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CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF CRACKS IN BUILDING

NITHIN.M 1DS03CV049 VIII SEM CIVIL DSCE


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WHAT IS A CRACK?
A CRACK IS A COMPLETE OR INCOMPLETE SEPERATION OF CONCRETE INTO TWO OR MORE PARTS,PRODUCED BY BREAKING OR FRACTURING.

CLASSIFICATION OF CRACKS
1. STRUCTURAL CRACK

2. NON STRUCTURAL CRACK

INVESTIGATION RELATING TO CRACK


WHETHER THE CRACK IS OLD OR NEW PATTERN OF CRACK SOIL CONDITION, TYPE OF FOUNDATION USED,MOVEMENT OF GROUND OBSERVATION ON THE SIMILAR STRUCTURE STUDY OF SPECIFICATION,CONSTRUCTION METHOD AND CLIMATIC CONDITION
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LIMITATION OF CRACK WIDTH (IS456:2000)


1. FOR MEMBERS IN WATER STORAGE UNITS, SEWAGE UNITS,CHEMICALLY HAZARDOUS ATMOSPHERE CRACKS ARE NOT PERMITTED 2. IN SEVERE ATMOSPHERE UP TO 0.1mm CRACK IS PERMITTED 3. MODERATE ATMOSPHERE UPTO .2mm CRACK IS PERMITTED 4. IN MILD ATMOSPHERE WIDTH OF CRACK IS PERMITTED UPT0 0.3mm
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PERMISSIBLE CRACK WIDTH AS PER ACI


EXPOSURE CONDITION MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CRACK WIDTH IN MM 0.41 0.30 0.15 0.10
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DRY AIR, PROTECTIVE MEMBRANE HUMIDITY,MOIST AIR SEA WATER AND SEAWATER SPRAY; WETTING AND DRYING WATER RETAINING STRUCTURE

CAUSES FOR THE OCCURANCE OF CRACK


CRACK MAY DEVELOP DUE TO-

1. STRUCTURAL DEFICIENCY RESULTING FROM DESIGN DEFICIENCY OR CONSTRUCTION DEFICIENCY AND OVERLOADING

2. TEMPERATURE AND SHRINKAGE EFFECTS


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3 SETTLEMENT OF GROUND

4 FAULTY WORKMAN SHIP AND POOR CONSTRUCTION PRACTICE

1. STRUCTURAL DEFICIENCY RESULTING FROM DESIGN DEFICIENCY OR CONSTRUCTION DEFICIENCY AND OVERLOADING
CRACKS OCCUR DUE TO SHEAR, FLEXURAL AND TORSIONAL STEEL DEFICIENCY

ABRUPT CURTAILMENT OF REINFORCEMENT BARS

OVERLOADING OF MEMBER

CONSTRUCTION JOINT CRACKS`

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OCCURS DUE TO FLEXURAL STEEL DEFICIENCY


OCCURS AT MAXIMUM BENDING MOMENT REGION
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OCCURS DUE TO SHEAR STEEL DEFICIENCY OCCURS IN MAXIMUM SHEAR REGION


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OCCURS DUE TO IMPROPER ANCHORAGE OF REINFORCED BARS


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DIRECTION OF CONCRETING

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PREVENTIVE MEASURES
SPECIAL CARE NEED TO BE TAKEN WHILE DESIGN AND DETAILING REQUIRES CONTINUOUS INVESTIGATION
DAMAGES FROM UNINTENTIONAL CONSTRUCTION OVERLOADS CAN BE PREVENTED ONLY IF DESIGNER PROVIDE INFORMATION ON LOAD LIMITATIONS AND THE CONSTRUCTION PERSONNEL HEED TO THESE LIMITATIONS FOLLOW PROPER DESIGN SPECIFICATION

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2 SHRINKAGE AND TEMPERATURE EFFECT SHRINKAGE CRACK


SHOW UP IN TWO BASIC LOCATION IN MOST WALLS; APPROXIMATELY MID POINT OF LONG SECTION WALL,ACROSS DOOR OR WINDOW HEAD UNIFORM IN WIDTH
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SHRINKAGE CRACK IN WALL MASONRY

