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Design of a heat exchanger using HTRI | World Wide Simulation


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Design of a heat exchanger using HTRI


Mon, 06/11/2012 - 09:14 webmaster

Body: I am writing this Blog to help modelling Heat Exchanger in HTRI step by step. We can design general shell & tube type heat exchanger, Air cooler, PHEs, Jackated Pipe exchanger, Hairpin type exchanger, Spiral plate type exchanger, Economiser & Fire heaters by using HTRI but I want to keep this blog restricted to Shell & tube type exchanger only 1.1. Process Parameters Input flow rate, temperature & vapour fraction at inlet / outlet conditions and the allowable pressure drop for shell & tube side. For liquids, vapor fraction is 0; for gas it is 1 and for two phase it is between 0 & 1. 1.2. Geometry TEMA type As given in Process data sheet (if not mentioned, then it shall be decided based on type of fluid, condition etc.) Orientation Orientation may be horizontal, vertical or inclined with an angle between 0 and 90 deg. Hot fluid side Hot fluid shall be either on the shell side or on the tube side Tube type Plain or finned (for shell & tube generally plain tubes are used) Tube length In design mode, enter the length & design the exchanger for various shell IDs. Standard tube lengths available in FPS units are 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 feet. In MKS unit, tube lengths can be used in steps of 500 mm. Sometimes, it may be required to use FPS standard tube lengths in MKS unit (for e.g. 6096 mm, 3048 mm, etc.) Note1: Sometimes odd tube length would be acceptable for reboiler and small exchangers. Note2: Design of exchanger will be different if selection of grid for tube length is different. If we decide only 2,4 & 6 Meter tube to be used then we have limitation of tube length. Some time we may land up with design lesser DP utilization because of tube length constrain. Now a days tubes in any length are available, after discussion with lead engineer we can select odd tube length like 3500 or 3600 mm. At the end we should select tube length such that there will be fewer inventories of tubes in store. Note3: Some time for high pressure exchanger (i.e. D type or C type exchanger for which design pressure is more than 70 to 80 Kg/cm2) calculated tube sheet thickness by HTRI is on lower side than calculated thickness mechanically because some time tube sheet is to be designed full design pressure but HTRI is consider for differential design pressure. For such exchanger we should add additional tube sheet thickness in geometry panel of HTRI during design and we should specify tube length excluding tube sheet thickness on process data sheet. Also we should mention only effective heat transfer area and clearly explain all these points in notes. Effective Tube length This is the value used for heat transfer and need not be entered. HTRI calculates tube sheet thickness and also the effective tube length. Effective tube length = Total tube length Tube sheet thickness Tube projection Surface Area Gross

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Total installed area

Design of a heat exchanger using HTRI | World Wide Simulation

(Number of tubes x total tube length x p x tube OD) Surface Area Effective Total installed area. (Number of tubes x effective tube length x p x tube OD) Shell ID In design mode this input is not required. HTRI calculates. If an exchanger has to be designed for a fixed shell ID then input the ID and vary tube length by using grid design option. (Refer grid design option 4.2.6) Tube OD Generally 19.05, 25.4, 31.75, 38.1, 50.1 mm Note: If tube OD is specified in mm then tube thickness should be in mm i.e. 1.5 mm,2 mm 2.5 mm, 3.0mm (as per project design basis) And if tube OD is specified in inches then tube thickness will be in BWG standard i.e. 12,14,16,18,BWG etc. We can convert BWG thickness in to equivalent mm. Never specify tube OD in mm & thickness in BWG or tube OD in inches and thickness in mm. Tube Pitch Generally 1.25 times tube OD. Other values can also be specified. Note: Some time to elimate vibration pitch can be more than 1.25 times tube OD. Tube layout Refer Kern Tube passes Not required for design case. (For floating head and U-tube, even number of passes shall be entered, viz. 2, 4, 6, 8 etc.) Note : Some time for floating head exchanger single pass can be accepted. Tube count Not required for design case. Tube material Tube MOC shall be selected from HTRI data bank. Note: For Refinery MOC of baffles, tube supports, tie-rods, spacers: ( same as tube side MOC) but for inorganic chemical plant we can use MOC of baffles tube support, tie-rods spacers same as shell MOC.You should discuss with your senior and finalise if there is any issue regarding MOC. Baffle type Various baffle types are Single, Double, NTIW and Rod. Baffle type need not be specified for design case. Baffle cut Baffle cut is specified with respect to shell inlet nozzle axis and can be either vertical or horizontal (if the baffle cut is perpendicular to the nozzle axis, then the cut is horizontal and if the cut is parallel to the nozzle axis, then it is vertical). Baffle cut need not be specified for design case. Baffle spacing Not required for design case. (However, the inlet, outlet and central baffle spacing can be varied) No of baffles = (Total no of cross passes 1) Select no of cross passes such that we will get shell side nozzle at apposite to each other. (Some time process or layout require nozzle at same side.) Parallel pass lane Not required for design case (Refer HTRI help) Need to specify width in order to achieve 2D bend radius or inline cleaning arrangement for square or rotated square

