool and the lift spool shift up fully. System oil pressure is blocked. Also, oil flow through the pressure compensator loop is blocked. Oil from the head end and rod end of the lift cylinders along with the oil to the resolver network is open to tank.

In the FLOAT position, the pilot oil also flows to the resolver valve in the ride control control section, through the resolver network to the signal duplication valve. A matching signal (pilot pressure) is directed to the pump control valve from the signal duplication valve. The pump is upstroked to meet the demand required by the pilot pressure.

control valve from the signal duplication valve. The pump is upstroked to meet the demand required

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As the machine moves, the lift cylinders move up and down with the contour of the ground. The check valve allows oil to flow to the lift cylinders when the pressure in the lift cylinders drops below tank pressure.

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SERVXXXX - 33 - Text Reference 10/05 22 Implement Hydraulic System - Tilt Back And Raise
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Implement Hydraulic System - Tilt Back And Raise

When the lift control lever is moved to the RAISE position and the tilt control lever is moved to the TILT BACK position, the lift lever position sensor and tilt lever position sensor sends an individual proportional electronic signal to the Implement ECM. The Implement ECM sends a corresponding proportional signal to the raise pilot solenoid valve and the tilt back pilot solenoid valve. The Implement ECM also sends a fixed signal to the lift and tilt anti-drift valve. A proportional amount of pilot oil is directed from the raise pilot solenoid valve to the top of the lift spool and a proportional amount of pilot oil is directed from the tilt back pilot solenoid valve to the top of the tilt spool. The lift spool shifts downward.

Initially, as the lift spool begins to shift, any work port pressure will enter the control valve and is directed around the spool to the feeder passage. The work port oil pressure goes through the orifices in the pressure compensator valve in between the compensator valve and the load check spool. The oil pressure helps the spring force hold the pressure compensator valve down.

Identically, as the tilt spool begins to shift, any work port pressure will enter the control valve and is directed around the spool to the feeder passage.

to shift, any work port pressure will enter the control valve and is directed around the

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The work port oil pressure goes through the holes in the pressure compensator valve to the area between the compensator valve and the load check spool. The oil pressure helps the spring force hold the pressure compensator valve down to function as a load check valve.

As the cylinders start to move, the pressure at the work ports increase which increases the pressure in the resolver network. The ball resolver with the highest work port pressure moves seats and blocks oil flow back through the resolver network. The highest work port pressure flows through the resolver network to the top of the signal duplication valve.

The signal duplication valve shifts and sends the matching resolver network pressure out of the duplication valve over the choke check valve to the pump control valve. The implement pump recognizes a demand for increased oil flow and the pump upstrokes to supply the flow demand.

Also, matching oil from the signal duplication valve flows to the pressure compensator valve working on the bottom of the load check spool. As the pressure changes in the head end of the lift cylinders, the pressure compensator valve opens and closes to maintain a constant flow for a given control spool displacement.

If the machine is equipped with the optional ride control, the balance valve solenoid will be energized, allowing oil on the right side of the balance valve to go to the hydraulic tank. As the pressure in the head end of the lift cylinders begins to raise, the oil pressure on the left side of the balance valve will force the balance valve to shift to the right. Supply oil flows over the check valve, through the balance valve to the ride control accumulator, charging the accumulator.

With ride control not active, the head end solenoid valve is de-energized and the accumulator charge oil will block the flow of oil between the head end of the lift cylinders and the accumulator.

NOTE: The pilot line used on the optional Command Control Steering has been removed from the illustration.

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SERVXXXX - 35 - Text Reference 10/05 23 Implement Hydraulic System - RIDE CONTROL AUTO When
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Implement Hydraulic System - RIDE CONTROL AUTO

When the ride control system is in AUTO and the machine reaches the configured ride control ground speed, the ride control balance solenoid valve is de-energized by the Power Train ECM. After the ride control equalization time has expired, the Power Train ECM energizes both the ride control accumulator solenoid valve and the ride control rod end solenoid valve.

The head end solenoid valve connects the head end of the lift cylinders to the ride control accumulator. The ride control accumulator dampens the motion of the lift arms which makes the machine more stable. The rod end solenoid valve allows oil from the tank passage to flow into the rod ends of the lift cylinders when the lift cylinders move down.

When the machine is in ride control AUTO, the control levers are in the HOLD position, and the ground speed is more than the 9.7 km/h (6 mph), the control spools are in the HOLD position blocking all oil flow through the implement control valve to the cylinders. The resolver network is at tank pressure and the pump is at low pressure standby.

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When the ground speed reaches the ECM configured value of 9.7 km/h (6 mph), the balance solenoid valve will be de-energized and the balance spool will move in the direction needed to equalize the pressures on each end of the balance spool.

During the balancing operation, when the pressure at the right side of the balance spool is lowest, the spool shifts to the right and the implement pump supplies oil flow to equalize the pressure on both ends of the spool.

During the balancing operation, when the pressure at the left side of the balance spool is lowest, the spool shifts to the left and the pressure in the oil pressure in the accumulator flows to tank until the pressures on both ends of the spool are equal.

The Power Train ECM limits the time to equalize to one second (default). Then, the ECM energizes the balance solenoid valve. The oil pressure on the right end of the balance spool flows through the orifice to the hydraulic tank. The balance spool shifts to the right. Oil in the accumulator is trapped at the check valve.

After the one second balancing time, the rod end solenoid and the head end solenoid valves are energized. The oil pressure that holds the check valves locked is released to tank. The oil in the head end of the lift cylinders flows to the ride control accumulator. The accumulator cushions the forward and backward pitching motions of the machine.

At a ground speed below the ECM configured value of 9.7 km/h (6 mph), the rod end solenoid and the head end solenoid valves are de-energized. The check valves close and the spring force and the oil pressure hold the check valves closed.

NOTE: The one second balance default time can be reconfigured in Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET).

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SERVXXXX - 37 - Text Reference 10/05 24 Ride Control Valve - Auto/Travel Below 9.7 km/h
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Ride Control Valve - Auto/Travel Below 9.7 km/h (6 mph)

The main control valve is equipped with the optional ride control section to dampen the ride during machine travel. This illustration shows a sectional view of the ride control section of the main control valve with the ride control system in AUTO, the bucket off the ground, and the travel speed below 9.7 km/h (6 mph). With the head end solenoid valve de-energized, the oil between the head end of the lift cylinders and the ride control valve is blocked. With the rod end solenoid valve de-energized, the oil between the rod end of the lift cylinders and the valve is also blocked.

When the balance valve solenoid is energized, oil flow is blocked from the accumulator port to the left side of the balance spool. The blocked oil on the right side of the balance valve is above the tank pressure on the left side of the balance spool. The balance spool shifts to the left and oil in the accumulator port flows back through the balance spool and is blocked by the check valve. The check valve blocks all oil and any spikes from flowing back to the implement pump and causing damage to the pump.

The relief valve limits pressure in the accumulator port to 34,500 kPa (5000 psi).

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SERVXXXX - 38 - Text Reference 10/05 25 Ride Control Valve - Auto/Travel More Than 9.7
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Ride Control Valve - Auto/Travel More Than 9.7 km/h (6 mph)

This illustration is a sectional view of the ride control section with the ride control system in AUTO, the bucket off the ground, and the travel speed more than 9.7 km/h (6 mph). The balance valve solenoid is de-energized by the Power Train ECM. Oil pressure from the accumulator port flows around the solenoid valve to the left side of the balance valve. The balance valve will equalize the pressure between the head end of the lift cylinders and the accumulator port. Oil flow around the balance valve is blocked. The default time for equalization in the Power Train ECM is one second. After the one second equalization time, the balance solenoid is energized. The oil on the right side of the balance spool flows through the orifice and the hydraulic tank. The balance spool shifts to the right and the oil between the head end of the lift cylinder and the accumulator is blocked in the system by the check valve.

After the one second of equalization time, the head end solenoid valve and the rod end solenoid valve are energized. An oil passage is opened between the rod end of the lift cylinders and the tank port. The head end solenoid valve allows the oil blocked by the check valve is allowed to flow to the hydraulic tank. The check valve opens and oil flows between the head end of the lift cylinders and the accumulator.

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The head end solenoid valve and the rod end solenoid valve stay in energized until either the ride control switch is moved to the OFF position or the machine ground speed falls below 9.7 km/h (6 mph).

