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GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning


3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning


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Objectives
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11

By the end of the course, participants know:


GPRS Session Management, TBF Management, Location Management, System Information Management, Cell Selection and Re-selection, Power Control and RLC Measurements, Coding Scheme and Link Adaptation, Radio Resources Re-allocation, (E)GPRS Planning Principles, (E)GPRS Network Planning, Network Evolution Scenarios, (E)GPRS QoS Enhancement Features, (E)GPRS with GSM Capacity Enhancement Features

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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Objectives
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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Table of Contents
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11

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1 Basics 1.1 Service Overview GPRS 1.2 Service Overview EGPRS 1.3 Support of GPRS QoS classes 1.3.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 1.4 Dual Transfer Mode 1.4.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 1.5 (E)GPRS MS Multislot Classes 1.6 (E)GPRS General Architecture 1.7 Alcatel (E)GPRS Architecture 1.8 (E)GPRS Protocol Layers (Transmission Plane) 1.9 Alcatel (E)GPRS BSS Hardware support 1.10 Modulation Technique: 8-PSK only for EGPRS 1.11 8-PSK TRA Power Aspects 1.12 (E)GPRS Radio Blocks Structure 1.13 GPRS Channel Coding 1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding 1.15 Radio Link Adaptation Overview 1.16 Automatic ReQuest for repetition (ARQ) 1.17 Type-I ARQ mechanism 1.18 Type-I ARQ in GPRS 1.19 Type-I ARQ in EGPRS 1.20 (E)GPRS radio physical channel: PDCH Concept 1.21 (E)GPRS Multiframe 1.22 Logical Channels EVOLIUM BSS -(E)GPRS GPRS and EGPRS 1.23 Master/Slave PDCH concept All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Radio Network Planning 1.24 Temporary Block Flow 1.25 Resources Sharing 1.26 MS multiplexing co-ordination 1.27 GPRS mobility management (GMM) states for MS 1.28 Radio Resource (RR) operating modes for MS 1.29 Attach procedure 1.30 PDP context activation 1.31 Location management 1.32 Routing Area 1.33 Network Mode of Operation (NMO) 1.34 TBF establishment 1.35 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 1 phase access 1.36 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 2 phases access 1.37 DL TBF establishment on CCCH 1.38 System information broadcasting on BCCH 1.39 System information broadcasting on PBCCH 1.40 (E)GPRS Transmission Aspects 1.40 TRX Classes Concept 1.41 Two Abis Links per BTS 2 B9 features 2.1 Enhanced Packet Cell Reselection (R4 MSs) 2.1.1 Radio Network Impact 2.2 Extended Uplink TBF Mode 2.2 Radio Network Planning Impact 2.3 Enhanced support of E-GPRS (EDGE) in uplink 2.3.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 2.4 Counter Improvements for Release B9 2.4.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 2.5 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

Page 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 19 22 23 24 25 29 31 34 39 40 41 42 43 47 48 49 51 52 54 58 61 62 63 65 66 67 68 69 70 72 74 75 77 80 81 84 85 86 87 88 89 91 93 94 98 99

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Table of Contents [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11

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2.5.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 2.6 2G/3G Inter-working 2.6.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 2.7 M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing 2.7.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 2.8 Dynamic Abis allocation 2.8.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 2.9 Enhanced transmission resource management 2.10 RMS_I1 Improvements 2.10.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 2.11 RMS_I2 Improvements 2.11.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.1 Cell Reselection Overview 3.2 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, no PBCCH established 3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established 3.4 Cell reselection execution: NC0 in PTM 3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode 3.6 GPRS redirection 3.7 GPRS Power Control: Overview 3.8 GPRS Power Control: Measurements 3.9 GPRS Power Control: Algorithm 3.10 Link adaptation: DL GPRS Radio Link Control 3.11 Link adaptation: UL GPRS Radio Link Control 3.12 adaptation in EGPRS: New metrics EVOLIUM BSS -Link GPRS and EGPRS All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007 3.13 Link adaptation: DL EGPRS Radio Link Control Radio Network Planning 3.14 EGPRS Link Adaptation Decision 3.15 TRX ranking/TRX transmission pool set-up 3.16 TRX capability for PS traffic 3.17 Radio Resource Allocation: Overview 3.18 Radio Resource Allocation: PDCH state 3.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs 3.20 Radio Resource Allocation: EGPRS TBFs 3.21 Radio Resource Allocation: TBF Re-allocation 3.22 Radio Resource Allocation: Min_PDCH 3.23 Radio Resource Allocation: Fast initial (E)GPRS access 4 General (E)GPRS planning principels 4.1 Throughput Dependency -> Interference (and Level) 4.2 Packet data throughput 4.3 Reference performance point 4.4 Saturation effect 4.5 Cell area and throughput 4.6 Throughput <-> C/I 5 (E)GPRS Network intoduction 5.1 GPRS network planning 5.2 GPRS Greenfield planning 5.3 GPRS traffic calculation and traffic analysis 5.4 GPRS traffic calculationand PS traffic 5.5 GPRS traffic calculation and user profile 5.6 GPRS traffic calculation and market applications 5.7 GPRS traffic calculation and user behavior 5.8 Customer questionnaire 5.9 Traffic Model (Example) 5.10 User mapping 5.11 Multi-Service

Page 101 102 105 106 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 121 123 130 132 143 145 146 150 153 157 160 161 163 164 166 167 168 171 176 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 188 189 191 192 193 195 196 198 199 200 201 203 204 205

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Table of Contents [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11

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5.12 QoS per User Application 5.13 GPRS traffic calculation 5.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods 5.15 GPRS traffic calculation result 6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.1 General 6.2 Frequency planning 6.3 Throughput 6.4 Link budget 6.5 Interference analysis on BCCH frequencies 6.6 Interference analysis on TCH frequencies 6.7 TRX assignment to GPRS service 6.8 GPRS Analysis 6.9 LA and RA planning 6.10 Quality of Service 7 Considerabele features to react (E)GPRS target 7.1 General 7.1 Optimization campaign on parameters 7.2 MPDCH 7.3 Enhanced PDCH Adaptation & Fast pre-emption 7.4 User multiplexing 7.5 PDCH Resource Multiplexing 7.6 Radio (TBF) Resource Reallocation 7.7 Coding Scheme Adaptation 7.8 Reselection EVOLIUM BSSCell - GPRS and EGPRS All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007 7.8 GPRS Power Control Radio Network Planning 7.8 Features on DL TBF establishment and release 7.8.1 Delayed DL TBF release 7.8.2 Fast Downlink TBF re-establishment process 7.8.3 Non-DRX feature 8 GPRS introduction into oerational GSM network 8.1 General 9 GSM Network enhancement features & GPRS 9.1 Frequency Hopping 9.2 -cell 9.3 Dual Band 9.4 Concentric cell 10 E-GPRS 10.1 E-GPRS main differences 11 GPRS traffic calculation example 11.1 Customer questionnaire (Example) 11.2 User and area distribution determination 11.3 Traffic demand for CS traffic 11.4 Traffic demand for packet traffic 11.5 Network capacity calculation 11.6 Traffic dimensioning

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Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS

11

1 Basics

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1 Basics

1.1 Service Overview GPRS


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GPRS General Packet Radio Service GPRS is a GSM feature It has been introduced to provide end-to-end packet-switched (PS) data transmission between MS users and fixed packet data networks GPRS provides efficient utilization of the radio resources:
multislot operation flexible sharing of radio resources between MS resources are allocated only when data are transmitted

Charging is mainly based on data volume transmitted and not on the connection time

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1 Basics

1.2 Service Overview EGPRS


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EDGE Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution ETSI standardized solution and can be introduced in two ways:
CS enhancement: Enhanced circuit-switched data or ECSD PS enhancement for GPRS EGPRS

EGPRS relies on the introduction of 8-PSK (Eight Phase Shift Keying) modulation technique:
Same qualities in terms of generating interference on an adjacent channel as GMSK makes possible to integrate EDGE channels into existing frequency plan 8-PSK Symbol rate = GMSK Symbol rate, but one symbol represents now 3 bits instead of 1 bit in GMSK increased data rates

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1 Basics

1.3 Support of GPRS QoS classes


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12

Four QoS classes (or traffic classes) are defined: The conversational class will be very likely dedicated to real-time conversation. Speech and video conferencing tools are some examples of such applications The streaming class corresponds to a real-time stream and enforces mainly constraints on jitter. Video streaming or PoC (Push to tak over Celullar) are typical applications for the streaming traffic class. The interactive class corresponds to mainly to traditional Internet applications like web browsing. Some differentiation can be done between two services by using the traffic handling priority attribute. The background class is typically corresponding to Best Effort services. Applications that make use of this class might be e-mail downloading, SMS, or even ftp downloading.

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PFC procedure Packet Flow Context (PFC) is a concept introduced starting with R99 3GPP release to ensure that the BSS is involved in the R99 QoS negotiation. The interest of PFC is to differentiate on the radio interface the conversational and streaming traffics and to reserve resources for these traffics. Without the PFC, the BSS only knows the R97/98 QoS parameters (correspond to the interactive and background R99 QoS classes). It enables to perform admission control and QoS based resource allocation in the BSS. R99 QoS is taken into account if the PFC (Packet Flow Context) procedures are supported by the MS, the BSS and the SGSN. It allows the BSS B9 to handle streaming and interactive traffics and also to negotiate the QoS parameters. R97/98 QoS should be also taken into account (OP12) if PFC is not supported by the MS or the SGSN in order to handle interactive traffics or some specific applications as PoC (Push over Cellular).

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1 Basics

1.3.1 Radio Network Planning Impact


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13

QoS subfeatures are of great interest in traffic-driven networks (number of sites determined by the traffic to be carried, not by the coverage per site). They will define the actual traffic shape in the cell by allocating, in a selective manner, resources for (CS and) PS calls. Here a traffic capacity gain is expected (higher traffic levels can be handled with feature activated than without).

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Radio interface impact a) Support of PFC feature by RLC/MAC : - PFC_FEATURE_MODE: this 1 bit field is a part of the R99 extensions in the GPRS_Cell_Options. It is broadcasted on BCCH (SI13) or PBCCH (PSI1, PSI13 and PSI14) and indicates to the MSs if the network supports the PFC feature. - The PFC impact on the one phase access: "If the PFC_FEATURE_MODE is set in the system information and if a PFC exists for the LLC data to be transferred then the PFI shall be transmitted along with the TLLI of the mobile station in the RLC extended header during contention resolution. The PFI is not used for contention resolution but is included to indicate to the network which PFC shall initially be associated with the uplink TBF. b) RLC/MAC/ messages impacts: - PI bit (PFI indicator) is created, it indicates the presence of the optional PFI field: 0 PFI is not present 1 PFI is present if TI field indicates presence of TLLI The PFI field indicates a PFI coded as it is defined in TS 44.018. RLC/MAC messages impacted are: Packet Resource Request : PFI field is added (EGPRS) Packet DL ACK/NACK: PFI field is added (if a Channel Request Description is also present) UL (EGPRS) RLC data blocks : PFI field is added after the TLLI field (see 44.060 10.2.2 and 10.3a.2). PFI is included in the following SM messages : Activate_PDP_Context_Accept, Activate_Secundary_PDP_Context_Accept, Modify_PDP_Context_Request (sent by the network) and Modify_PDP_Context_Accept (in case the request to modify is sent by the MS). PFC_FEATURE_MODE is included in the MS_Network_Capability I.E. (which is sent in the Attach_Request and RA_Update_Request GMM messages).

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1 Basics

1.4 Dual Transfer Mode


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!!!!! B10 FEATURE ONLY !!!!

This feature allows a dual transfer mode capable MS to use a radio resource for CS traffic and simultaneously one or several radio resources for PS traffic. Single slot operation DTM MSs are not supported in Alcatel BSS because the implementation of these MSs is difficult compared to the throughput expected in PS services. Only multislot operation DTM MSs are supported. In Alcatels implementation, the Gs interface is required to support DTM to ensure CS paging co-ordination. It avoids the BSS to ensure the paging co-ordination. While in dual transfer mode, the BSS only allocates full rate PDCH to the MS. The dynamic Abis feature allows to simplify the radio resource allocations. It avoids defining new TBF re-allocation triggers.

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1 Basics

1.4.1 Radio Network Planning Impact


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS

!!!!! B10 FEATURE ONLY !!!!