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EXCESSIVE WATER CONTENT WITHIN

THE CONCRETE

HIGHER WATER CONTENT RESULTS IN GREATER SHRINKAGE

ON EXPOSURE,CONCRETE LOSES SOME OF ITS ORIGINAL WATER AND SHRINK


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TEMPERATURE EFFECT
VOLUME CHANGES VOLUME RELATION TO TEMPERATURE IS EXPRESSED BY COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION/CONTRACTION VOLUME CHANGE INDUCES STRESS

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PREVENTIVE MEASURE
ADEQUATE INSULATING OR TERRACING TREATMEMT PAINTING TOP ROOF WITH REFLECTIVE FINISH SUCH AS WHITE WASH INTRODUCING OF EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION JOINT AT APPROPRIATE LOCATIONS

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CRACK DUE TO SETTLEMENT


UNEVEN SETTLEMENT CAN BE A MAJOR STRUCTURAL PROBLEM IN SMALL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

VERTICAL DISTORTION OR CRACKING OF MASONRY WALLS, WRAPPED INTERIORS AND EXTERIOR OPENING
OCCURS EARLY IN LIFE OF BUILDING
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Building settlement due to cut and fill

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SETTLEMENTS ARE CAUSED DUE TO


SOIL CONSOLIDATION UNDER FOOTING LOSS OF MOISTURE WATER TABLE LEVEL FAULTY DRAINS, LEAKING WATER MAINS SOIL COMPACTION OR MOVEMENT DUE TO VIBRATION

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DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT CAUSED DUE TO VARIABLE SOIL TYPE


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PREVENTIVE MEASURES
UNDER REAMED PILE FOUNDATION FOUNDATION DESIGN FOR UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION OF PRESSURE SBC IS NOT EXCEEDED SOIL SHOULD BE WELL COMPACTED

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FAULTY WORKMANSHIP AND POOR CONSTRUCTION PRACTICE


CAUSES
IMPROPER REINFORCING STEEL PLACE PLACEMENT

IMPROPER BAR DETAILING


PREMATURE REMOVAL OF FORMS

COLD JOINTS
SEGREGATION

PLASTIC SHRINKAGE CRACKING

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PREVENTIVE MEASURE

WATER CEMENT RATIO


PROPER CURING SUPPORT FOR FORMS

DESIGN RECOMENDATIONS

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CASE STUDY OF P.W.D OFFICE BUILDING YALENDUR

INSPECTED ON 21ST MAY 1988

FOUNDATION SOIL IS A BLACK COTTON SOIL


CONSTRUCTION COMPLETED IN THE YEAR 1981

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MEASURING MAGNIFIER
CRACKSCOPE

DIGITAL CRACK GAUGE

37 LOMARO MICROSCOPE

REMEDIAL MEASURES
REMOVE AND FILL WITH FIRM GOOD SOIL
UNDER REAMED PILE FOUNDATION APPLY HEAVY SUPER IMPOSED LOAD AVOID GROWTH OF TREES IN THE VICINITY
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CONCLUSION
THE INDIVIDUAL CRACKS IN MEMBERS ARE UNIQUE
BY THEMSELVES THERE ARE VERSATILE DIAGNOSTIC DEVICES, CLEARLY INDICATING THE SPECIFIC PROBLEM IN CONCERNED MEMBERS. THE CRACK THROW LIGHT ON THE DISCIPLINE IN THE ASSOCIATED STRUCTURAL DESIGNS AND QUALITY THE CORRECTIVE MEASURES TO BE IMPLEMENTED ARE CLEARLY INDICATED BY THESE CRACKS.

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REFERENCES
PETER H EMMONS- CONCRETE REPAIR AND MAINTAINENCE ` P.C VARGHESE- LIMIT STATE DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE H.P ROSSMANITH- FRACTURE AND DAMAGE OF CONCRETE M.S.SHETTY- CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY

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