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This illustration is a transparent view of the ride control valve section. This view shows the location of the following components that are installed on the exterior and the interior of the section.

- Head end solenoid valve (1)

- Rod end solenoid valve (2)

- Pilot pressure reducing valve (3)

- Balance solenoid valve (4)

- Balance valve (5)

- Ball resolver (6)

- Check valve (7)

- Ride control relief valve (8)

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This illustration shows the location of the ride control accumulator (2) within the loader frame (1). Testing and adjusting, and service to the accumulator is completed at the articulation hitch. The charge medium for the accumulator is dry nitrogen.

Also shown is the location of the implement control valve (3).

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Implement Pump and Pump Control Valve

The Implement hydraulic pump for the 966H and 972H wheel loaders is a variable displacement piston type pump. The implement pump is installed on the accessory drive from the torque converter housing. The following is a list of components on the implement pump.

- Load sensing port (1)

- Case drain port (2)

- Pump inlet (3)

- Set screw (4)

- Maximum angle adjustment (5)

- Pump control valve (6)

- Pump outlet (7)

- Load sensing adjustment screw (8)

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SERVXXXX - 43 - Text Reference 10/05 30 Pump Control Valve - Engine OFF This illustration
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Pump Control Valve - Engine OFF

This illustration shows the pump control group components with the engine OFF. The swashplate pin connects the actuator piston is connected to the pump swashplate (not shown). The bias spring moves the actuator piston and the pump swashplate to maximum angle. The pump control valve group consists of a load sensing spool assembly, which consists of a load sensing spool and a load sensing sleeve. The load sensing spool is moved up or down by different signal pressures pushing on the piston on each end of the spool. The pump system pressure piston receives an internal signal pressure equal to pump system pressure. The load sensing piston receives a load sensing signal from the implement hydraulic control valve, which is equal to the highest work pressure. The signal relief valve (located in the implement control valve) limits the maximum load sensing signal to the load sensing piston.

Pump system pressure is directed through the orifice on the right side of the control valve group to the spring chamber in the upstroke end of the actuator piston and the center lands of the load sensing piston.

group to the spring chamber in the upstroke end of the actuator piston and the center

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The adjustment screw at the top of the actuator piston is used to the adjust maximum angle of the swashplate. The set screw at the top of the load sensing spool is used to hold the load sensing sleeve in position. The adjustment screw at the bottom of the load sensing spool is used to adjust the load sensing margin pressure for the pump. The spring at the bottom of the load sensing spool is the margin pressure spring.

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SERVXXXX - 45 - Text Reference 10/05 31 Pump Control Valve - Standby When the engine
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Pump Control Valve - Standby

When the engine is started, pump flow goes to the closed center control valves in the implement control valve group. The flow is blocked in the implement control valve. Pressure in the system increases, and the pump system pressure is directed to the top end of the actuator piston. Pump system pressure on top of the pump system pressure piston moves the piston and load sensing spool down against the force of the margin spring. The spool moves down until the upper opening of the spool opens a path around the load sensing spool to drain.

The opening to drain must open sufficient to provide a pressure differential across the orifice. With reduced pressure on the lower end and full pressure on the top of the actuator piston, the actuator piston moves the swashplate pin toward minimum angle.

In STANDBY, the pump is delivering minimum flow to compensate for leakage in the pump, for leakage in the implement control valve, and for the operation of the pump control valve.

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SERVXXXX - 46 - Text Reference 10/05 32 Pump Control Group - Upstroke When the control
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Pump Control Group - Upstroke

When the control lever or levers are moved to activate one or more implements, a load sensing signal, equal to the highest work port pressure, is directed to the lower end of the load sensing piston. The combined forces of the load sensing piston and the margin spring push the load sensing spool up until the center land on the load sensing spool closes the drain passage. The upward movement of the load sensing spool continues until the lower opening of the spool opens a path to the two metering ports. Pump system oil flows through the lower opening of the load sensing spool to the spring chamber of the actuator piston. The combined force on the the larger diameter of the actuator piston and the spring pushes the actuator piston and the swashplate pin up, increasing the swashplate angle to increase pump flow.

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SERVXXXX - 47 - Text Reference 10/05 33 Pump Control Valve - Constant Flow Demand When
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Pump Control Valve - Constant Flow Demand

When the flow demand is met, the force developed by the pump system pressure on top of the pump system pressure piston is equal to the force developed by the load sensing signal on the load sensing piston plus margin spring. When the forces are equal, the pump flow is constant and the load sensing spool is in the CENTER position.

The pump flow remains constant until a change in the flow demand occurs.

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SERVXXXX - 48 - Text Reference 10/05 34 Pump Control Valve - Maximum System Pressure This
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Pump Control Valve - Maximum System Pressure

This illustration shows the pump control valve with the load sense pressure at signal relief with one function activated.

When the work port pressure increases to the setting of the signal relief valve, the valve opens to limit the signal pressure to the bottom of the load sensing piston. Pump system pressure will increase to overcome the combination of forces on the bottom of the load sensing piston. The load sensing spool moves down to open the actuator piston spring cavity to drain. The pump system pressure moves the actuator piston and swashplate pin towards minimum angle. The pump destrokes to minimum flow.

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SERVXXXX - 49 - Text Reference 10/05 35 Pump Control Valve - Maximum System Pressure With
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Pump Control Valve - Maximum System Pressure With Added Flow Demand

This illustration shows the pump control valve with the load sense pressure at signal relief. When an additional function is activated, the pump system pressure slightly decreases. With less pressure on top of the pump system pressure piston, the force on the bottom of the load sensing piston moves the load sensing spool up. The load sensing spool restricts the flow through the upper opening to drain. The increased pressure on the larger area of the actuator piston plus the bias spring pushes the actuator piston up. The pump upstrokes to meet the added flow demand.

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Implement Valve

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This illustration shows a side view of the implement control valve out of the loader Frame. The following components can be seen in this view:

Pilot accumulator (1)

Ride control balance solenoid valve (2)

Rod end solenoid valve (ride control) (3)

Tilt Back Line Relief valve (4)

Tilt Anti-drift valve (5)

Signal relief valve (6)

Signal duplication valve (7)

Pilot pressure reducing valve (8)

Balance valve (ride control) (9)

Lower pilot valve housing (10)

Lower solenoid valve (11)

Tilt back pilot valve housing (12)

Tilt back solenoid valve (13)

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- 51 - Text Reference Vol. 5, No. 2, 2004 37 Differential Pressure Relief Valve During
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Differential Pressure Relief Valve

During normal working conditions, the pressure difference between the pump delivery pressure and the load sensing signal pressure is maintained at 1960 kPa (285 psi) or less. When the load sensing signal pressure reaches its maximum pressure based on the signal relief valve, the maximum pressure setting from pump delivery pressure is limited to 2950 kPa (430 psi) higher than the load sensing signal pressure.

When the machine movement is stopped, the main control valve returns to the NEUTRAL position. At this time, the load signal pressure from the implement circuit is blocked from the pump regulator. Since the pumps have not destroked, the pump delivery pressure flowing into the pressure differential relief valve increases. The pressure difference between the pump delivery pressure and the load signal pressure also increases.

If the differential pressure exceeds 2950 kPa (430 psi) the load sensing signal differential pressure relief valve opens, and pump delivery pressure is immediately drained into the return passages and the oil returns to the hydraulic tank.

The differential pressure relief valve will maintain the 2950 kPa (430 psi) difference between pump delivery pressure and the load sensing signal pressure.

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- 52 - Text Reference Vol. 5, No. 2, 2004 Pressure Reducing Valve 38 The pressure

Pressure Reducing Valve

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The pressure reducing valve regulates the oil pressure in the pilot system. The pilot oil from the implement pump flows into the valve through the holes in the spool, to the center of the spool. Then, the regulated oil flows out of the left end of the reducing valve to the pilot accumulator. Also, the pilot oil flows through the orifice into the left spring cavity. The force of the oil pressure acting on the ball is not sufficient to override the force of the right spring. The right spring holds the ball on the seat.

When the oil pressure flowing into the valve is below 3445 kPa (500 psi), the spool blocks the flow of any pilot oil to the hydraulic tank.

NOTE: For adjustment procedures for the pressure reducing valve, refer to the Service Manual module (RENR8858) Troubleshooting Testing and Adjusting 966H and 972H Wheel Loaders Electrohydraulic System. Pilot Pressure to the Main Control Valve - Check.