1 1 15

Some restrictions towards BSS in deploying DTM exist. They are presented below:
Half rate
Support of half rate configurations (one single timeslot encompassing one half rate circuit channel + one half rate packet channel) was not considered in the first implementation of DTM.

Inter-cell handovers
The number of inter-cell handovers should be minimized for DTM calls, as an inter-cell HO leads to the re-allocation of the packet session. Therefore, handover causes having a low priority should be inhibited for the time the MS is operating in DTM.

Intra-cell handovers
The number of intra-cell handovers should be minimized for DTM calls, as an intra-cell HO leads to the re-allocation of the packet session.

Hierarchical networks
As (E)GPRS are preferentially offered in macro cells, the BSS shall ensure that at least one PDCH can be used in micro cells to re-direct the MS towards the macro cells. It means that the BSS shall allow a PDCH used by a MS operating in DTM mode to be shared by other (E)GPRS MS.

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1 Basic

1.5 (E)GPRS MS Multislot Classes


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EGPRS MS is characterized by two multislot classes:


GPRS multislot class EGPRS multislot class Typically, EGPRS multislot class < GPRS multislot class E.g. the multislot class of the mobile can be 3 RXs + 2 TXs (class 6) in pure GPRS mode and 2 RXs + 1 TX (class 2) in pure EGPRS mode Type 1: class 1-12, class 19-29 recognized as class 10 Type 2: class 13-18, allocation is limited to max. 5+5 timeslots

Multislot Class

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 4 2 5 4 3 5 4 4 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 6 2 6 3 6 4 6 4 6 6 8 2 8 3 8 4 8 4 8 6 8 8

RX Timeslots 1 2 2 3 2 3 3 4 3 TX Timeslots 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 1 2 Sum of Timeslots 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5

5 n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.

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MS type Type 1 are simplex MSs, i.e., without duplexer: they are not able to transmit and receive at the same time Rx The maximum number of received time slots that the MS can use per TDMA frame. The receive TS shall be allocated within window of size Rx, but they do not need to be contiguous. For SIMPLEX MS, no transmitted TSs shall occur between receive TS within a TDMA frame. This does not take into account the measurement window (Mx). The maximum number of transmitted time slots that the MS can use per TDMA frame. The transmitted TS shall be allocated within the window of size Tx, but they do not need to be contiguous. For SIMPLEX MS, no received TS shall occur between transmit TS within a TDMA frame. The maximum number of transmitted and received time slots (without Mx) per TDMA frame. Type 2 are duplex MSs, i.e., with duplexer: they are able to transmit and receive at the same time

Tx

SUM

The meaning of Ttb, Tra et Trb changes regarding MS types. For SIMPLEX MS (type 1): - Ttb is the minimum time (in time slot) necessary between the Rx and Tx windows. - Tra is the minimum time between the last Tx window and the first Rx window of the next TDMA in order to be able to open a measurement window. - Trb is the same as Tra without opening a measurement window. For DUPLEX MS (type 2): - Ttb is the minimum time necessary between 2 Tx windows belonging to different frames. - Tra is the minimum time necessary between 2 Rx windows belonging to different frames in order to be able to open a measurement window. - Trb is the same as Tra without opening a measurement window.

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1 Basics

1.6 (E)GPRS General Architecture


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(E)GPRS defines a network architecture dedicated to packet service domain, with radio access, which allows service subscriber to send and receive data in an end-to-end packet transfer mode (E)GPRS uses the BSS architecture, but defines a fixed network (GPRS backbone) which is different from the NSS, and which links the BSS to PDNs (packet data networks). The BSS is used for both circuit-switched and (E)GPRS services The BSS has 2 clients:
the MSC, for circuit-switched services (A interface) the GPRS backbone network, for GPRS (Gb interface)
one or more 64 kbit/s channels on one or more 2 Mbit/s links Gb interface: Layer 1 specified in GSM 08.14 The protocol stack defined in the stage 2, GSM 03.60

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1 Basics

1.6 (E)GPRS General Architecture [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 18

(E)GPRS general architecture

A Interface

MSC/VLR

PSTN

Circuit Switched services domain


BSS

Gb Interface

GPRS backbone Gi

PDN

Packet Switched services domain

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GPRS network = IP network Note: Additional IP routers might be used to route the information between the GSNs (intra-PLMN backbone network). All the elements connected to this backbone have private permanent IP addresses. Signaling protocols: MAP/TCAP/SCCP/MTP on Gr, Gd and Gc (through the SGSN for the latter), GTP/UDP/IP on Gn, BSSAP+/SCCP/MTP on Gs, GMM/SM/LLC on Gb/Um. Gc: for Network-Requested PDP contexts Activation (the GGSN asks the HLR for SGSN Routing Information). Gs: defines the Network Mode of Operation I. It allows to perform LA + RA combined Location Update, and PS and CS Paging Coordination. Gr: exchange of Subscription Information at Attachment Phase. Additional interfaces: Gf (to the EIR). Gd to deliver the SMS to the mobiles via the GPRS network (SGSN option and subscriber feature).

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1 Basics

1.7 Alcatel (E)GPRS Architecture


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Packet Control Unit (PCU) function is defined by the GSM standard:


controls the (E)GPRS activity in a cell handles RLC/MAC functions may be either implemented in the BTS, BSC or the SGSN

Alcatel choice:
PCU implemented in a new network element, A 9135 MFS (Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server) smooth and cost effective introduction of the GPRS

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The standard specifies that the PCU function shall be implemented in one of the 3 following entities: BTS, BSC, after the BSC (in the SGSN for instance) The implementation of the PCU functions determines the position of the Gb interface. ALCATEL chose the MFS integration in order to offer a faster implementation inside the BSS as well as an easier maintenance and supervision. MFS: Multi BSS Fast packet Server.

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1 Basics

1.7 Alcatel (E)GPRS Architecture [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 20

Alcatel packet-switched service domain architecture:

Packet domain
Gp

Other PLMN

BTS
Abis

BSC
Ater

MFS
Gb

SGSN
Gn

GGSN

Firewall
Gi

Internet/ Intranet
MS

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1 Basics

1.7 Alcatel (E)GPRS Architecture [cont.]


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GPRS backbone is an IP network and is composed of routers:


Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN), at the same hierarchical level as the MSC, which is linked to several BSSs. It keeps track of the individual MSs location and performs security functions and access control Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN), which is linked to one or several data networks, provides interworking with external packet-switched networks and is connected with SGSNs via an IP-based GPRS backbone network

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1 Basics

1.8 (E)GPRS Protocol Layers (Transmission Plane)


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Application example

www
World Wide Web

http
Hypertext Transfer Protocol

TCP
Transmission Control Protocol RFC 793

IP
Internet Protocol RFC 791

IP
Internet Protocol RFC 791

relay

SNDCP
Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol GSM 04.65

SNDCP
Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol GSM 04.65

GTP
GPRS Tunneling Protocol GSM 09.60

GTP
GPRS Tunneling Protocol GSM 09.60

LLC
Logical Link Control GSM 04.64

LLC
Logical Link Control GSM 04.64

UDP
or:
User Datagram Protocol RFC 768

UDP
or:
User Datagram Protocol RFC 768

TCP RLC
Radio Link Control GSM 04.60

TCP
Transmission Control Protocol RFC 793

relay

RLC
Radio Link Control GSM 04.60

BSSGP
BSS GPRS Protocol GSM 08.18

BSSGP
BSS GPRS Protocol GSM 08.18

Transmission Control Protocol RFC 793

IP
Internet Protocol RFC 791

IP
Internet Protocol RFC 791

MAC
Medium Access Control GSM 04.60

MAC
Medium Access Control GSM 04.60

NS
Network Service GSM 08.16

NS
Network Service GSM 08.16

Ethernet FR
Frame Relay

Ethernet FR
Frame Relay

Physical Link Layer Physical RF Layer

relay Physical L2-GCH Layer 2 GPRS Link Layer Channel Physical RF Layer
Um

or:

or:

L2-GCH
Layer 2 GPRS Channel

ATM L1bis
Layer 1bis GSM 08.14 Asynchronous Transfer Mode

ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode

L1-GCH
Layer 1 GPRS Channel

L1-GCH
Layer 1 GPRS Channel

L1bis
Layer 1bis GSM 08.14

and/or:

and/or:

E1 (PCM30)
G.703 / G.704

E1 (PCM30)
G.703 / G.704

MS

BTS

Abis / Ater

MFS

Gb

SGSN

Gn

GGSN

Gi

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For the exact purposes of the tracing, please refer to Introduction to GPRS & E-GPRS Quality of Service Monitoring It can be said from this protocol stacks diagram that after allocation of a GCH by the BSC to the MFS, the data carried over the GCH are transparent for the BSC. The RLC function defines the procedures for segmentation and reassemble of LLC PDUs into RLC/MAC blocks and, in RLC acknowledged mode of operation, for the Backward Error Correction (BEC) procedures enabling the selective retransmission of unsuccessfully delivered RLC/MAC blocks. In RLC acknowledged mode of operation, the RLC function preserves the order of higher layer PDUs provided to it. The RLC function provides also link adaptation. In EGPRS in RLC acknowledged mode of operation, the RLC function may provide Incremental Redundancy (IR). The MAC function defines the procedures that enable multiple mobile stations to share a common transmission medium, which may consist of several physical channels. The function may allow a mobile station to use several physical channels in parallel, i.e., use several time slots within the TDMA frame. For the mobile station originating access, the MAC function provides the procedures, including the contention resolution procedures, for the arbitration between multiple mobile stations simultaneously attempting to access the shared transmission medium. For the mobile station terminating access, the MAC function provides the procedures for queuing and scheduling of access attempts.

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1 Basics

1.9 Alcatel (E)GPRS BSS Hardware support


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BTS: Support of EGPRS (EDGE) in all BTS A9100 EVOLIUM Evolution equipped with TRA transceiver:
G1 MK2 and G2 with DRFU: GPRS only, CS-1 and CS-2 only A9100 EVOLIUM (G3): GPRS only, CS 1-4 A9100 EVOLIUM Evolution (G4): (E)GPRS, CS 1-4, MCS 1-9

micro BTS: support of EDGE in micro BTS A9110-E


Micro BTS A9110 (M4M): GPRS only, CS 1-4 Micro A9110-E (M5M): (E)GPRS, CS 1-4, MCS 1-9

BSC A9120 (G2) MFS A9135 TC A9125 (Transcoder)


G2 and G2.5

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1 Basics

1.10 Modulation Technique: 8-PSK only for EGPRS


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8-PSK = Phase Shift Keying


8-PSK is not a constant envelope modulation. Part of the information is conveyed by the amplitude of the carrier which varies over time An 8PSK signal carries three bits per modulated symbol over the radio path which allows to tripled the data transmission rates
Q
110

Q
100 101

Q
011 111

111 011

t
I

Q
010 000 001 011

010

110
010 001 000

dB

I
000 100 001 101

I
0

111

I
101 100 110

PN
-20

(147 bits)

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GMSK = the Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying belongs to a subset of phase modulations 8-PSK = 8-state Phase Shift Keying 8-PSK is not a constant envelope modulation. Part of the information is conveyed by the amplitude of the carrier which varies over time. An 8-PSK signal carries three bits per modulated symbol over the radio path, which allows to triple the data transmission rates. Modulation gross bit rate The normal burst is divided into 156.35 symbol periods. A normal burst has a duration of 3/5.2 seconds (577 s). (3GPP TS 05.02). For GMSK modulation, a symbol is equivalent to a bit (3GPP TS 05.04) A GMSK burst is composed of 156.35 bits (6 tail bits + 26 training sequence bits + 116 encrypted bits + 8.25 guard period (bits)) Modulation gross bit rate = (156.35 bits) / (3/5.2 seconds) = 270 Kbit/s For 8-PSK modulation, one symbol corresponds to three bits (3GPP TS 05.04). An 8-PSK burst is composed of 156.35 x 3 = 468.75 bits (18 tail bits + 78 training sequence bits + 348 encrypted bits + 24.75 guard period (bits)). Modulation gross bit rate = (468.75 bits) / (3/5.2 seconds) = 810 Kbit/s

GMSK Modulation type Channel spacing Gross bit rate per carrier Carrier envelope Packet radio service Frequency modulation 200 KHz 270 Kbit/s constant GPRS / EGPRS
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8-PSK Phase modulation 200 KHz 810 Kbit/s Amplitude varies EGPRS

1 Basics

1.11 8-PSK TRA Power Aspects


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 25

Nominal output power (PN) of the transmitter represents the average power during the active burst
GMSK average power is identical to GMSK peak power 8-PSK peak power is equal to GMSK peak power but the 8-PSK average power is lower than the peak power 8-PSK power < GMSK power the difference is called average power decrease (APD) or power back off
TRA 900 MP 900 HP 1800 MP 1800 HP 900 EDGE+ 1800 EDGE+ GMSK output power 45 W / 46.5 dBm 60 W / 47.8 dBm 35 W / 45.4 dBm 60 W / 47.8 dBm 45 W / 46.5 dBm 35 W / 45.4 dBm 8-PSK output power 15 W / 41.8 dBm 25 W / 44 dBm 12 W / 40.8 dBm 25 W / 44 dBm 30 W / 44.8 dBm 30W / 44.8 dBm

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G3 TREs are not able to handle the 8-PSK modulation. Only G4 TREs (also called TRA) are EDGE capable. The TRA sensitivity is as follows : GMSK : - 111 dBm. 8-PSK : - 108 dBm for MCS5, - 99 dBm for MCS9.