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pitch. Perpendicular pass lane

Design of a heat exchanger using HTRI | World Wide Simulation

Not required for design case (Refer HTRI help) Need to specify width in order to achieve 2D bend radius or inline cleaning arrangement for square or rotated square pitch. Sealing strips Not required for design case (Refer HTRI help) Sealing strip reduces leakage in bundle and shell, which increases the cross flow fraction. Shell side inlet / outlet nozzle Standard i.e. ANSI or JIS standards, schedule i.e. Std.Sch. ,Sch 40,Sch 80 etc., nos., ID, type, position i.e. top, bottom etc.

Not required for design case Location: For liquid-liquid exchangers both shell side & tube side inlet nozzle should be from bottom of shell.(If not then there should be provision in piping to ensure exchanger is always full of liquid) For gas or two phase fluid inlet is from top and vapour / non condensable outlet is from top of other side and liquid outlet at bottom. Nozzle RV2 should be less than 2232 kg/mS2.if RV2 is more than 2232 then impingement plate is to be provided for nozzle.At Shell entrance and bundle entrance TEMA limit for RV2 is 2232 kg/mS2. Tube side inlet / outlet nozzle Standard i.e. ANSI or JIS standards, schedule i.e. Std.Sch. ,Sch 40,Sch 80 etc., nos., ID, type, position i.e. top, bottom etc. Not required for design case Select nozzle location such that 1st tube pass is in counter current with respect to shell side pass. Impingement plate Not required for design case For gas and two phase inlet impingement plate is to be provided. Some time instead of plate type impingement plate 2 Rows of rod are used as protection of first few rows of tube. If shell side nozzle inlet / outlet RV is more than the allowable limit, then HTRI will consider an impingement plate. For gas and two-phase flow, impingement plate is required. For liquid phase, it depends on the value of RV. Generally, rectangular impingement plates are used for exchanger There is some optional data, which is not required for design purpose. However, this data should be corrected at the time of rating and fine-tuning, which is given below. Total tube sheet thickness, floating head support plate, support at U-bend. 1.3. PIPING This detail is required only for reboiler type exchanger. 1.4. Process Exchanger Duty Enter actual exchanger duty

Duty Multiplier Enter the duty multiplier For e.g. for 10% over design on duty, enter 1.1

Fouling resistance Enter the value mentioned in data sheet. If this value is not available in the datasheet, then the same should be taken from published literature, reference books, like Process Heat Transfer by D.Q. Kern.

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Design of a heat exchanger using HTRI | World Wide Simulation

1.5. Physical Properties of hot & cold fluid

Physical properties input Three options are available: (a) (b) (c) Mixture property via grid Component by component Grid & component.

Heat release curve Three options are available (a) (b) (c) User specified Dew/bubble point specified Programme calculated

Composition units Moles or mass

Flash type Differential (separate and not in contact) or integral (well mixed and in thermal and chemical equilibrium) 1.6. Grid Design Geometry a. Shell ID

Enter the minimum and maximum shell ID and either the number of steps or the step size in mm or inch b. Baffle spacing

Enter the minimum and maximum baffle spacing and either the number of steps or the step size in mm or inch c. Tube passes

Enter the minimum and maximum number of passes and odd or even passes. d. Tube length

Enter the minimum and maximum tube length and either the number of steps or the step size in mm or inch e. Pitch ratio

Enter the minimum and maximum pitch ratio and either the number of steps or the step size in mm or inch f. Tube diameter

Enter the minimum and maximum tube diameter and either the number of steps or the step size in mm or inch g. Shell type

Select any one of: TEMA E, F, G, H, J21, X, K type shell h. Baffle type

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Enter any one from the following options: Single Double No tubes in window (NTIW) Rod None

Design of a heat exchanger using HTRI | World Wide Simulation

HTRI gives various designs with different shell ID with optimum baffle spacing for given tube length and tube passes. HTRI gives shell ID in standard inch format. It has to be fine tuned to the nearest round number that is divisible by 5. This can be done by putting the programme on rating mode. Constraints Vary hot fluid velocity, cold fluid velocity, pressure drop etc. Options Generally we are not changing these options .If required we can vary all options as given in the HTRI. i.e. Allowed over design range, Baffle spacing options, Tube pass options etc. Warnings If you required additional warnings other than HTRIs standard warnings, then we can specify here. i.e. Warnings for hot stream or cold stream tube wall temperature, Allowed critical velocity ration, Allowed vibration frequency ratio etc. No warning should be neglected while designing the exchanger. Once all the above data listed in sections 1.2. through 1.6 is entered, the programme shall be run by clicking the run option on the tool bar. webmaster's blog Log in or register to post comments

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