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- 53 - Text Reference Vol. 5, No. 2, 2004 39 Pressure Reducing Valve - Above
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Pressure Reducing Valve - Above The Adjusted Pressure

As the oil pressure from the implement pump increases, the reducing valve will regulate the pressure in the pilot system. The following steps occur to regulate the oil to the adjusted pressure.

The pilot oil flows into the center of the spool through the holes in the spool to the pilot accumulator and the hydraulic lockout solenoid. When the solenoid valve is energized and one or more of the control levers are moved, the pressure in the pilot system will increase above the adjusted pressure of the reducing valve. The oil flow through the orifice into the spring cavity. The oil pressure rises above the adjusted setting and and the force of the oil pressure overrides the force of the spring. The ball and retainer is moved off the seat.

The oil in the spring cavity to the right is allowed to flow to the hydraulic tank. The force of the oil pressure is greater than the force of the left spring allows the spool to override the spring. The spool moves and blocks the oil supply from implement pump. The spool shifts to the right to allow the groove in the spool to clear the hydraulic tank passage. Enough oil flows from the pilot system through the passage regulating the pressure to the adjusted setting.

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If the pilot oil pressure can not be correctly adjusted, check the for proper operation in the differential pressure relief valve and the load sense signal to the differential pressure relief valve is correct.

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SERVxxxx - 54 - Text Reference 6/05 Load Sense Pressure Tap 40 The access to the

Load Sense Pressure Tap

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The access to the load sense pressure tap is on the right side of the machine at the articulation hitch.

This pressure tap is used to measure the load sense pressure between the pump control valve and the signal duplication valve.

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The following components are located on the implement control valve:

1. Head end solenoid valve (ride control)

2. Hydraulic lockout valve

3. Margin relief valve

4. Lift anti-drift valve

5. Dump

6. Dump pilot valve housing

7. Dump solenoid valve

8. Raise Solenoid valve

9. Raise pilot valve housing

10. Ride control relief valve

line relief valve (rod end)

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The following components can be seen from the left rear of the control valve:

- Tilt pressure compensator valve (1)

- Lift pressure compensator valve (2)

- Head end solenoid valve (ride control) (3)

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This illustration shows a transparent view of the inlet manifold on the implement control valve. The signal relief valve (1) limits the signal pressure to the load sensing spool which controls the maximum pump system pressure.

Signal duplication valve (3) duplicates the true load signal received from the work port.

Orifice (2) is used to stabilize the duplicated load sensing signal that is being directed to the tops of the pressure compensator spools and the load sensing spool in the pump control valve.

Implement control valve return to the hydraulic tank (4). Implement control valve inlet (5)

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Signal Duplication Valve

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The work port pressure pushes on the right end of the signal duplication valve spool pushing it to the left. When the spool shifts left, a passage allowing pump delivery pressure to enter the outer chamber is opened. At the same time, the drain passage to the hydraulic tank is closed. Pump delivery pressure enters the center passage of the signal duplication valve spool through an orifice and pump delivery pressure pressurizes the center passage of the signal duplication valve. The pressurization of the center passage creates the duplicated work port pressure.

The duplicated work port pressure on the left end of the signal duplication valve spool moves the spool to the right. When the signal duplication valve spool moves to the right, the passage for pump delivery pressure partially closes and the drain passage partially opens. The duplicated work port pressure on the left end of the signal duplication valve spool is reduced. True load signal pressure on the right end moves the signal duplication valve spool to the left until the work port pressure and the duplicated work port pressure is equal.

The duplicated work port pressure is sent from the left end of the signal duplication valve spool into the load sensing signal network.

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- 60 - Text Reference Vol. 5, No. 2, 2004 46 Signal Relief Valve - Below
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Signal Relief Valve - Below The Adjusted Pressure Setting

When the machine is under a load condition, the signal relief valve operates in the following manner. From the signal duplication valve, the duplicated load sensing signal flows through the orifice in two directions. One direction flows to the pressure compensator valve in each control valve section. The second path flows as a load sensing signal to the signal relief valve, through the choke check valve, and to the pump control valve.

In the signal relief valve, load sensing signal oil enters the signal relief valve on the left end. The spring force being greater than the force of the load sensing signal the poppet is held against the seat. No signal oil is allowed to flow to the hydraulic tank.

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Signal Relief Valve - Above The Adjusted Pressure Setting

When the force of the load sensing oil at the left end of the signal relief valve is above the force of the spring, the poppet moves off the seat, and a small amount of oil drains through the passage to the hydraulic tank. The signal relief valve functions like a signal relief valve.

As a result, the load sensing signal is maintained at the adjusted pressure setting of the signal relief valve.

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- 62 - Text Reference Vol. 5, No. 2, 2004 Line Relief - Closed 48 When

Line Relief - Closed

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When the control valves for the cylinders are in the NEUTRAL position, spring force on the poppet and the inner and outer springs to the right of the piston keep the spool moved to the left in the closed position.

The line relief valves limits the circuit pressure to the adjusted pressure setting.

The pressure between the cylinder and the main control valve pressurizes the line relief valve. The pressure oil flows in the center passage of the spool into the inner spring and outer spring chamber. During normal conditions, the oil pressure is lower than the line relief valve pressure setting and the valve remains in the CLOSED position by the force of the spring on the poppet. The oil pressure in the inner spring chamber and the passage to the cylinder are equal. The surface area of the right side of the spool is larger than the area on the left side of the spool.

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With the oil pressure equal on both sides of the spool, the spring force of the inner spring and outer spring assist in keeping the spool seated. Therefore, the force on the right side is greater than the force on the left side and the spool remains seated to the left. The pressure oil does not flow to the return passages and to the hydraulic tank.

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- 64 - Text Reference Vol. 5, No. 2, 2004 49 When the high oil pressure
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When the high oil pressure in the passage between the main control valve and the cylinder exceeds the line relief valve setting, the line relief valve overcomes the force of the spring on the poppet. The reduced pressurized oil in the spring chamber flows into the poppet chamber and the low pressure oil from there flows into the return passages within the valve and returns to the hydraulic tank.

At the same time, the high pressure oil in the passage to the cylinder pushes the spool to the right overcoming the force of the inner spring and outer spring until the piston come in contact with the left end of the valve. At this time, the high pressure oil also flows through the opening in the seat to the return passages and back to the hydraulic tank.

When the high pressure oil in the passage between the cylinder and the main control valve reach the specified pressure setting of the line relief valve, the spring force on the poppet moves the poppet to the left seating the poppet. With the poppet seated, the oil pressure in the spring chamber will raise to be equal to that of the main passage. With the oil pressure in the spring chamber equal to that of the main passage pressure, the spring force of the inner spring and outer spring will move the spool to the left blocking the oil flow through the opening in the seat.

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- 65 - Text Reference Vol. 5, No. 2, 2004 50 When oil from one end
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When oil from one end of the cylinder is discharged through the line relief valve, a vacuum condition is created on the opposite end of the cylinder. Makeup oil is needed to prevent the vacuum condition in the cylinder. Also, during the operation of the machine in certain conditions, it is possible to create a vacuum condition on one end of the cylinder.

When the vacuum condition occurs on the end of the cylinder, that vacuum also occurs in the spring chamber of the line relief valve. At this point, the return oil is now at a higher pressure than the oil in the passage between the cylinder and the main control valve.

When this occurs, the higher pressure return oil flows through the return passage into the poppet chamber. The return oil pressure works with the spring acting on the poppet, keeping it seated to the left. Simultaneously, the return oil pushes on the shoulder area of the sleeve pushing it to the right. When the sleeve moves to the right, the spool also moves to the right.

However, as the sleeve moves to the right, a passage opens between the return passage to the hydraulic tank and to the passage to the cylinder. Return oil flows from the return passage into the main passage in order to remove the vacuum condition in the cylinder.

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This illustration shows the lift section of the implement control valve with the lift body section in transparent. The following is a list of components that are in the interior of the valve.

Pressure compensator valve (1)

Load check spool (2)

Load check spool spring (3)

Check valve (ride control) (4)

Lift anti-drift valve (5)

Lower solenoid valve (6)

Lift resolver valve (7)

Lift stem (8)

Raise solenoid valve (9)

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SERVXXXX - 67 - Text Reference 10/05 POWER TRAIN 52 This illustration shows the major components

POWER TRAIN

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This illustration shows the major components in the power train.