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1 Basics

1.11 8-PSK TRA Power Aspects [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 26

OUTPUT PWR @ BTS ant. connector

Unbalanced BTS configuration


-8PSK = APD -8PSK = APD APD = 0

Case 1: BS_TXPWR_MAX=0 Case 2: BS_TXPWR_MAX<>0

SECTOR GMSK 8-PSK TRE 1

APD, takes into account the BS_TXPWR_MAX and consequently the Effective GMSK Sector Power
Always 8 PSK pwr GMSK pwr APD = 0 if 8 PSK pwr > GMSK pwr Used by Link Adaptation process

8-PSK TRE 2

HP TRE 1

MP TRE 1

HP TRE 1

MP TRE 2

Case 1 LEGEND
GMSK LEVELING GMSK POWER 8-PSK POWER ATTENUATION BS_TXPWR_MAX 8-PSK APD

Case 2

8-PSK Delta power ( 8-PSK) considers only the GMSK sector power without the BS_TXPWR_MAX
8-PSK 3 dB indicates that is a high power TRE

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APD: Average Power Decrease The back-off between average GMSK and 8-PSK output power comes from physics since 8-PSK is a non constant envelope modulation unlike GMSK. As a consequence power amplifiers can not be used at their maximum power. This results in a difference between mean output powers for GMSK and 8-PSK modulations. Output power handling The BTS sets all the TRE which transmit GMSK output powers at the same level which is the minimum value among the maximum TRE output power in a sector and in a given band. On a TRE, the maximum GMSK output power is higher than the maximum 8-PSK output power. An O&M parameter (BS_TXPWR_MAX) allows a static power reduction of the maximum GMSK output power of the sector. The TRE transmit power in 8-PSK shall not exceed the GMSK transmit power in the sector. The BTS determines for each TRE, the difference between the 8-PSK output power of the TRE and the GMSK output power of the sector (8-PSK delta power). According to the 8-PSK delta power value, a TRE is called High Power or Medium Power. When a GCH channel is activated, the BTS sends the 8-PSK delta power to the MFS. Together with BS_TXPWR_MAX (static power reduction), the 8-PSK delta power allows the MFS to determine: - a possible attenuation (BS_TX_PWR) for the 8-PSK DL RLC block emission, in order not to exceed the GMSK power of the sector (for GMSK DL RLC block, the attenuation is BS_TXPWR_MAX). - an Average Power Decrease which is the difference between the 8-PSK output power and the GMSK output power after having taken into account BS_TXPWR_MAX. The Average Power Decrease is taken into account in the link adaptation tables.

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1 Basics

1.11 8-PSK TRA Power Aspects [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 27

Example:
GSM 900, a mix BTS sector configuration is considered:
ANc combined with 4 TRA (TRAs = EGPRS capable TRE):
TRE 1 (BCCH): 60W GMSK (25W in 8-PSK) TRE 2..4: 45W GMSK (15W in 8-PSK) BS_TXPWR_MAX = 2 dB;

RESULTS:
1st step: Output power at BTS antenna connector (after combiner and duplexer stage):
TRE 1 GMSK = 43.4 dBm; 8-PSK = 39.6 dBm TRE 2..4 GMSK = 42.1 dBm; 8-PSK = 37.4 dBm

2nd step: LEVELING (BTS automatic GMSK power balancing):


TRE 1..4 GMSK = 42.1 dBm (Sector GMSK power)

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1 Basics

1.11 8-PSK TRA Power Aspects [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 28

3rd step: 8-PSK Delta computation


TRE 1 = 42.1 39.6 = 2.5 dB < 3 dB recognized as HP TRE TRE 2..4 = 42.1 37.4 = 4.7 dBm recognized as MP TREs

4th step: static attenuation (only on GMSK power)


TRE 1..4 GMSK = 42.1 2 = 40.1 dBm (Effective GMSK Sector Power)

5th

step: GMSK power 8-PSK power ?


YES, since 40.1 dBm 39.6 dBm 37.4 dBm no reduction of 8-PSK power

6th step: APD computation


APD TRE 1 (BCCH) = 40.1 39.6 = 0.5 dB APD TRE 2..4 = 40.1 37.4 = 2.7 dB

3GPP 05.08 constraint on the transmitted power of BCCH frequency: BCCH frequency shall usually be transmitted at a constant level. A tolerance has been introduced with 8-PSK: a fluctuation of up to 2 dB is allowed If APD is greater than 2 dB, a static power attenuation should be applied or EGPRS capability should not be activated on the BCCH TRE

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Radio Network Planning Impact Frequency hopping is not recommended for E-GPRS (MCS-1 to MCS-9) Therefore, the system is allocating a higher priority for the packet-switched traffic for non-hopping TRX in a cell. In addition, the non-hopping TRX may benefit from a special radio planning with higher reuse cluster size, in order to ensure higher C/I conditions and offer better throughputs, both for GPRS and EDGE. APD should be considered in the A9155 planning tool for the throughput estimation (based on interference calculation per pixel approach) and also to determine the 8-PSK coverage. The IR gain should also be considered in the throughput estimation. 3 dB can be taken for the average IR gain. PS_PREF_BCCH_TRX is a flag at cell level which indicates whether the operator wishes to allocate packet on the BCCH TRX with highest priority. Actually, is recommended to activate GPRS/EDGE traffic on the BCCH TRX due to its high RCS. However the activation of EDGE on the BCCH TRX should be performed cautiously. 3GPP Rec. 05.08 has defined a constraint on the transmitted power of BCCH frequency. This frequency shall usually be transmitted at a constant level. A tolerance has been introduced with 8PSK: a fluctuation of up to 2 dB is allowed. Depending on the configuration in the BTS, it may happen that the difference between GMSK and 8-PSK power on the BCCH TRX is greater than 2dB. A possible solution for this constraint, in case of a BTS (e.g. ANc combined) equipped only with MP TRX (most of the cases) is presented below: The BCCH MP TRX will be replaced by a HP TRX (to take also advantage from 8-PSK 25W power and <3dB) BS_TXPWR_MAX will be set to 2 dB The difference between GMSK and 8-PSK power on BCCH TRX will be: (42.1 2) 39.6 = 0.5 dB which respects the ETSI constraint. The drawback is that CS and GPRS service may be affected by the GMSK output power reduction.

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1 Basics

1.12 (E)GPRS Radio Blocks Structure


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 29

In order to be transmitted over the air interface, the LLC data is segmented at RLC layer into packets, called (E)GPRS radio blocks Radio block characteristics:
a block is the smallest data unit assigned to an user one radio block is always entirely assigned to one user; inside a block there is no multiplexing of different users possible the whole information belonging to one radio block is transmitted upon channel coding, in a certain timeslot over 4 consecutive TDMA frames the data amount carried in one (E)GPRS radio block is:
456 bits in GPRS (GMSK modulation) 464 bits in EGPRS (GMSK modulation) 1392 bits in EGPRS (8-PSK modulation)

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1 Basics

1.12 (E)GPRS Radio Blocks Structure [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 30

GPRS Radio Block (data transfer)


MAC header RLC header RLC data block BCS

MAC header: control fields which are different for uplink and downlink directions RLC header: control fields which are different for uplink and downlink directions RLC Data Block: bytes from one or more LLC PDUs Block Check Sequence (BCS): used for error detection

EGPRS Radio Block (data transfer)


RLC/MAC header HCS RLC data block 1 RLC data block 2
only MCS-7/8/9

BCS

RLC/MAC header: control fields which are different for uplink and downlink directions RLC Data Field: LLC PDUs bytes; contains one or two RLC data blocks Block Check Sequence (BCS): for error detection of the data part Header Check Sequence (HCS): for error detection of the header part

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1 Basics

1.13 GPRS Channel Coding


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 31

Channel coding provides error detection and error correction


Essential for managing the impairments on the air interface

Data rates in GPRS on the air interface


The useful data rates on the air interface depend on the channel coding procedure For (E)GPRS, different channel coding levels are applied depending on the actual radio conditions

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1 Basics

1.13 GPRS Channel Coding [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 32

Four different coding schemes, CS-1 to CS-4, are defined for the GPRS Radio Blocks carrying RLC data, and are applied depending from the actual radio conditions The first step of the channel coding procedure is to add a Block Check Sequence (BCS) for error detection For CS-1 to CS-3, the second step consists of pre-coding USF (except for CS-1), adding four tail bits and a half rate convolutional coding for error correction that is punctured to give the desired coding rate For CS-4 there is no coding for error correction The most protected mode is CS-1 which is therefore always used for GPRS signaling (even for EGPRS)

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1 Basics

1.13 GPRS Channel Coding [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 33 GPRS RADIO BLOCK USF BCS

8
GMSK modulation

CS-1 CS-2 CS-3


20

rate 1/2 convolutional coding

12 14.4

puncturing

CS-4

Maximum User Payload [kbps]

456 bits
Interleaving of GPRS Radio Block over 4 consecutive TDMAs (4 PDCH)
Scheme Modulation schemes GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK Coding schemes for RLC data block No coding Half rate convolutional coding, punctured Half rate convolutional coding, punctured Half rate convolutional coding Code rate 1.00 0.75 0.66 0.50

Header + Protection

Maximum data rate per TS (RLC payload) [kbps] 20.0 14.4 12.0 8.0

CS-4

Release B8

CS-3 CS-2 CS-1

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1 Basics

1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 34

Nine different coding schemes are defined: MCS-1 to MCS-9 First step of the EGPRS coding procedure, is to add a Block Check Sequence (BCS) to each RLC data block, for error detection Second step consists of adding six tail bits (TB) and a 1/3 rate convolutional coding for error correction that is punctured to give the desired coding rate The Pi (puncturing schemes) for each MCS correspond to different puncturing schemes achieving the same coding rate
Puncturing is a technique of removing bits in predetermined locations of the data block after the block has been channel coded MCS-9, MCS-8, MCS-7, MCS-4, MCS-3: are possible P1, P2, and P3 MCS-6, MCS-5, MCS-2, MCS-1: P1 and P2 are possible

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The puncturing process consists of transmitting only some of the coded bits obtained after the rate 1/3 convolutional coding. Depending on the considered puncturing scheme, different coded bits are transmitted. Therefore, when the receiver receives two versions of the same RLC block sent with two different puncturing schemes, it obtains additional information leading to an increased decoding probability.