Power from the engine flows to a 360 mm (14.5 inch) diameter torque converter. The torque converter output shaft is splined to the input shaft of the electronically controlled power shift transmission.

The transmission output shaft is splined to the output transfer gear. The output transfer gear transmits power from the transmission to the front and rear drive shafts.

Power from the transmission output shaft flows through the front drive shaft and the parking brake to the front pinion, bevel gear, differential and axles to the final drives.

Power from the transmission output shaft also flows through the rear universal joint group to the rear pinion, bevel gear, differential and axles to the final drives.

Power train movements and operations are controlled through the Power Train ECM.

and axles to the final drives. Power train movements and operations are controlled through the Power

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SERVXXXX - 68 - Text Reference 10/05 53 The Power Train Electronic Control Module (ECM) is
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The Power Train Electronic Control Module (ECM) is the central component in the electronic control system. The ECM is located at the right rear of the cab. The rear panel must be removed for access to the ECM. The Power Train ECM will be located behind the operator’s seat and have the connectors horizontal to each other.

The ECM makes decisions based on switch-type and sensor input signals and memory information. Input signals to the ECM come from the operator's station, the machine, and the transmission.

The operator's station input components consist of direction and shift switches, the neutralizer and neutralizer override switches, the park brake switch, the key start switch, and the Auto/Manual select switch. Optional switch inputs are the ride control switch and the secondary steer test switch.

The machine input components are the engine speed sensor, the primary steering pressure switch, the optional secondary steering pressure switch and the Caterpillar Monitoring System message center module.

The transmission input components are the transmission oil temperature sensor, the torque converter output speed sensor, and the two transmission output speed sensors.

The ECM communicates with other electronic control modules, such as the Caterpillar Monitoring System, the Engine Electronic Control Module (ECM) and the Electrohydraulic Electronic Control Module (ECM), through the Cat Data Link. The Cat Data Link allows the transmission ECM to receive and send information.

The power train and the implement use the same A4M1 Electronic Control Module (ECM). To enable the ECM for power train functions, contact (J1-27) is grounded. Contact (J1-32) is grounded in order to enable the ECM.

the ECM for power train functions, contact (J1-27) is grounded. Contact (J1-32) is grounded in order

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The Power Train ECM responds to machine control decisions by sending a signal to the appropriate circuit which initiates an action. For example, the operator selects an upshift with the shift lever. The Power Train ECM interprets the input signals from the shift lever, evaluates the current machine operating status and energizes the appropriate modulating valve.

The Power Train ECM receives three different types of input signals:

1. Switch input: Provides the signal line to battery, ground, or open.

2. PWM input: Provides the signal line with a square wave of a specific frequency and a varying positive duty cycle.

3. Speed signal: Provides the signal line with either a repeating, fixed voltage level pattern signal or a sine wave of varying level and frequency.

The Power Train ECM has three types of output drivers:

1. ON/OFF driver: Provides the output device with a signal level of +Battery voltage (ON) or less than one Volt (OFF).

2. PWM solenoid driver: Provides the output device with a square wave of fixed frequency and a varying positive duty cycle.

3. Controlled current output driver: The ECM will energize the solenoid with 1.25 amps for approximately one half second and then decrease the level to 0.8 amps for the duration of the on time. The initial higher amperage gives the actuator rapid response and the decreased level is sufficient to hold the solenoid in the correct position. An added benefit is an increase in the life of the solenoid.

The Power Train ECM controls the transmission speed and directional clutches. The Power Train ECM interprets signals from the shift lever to signal the transmission to perform the following options: Upshift, Downshift, Forward Neutral, and Reverse.

The Power Train ECM communicates through the CAT Data Link. The CAT Data Link allows high speed proprietary serial communications over a twisted pair of wires. The CAT Data Link allows different systems on the machine to communicate with each other and also with service tools such as Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET).

The Power Train ECM has built-in diagnostic capabilities. As the Power Train ECM detects fault conditions in the power train system, it logs the faults in memory and displays them through the Caterpillar Monitoring System.

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SERVXXXX - 70 - Text Reference 10/05 54 Power Train Electrical System This illustration shows the
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Power Train Electrical System

This illustration shows the input components which provide power or signals to the Power Train ECM.

Power Train ECM Inputs:

Shift lever (Forward, Neutral, Reverse and Gear): Combines control of the transmission shifting to a single input device. The shift lever can be pushed forward, backward, or placed in

the middle position for machine direction. The lever is rotated in order to change the speeds of

the transmission

Unit (HMU) steering.

Direction Switch (Forward, Neutral, Reverse, Upshift, and Downshift): Combines control of the transmission shifting with a single input device. The 3 position switch controls direction and the 2 thumb-switches controls upshift and downshift. This is the control for shifting that comes with the Command Control Steering (CCS).

Key Start switch: Provides a signal to the Power Train ECM when the operator wants to start the engine. The direction switch/shift lever must be in the NEUTRAL position before the Power Train ECM will permit engine starting.

This

is the standard control for shifting that comes with the Hand Metering

Power Train ECM will permit engine starting. This is the standard control for shifting that comes

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Variable Shift Control: The variable shift control switch is an input of the power train ECM. The switch allows the selection of a range of shifting points in the Power Train ECM for each speed. The switch has three inputs to the power train ECM.

Transmission output speed sensors: These sensors measures the transmission output speed in the range of 25 to 3000 rpm. By looking at the difference in phase in between these 2 sensors, direction can be told.

Torque converter output speed sensor: Measures the torque converter speed in the range of 25 to 3000 rpm.

Auto/manual gear selector switch (HMU): Signals the Power Train ECM which shift mode the operator wants to operate on a standard machine. The operator can select between manual shifting or automatic shifting in the range of gears 4 to 2 or in the range of gears 4 to 1. Maximum gear, if lower gear than 4 is desired, will be determined by the shift lever position.

Auto/manual gear selector switch (CCS option): Signals the Power Train ECM which shift mode the operator wants to operate on a machine with the optional Command Control Steering. The operator can select between manual shifting and automatic shifting with maximum gear of 4, 3 or 2 and also a 4 to 1 range shifting mode.

Primary steering pressure switch: Sends a signals the Power Train ECM if the primary steering system loses steering oil flow.

Secondary steering pressure switch: It tells the ECM if the secondary steering pump is correctly building up pressure. When the pump is running and we still do not see pressure a warning indicator is lit. It is mostly used as feedback for the startup test and the manual switch test to ensure that the system is working properly.

Left pedal position sensor: Signals the position of the torque converter pedal to the Power Train ECM. The position of the pedal is being used to downshift the transmission and neutralize the transmission during operation. Both the downshift and neutralization function of the pedal can be disabled and hence the pedal would function as a brake pedal only

Parking brake pressure switch: Provides a signal the Power Train ECM when the park brake is engaged or disengaged.

Ride control switch (ON/OFF/AUTO): Signals the Power Train ECM which mode the operator wants to operate. The operator should never operate in ON mode since this is the service mode.

ECM which mode the operator wants to operate. The operator should never operate in ON mode

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Transmission neutralizer disable Switch: Provides an input to the Power Train ECM that will disable the the left pedal neutralization of the transmission.

Transmission oil temperature sensor: Provides an input to the Power Train ECM with the temperature of the transmission oil.

Implement pod downshift switch: The downshift switch provides an input to the Power Train ECM to downshift the transmission. This switch is only used on a HMU steering machine.

Engine speed tach signal: The engine speed is sent over a single wire to the Power Train ECM from the Engine ECM.

Location code enable (grounded): The location code enable is a grounded input signal to the Power Train ECM that enables the location code detection feature to become active.

Location code 2 (grounded) : The location code pin number 2 is a grounded input signal that establishes the ECM is dedicated to the Power Train operation.

CAN Data Link (J1939): The Power Train ECM receives engine speed over the CAN Data Link.

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SERVXXXX - 73 - Text Reference 10/05 55 Engine Start Switch and Diagnostic Service Tool Connector
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Engine Start Switch and Diagnostic Service Tool Connector

The engine start switch (1) signals the Power Train ECM that the operator wants to start the engine. The ECM determines if the transmission directional switch (not shown) is in the NEUTRAL position. When the directional switch is in the NEUTRAL position and the key start switch (1) is turned to the START position, the ECM energizes the starter relay.