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1 Basics

1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 35

MCSs are divided into 4 different families: A, A, B and C


Each family has a different basic payload unit:
37 34 28 22 bytes: family bytes: family bytes: family bytes: family A A (padding) B C

When switching to MCS-3 or MCS-6 from MCS-8, 3 or 6 padding bytes, are added to the data bytes Within a family different throughputs are achieved by transmitting a different number of basic payload units within one block impact on retransmission
Offset the GPRS disadvantage on retransmission

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1 Basics

1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 36

8.8 11.2

MCS-3 MCS-1

Family A
MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4

37 octets

37 octets

37 octets

37 octets

MCS-6 MCS-9

GMSK
14.8
8.8 x 2 = 17.6 11.2 x 2 = 22.4 14.8 x 2 = 29.6
MCS-3

34 +3 octets 34 +3 octets

Family A
MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9 MCS-1 Maximum User Payload [kbit/s] Header + Protection MCS-2

MCS-6
34 octets 34 octets 34 octets 34 octets

padding
MCS-8

8-PSK

11.2 x 4 = 44.8 padding (MCS-3/6) 54.4 14.8 x 4 = 59.2

Family B

28 octets

28 octets

28 octets

28 octets

MCS-5 MCS-7

Family C

22 octets

22 octets

MCS-4

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The main GPRS imperfections are linked to: the design of the GPRS coding schemes which were designed independently from the others with their own data unit. the fact that once the information contained in an radio block has been transmitted with a certain CS, it is not possible via the Automatic ReQuest for repetition (ARQ) mechanism to retransmit with another CS. - This could lead to the release of the TBF and to the establishment of a new one in order to transmit the LLC frame. EGPRS coding schemes have been designed to offset this problem. Four MCS families have been created with for each of them a basic unit of payload. This allows the re-segmentation of the RLC data blocks when changing of modulation and coding schemes (within the same family). - Example: if one MCS-6 radio block has not been received correctly by the receiver and if radio conditions have degraded in the meantime, it is possible to re-send the same information in two radio blocks with MCS-3 (more protection). The level of protection applied (MCS usage) in case of retransmissions is in line with the radio conditions. The different code rates within a family are achieved by transmitting a different number of payload units within one radio block. When 4 payload units are transmitted, these are split into 2 separate RLC blocks (i.e., with separate sequence numbers).

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1 Basics

1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 37

MCS-9 Example:
EGPRS MCS-9 RADIO BLOCK
3 bits USF 45 bits RLC/MAC header HCS E FBI 612 bits RLC Data Block = 592 bits BCS TB E FBI 612 bits RLC Data Block = 592 bits BCS TB

Rate 1/3 convolutional coding

Rate 1/3 convolutional coding

36 bits

135 bits puncturing

1836 bits puncturing

1836 bits puncturing

SB=8

36 bits

124 bits

612 bits

612 bits

612 bits

612 bits

612 bits

612 bits

P1

P2

P3

P1

P2

P3

1392 bits

Interleaving of the EGPRS Radio Block over 4 consecutive TDMAs MCS-9 basic payload unit = 37 bytes = 296 bits MCS-9 RLC data block = 2 x basic payload unit =2* 296 bits = 592 bits
MCS-9 RLC payload throughput= 592 bits / 10 ms = 59.2 Kbps

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1 Basics

1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 38

Scheme

Modulation schemes

Coding schemes for RLC data block

Code rate

Maximum data rate per TS (RLC payload) [kbps] 59.2 54.4 44.8 29.6 22.4 17.6 14.8 11.2 8.8

MCS-9 MCS-8 MCS-7 MCS-6

8PSK 8PSK 8PSK 8PSK 8PSK GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK

1/3 rate convolutional coding, punctured 1/3 rate convolutional coding, punctured 1/3 rate convolutional coding, punctured 1/3 rate convolutional coding, punctured 1/3 rate convolutional coding, punctured 1/3 rate convolutional coding, punctured 1/3 rate convolutional coding, punctured 1/3 rate convolutional coding, punctured 1/3 rate convolutional coding, punctured

1.00 0.92 0.76 0.49 0.37 1.00 0.80 0.66 0.53

Uplink & Downlink transfer

MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1

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1.15 Radio Link Adaptation Overview


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 39

(M)CS schemes are dynamically selected based on the quality of the radio channel, in order to maximize the throughput Two different mechanisms exists for GPRS and EGPRS: CS Adaptation in case of GPRS TBF mode and Link Adaptation (LA) in case of EGPRS TBF mode Selection of the most suitable (M)CS is based on measurements reported by the MS for the downlink path and by the BTS for the uplink path

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1.16 Automatic ReQuest for repetition (ARQ)


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 40

In the ARQ method, when the receiver detects the presence of errors in a received RLC block, it requests and receives a retransmission of the same RLC block from the transmitter The retransmission can be performed using:
Type-I ARQ mechanism. This applies for both GPRS and EGPRS mode Type-II hybrid ARQ mechanism, also called Incremental Redundancy (IR). This applies only for DL EGPRS mode

IR is optional for the BTS, but is mandatory for the EGPRS MS (3GPP requirement)

B9 !!! ARQ type-II applies for UL and DL EGPRS mode !!!

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1 Basics

1.17 Type-I ARQ mechanism


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 41

In the selective type-I ARQ mechanism, the receiver discards the erroneous blocks, and indicates in the acknowledgement messages the reference of these erroneous blocks for their retransmission. Then, the sending side has to retransmit the erroneous data RLC blocks
MS
Uplink RLC data block B1 / PDTCH (1) Uplink RLC data block B2 / PDTCH (2)

MFS

The Block 2 has been unsuccessfully received

Packet UplinkAck/Nack /PACCH (3)


Uplink RLC data block B2 / PDTCH (4) Uplink RLC data block B3 / PDTCH (5)

MS retransmits the uplink RLC data block B2

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With the type 1 ARQ mechanism, the decoding of a re-transmitted RLC block does not use the previously transmitted versions (not correctly received) of this RLC block. The decoding of a RLC data block is only based on the current transmission. The type 1 ARQ mechanism is always used for the GPRS

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1 Basics

1.18 Type-I ARQ in GPRS


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 42

GPRS CSs are designed independently from the others with its own basic payload unit size, so the family concept does not exists in GPRS Before its transmission over the radio interface, the LLC frame is segmented into payload units according to CS that will be used to transmit the radio block In case of erroneous reception, the RLC data block can be retransmitted only with the same CS (segmentation is not possible)
If the radio conditions have changed and the coding rate is not appropriate to them, the receiver will never be able to decode the retransmission of the RLC data block. This will lead to the release of the TBF and the establishment of a new one in order to transmit the LLC frame In order to avoid this problem, the choice of the CS on the network side has to be made carefully. This often results in an non-optimized use of the radio interface, leading to a reduction of network capacity compared with its theoretical capacity

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1 Basics

1.19 Type-I ARQ in EGPRS


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 43

MCSs have been designed to offset the GPRS disadvantage


MCS family concept is applied

In EGPRS, in case of retransmission request (type-I ARQ) for a RLC data block, the same or a next lower MCS within the same family is used
The retransmission can be performed with or w/o RLC data segmentation (e.g. from MCS-9 to MCS-6 w/o, and MCS-6 to MCS-3 with segmentation) When one RLC data block is retransmitted with a lower MCS, the coding rate is decreased by two, but the redundancy transmitted is increased That increases the capability to decode the radio block !

Retransmission operates in connection with the link adaptation


E.g. if the LA mechanism orders the usage of MCS-5 and the first transmission of an erroneous RLC block was with MCS-6, the transmission will be performed with MCS-3. The blocks that are sent for the first time will be transmitted with the last-ordered MCS

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1.19 Type-I ARQ in EGPRS [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 44

Type-II ARQ (IR) is an efficient combination of 2 techniques:


Automatic Repeat reQuest : in case of error detection in a received RLC block, a re-transmission of the same RLC data block is requested Forward Error Correction : adds redundant information to the user information at the transmitter, the receiver uses the info to correct errors causes by radio disturbances

In the IR mechanism:
The information which is sent first results from an initial puncturing scheme (PS1) applied to the encoded RLC data block If an error is detected by the receiver:
the received message is stored selective retransmission of the RLC data block is requested a second puncturing scheme (PS2) is applied to the same MCS, by the sender the receiver decodes (combines) the resulting message together with the previously received message(s) multiple retransmission can be requested until decoding succeeds

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The type 2 ARQ mechanism or incremental redundancy (IR) is an ETSI function, mandatory for the EGPRS MS receiver (downlink path) and optional for the BTS receiver (uplink path). In B8 release, the IR feature is only available on the downlink path. It is important to notice that the IR feature is always running in the EDGE MS receiver (except in case of MS memory shortage). The DL incremental redundancy is not used for the signaling blocks, the GPRS data blocks and the data blocks in RLC unacknowledged mode. It is only used for the EGPRS data blocks in RLC acknowledged mode. In the type II ARQ mechanism (IR): the first emission of a RLC data block is done using a first puncturing scheme (PS1), in case of re-transmission of this RLC block, the transmitter uses the same MCS or a MCS of the same family than the one used for the initial block. On the DL path, depending on the value of the parameter EN_FULL_IR_DL, re-segmentation of the RLC block may be performed or not, at the output of the demodulator, the receiver combines the information of soft bits corresponding to the first transmission of the block and its different re-transmissions, thus increasing the decoding probability of the RLC block. Remark : according to the 04.60 (RLC/MAC layers) GSM recommendation, the soft-combining inside the MS receiver is only performed between an : - MCSx block and MCSx block (that is the same MCS is used for the re-transmission), - MCS9 block and an MCS6 block (in that case the RLC data blocks carry the same number of payload units), - MCS7 block and an MCS5 block (in that case the RLC data blocks carry the same number of payload units). If the "MS OUT OF MEMORY" field is set by the mobile in the EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack message, the type I ARQ shall apply in the MS receiver (ARQ without IR). This occurs when the memory for IR operation runs out in the MS (that is when the memory of the MS is full due to the storage of the different versions of a RLC block not correctly decoded).

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1.19 Type-I ARQ in EGPRS [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 45

(1) The BSS sends a DL data block using the puncturing scheme P1 and MCS-6. B1 is not successfully decoded by the MS. The MS stores the received block (2) The MS requests a selective retransmission of the erroneous block, in the next EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack (3) The MS retransmits the DL data block using a new puncturing scheme P2 and the same MCS-6. If the block header is correctly decoded, the MS decodes the data making soft combination with the previous transmission

MS

BTS

MFS

Data Block

Data Block

puncturing scheme 1

Nack Data Block

Data Block

puncturing scheme 2

Data Block

Data Block

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In the puncturing scheme selection for re-transmission, 2 cases have to be considered: if the selected MCS has not changed : if all the different punctured versions of the data block have been sent, the procedure shall start over and PS1 shall be used, followed by PS2, then by PS3 (if available for the considered MCS), so that the PS selection is cyclic, if the selected MCS has changed : the PS to be used is indicated by the table below.

Previous MCS MCS9

New MCS MCS6

Previous PS PS1 or PS3 PS2

New PS PS1 PS2 PS3 PS2 PS1 PS2 PS1

MCS6

MCS9

PS1 PS2

MCS7 MCS5

MCS5 MCS7

PS1, PS2 or PS3 PS1 or PS2 Any

All other combinations

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1 Basics

1.19 Type-I ARQ in EGPRS [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 46

B9 release: the IR mechanism is implemented in uplink and downlink This mechanism is associated with link adaptation in order to provide superior radio efficiency on the air interface IR feature is always running in the EGPRS MS receivers, except when the stored packets are a memory shortage is reported by the MS discarded and type-I ARQ is set ! Parameter for IR activation:
EN_FULL_IR_DL which enable or disable the RLC data segmentation for retransmissions
EN_FULL_IR_DL = disable; e.g. if MCS-5 is ordered by LA, and the first transmission was with MCS-6 then, the retransmission is performed with MCS-3 (segmentation on the initial RLC data block, ARQ Type-I) EN_FULL_IR_DL=enable; even if MCS-5 is ordered, the retransmission is performed with MCS-6 (no segmentation, ARQ Type-II)

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1.20 (E)GPRS radio physical channel: PDCH Concept


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 47

Packet Data Channel (PDCH)


(E)GPRS radio access method = GSM TDMA (8 timeslots per carrier) One PDCH represents a physical channel (1 timeslot) dedicated to packet data traffic (GPRS/EDGE), over the radio interface

PDCH group
The available PDCHs are grouped into PDCH groups One PDCH group contains consecutive timeslots (without TS holes) belonging to the same TRX, having the same radio configuration
possible to have hopping and non hopping PDCH groups in one cell

maximum number of PDCH groups/cell is equal to 16 (equal to maximum number of TRX / cell)
16 TRX/cell achieved with help of the B7 feature cell split over 2 BTSs, EVOLIUM BTS

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1.21 (E)GPRS Multiframe


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 48

12 radio blocks (B0 to B11) form a 52-(E)GPRS multiframe


The frames 25 and 51 are idle frames and the frames 12 and 38 are used for the PTCCH
One TDMA frame = 8 TS (4,615 ms)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

One PDCH

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

47

48

49

50

51

Block B0

Block B1

Block B2

T
PTCCH

Block B3

Block B11

X
idle

One 52 - multiframe (240 ms)

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1.22 (E)GPRS Logical Channels


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 49

EGPRS is reusing the existing GPRS logical channels Packet logical channels are mapped in one physical channel (PDCH) using the technique of multiframing
The sharing of the PDCH is done on blocks basis

PBCCH (Packet Broadcast Control Channel) used for broadcasting system information (SI) PCCCH (Packet Common Control Channel) used to initiate packet transfer
PRACH (Packet Random Access Channel) PPCH (Packet Paging Channel) PAGCH (Packet Access Grant Channel)
!!! MASTER CHANNEL ONLY !!!