The diagnostic service tool connector (2) for a laptop computer using Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) are on the front panel on the right side.

A laptop computer with ET can be used for calibrating, checking and clearing fault codes, and monitoring system inputs and outputs for troubleshooting the transmission system.

Also shown are the the hazard switch (3), and the 12 Volt adapter socket (4).

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SERVXXXX - 74 - Text Reference 10/05 56 Transmission Shift Lever This is a picture of
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Transmission Shift Lever

This is a picture of the standard type of transmission shift lever control group that is found on the 966H/972H Wheel Loaders. This control group is found on machines with conventional (HMU) steering systems.

The shift lever is mounted on the left side of the steering column. The operator moves the shift lever forward to travel in the FORWARD direction or toward the rear to travel in the REVERSE direction.

FIRST through FOURTH speeds are selected by rotating the shift lever.

When the transmission is in the Manual mode, the Power Train ECM allows the shift lever to control the transmission. The transmission ECM shifts the transmission to the exact gear and direction shown on the shift lever.

When the transmission is in the Automatic mode, the shift lever selection is the maximum gear the transmission will obtain. The transmission ECM will automatically select the correct speed clutches (SECOND, THIRD or FOURTH) based on the engine and transmission output speeds.

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Transmission Shift Control

This illustration shows the transmission shift control for the optional Command Control Steering (CCS).

The directional control switch (1), and the upshift/downshift switch (2) are mounted on the left side of the half moon shaped steering wheel.

The directional control switch is a three position switch with which the operator selects either FORWARD (toggle forward), NEUTRAL (center position), or REVERSE (toggle backward) directions. The switch position the operator selects closes (grounds) that contact while the remaining two contacts stay open. Closing a switch contact sends a signal to the Power Train ECM indicating the direction selected by the operator.

The upshift switch/downshift switch are identical in construction and operation. When the operator wants to manually shift to a higher or lower gear, the upshift switch or downshift switch is pressed. Each switch has two input connections at the Power Train ECM. When the switches are not activated, one connection is closed (grounded) and the other connection is open. When the operator pushes the upshift or downshift switch, the selected switch momentarily reverses connections to signal the Power Train ECM to change the desired speed.

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This illustration shows the location of the ride control ON/OFF/AUTO switch (1). The ride control switch has three positions. In the center position, ride control is disabled. In the UP position (as shown) the ride control switch is in the AUTO position. With the switch in AUTO, the ride control system will be enabled when the machine is traveling at least 9.5 km/h (6.0 mph). The SERVICE position (as shown on the switch) is used for service to the ride control system, and the ride control system is always ON.

The transmission neutralization disable switch (2) is used to disable the neutralization of the left brake pedal. By pressing the upper section of the switch will activate the override. When the neutralization is disabled, the left brake pedal will not neutralize the transmission, but will downshift the transmission and apply the service braks. The switch is a momentary switch.

Heated mirror switch (3) enables the heated mirror relay that is located behind the operator seat below the Power Train ECM.

If the machine is equipped with the optional secondary steering, there will be a secondary steering test switch (4) mounted in the blocked position on the panel. When the switch is depressed it feeds a ground signal to a relay and also to a switch input on the Power Train ECM. The relay turns on the secondary steering pump, motor, which builds up pressure in the steering hydraulic lines.

The Power Train ECM is monitoring the pressure of the secondary steering pressure switch to ensure the pressure has increased to an acceptable level while the pump is running.

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If the switch is depressed and the pressure is not increased to the acceptable level within 3 seconds, the secondary steering warning indicator will be illuminated to indicate that the secondary steering system is not functioning properly.

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The 966H and 972H Wheel Loaders are equipped with a variable shift control switch (1).

The Power Train (ECM) uses the position of the variable shift control switch and the engine speed in order to determine the autoshift points for the transmission. The variable shift control switch has three inputs to the power train electronic control module (ECM).

The Auto/manual gear selector switch (2) sends a signal to the Power Train ECM to control shifting mode in auto. The Power Train (ECM) will shift the transmission automatically. The power train ECM evaluates the input that is sent from the engine speed sensor, the transmission speed sensors, the torque converter output speed sensor, and the left brake pedal position sensor in order to regulate transmission shifts. The automatic mode of operation is represented by two numbers that are separated by a dash. The first number indicates the speed of the transmission when the transmission is placed into gear. The second number indicates the highest speed of the transmission when the machine is travelling. The switch shown is for HMU steering.

For example, place the autoshift control switch into the 2-4 position. The machine will automatically shift into second gear when the transmission is placed into gear. The transmission will automatically upshift into fourth gear as the machine accelerates.

The Power Train ECM does not allow an upshift to a speed that is higher than the speed that is selected with transmission direction and speed control lever. An automatic downshift from second speed to first speed occurs only if the autoshift switch is in the 1-4 position.

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SERVXXXX - 79 - Text Reference 10/05 60 This illustration shows the panel with the optional
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This illustration shows the panel with the optional Command Control Steering. The Auto/manual gear selector switch sends a signal to the Power Train ECM to control shifting mode in auto. In the MANUAL position, the operator is responsible for upshifting and downshift the transmission. The Power Train ECM automatically shifts the transmission if the autoshift switch is in one of the four AUTO positions and the left brake pedal must be released. The Power Train ECM evaluates the inputs that are sent from the engine speed sensor, transmission speed sensors, the torque converter output speed sensor, and the left brake pedal position sensor in order to regulate transmission shifts.

When the machine is operating in "AUTO" mode, the transmission speed selector switch can be used in order to downshift the transmission. This switch is normally used to downshift from second speed to first speed in order to load the bucket. The transmission will remain in the downshifted gear for three seconds after the switch is released. Then, automatic shifting will resume. If the transmission is downshifted to first speed, the machine remains there until there is a direction change or a manual upshift.

For example, place the autoshift switch into position “3”. The machine will automatically shift into second gear when the transmission is placed into gear. The transmission will automatically upshift into third speed when the machine accelerates. An automatic downshift from second speed to first speed occurs only if the autoshift switch is in the 1-4 position.

The Power Train ECM does not allow automatic an upshift to a speed that is higher than the speed that is selected with the auto/manual switch. The autoshift switch is used to select the top speed for the transmission when the transmission is in the AUTO mode. There are four modes of automatic operation: 4 position, 3 position, 2 position and 1-4 position.

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The Power Train ECM receives inputs from three speed sensors on the transmission. sensors are:

- No. 1 (leading) output speed sensor (1)

- No. 2 (trailing) output speed sensor (2)

- Torque converter output speed sensor (3)

The

The output speed sensors (1 and 2) are positioned out of phase with each other. The Power Train ECM uses the phasing of the input data to determine the direction of rotation of the intermediate and output gears. The torque converter output speed sensor measures torque converter output speed in the range of 25 to 3000 rpm.

The Power Train ECM has no direct feed back information to determine if clutch engagement and disengagement is completed. The Power Train ECM uses the speed sensor information, including the engine speed sensor data, to measure expected clutch slippage and planetary speeds to ensure the transmission is shifting according to the application program stored in the ECM memory.

The speed sensor information is also used by the Power Train ECM to set and adjust transmission shift points.

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SERVXXXX - 81 - Text Reference 10/05 Transmission Oil Temperature Sensor The transmission oil temperature sensor
SERVXXXX - 81 - Text Reference 10/05 Transmission Oil Temperature Sensor The transmission oil temperature sensor

Transmission Oil Temperature Sensor

The transmission oil temperature sensor (1) is a two-wire passive temperature sensor that is located on the left side of the machine. The sensor is an input to the Power Train ECM. The oil temperature sensor information is used to adjust transmission clutch fill times.

The transmission oil temperature sensor information is also sent by the Power Train ECM to the Caterpillar Monitoring System over the Cat Data Link.

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SERVXXXX - 82 - Text Reference 10/05 64 Left Brake Pedal Position Sensor The left brake
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Left Brake Pedal Position Sensor

The left brake pedal position sensor is located in the cab as part of the left brake pedal.

The position sensor (left brake pedal) sends an input to the Power Train ECM. The sensor continuously generates a 500 Hz PWM signal. The duty cycle varies in proportion to the position of the left brake pedal position sensor. The left pedal position sends a change in the input signal to the power train ECM. The ECM measures the duty cycle in order to determine the position of the pedal to downshift and neutralize the transmission.