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1.22 (E)GPRS Logical Channels [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 50

PTCH (Packet Traffic Channel) used for user data transmission and its associated signaling
PDTCH (Packet Data Traffic Channel) used to carry user data (LLC PDU segmented is RLC/MAC blocks) PACCH (Packet Associated Control Channel)
Bidirectional channel, dynamically allocated on block basis, used to carry control data In Alcatel BSS is always allocated on one of the PDCHs on which PDTCHs are allocated

PTCCH (Packet Timing Advance Control Channel) used for continuous timing advance mechanism
Bidirectional channel allocated on the same PDCH as the PACCH

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1.23 Master/Slave PDCH concept


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 51

A PDCH which carries a PCCCH or/and a PBCCH channel is called Master PDCH (MPDCH)
MPDCH which carries the PBCCH is called Primary MPDCH
Primary MPDCH is the GPRS BCCH

MPDCH which carries only PCCCH is called Secondary MPCH

All other PDCHs, active as slaves, are called Slave PDCH (SPDCH) B8 release:
MPDCHs are statically established only on BCCH TRX Up to 4 MPDCHs can be supported per cell (max Nb_TS_MPDCH=4)

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1.24 Temporary Block Flow


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 52

The packet data call is a Temporary Block Flow (TBF)


For a data packet transmission, a temporary physical connection (TBF) will be set up as an unidirectional link Each TBF is unidirectional: Uplink TBF and Downlink TBF for the same mobile are uncorrelated One TBF allocates radio resources on one or more PDCH and comprise a number of RLC/MAC blocks carrying one or more LLC PDUs TBF is only temporary and maintained for the duration of the data transfer Either the mobile or the network can initiate a TBF

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Temporary Flow Identity (TFI): Each TBF is assigned a TFI by the MFS. Important: Since B7, it is possible to establish 32 TBFs per PDCH group (See sub-session 2.2 for PDCH group definition). TBF is a group of blocks dynamically allocated to one MS for one transfer of RLC blocks in one direction inside one cell. A Temporary Block Flow is a temporary, unidirectional physical connection across the Um interface, between one mobile and the BSS. The TBF is established when data units are to be transmitted across the Um interface and is released as soon as the transmission is completed.

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1 Basics

1.24 Temporary Block Flow [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 53

TFI (Temporary Flow Identity)


RLC layer Each TBF is assigned a TFI by the MFS TFI is unique on a given PDCH, in a given direction A TBF is addressed by a Temporary Flow Identity (TFI) More than 32 TFI values per TRX (PDCH group) for each direction (i.e. DL and UL)

TLLI (Temporary Logical Link Identity)


LLC layer The TLLI identifies the logical link between the MS and the SGSN The TLLI is allocated by the SGSN to the MS in Standby and Ready states

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1 Basics

1.25 Resources Sharing


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 54

Two different resource sharing mechanisms exists:


PDCH multiplexing Multislot usage Allows optimum usage of the available radio resources

PDCH Multiplexing
PDCH multiplexing refers to the sharing of one PDCH by more than two users (TBFs) It occurs when there are more requests for PDCH resources than available PDCHs A maximum number of UL/DL_TBF can share the same PDCH in UL and DL direction respectively
MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH=6; MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH=10

When a PDCH is shared between an UL GPRS TBF and a DL EGPRS TBF, then the DL GPRS MS becomes candidate for EGPRS shall be limited to GMSK (i.e. MCS-4) radio resource reallocation

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1.25 Resources Sharing [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 55

Multislot usage
Refers to the case when 1 user can request at once more than 2 PDCH resources for the data transmission Up to 5 PDCH on different (but consecutive) timeslots on the same frequency could be allocated to one mobile at the same time (MS multislot capability)
B8 & B9 release supports 4+2 slots for Type 1 MS and 5+5 for Type 2 MS

The PDCH blocks will be consecutively transmitted over the PDCH only if there is no user multiplexing

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1.25 Resources Sharing [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 56

PDCH Multiplexing example:


lets assume that the data for user 1 has a length of 3 blocks (length of TBF 1=3 blocks) and is transmitted over PDCH #2 as soon as one block of user 1 was entirely transmitted, another user 2 can use the same PDCH #2 to transmit the blocks of its own TBF of e.g. length = 4 blocks, followed by the user 3 transmission... the blocks of user 1, user 2 and user 3 will not be transmitted in consecutive order:
as soon as one block of user 1 is transmitted, another block of user 2 can be transmitted, continued with a block of the user 3 over the same PDCH #2

Multislot usage example:


User 1 has (1+1) and users 2 & user 3 have (3+1) MS multislot capability

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1.25 Resources Sharing [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 57

PDCH Multiplexing and Multislot Usage example

User 1: no multislot capability TFI = 5

Multislot capability

PDCH 1
User 2: with multislot capability TFI = 9

User 2

User 2

User 3

User 3

User 2

User 2

User multiplexing

PDCH 2

User 1

User 2

User 3

User 1

User 2

User 2

User multiplexing

User 3: with multislot capability TFI = 13

PDCH 3 Block

User 3

User 2

User 3

User 3

User 2

User 3

n+1

n+2

n+3

n+4

n+5

...

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1.26 MS multiplexing co-ordination


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 58

DL TBF (PDTCH and PACCH)


MS decodes all blocks on its allocated PDCH The MS can identify the PDCH blocks intended for it by TFI present on the RLC block header

UL TBF (PDTCH and PACCH)


For an UL TBF, the mobile receives one USF (Uplink State Flag) per PDCH to be used during the TBF If the MS receives its USF on the DL block n of PDCH 5, it can transmit in UL using the block n+1 of PDCH 5

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Downlink PDTCH and PACCH blocks multiplexing: The multiplexing of the different MSs is performed thanks to the TFI which is present in the RLC block header. An MS decodes all the blocks of all its allocated PDCHs and keeps the blocks carrying its TFI in the RLC header. Uplink PDTCH and PACCH for a UL TBF: At UL TBF establishment, a MS receives a USF (Uplink State Flag, 8 values, MAC header) per allocated PDCH. If the MS receives its USF on the downlink block n of PDCH I, it can transmit in uplink using the block n+1 of PDCH i. NB: the values of the USF are entirely dedicated to PDTCH and PACCH transfers. See further (MPDCH and RRBP) The TFI is use in the UL as well: each mobile shall put its TFI in the UL header of the UL blocks during a UL TBF, as well as in the RLC header of the UL PACCH blocks of a DL TBF. So we can say that the de-multiplexing of the blocks is achieved by the use of a TFI.

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1.26 MS multiplexing co-ordination [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 59

Uplink PACCH for a DL TBF :


By the means of the polling mechanism, periodically an UL PACCH block is allocated during DL transfer, e.g. to allow an MS to request the establishment of an UL TBF by including a Channel Request description in a Packet DL Ack/Nack message the MS has no USF because it is involved in a DL TBF use of the RRBP (Relative Reserved Block Period) field transmitted in downlink
RRBP values indicates the number of TDMA frames the MS shall wait before transmitting its uplink RLC/MAC block

a special USF value is used: USF = no emission

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RRBP: Relative Radio Block Period Allocation of a PACCH block for the sending of acknowledgements in the UL of blocks received in the DL: The MS has no USF because it is involved in a DL TBF Use of the RRBP field transmitted in the downlink (MAC header) in association with the TFI of the DL TBF in the RLC header. At the exact occurrence of the RRBP, a special USF value is used for the UL TBF taking place on the same PDCH: USF=no emission. It is a semi-boolean parameter. The RRBP field of a RLC/LAC block is checked each time by the MS whose TFI is written in the RLC header. When S/P is false, no UL PACCH is scheduled. When the RRBP field is valid, the value gives the number of blocks to wait before sending its PACCH block in the UL S/P is false means MS has to send an acknowledgement message to the MFS.

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1.26 MS multiplexing co-ordination [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 60

Example of a Uplink Block Flow scheduling:


Downlink USF RRBP Uplink

Block number Bn Bn+1 Bn+2 Bn+3 Bn+4 Bn+5 Bn+6

TFI TFIa TFIb TFIa TFIb TFIb

USFj USFk USFj FREE No Emission TFIb USFj TFIa USFk

+3

PDTCHj PDTCHk PDTCHj PRACH PACCHa PDTCHj

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1.27 GPRS mobility management (GMM) states for MS


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 61

Idle
the MS is not attached to the packet network: paging is not possible
Idle GPRS attach Timer expiry

Ready
the MS location is known with the cell accuracy

GPRS detach

Standby
the MS is attached to the network: paging is possible the MS location is known with the RA accuracy

Ready

Timer expiry

PDU transmission

Standby

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Idle: the MS is not attached to the network: paging is not possible. Standby: the MS is attached to the network: paging is possible. the MS location is known in the CN with the RA accuracy. Ready: the MS location is known with the cell accuracy. timer T_READY keeps the MS in the Ready state just after data transfer. Packet Idle Mode: no Temporary Block Flow exists. Upper layers can require the transfer of an LLC PDU which, implicitly, may trigger the establishment of TBF and transition to packet transfer mode. the MS listens to the PBCCH and to the paging sub-channel for the paging group the MS belongs to in idle mode. If PCCCH is not present in the cell, the mobile station listens to the BCCH and to the relevant paging sub-channels. Packet Transfer Mode: In packet transfer mode, the mobile station is allocated radio resource providing a Temporary Block Flow on one or more physical channels. Continuous transfer of one or more LLC PDUs is possible. Concurrent TBFs may be established in opposite directions. Transfer of LLC PDUs in RLC acknowledged or RLC unacknowledged mode is provided. When selecting a new cell, mobile station leaves the packet transfer mode, enters the packet idle mode where it switches to the new cell, read the system information and may then resume to packet transfer mode in the new cell. The timers regulating the transition between states are SGSN timers, not tunable in the BSS. Caution: Idle mode in GPRS and Idle mode in GSM are two different states. A GSM MS in Idle mode is attached to a MSC and can be paged A GPRS MS in Idle mode is NOT attached to a SGSN, so it cannot be paged but can monitor the GPRS information broadcast in the SI13 of the BCCH. Standby is the closest GPRS MS state to Idle GSM. The MS state in the SGSN shall be considered apart from the Packet Transfer Mode in the BSS: MS in Standby mode can be in Packet Transfer Mode. MS in Ready mode can be in Packet Idle Mode. The detach procedure is usually triggered by the MS. Three other types of detach are triggered by the CN: HLR Detach, SGSN Detach upon SGSN overload, SGSN Detach upon timer. All Rights Reserved 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 Module 1 Page 61

1 Basics

1.28 Radio Resource (RR) operating modes for MS


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 62

Packet Transfer Mode (PTM)


MS is allocated radio resource on one or more PDCHs for the transfer of LLC PDUs. Continuous transfer of LLC PDUs is possible

Packet Idle Mode (PIM)


No TBF exists and the MS is also not trying to establish an UL TBF

GMM states versus RR operating modes:

GMM States GMM Ready GMM Standby

RR Operating Modes PTM: TBF opened PIM: TBF closed but GMM ready timer is still running PIM: There is no on-going TBF established and GMM ready timer is no more running

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1.29 Attach procedure


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 63

Aim
to access to GPRS services, a MS must first make its presence known to the network by performing a GPRS attach to the SGSN

GPRS attach function is similar to IMSI attach


MS authentication Ciphering key generation TLLI allocation (derived from the new P-TMSI) Subscriber profile request to the HLR

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1.29 Attach procedure [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 64

Results
A logical link between the MS and the SGSN is created MS is in Standby state and may activate a PDP context MS location is known (RA accuracy) MS is available for paging via the SGSN Charging information is collected

Combined GPRS and IMSI attach is possible for class A/B MS

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1.30 PDP context activation


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 65

Aim
in order to send and receive GPRS data, the MS must activate the PDP (Packet Data Protocol) address, which it wants to use

Results
the MS is known in the corresponding GGSN (the GGSN knows the SGSN where the MS is located) and data transmission with external data network can begin

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1.31 Location management


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 66

MS enters in a new cell

New cell inside the current RA MS in Ready state

New cell belongs to a new RA

New cell belongs to a new LA

Cell update

RA update

RA/LA update

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When the MS is in Ready State, it performs a Cell Update. The MS sends any LLC frame in the new cell with its TLLI in the header. The Cell and RAC information is added by the BSSGP at the programming of the BSSGP frame RA Update: The MS sends an RA Update Request message containing the identity of the MS, the old RAI and the Update Type. The update type is either enter a new RA or periodical RA update. The BSS adds the cell global Identity when transferring the message into a BSSGP frame towards the SGSN.