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Implement Pod Downshift Switch And Remote F-N-R Switch

The downshift switch (1) is located on the implement pod. If the machine is equipped with a joystick, the downshift switch will be located on the joystick handle.

When the Power Train ECM is operating in the Manual Mode, depressing the downshift switch will cause a downshift from SECOND speed to FIRST speed. In the Manual mode, the downshift switch will not shift from FOURTH to THIRD speed or from THIRD to SECOND speed. The transmission will remain in FIRST speed until one of the following conditions occurs:

1. A directional shift is made.

2. The shift lever is moved to NEUTRAL before selecting a speed.

3. The shift lever is turned to FIRST speed and then to another speed.

When operating in the Automatic mode, depressing the downshift switch causes the Power Train ECM to downshift the transmission at a higher than normal ground speed. Pressing and immediately releasing the downshift switch causes the Power Train ECM to immediately downshift the transmission one speed range. A downshift will occur only if the machine speed and engine speed will not result in an engine overspeed.

Automatic shifting is disabled for five seconds after the downshift switch is pressed. After five seconds, automatic shifting, based on speed sensor inputs, is reactivated.

The remote FNR switch (2) is only installed on the machines that are equipped with the standard HMU steering.

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Parking Brake Pressure Switch

The parking brake pressure switch (1) is a normally closed switch with the parking brake engaged. When the parking brake is engaged, the parking brake indicator light (3) will be illuminated. When the parking brake knob is pushed to the IN position, the parking brake valve (2) will direct oil pressure to the parking brake release cylinder. The switch state will change the parking brake indicator light will not be illuminated and the Power Train ECM will receive a signal that the parking brake is dis-engaged.

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SERVXXXX - 85 - Text Reference 10/05 68 Based on the input signals, the Power Train
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Based on the input signals, the Power Train ECM energizes the appropriate transmission control modulating valve for speed and directional clutch engagement. The Power Train ECM also energizes the key start relay when starting the machine and the back-up alarm when the operator select a reverse gear.

The Cat Data Link connect the Power Train ECM to the other machine ECMs. The data link also connects the ECM to the Caterpillar Monitoring System and electronic service tools such as Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET).

Power Train ECM Outputs:

Key start relay: The Power Train ECM energizes the key start relay when the appropriate conditions are met to start the engine. The ECM controls the current between the key start switch and the key start relay.

Transmission oil filter bypass indicator LED: The Power Train ECM illuminates the indicator LED when the oil is bypassing the transmission filter.

Low fuel level warning indicator LED: The Power Train ECM illuminates the indicator LED when the fuel level in the tank is below 10% of total fuel tank volume as read by the fuel level sensor (input to EMS-III communicated over Cat Data Link).

below 10% of total fuel tank volume as read by the fuel level sensor (input to

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Ride Control ON indicator LED: The Power Train ECM illuminates the indicator LED when ride control is active. Either in AUTO mode when driving above the configured ground speed or when in ON mode.

Clutch solenoid: The solenoid control the oil flow through the respective speed and directional modulating valves.

Secondary steering intermediate relay: The Power Train ECM energizes the relay when the loss of steering pressure is detected by the Power Train ECM. The ECM energizes the relay and power is supplied to the secondary steering pump.

Back-up alarm: The Power Train ECM energizes the back-up alarm when the operator selects the REVERSE direction. The backup alarm is located .on the rear bumper.

Heated mirror relay: The Power Train ECM energizes the relay to send current to the coil to warm the mirror.

CAN-J1939 signal between machine ECMs: Signals sent between the machine ECMs and product Link on the faster CAN datalink.

Ride Control Solenoid valve 1 (RE): The Power Train ECM energizes the solenoid valve that controls the opening of the anti-drift valve allowing flow between the rod end of the lift cylinders and tank.

Ride Control Solenoid valve 3 (HE): The Power Train ECM energizes the solenoid valve that controls the opening of the anti-drift valve allowing flow between the accumulator and the head end of the lift cylinders.

Ride Control Solenoid valve 2 (Balance): At engine start up, the Power Train ECM energizes the solenoid valve 2. When the Power Train ECM recognizes the ground speed in AUTO reaches the default configured speed value in the Power Train ECM, the ECM de-energizes the solenoid 2 for a default time designated through Caterpillar ET configuration. The pressure between the head end of the lift cylinders and the accumulator are balanced. Then the Power Train ECM energizes the1 and 3 ride control solenoids.

+8 Volts: Regulated power supply providing 8 VDC that is used in order to power the digital sensors.

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Warning Panel - Left Side

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The illustration shows the warning panel on the left side of the dash panel. These indicators are driven outputs of the Power Train ECM.

The transmission oil filter bypass (1) is located on the top right hand side. This alarm is illuminated when the transmission oil filter is bypassing due to a plugged filter requiring a change.

The transmission neutralizer disabled indicator (2) is located in the center of the panel. This indicator is illuminated when the transmission neutralized is disabled.

The low fuel level warning indicator (3) is located in the center row on the right side. This indicator is illuminated when the fuel level is below 10% of the total fuel tank volume.

The ride control SERVICE indicator (4) is located in the bottom row on left side. This indicator is illuminated when the ride control switch is placed in the SERVICE position.

The ride control AUTO indicator (5) is located in the bottom row, center. This indicator is illuminated when the ride control switch is placed in the AUTO position.

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2 1 4 3
2
1
4
3
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71

Implement Control Valve - With Ride Control

The ride control system is an option on the 966H and the 972H Wheel Loaders. The optional ride control system provides a means for dampening the bucket forces which produce a pitching motion as the machine travels over rough terrain. The operation of ride control is initiated by the switch input to the Power Train ECM with outputs to the solenoid valves on the implement control valve (1).

On the implement control valve, there are two solenoid valves that controls oil flow over the anti-drift valves and one solenoid valve controlling the shifting of the balance valve. Energizing solenoid valve (2) provides a path of oil between the head end of the lift cylinders and the ride control accumulator. Energizing solenoid valve (3) allows the balance spool to shift as the solenoid valve provides a path for the oil on the end of the balance spool to flow to the hydraulic tank passage. Energizing solenoid valve (4) drains the oil pressure off the anti- drift valve enabling the valve to raise and allow oil to flow between the rod end of the lift cylinders and the hydraulic tank.

The optional ride control is enabled through the Machine Configuration screen with Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET). When ride control system is in SERVICE/AUTO, the respective LED is illuminated on the machine status display.

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SERVXXXX - 87 - Text Reference 10/05 Backup Alarm 69 The backup alarm is located on

Backup Alarm

69
69

The backup alarm is located on the right hand side of the machine inside the access door. the alarm sounds when the transmission directional switch is placed in the REVERSE position.

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2 1
2
1
72
72

Secondary Steering Intermediate Relay

The secondary steering intermediate relay (1) is an output of the Power Train ECM. When the steering oil pressure at the primary pressure switch goes below the value of the switch, a signal is sent to the Power Train ECM and the ECM sends current to intermediate relay to energize the secondary steering pump motor.

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1
1
2
2

Engine Start Relay

The engine start relay (2) is located in the left side service center (1). The engine start relay is energized by the Power Train ECM when all the engine starting requirements are met. When the relay is energized, battery voltage flow through the relay to the starter solenoid

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SERVXXXX - 92 - Text Reference 10/05 75 Transmission Hydraulic System - Neutral This illustration shows
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Transmission Hydraulic System - Neutral

This illustration shows the transmission hydraulic system with the engine running and the transmission shift lever in the NEUTRAL position.

When the engine is running, flow from the pump is sent through the filter to the six transmission solenoid valves. Pump flow is also sent to the transmission relief valve. The transmission relief valve limits the transmission oil pressure to the modulating valves. When NEUTRAL is selected, the Power Train ECM energizes the No.3 solenoid . The modulating valve controls the flow of oil to the No. 3 clutch.

When the No. 3 solenoid is energized, the electromagnetic force moves the pin against the ball. The ball moves to the right against the seat. The oil flow through the center of the valve spool is blocked. The oil pressure increases at the left end of the valve spool and the valve spool moves to the right against the spring. Oil flow is directed to the ports for clutch 3.