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1.32 Routing Area


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 67

As total paging is more frequent with GPRS service together with GSM paging, Routing Area (RA) was defined which may be smaller than Location Area (LA)
One RA is a subset of one and only one LA RAI (RA Identity) identifies several cells The MS location in Standby state is known in the SGSN at the RA level The MS is paged in its RA when MT traffic (MS in Standby State) arrives at the SGSN One RA is served by only one SGSN

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1.33 Network Mode of Operation (NMO)


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 68

Paging Coordination
NMO
CS Paging Channel PCCCH PS Paging Channel PCCCH CCCH (not applicable) CCCH PCCCH CCCH Characteristics - Gs interface - MPDCH - Gs interface - no MPDCH - Gs interface - no Gs interface - no MPDCH - no Gs interface - MPDCH - no Gs interface - no MPDCH

CCCH Packet data channel

II III

CCCH CCCH CCCH

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Since B7, all the possible combinations with the MPDCH are: NMOIII, NMOI with MPDCH. According to the NMO offered and the packet mode of the MS (Packet Transfer Mode or Packet Idle Mode), the routing of the PS paging and the CS paging changes. The NMO setting is done from the OMC-R via the NETWORK_OPERATION_MODE parameter.

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1 Basics

1.34 TBF establishment


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 69

Several modes of TBF establishment in UL and DL exists:


In PIM mode
UL TBF on the CCCH or PCCCH (with primary MPDCH activation) DL TBF on the CCCH or PCCCH (with primary MPDCH activation)

In PTM mode
UL TBF establishment during a DL TBF on the uplink PACCH DL TBF establishment during a UL TBF on the downlink PACCH

The TBF establishment is performed through two types of access requests:


One phase access request Two phase access request

B8/B9: The BSS preferentially establishes an EGPRS TBF to an EGPRS MS provided that an EGPRS Packet Channel request message has been received and that there are EGRPS resources (i.e. radio resources supported by an EGPRS capable TRX) available in the cell, otherwise a GPRS TBF will be established

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1.35 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 1 phase access


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 70

MS is in PIM mode:
MS (EGPRS Packet) BTS Channel request TA calculation RACH Also PRACH The MS switches on the assigned PDCH (E)GPRS mode Immediate assignment AGCH Also PAGCH Packet UL assignment PACCH Packet control Ack PACCH RLC data block (TLLI, TFI) PDTCH PACCH
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BSC Channel request + TA

MFS

Resource 1 Immediate assignment allocation TFI, USF, TAI, TA

Packet UL assignment, polling TFI, USF, TAI Resource activation Packet UL Ack/Nack TLLI, TFI

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1.35 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 1 phase access


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 71

1 allocation of only one PDCH because the multi slot capability of the MS is not known
Even if the Packet EGPRS Channel Request provides the MS multislot class, only one PDCH is allocated

2 sending of the Packet UL assignment in order to force the MS to send an acknowledgement (polling mechanism) 3 contention resolution mechanism :
suppose two MS send a (EGPRS Packet) Channel Request at the same time each MS sends its TLLI (and TFI) the TLLI is present in the acknowledgement from the MFS the MS with the wrong TLLI is discarded

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1.36 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 2 phases access


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 72

MS is in PIM mode:
MS (EGPRS Packet) BTS Channel request TA calculation RACH Also PRACH (E)GPRS mode Immediate assignment AGCH Also PAGCH Packet resource request PACCH Packet UL assignment PACCH Packet control Ack PACCH RLC data block PDTCH BSC MFS

Channel request + TA Immediate assignment TBF starting time, TA Single block allocation Packet resource request TLLI Packet UL assignment, polling TFI, USFs, TAI, TLLI Packet control Ack Resource allocation

The MS switches on the assigned PDCHs

Resource activation

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1 Basics

1.36 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 2 phases access [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 73

2 phases access is necessary when the MS wants either to :


Use RLC unacknowledged mode Give its multislot class Give QoS parameters (Peak_Throughput_Class, Radio_Priority)

Main difference:
Packet Resource Request message

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1 Basics

1.37 DL TBF establishment on CCCH


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 74

MS is in PIM mode:
MS BTS BSC MFS LLC PDU

1 PDCH allocated PDCH(s) allocated 4 access bursts

Immediate assignment PCH Also PPCH Packet DL assignment PACCH

Resource allocation Immediate assignment TFI, TAI Packet DL assignment, polling TFI, TAI

Packet control Ack TA calculation Packet control Ack PACCH Timing Advance / Power control TA / PC PACCH RLC data block PDTCH

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1 Basics

1.38 System information broadcasting on BCCH


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 75

The BCCH indicates if GPRS is supported in the cell:


SI3/4: GPRS supported or not SI13 position on BCCH used for GPRS SI3: RA_COLOUR (routing area color) field present if GPRS supported

If GPRS is supported :
SI13 is broadcasted on the BCCH SI13 broadcast instead of retransmission of SI 1

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Note: do not confuse RA_COLOUR and RA Code. The former is used as a flag which has two uses for the MS entering a new cell: to know if the GPRS service is supported in the cell (RA_COLOUR has a value different from -1). to trigger an RA update when the value of the RA_COLOUR changes. It is easy to monitor because it is broadcast often. The Routing Area Code is necessary for the RA update procedure (message content). The SI13 takes the place of a few SI1 occurrences.

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1 Basics

1.38 System information broadcasting on BCCH [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 76

SI 13 content (non exhaustive):


RAC: routing area code NMO: network mode of operation PAN_DEC, PAN_INC, PAN_MAX: radio link supervision ALPHA: GPRS uplink power control T_AVG_T, T_AVG_W: calculation of average levels PC_MEAS_CHAN: level measurements on BCCH/PDCH NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER: packet cell re-selection mode Access Burst Type : 8 bit or 11 bit access burst EGPRS_PACKET_CHANNEL_REQUEST: EGPRS capable MS shall use EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message for uplink TBF establishment on the (P)RACH (En_EGPRS = True) BEP_PERIOD: Bit error probability (BEP) filter averaging period

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EGPRS cell

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The MS has to get SI13 information on a regular basis: each time the SI13 content is updated (PSI field = SI13_CHANGE_MARK set to 1). every 30 seconds max (even if the TBF has to be interrupted). Through 2 different ways: SI13 on the BCCH or PSI13 in a PACCH block. The MS has always the time to switch on PSI13 in NMOIII and/or NMOI with a Master PDCH because PBCCH blocks are always after a I or X TS within the 52 multi-frame. Access Burst Type: it defines the access burst (8 bits or 11 bits) to be used on the PRACH, PTCCH and the Packet Control Ack on a PACCH. When the Master Channel is present in the cell, the System Information Type 13 message has different contents from those described above. It mainly consists of: The radio description of the Primary Master Channel (in terms of time slot number, training sequence code and frequency parameters). One GPRS Mobile Allocation (MA), if frequency hopping is used for GPRS. This is the GPRS MA of the Primary Master Channel, if hopping. If the Primary Master Channel is not hopping, the MA corresponds to the hopping TRX(s) used for GPRS, if any. Three modes of cell reselection have been defined by the 3GPP Standard for GPRS MSs. These Network Control (NC) modes, known as the NC0, NC1 and NC2, are shortly described below: NC0: the GPRS MS performs autonomous cell reselection without sending measurement reports to the network. NC1: the GPRS MS performs autonomous cell reselection. Additionally it sends measurement reports to the network. NC2: the GPRS MS shall not perform autonomous cell reselection. It sends measurement reports to the network. The network controls the cell reselection.

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1 Basics

1.39 System information broadcasting on PBCCH


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 77

Presence of a PBCCH (primary MPDCH) in the cell is indicated by a PBCCH description in the SI13 message
Primary MPDCH presence is possible only in NMO I or in NMO III Secondary MPDCHs presence are in indicated in PSI 2 message broadcast on the PBCCH channel All (E)GPRS MS monitor the PBCCH to receive the PACKET SYSTEM INFORMATION messages (PSI)

Without PBCCH configured in the cell:


In PIM, MS receive SI13 sent on BCCH In PTM, MS receive PSI 13 (=SI13) sent on PACCH Not possible to indicate to a MS, GPRS re-selection parameters (C31 and C32 criteria)

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Cell Parameters NMO, MS Timers, DRX info, RLS parameters, etc. PRACH access control parameters access burst type, access control class, etc. PCCCH organization parameters BS_PBCCH_BKLS, BS_PAGCH_BLKS_RES, BS_PRACH_BLKS The GPRS cell adjacencies are the same for a MS in Packet Idle Mode as for a MS in Packet Transfer Mode. The GPRS cell adjacencies are equal to CS cell adjacencies.

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1 Basics

1.39 System information broadcasting on PBCCH [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 78

PSI 1 (sent also periodically in PTM on PACCH)


Cell and BSS parameters PRACH access control parameters Description of the configuration of the packet control channels
number of blocks per 52 multiframe

Power control parameters

PSI 2 (sent also periodically in PTM on PACCH)


Cell allocation GPRS mobile allocation : HSN + list of frequencies PCCCH description : list of TS and frequency configuration Circuit-switched parameters Cell Identification : CI, RAC, LAC, MNC, MCC

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PSI3, PSI3bis: One PSI3 instance shall be sent and, as a minimum, one PSI3bis instance shall be sent as well There may be up to 16 PSI3bis instances. Reselection parameters: C31_HYST, C32_HYST, GPRS_CELL_RESELECT_HYST, PRIORITY_CLASS, HCS_THR, RA_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS Neighbor cell parameters: BSIC, BCCH frequency, SI13 PBCCH location, GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN, GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH, GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET, GPRS_PENALTY_TIME, GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET. Up to 32 neighboring cells may be defined. The field Same_RA_As_Serving_Cell provides complementary information for reselection process.

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1 Basics

1.39 System information broadcasting on PBCCH [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 79

PSI 3 / 3bis
BA(GPRS) list (identical to GSM BA list, neighboring cells BCCH) Cell selection and re-selection parameters for (non-)serving cells LSA identification of serving and neighboring cells

PSI 8 CBCH information (TS, freq., if there is CBCH in the cell)

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1 Basics

1.40 (E)GPRS Transmission Aspects


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS

!!! MODIFIED FOR B9 !!!

1 1 80

One Abis link is made of 31 64 kb/s timeslots


A 16 kb/s transmission channel is called a nibble One timeslot is made of 4 nibbles A transmission channel established for carrying (E)GPRS traffic is called a GCH (GPRS channel). One GCH uses one Abis nibble and one Ater nibble

Two main types of Abis nibbles:


Basic nibbles
Carry CS traffic Carry PS traffic but only coded with (M)CS-1 or (M)CS-2 Located on Primary Abis

Extra nibbles
Come from additional Abis timeslots for support of high speed packet traffic Carry PS traffic only Located on Primary or Secondary Abis

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1 Basics

1.40 TRX Classes Concept


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To support high data throughputs, Alcatel has developed a solution, which aims at providing the best trade-off between offered radio throughput and impact on the telecom resource consumption This solution is based on the concept of multiple classes of TRX, which support more or less data throughput. The higher the packet class, the higher the maximum data throughput, the higher the impact on BSS Telecom resources Five TRX classes (1 to 5) have been defined The Operator defines per cell the number of TRXs of each class

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1 Basics

1.40 TRX Classes Concept [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 82

Supported (Modulation and) Coding schemes


TRX Packet Class
Max 12 kbps Max 22 kbps Max 30 kbps Max 54 kbps Max 59 kbps

G3 or G4 TRX GPRS CS 1,2 EDGE MCS 1,2 GPRS CS 1,2,3,4 EDGE MCS 1,2,3,4,5 GPRS CS 1,2,3,4 EDGE MCS 1,2,3,4,5,6 GPRS CS 1,2,3,4 EDGE MCS 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 GPRS CS 1,2,3,4 EDGE MCS 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9

Abis TS per TRX 2 4 6 8 10

Class 1 Simple Class 2 Double Class 3 Triple Class 4 Quad Class 5 Quintuple

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EGCH An EGCH is made up of a pool of GCHs (from 1 to 5): One main GCH and a pool of auxiliary GCHs (the GCH uses the basic 16k Abis nibble). TRX class The TRX class is defined at MFS level. For a TRX class n, the MFS will use n GCHs to establish one EGCH. The TRX class varies with the hardware TRX capabilities (TRX type, Hardware PS capability). Higher the TRX class is, higher the PDCH throughput is. AterMux resources allocation In case of EGCH establishment, from one to five AterMux nibbles will be necessary. Nibbles have not to be contiguous. These nibbles will be taken: - on free nibbles of at least one already switched 64 Kbit/s channel, or, - on free nibbles of one or more already switched 64 Kbit/s channels and on an additional 64 Kbit/s channel, switched for this purpose, or, - on 1 or 2 additional 64 Kbit/s channels, switched for this purpose. When possible, the first possibility will be chosen. When establishing a PDCH, the number of GCH links per radio time slot is determined according to the TRX class, the PDCH type (SPDCH/MPDCH), and the AterMux congestion state. Abis Interface Several Abis nibbles are also used to handle a throughput higher than 16Kbit/s. Abis configuration is static due to hardware constraints. Depending on the requested throughput, a radio time slot needs up to 4 extra Abis nibbles in addition to the basic one. As all radio time slots of a TRX must have the same throughput capability, a TRX needs up to 8 extra Abis time slots. These extra Abis time slots are called a TRX transmission pool.
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1 Basics

1.40 TRX Classes Concept [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 83

Example 1: TRX class 1, up to CS-2 / MCS-2


TRX TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 Abis TS0 TS4 TS1 TS5 TS2 TS6 TS3 TS7

Basic Timeslots

Example 2: TRX class 4, up to CS-4 / MCS-8


TRX TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 Abis TS0 TS4 TS0 TS1 TS5 TS1 TS5 TS1 TS5 TS1 TS5 TS2 TS6 TS2 TS6 TS2 TS6 TS2 TS6 TS3 TS7 TS3 TS7 TS3 TS7 TS3 TS7

Basic Nibble

Basic Timeslots

Radio Timeslot

TS4 TS0 TS4 TS0 TS4

1 PDCH = 4 terrestrial nibbles = 1 basic nibble also used for voice + 3 additional nibbles used only for packet traffic

6 Extra Timeslots
Extra Nibbles

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1 Basics

1.41 Two Abis Links per BTS


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 84

The secondary Abis is fully dedicated to packet data


Two topologies exists
BSC

Primary Abis
EVOLIUM BTS

Secondary Abis

Topology 1
Primary Abis
EVOLIUM BTS

BTS

BTS

Secondary Abis

Topology 2

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Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS

11

85

2 B9 features

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2 B9 features

2.1 Enhanced Packet Cell Reselection (R4 MSs)


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In B9 a number of procedures have been introduced to achieve better performances for GPRS cell reselections:
Packet PSI Status procedure
reducing the duration of the phase where the MS acquires PSI in the target cell

Packet SI Status procedure, same scope as above for SI in the target cell Network Assisted Cell Change procedures
reducing, in NC0 and NC2 mode, the duration of the phase where the MS acquires target cell (P)SI, in the serving cell

CCN mode procedure (Cell Change Notification)


allowing, in NC0 mode, the MS to indicate its wish to perform a cell reselection

Cell System Information distribution Cell ranking with load criteria

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2 B9 features

2.1.1 Radio Network Impact


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 87

The B9 added improvements allow reducing the time dedicated to a Cell Reselection in packet mode. These sub-features impact traffic model, allowing faster CR to a new cell or less number of CRs performed in a cell, will result in a higher aggregated throughput in the cell.

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2 B9 features

2.2 Extended Uplink TBF Mode


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 88

This feature allows improving access time to the GPRS network


ping test down to 350 ms

It also improves the throughput in some cases.

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The feature main benefits are: reduced (may be 0) delay before next UL transmission (no new TBF to establish) and reduced DL TBF establishment, when it follows an UL TBF. Expected effects: In uplink, it can avoid to re-establish TBF for subsequent burst of data from the same higher layer transaction, and it avoids to establish a new TBF if new data arrive during countdown procedure on the current TBF. In uplink, it can avoid to re-establish TBF for subsequent burst of data from the same higher layer transaction, and it avoids to establish a new TBF if new data arrive during countdown procedure on the current TBF. in downlink, it allows to perform more often the TBF establishment on concurrent TBF and it saves the DL bandwidth by sending dummy UI commands (on the DL TBF is in delayed release state) if a concurrent TBF exists. Both effects are expected to improve the end-to-end transmission delay and consequently to reduce the transfer duration. The mechanism proposed has the following characteristics: Extended Uplink TBF shall be used whenever allowed by the MS capabilities. The BSS shall be able to acquire the MS capability as fast as possible, using the Radio Access capability update procedure (or information stored in other GPUs). When the MS does not support the extended UL TBF mode , the BSS will use the normal release procedure, and apply the delayed Final PUAN procedure if T_Delayed_final_PUAN is not 0. If the MS capabilities are not yet known by the BSS at UL TBF establishment, the BSS shall be able to switch to extended UL TBF mode if the MS capabilities are received before the release of the uplink TBF has been initiated. During the uplink TBF extension (i.e., after the last LLC frame has been received from the MS and no data is being transmitted by the MS), it allows the network to initiate sending of data to the MS without performing a downlink TBF establishment oncommon control channels. It allows the MS to send data from newly arrived LLC frames after the countdown has started. While in the delayed state the network must allocate some radio blocks, to allow the MS to restart the uplink transfer whenever required by the application.

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2 B9 features

2.2 Radio Network Planning Impact


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 89

Traffic model changes: the feature will modify the number of UL TBF activation+release on PACCH for all TCP/IP based applications and WAP. The feature will also modify the average duration of an uplink TBF, and as a consequence increase the number of MS multiplexed in uplink. If necessary to reserve a certain bandwidth in uplink for QoS, then the maximum number of MS in UL on the concerned PDCH should be limited. (the current default value is of 5 MS multiplexed in uplink)

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2 B9 features

2.2 Radio Network Planning Impact [cont.]


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Some parameters are to be handled in order to set up and configure this feature:
EN_EXTENDED_UL_TBF: Enable the extended TBF mode feature on the uplink. T_MAX EXTENDED_UL: Maximum duration of the extended uplink TBF phase. Recommended rule: value between 1s and 2s. EN_FAST_USF_UL_EXTENDED: Enable the transmission of USF every 20ms in extended mode, when the extended UL TBF feature is activated. EN_RA_CAP_UPDATE: Enable the Radio Acces Capability update on Gb. Recommended rule: should be enabled if EN_EXTENDED_UL_TBF is enabled and RA cap. update is supported by SGSN.

It is recommended not to activate simultaneously extended UL TBF feature (flag EN_EXTENDED_UL_TBF) and the DL PDU rerouting feature (flag EN_AUTONOMOUS_REROUTING).

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Fast USF UL extended : to keep the link alive in order to be ready as soon as needed. If n MSs in extended, then USF for 1 MS sent every n x 20ms. RA CAP Update : the MFS can request the RA capabilities of the MS to the SGSN (based on IMSI)

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2 B9 features

2.3 Enhanced support of E-GPRS (EDGE) in uplink


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 91

In B9 support of MCS-5 to MCS-9 coding schemes in UL was introduced.


Release B8 B8 B8 B8 B8 B8 B8 B8 B9 B9 B9 B9 B9
EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

Modulation GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK

Coding scheme CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9

User data rate

8.0 kbit/s 12.0 kbit/s 14.4 kbit/s 20.0 kbit/s 8.4 kbit/s 11.2 kbit/s 14.8 kbit/s 17.6 kbit/s 22.4 kbit/s 29.6 kbit/s 44.8 kbit/s 54.4 kbit/s 59.2 kbit/s

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2 B9 features

2.3 Enhanced support of E-GPRS (EDGE) in uplink [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 92

In B9 release, Incremental Redundancy may be activated for both the DL and UL paths. Thanks to Incremental Redundancy, the link adaptation procedure can be more aggressive: if the chosen MCS is a bit too optimistic, IR increases the probability of data recovery and increases data rates considerably specially in poorer radio conditions for higher MCSs. The link adaptation mechanism in UL is based on measurements (MEAN_BEP, CV_BEP) done by the BTS on the radios blocks received from the mobile. To take into account MCS-5 to MCS-9, the BSS algorithm for link adaptation needs new link adaptation MEAN_BEP/CV_BEP tables. These tables are the same as the one already used for DL.

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2 B9 features

2.3.1 Radio Network Planning Impact


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8-PSK in the UL should be considered in the planning tools for the throughput and coverage estimation (based on interference calculation). It impacts cell range estimates if the link-budget is UL limited. The IR gain should also be considered in the throughput estimation :
2 dB can be taken for the average IR gain.

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2 B9 features

2.4 Counter Improvements for Release B9


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Counter Improvements for Release B9 feature covers four candidate sub-features for B9:
Support of distributions: It introduces a new concept of counters called distributions to obtain improved statistics on (E)GPRS resource usage. 2. Consolidation of cell indicators at GPU level: It allows an operator to consolidate each indicator defined at cell level per GPU. This operation is very useful to follow possible lacks of GCH or GPU resources in a given GPU. 3. Counters defined at TRX level: It introduces a few counters defined at TRX level to follow the radio and transmission resource usage. 4. New MFS counters: It consists in defining a few new counters to ease the dimensioning and optimisation of (E)GPRS networks.
1.

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2 B9 features

2.4 Counter Improvements for Release B9 [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 95

Support of distributions
Counter P453a Mnemonic DISTRIB_UL_TBF_DURATION Rationale The distribution of the UL TBF duration is interesting to: -Differentiate the type of traffic (GMM signalling, Web browsing, FTP transfers, etc.). -Check the validity of the UL TBF duration reported by the PM counters. For instance, the average is meaningless if long TBFs are not distinguished from short TBFs. -Justify certain bad throughputs observed in the fields. -The corresponding thresholds should be tuneable to allow isolating a given traffic for a deep field analysis. Same rationale as P453a but for the DL direction The distribution of the UL LLC volume is interesting to: -Differentiate the type of traffic (GMM signalling, Web browsing, FTP transfers, etc.). -Check the validity of the UL LLC volumes (measured in bytes) reported by the PM counters. For instance, the average is meaningless if long TBFs generating high UL LLC volumes are not distinguished from short TBFs generating small UL LLC volumes. -Justify certain bad throughputs observed in the fields. -The corresponding thresholds should be tuneable to allow isolating a given traffic for a deep field analysis. Same rationale as P454a but for the DL direction The distribution of the number of PDCH units assigned to an UL TBF is required to check whether non-optimal allocations come from a lack of radio resources. In this case, parameters like MAX_PDCH, MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD can be increased. Same rationale as P455b but for the DL direction

P453b P454a

DISTRIB_DL_TBF_DURATION DISTRIB_UL_TBF_VOLUME

P454b P455a

DISTRIB_DL_TBF_VOLUME DISTRIB_UL_PDCH_UNIT_ALLOC

P455b

DISTRIB_DL_PDCH_UNIT_ALLOC

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Support of distributions Actually, Support of distributions is an enhancement for the feature Radio Measurement Statistics (RMS), introduced on release B7.2, in order to get statistics on radio measurements such as RXLEV, RXQUAL, interference level, timing advance, MS or BS transmitted power, etc. This sub-feature introduces a new concept of counters to monitor PS resource usage. The existing PS counters count a number of events occurring during the reporting period (i.e. every hour). However, such counters do not allow retrieving the distribution of the events. For instance, existing counters allow evaluating the averaged duration of the TBFs. However, it is interesting to know what is the proportion of short TBFs compared to long TBFs, to evaluate the type of GPRS traffic, to understand the throughput measured in the fields, etc.. New counters, called distribution, were introduced. The B7.2 RMS feature is based on the following principles: - The operator can launch RMS from the OMC-R on a per cell or per BSC basis for a given duration (up to 23 hours). - The radio measurements are monitored the closest to the observed functions, i.e. in the BTS. - During the observation period, it is possible to launch extended measurement reporting in order to get measurements on radio frequencies not used for CS/PS traffic in the cell. The measurements are usually reported in vectors made of 10 values (or matrixes made of several vectors). The ranges of each vector are defined by 9 thresholds. These thresholds are changeable at the OMC-R.