From the main relief valve, oil flows to the torque converter and the torque converter inlet relief valve. The torque converter inlet relief valve limits the oil pressure to the torque converter. When oil pressure to the torque converter exceeds 900 ± 70 kPa (130 ± 10 psi), the inlet relief valve opens and sends the excess oil pressure to drain.

converter exceeds 900 ± 70 kPa (130 ± 10 psi), the inlet relief valve opens and

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Oil in the torque converter flows out of the torque converter through the torque converter outlet relief valve. The outlet relief valve maintains the pressure in the torque converter at a minimum of 415 ± 135 kPa (60 ± 20 psi) at torque converter stall rpm.

From the torque converter outlet relief valve, the oil flows through the transmission oil cooler and on to the transmission for cooling and lubrication of the bearings and planetary.

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SERVXXXX - 94 - Text Reference 10/05 76 This illustration shows the transmission hydraulic system with
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This illustration shows the transmission hydraulic system with the engine running and the transmission shift lever in the FORWARD position and the speed selector in FIRST SPEED.

When the engine is running, flow from the pump is sent through the filter to the six transmission solenoid valves. Pump flow is also sent to the transmission relief valve. The transmission relief valve limits the transmission oil pressure to the modulating valves.

When FIRST SPEED FORWARD is selected, the Power Train ECM energizes the No. 2 solenoid and the No. 6 solenoid. The modulating valve controls the flow of oil to the No. 2 and No. 6 clutches.

When the No. 2 and No. 6 solenoids are energized, the electromagnetic force moves the armature against the ball. The ball moves to the right against the seat. The oil flow through the center of the valve spool to is blocked. The oil pressure increases at the left end of the valve spool and the valve spool moves to the right against the spring. Oil flow is directed to the ports for clutch 2 and clutch 6.

From the main relief valve, oil flows to the torque converter and the torque converter inlet relief valve. The torque converter inlet relief valve limits the oil pressure to the torque converter. When oil pressure to the torque converter exceeds 900 ± 70 kPa (130 ± 10 psi), the inlet relief valve opens and sends the excess oil pressure to drain.

converter exceeds 900 ± 70 kPa (130 ± 10 psi), the inlet relief valve opens and

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Oil in the torque converter flows out of the torque converter through the torque converter outlet relief valve. The outlet relief valve maintains the pressure in the torque converter at a minimum of 415 ± 135 kPa (60 ± 20 psi) at torque converter stall rpm.

From the torque converter outlet relief valve, the oil flows through the transmission oil cooler and on to the transmission for cooling and lubrication of the bearings and planetary.

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SERVXXXX - 96 - Text Reference 10/05 77 This illustration shows the transmission hydraulic system with
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This illustration shows the transmission hydraulic system with the engine running and the transmission shift lever in the FORWARD position and the speed selector in SECOND SPEED.

When the engine is running, flow from the pump is sent through the filter to the six transmission solenoid valves. Pump flow is also sent to the transmission relief valve. The transmission relief valve limits the transmission oil pressure to the modulating valves.

When FIRST SPEED FORWARD is selected, the Power Train ECM energizes the No. 2 solenoid and the No. 5 solenoid. The modulating valve controls the flow of oil to the No. 2 and No. 5 clutches.

When the No. 2 and No. 5 solenoids are energized, the electromagnetic force moves the armature against the ball. The ball moves to the right against the seat. The oil flow through the center of the valve spool to is blocked. The oil pressure increases at the left end of the valve spool and the valve spool moves to the right against the spring. Oil flow is directed to the ports for clutch 2 and clutch 5.

From the main relief valve, oil flows to the torque converter and the torque converter inlet relief valve. The torque converter inlet relief valve limits the oil pressure to the torque converter. When oil pressure to the torque converter exceeds 900 ± 70 kPa (130 ± 10 psi), the inlet relief valve opens and sends the excess oil pressure to drain.

converter exceeds 900 ± 70 kPa (130 ± 10 psi), the inlet relief valve opens and

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Oil in the torque converter flows out of the torque converter through the torque converter outlet relief valve. The outlet relief valve maintains the pressure in the torque converter at a minimum of 415 ± 135 kPa (60 ± 20 psi) at torque converter stall rpm.

From the torque converter outlet relief valve, the oil flows through the transmission oil cooler and on to the transmission for cooling and lubrication of the bearings and plan

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SERVXXXX - 98 - Text Reference 10/05 78 This illustration shows the transmission hydraulic system with
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78

This illustration shows the transmission hydraulic system with the engine running and the transmission shift lever in the REVERSE position and the speed selector in SECOND SPEED.

When the engine is running, flow from the pump is sent through the filter to the six transmission solenoid valves. Pump flow is also sent to the transmission relief valve. The transmission relief valve limits the transmission oil pressure to the modulating valves.

When FIRST SPEED FORWARD is selected, the Power Train ECM energizes the No. 1 solenoid and the No. 5 solenoid. The modulating valve controls the flow of oil to the No. 1 and No. 5 clutches.

When the No. 1 and No. 5 solenoids are energized, the electromagnetic force moves the armature against the ball. The ball moves to the right against the seat. The oil flow through the center of the valve spool to is blocked. The oil pressure increases at the left end of the valve spool and the valve spool moves to the right against the spring. Oil flow is directed to the ports for clutch 1 and clutch 5.

From the main relief valve, oil flows to the torque converter and the torque converter inlet relief valve. The torque converter inlet relief valve limits the oil pressure to the torque converter. When oil pressure to the torque converter exceeds 900 ± 70 kPa (130 ± 10 psi), the inlet relief valve opens and sends the excess oil pressure to drain.

converter exceeds 900 ± 70 kPa (130 ± 10 psi), the inlet relief valve opens and

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Oil in the torque converter flows out of the torque converter through the torque converter outlet relief valve. The outlet relief valve maintains the pressure in the torque converter at a minimum of 415 ± 135 kPa (60 ± 20 psi) at torque converter stall rpm.

From the torque converter outlet relief valve, the oil flows through the transmission oil cooler and on to the transmission for cooling and lubrication of the bearings and plan

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SERVXXXX - 100 - Text Reference 10/05 79 Transmission Modulating Valve - No Commanded Signal In
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Transmission Modulating Valve - No Commanded Signal

In this illustration, the transmission modulating valve is shown with no current signal applied to the solenoid. The Power Train ECM controls the rate of oil flow through the transmission modulating valves to the clutches by changing the signal current strength to the solenoid. With no current signal applied to the solenoid, the transmission modulating valve is DE-ENERGIZED and oil flow to the clutch is blocked. The transmission modulating valves are located on the transmission case.

Pump oil flows into the valve body around the valve spool and into a drilled passage in the center of the valve spool. The oil flows through the drilled passage and orifice to the left side of the valve spool to a drain orifice. Since there is no force acting on the pin assembly to hold the ball against the drain orifice, the oil flows through the spool and the drain orifice past the ball to the tank.

The spring located on the right side of the spool in this view holds the valve valve spool to the left. The valve spool opens the passage between the clutch passage and the tank passage and blocks the passage between the clutch passage and the pump supply port. Oil flow to the clutch is blocked. Oil from the clutch drains to the tank preventing clutch engagement.

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SERVXXXX - 101 - Text Reference 10/05 80 Transmission Modulating Valve - Commanded Signal Below Maximum
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Transmission Modulating Valve - Commanded Signal Below Maximum

In this illustration, the modulating valve is shown with a signal to the solenoid that is below the maximum current. Clutch engagement begins when the Power Train ECM sends an initial current signal to ENERGIZE solenoid. The amount of commanded current signal is proportional to the desired pressure that is applied to the clutch during each stage of the engagement and disengagement cycle.

The start of clutch engagement begins when the current signal to the solenoid creates a magnetic field around the pin. The magnetic force moves the pin against the ball in proportion to the strength of the current signal from the Power Train ECM.

The position of the ball against the orifice begins to block the drain passage of the oil flow from the left side of the valve spool to the tank. This partial restriction causes the pressure at the left end of the valve spool to increase. The oil pressure moves the valve spool to the right against the spring. As the pressure on the right side of the valve spool overrides the force of the spring, the valve spool shifts to the right.

The valve spool movement starts to open a passage on the right end of the valve spool for pump supply oil to fill the clutch. Oil also begins to fill the spring chamber on the right end of the spool.

spool for pump supply oil to fill the clutch. Oil also begins to fill the spring

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In the initial clutch filling stage, the Power Train ECM commands a high current pulse to quickly move the valve spool to start filling the clutch. During this short period of time, the clutch piston moves to remove the clearances between the clutch discs and plates to minimize the amount of time required to fill the clutch. The ECM then reduces the current signal which reduces the pressure setting of the proportional solenoid valve. The change in current signal reduces the flow of oil to the clutch. The point where the clutch plates and discs start to touch is called TOUCH-UP.

Once TOUCH-UP is obtained, the Power Train ECM begins a controlled increase of the current signal to start the MODULATION cycle. The increase in the current signal causes the ball and pin to further restrict oil through the drain orifice to tank causing a controlled movement of the spool to the right. The spool movement allows the pressure in the clutch to increase.

During the MODULATION cycle, the valve spool working with the variable commanded current signal from the Power Train ECM acts as a variable pressure reducing valve.

The sequence of partial engagement is called desired slippage. The desired slippage is controlled by the application program stored in the Power Train ECM.

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SERVXXXX - 103 - Text Reference 10/05 81 Transmission Modulating Valve - Commanded Signal At Maximum
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Transmission Modulating Valve - Commanded Signal At Maximum

In this illustration, the modulating valve is shown with a maximum current signal commanded to the solenoid. When the modulation cycle stops, the Power Train ECM sends the maximum specified current signal to fully engage the clutch.

The constant current signal pushes the pin firmly against the ball in the solenoid valve. The pin force against the ball blocks more oil from flowing through the drain orifice. This restriction causes an increase in pressure on the left side of the valve spool. The valve spool moves to the right to allow pump flow to fully engage the clutch.

In a short period of time, maximum pressure is felt at both ends to the proportional solenoid valve spool. This pressure along with the spring force on the right end of the spool cause the valve spool to move to the left until the forces on the right end and the left end of the valve spool are balanced.

The valve spool movement to the left (balanced) position reduces the flow of oil to the engaged clutch. The Power Train ECM sends a constant maximum specified current signal to the solenoid to maintain the desired clutch pressure.

Train ECM sends a constant maximum specified current signal to the solenoid to maintain the desired

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The different maximum specified pressures for each clutch is caused by different maximum current signals being sent by the Power Train ECM to each individual modulating valve. The different maximum signal causes a difference in the force pushing the pin against the ball to block leakage through the drain orifice in each solenoid valve. The different rate of leakage through the spool drain orifice provide different balance positions for the proportional solenoid valve spool. Changing the valve spool position changes the flow of oil to the clutch and the resulting maximum clutch pressure.

The operation of the proportional solenoid to control the engaging and releasing of clutches is not a simple on and off cycle. The Power Train ECM varies the strength of the current signal through a programmed cycle to control movement of the valve spool.

The actual Power Train ECM current cycle and transmission calibration will be discussed later in this presentation.

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SERVXXXX - 105 - Text Reference 10/05 1 2 3 4 7 5 6 Transmission Modulating
1 2 3 4 7 5 6
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5
6

Transmission Modulating Valve - Solenoids

This illustration shows a view of the transmission modulating valves.

The six modulating valves on the top of the transmission are located over the respective planetary they control. The solenoid valves provide electronically controlled pressure modulation. The transmission shifting function is controlled by the Power Train Electronic Control Module (ECM). The Power Train ECM and the transmission modulating valves provide modulation to each individual clutch.

Also shown is the transmission main relief valve (7)

modulating valves provide modulation to each individual clutch. Also shown is the transmission main relief valve

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The main Power Train ECM output is the pulse width modulated current signal that is sent to the six transmission modulating valves. The Power Train ECM analyzes the input signals and memory information and activates current drivers within the ECM. The current drivers send electrical pulse width current to energize the modulating valves that are located on the transmission clutch housing.

The varying signal strength sent to each proportional solenoid valve by the Power Train ECM controls the rate of oil flow and the rate of pressure modulation of each clutch. In turn, the solenoid provide electronically controlled clutch filling and pressure modulation.

The following Tables shows which solenoid is energized for the desired speed and direction:

Forward

First speed Forward Solenoid

2 and 6

Second speed Forward Solenoid

2 and 5

Third speed Forward Solenoid

2 and 4

Fourth speed Forward Solenoid

2 and 3

Reverse

First speed Reverse Solenoid

1 and 6

Second speed Reverse Solenoid

1 and 5

Third speed Reverse Solenoid

1 and 4

Fourth speed Reverse Solenoid

1 and 3

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Transmission Relief Valve

84
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Shown is the transmission hydraulic main relief valve (1) located on the left side of the machine on the torque converter housing (2).

The transmission main relief valve operates as both a pressure relief valve and a priority flow control valve.

The main relief valve regulates the supply oil pressure to the six transmission proportional solenoid valves by limiting the supply oil pressure to 2785 ± 70 kPa (404 ± 20 psi) at high idle.

The main relief valve also insures the solenoid valves have an adequate oil supply before the torque converter and oil coolers receive oil flow.

The torque converter inlet relief valve is located behind the transmission main relief valve. The relief valve must be removed to gain access to the torque converter inlet relief valve.

The torque converter inlet relief valve limits torque converter inlet oil pressure to a maximum of 900 ± 70 kPa (130 ± 10 psi).

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Text Reference

Vol. 5, No. 2, 2004

- 108 - Text Reference Vol. 5, No. 2, 2004 85 This illustration shows the major
85
85

This illustration shows the major components of the torque converter. The rotating housing is shown in red. The rotating housing has a direct mechanical connection to the engine flywheel. The turbine and the output shaft are shown in blue, and are mechanically connected. The free wheel stator and the carrier are shown in green. The impeller is shown in pink. The bearings are shown in yellow.

The impeller is bolted to the rotating housing and rotate at engine speed.

Charge oil from the torque converter inlet relief valve enters the inlet passage in the carrier and fills the torque converter. The torque converter outlet relief, which is connected to the outlet passage, maintains the minimum pressure in the torque converter.

As the impeller rotates, it directs oil against the turbine blades, causing the turbine to rotate. Turbine rotation causes the output shaft to rotate. During NO LOAD conditions, the output shaft rotates at nearly the same speed as the engine flywheel. As load is applied, the output shaft slows down. A decrease in output shaft speed causes the rpm of the turbine to decrease.

As the output shaft speed is decreased, the output torque from the torque converter increases. When the output shaft is stalled, the torque converter is applying maximum torque to the output shaft.

increases. When the output shaft is stalled, the torque converter is applying maximum torque to the

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The torque converter is equipped with a freewheel stator. The stator, which is mounted to the torque converter outer housing is stationery. When a load is applied, the output shaft slows down. When the turbine is turning slower than the impeller, the stator redirects the oil from the turbine and increases the pressure on the turbine. The increase in pressure on the turbine tends to increase the torque output from the torque converter.

When the output shaft is turning at near the same speed as the impeller, the stator freewheels backwards to reduce the drag and turbulence inside the torque converter. The stator freewheels in light load applications and multiplies torque in heavy load applications.

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Shown is the torque converter outlet relief valve (1) located on the right side of the transmission and below the torque converter housing (2).

The torque converter outlet relief valve controls the pressure inside the torque converter by maintaining a minimum pressure of 415 ± 140 kPa (60 ± 20 psi) at torque converter stall rpm.

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3
1
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This illustration shows the service center on the right side of the machine below the platform. In the service center is the transmission oil filter (1), the power train fluid sampling port (2) , and the transmission oil filter bypass switch (3). The transmission oil filter bypass switch reports to the Caterpillar Monitoring System sending a warning when the transmission oil filter needs to be serviced.

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SERVXXXX - 112 - Text Reference 10/05 88 This illustration shows the message center for the
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This illustration shows the message center for the Caterpillar Monitoring System.

When the Caterpillar Monitoring System is in the Service Mode (Mode 3), the Message Center shows the fault codes. The fault codes consist of the Module Identifier (MID) followed by the Component Identifier (CID) and Failure Mode Identifier (FMI).

The MID tells which electronic control module diagnosed the fault. An MID of 081 means the fault was diagnosed in the Power Train ECM. MID's are listed on the machine Electrical Schematic in the Service Manual.

The CID tells which component is faulty. For example, CID 623 means the fault was diagn