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2 B9 features

2.4 Counter Improvements for Release B9 [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 96

Consolidation of cell indicators at GPU level


Reference P105c P105d P105e P105f P105g P105h Definition Number of DL TBF establishment failures due to GPU congestion. Number of UL TBF establishment failures due to GPU congestion. Number of DL TBF establishment failures due to CPU processing power limitations of the GPU. Number of UL TBF establishment failures due to CPU processing power limitations of the GPU. Number of DL TBF establishment failures due to a lack of transmission resources. Number of UL TBF establishment failures due to a lack of transmission resources. Instance Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell

The sub-feature consists in allowing the operator to consolidate cell counters P105c/d/e/f/g/h at GPU level. Also, without this consolidation, it is up to the MFS to perform the consolidation, which is in contradiction with the usual principles. Indeed, it is not the role of the MFS to perform computation on counters.
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2 B9 features

2.4 Counter Improvements for Release B9 [cont.]


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New MFS counters


Counter P38f Mnemonic CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_USED_UL_CELL Rationale This counter is used with P451a to quantify the overlapping of the UL TBFs on the PDCHs. For instance, a high overlapping factor can explain why the throughputs observed in the fields are low. Same rationale as P38f but for the DL direction. This counter is used with P38f to quantify the overlapping of the UL TBFs on the PDCHs. For instance, a high overlapping factor can explain why the throughputs observed in the fields are low. Same rationale as P451a but for the DL direction. This counter is used to quantify the part of the GMM signalling traffic over the whole (E)GPRS traffic. For instance, this information is required to know how many radio resources should be configured to carry only GMM signalling traffic. This counter is defined to obtain a more accurate indicator for TBF drops. Operators are carefully analysing the TBF drop rate that it is one of the main (E)GPRS QoS figures. Same rationale as P98f but for the DL direction.
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P38e P451a

CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_USED_DL_CELL CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_UL_TBF_CELL

P451b P452

CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_DL_TBF_CELL CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_DL_TBF_GMM_SIG_CELL

P98f

NB_SUSP_UL_TBF_REL

P98e

NB_SUSP_DL_TBF_REL

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Class B Class B mobile phones can be attached to both GPRS and GSM services, using one service at a time. Class B enables making or receiving a voice call, or sending/receiving an SMS during a GPRS connection. During voice calls or SMS, GPRS services are suspended and then resumed automatically after the call or SMS session has ended. This is suspend / resume

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2.4.1 Radio Network Planning Impact


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The new counters and distributions should allow us to improve the existing (E)GPRS traffic model (i.e. better accuracy of the model can be achieved) but no impact on radio and other telecom performances is expected.

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2.5 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation


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The purpose of this feature is to give to the MFS all the radio timeslots that are usable for PS traffic, according to the whole BSS load (CS and PS loads). The MFS needs no more to request radio timeslots to the BSC; instead the MFS is always aware of all the available radio timeslots.

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2.5 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation [cont.]


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Main principles:
CS and PS allocation separation with expected result of higher mean TBF throughputs. To give to the MFS all the radio timeslots that are usable for PS traffic
Max CS traffic without PS traffic Max PS traffic without CS traffic Max PS traffic when high CS traffic reserved for PS priority for PS priority for CS reserved for CS

MIN_SPDCH MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT MAX_SPDCH

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MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT is computed by the BSC and defines the number of SPDCHs that are allocated to the MFS (based on the whole BSS load) The allocated SPDCHs are always those having the highest priority for PS allocations and their positions are provided to the MFS within a new message called Radio Resource (RR) Allocation Indication message TBFs allocated in the MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD zone cannot be pre-empted (T1 re-allocation) when MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT value decreases Periodically, the MFS sends to the BSC a Radio Resource Usage Indication message. This message contains the allocated SPDCHs in the MFS as well as their usage. This message is used by the BSC to estimate the PS load If required, the MFS may pre-empt a few SPDCHs to give them back to the BSC. The MFS uses the same Radio Resource Usage Indication message to indicate to the BSC the de-allocated SPDCHs and to acknowledge the allocation of new SPDCHs

Reserved for PS: This zone defines the number of radio resources reserved for PS traffic. No CS traffic can be carried in that zone. The size of this zone is defined by the parameter MIN_SPDCH. Priority for PS: This zone defines a number of radio resources where CS and PS traffic can be carried, but the preference is given to PS traffic in that zone. The size of this zone is defined by the parameters MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD and MIN_SPDCH. Priority for CS: This zone defines a number of radio resources where CS and PS traffic can be carried, but the preference is given to CS traffic in that zone. The size of this zone is given by the difference between the parameters MAX_SPDCH and MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD. Reserved for CS: This zone defines the number of radio resources reserved for CS traffic. No PS traffic can be carried in that zone. The size of this zone is defined thanks to the parameter MAX_SPDCH.

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Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation


-100 ms gain in the DL or UL TBF establishment duration As the maximum number of radio resources is allocated to the MFS, the TBF establishment duration (DL or UL) is reduced compared to the B8 solution (if the MFS requests for additional radio resources to establish the TBF). This could lead to an increase in the average TBF throughputs at cell level.

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2.6 2G/3G Inter-working


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Improve the 3G neighborhood description in 2G cells Consistent with the cell reselection strategy in B9 2G/3G Interoperability feature comprises two sub-features:
Improved 3G cell reselection
Neighbour UTRAN FDD cells are provided in SI2quater (new message) UTRAN frequencies are defined at GSM cell level (3/cell at max) Neighbour UTRAN FDD cells are described at the OMC with their UTRAN FDD frequencies Scrambling Codes and Diversity

Load based 3G HO filtering


The BSS may reject an external HO incoming from the UTRAN, provided the HO has not been triggered by an emergency cause Current load will be compared with a new threshold, namely THR_CELL_LOAD_3G_REJECT
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2.6 2G/3G Inter-working [cont.]


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Improved 3G cell reselection


The B9 Improved 3G cell reselection feature allows the operator to declare per 2G cell basis the 3G neighbor cells (the FDD UMTS frequencies and the scrambling codes). Maximum 3 FDD UMTS frequencies may be declared per cell basis. When knowing in advance the frequency and the scrambling code of a 3G cell, an MS should require 10 to 20ms to synchronize on that cell.

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2.6 2G/3G Inter-working [cont.]


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Load based 3G HO filtering


Regarding the current load, the BSS may reject an external hand-over coming from the UTRAN, provided the hand-over has not been triggered by an emergency cause, i.e. provided the hand-over request does not carry a cause type uplink/downlink quality/strength.

Radio Network Planning Impact


These sub-features impact traffic model, allowing faster 2G-to-3G cell reselection to a new cell or denying incoming handovers in a loded condition. It will result in a higher aggregated throughput in the cell or in less call drops experienced by a source 3G cell.

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2.6.1 Radio Network Planning Impact


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These sub-features impact traffic model, allowing faster 2G-to-3G cell reselection to a new cell or denying incoming handovers in a loaded condition. It will result in a higher aggregated throughput in the cell or in less call drops experienced by a source 3G cell.

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2.7 M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing


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This feature provides a solution to share the Ater and Abis nibbles between the radio timeslots of a TRX so that the transmission resources left available by a PDCH can be re-used by other PDCHs as long as those PDCHs belong to the same TRX. Thus allows reducing the waste of transmission bandwidth on the Ater and Abis interfaces.

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Terminology M-EGCH - The term M-EGCH (Multiplexed-EGCH) is used to refer to a link established between the MFS and the BTS. An M-EGCH is defined per TRX (instead of an EGCH per radio timeslot in release B8). GCH - A GCH is the 16kb/s channel between the MFS and the BTS. It is composed of an Ater nibble and an Abis nibble cross-connected together in the BSC. The MFS or the BTS periodically send blocks on a GCH every 20 ms. GCH frame - In 20 ms period (also called block period), a number of 320 bits of this GCH can be used: this is the frame. Segment - A segment is formed by a part of an RLC block (after its segmentation on the M-EGCH link) and a GCH header (different for first segment and subsequent segments). RLC data might be padded or a segment can be a no-data segment. - Note that in B9 a frame can be constituted of several segments belonging to different RLC blocks as now all the RLC blocks sent on several PDCHs of a TRX are multiplexed on the same M-EGCH link. Padding bits are added to the RLC blocks segments to fill the frame to 320 bits.

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2.7 M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing [cont.]


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The M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing solution allows to share a given number of GCHs at a TRX level, i.e between the radio timeslots of one TRX, so that:
the transmission resource left available by one TBF mapped on a set of RTS and being idle (eg, in establishment or delayed release phase) is automatically reused by another TBF mapped on the same RTSs or on another set of RTSs (as long as those sets of RTS are on the same TRX ). an increase of MCS, i.e. of throughput experienced by one TBF, does not lead to an increase of transmission links need since this increase can be compensated by a decrease of MCS experienced by another TBF.

The GCH left while the control blocks are transferred can also be reused by other TBFs (which is not the case in B8); indeed control blocks are encoded with CS1 and do not use an entire 320-bit frame.

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The Statistical Multiplexing introduces a new segmentation of the radio blocks on the M-EGCH link: the blocks of all the PDCHs of the TRX are sent one after the other without padding between them. As in B8 a block for a PDCH can be spread over several 320-bit frames but after its last segment the block of another PDCH can be started (if the remaining transmission capacity is sufficient). So a fixed 320-bit frame can have up to 2 or 3 segments of variable size. As in B8, the unused part of a 320bit frame (once all the PDCHs have been scheduled) is filled with padding and the unused GCHs with a NODATA PDU. The EGCH layer is highly impacted to support the statistical multiplexing and is renamed M-EGCH layer in B9. This feature only applies to G3 and G4 TRX while the G2 DRFU TRX uses a B7.2 like GCH stack (1 GCH allocated per PDCH to support up to CS2 TBFs).

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Statistical multiplexing at M-EGCH layer does increase the BSS PS capacity without running out of Abis/Ater resources. Increase of BSC capacity in terms of # of TRXs allows :
higher PS throughputs lower PS blocking/drop probabilities

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2.8 Dynamic Abis allocation


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This feature enables, on the Abis, to dynamically allocate nibbles among the different TREs used for PS traffic in a given BTS. Compared to B8, it allows a higher average Abis bandwidth per PDCH, the BSC capacity in terms of TRXs is increased, and in some BTS configurations it may avoid to deploy a second Abis link. The extra Abis nibbles are shared at BTS level. Radio Network Planning Impact Increase of BSC capacity in terms of # of TRXs handled allows higher PS throughputs and could lead to lower PS blocking/drop probabilities.

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Increase of BSC capacity in terms of # of TRXs handled allows higher PS throughputs and could lead to lower PS blocking/drop probabilities.

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2.9 Enhanced transmission resource management


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Deals with the determination of the number and of the nature of the 16k GCH channels inside each M-EGCH. It is implemented as a transmission resource manager. The transmission resource manager is located at MFS/GPU level. It handles both Abis and Ater resources at GCH level. It is in charge of:
Creating and removing the M-EGCH links Selecting, adding, removing, and redistributing GCHs over the M-EGCH links Managing transmission resource preemptions Managing Abis and/or Ater congestion states,

Optionally, monitoring M-EGCH links usage, according to the (M)CS of their supported TBFs (UL and DL).

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Abis nibbles sharing rules: To ensure that, anytime, each cell of a given BTS would be able to support PS traffic, we should guarantee a minimal number of Abis nibbles to every cell in the BTS. Consequently, it has been decided that basic Abis nibbles are only shared at cell level (i.e. among TRXs of the same cell or sector). This restriction prevents some cells from using the whole Abis nibbles of the BTS as a given cell cannot use the basic Abis nibbles of another cell. However, Extra (and Bonus) Abis nibbles are shared at BTS level. Ater nibbles sharing rules: A given amount of Ater transmission resource is allocated per GPU. Afterwards, this Ater transmission resource is shared among the four DSPs of the GPU thanks to the GPU on-board Ater switch. Only 64K Ater TS are handled at GPU-level between DSPs. Thus, a 64K Ater TS may be moved from one DSP to another if, and only if, all its four 16K Ater nibbles are free. This is the unique restriction to Ater nibbles sharing at GPU-level. Furthermore, to prevent the above restriction from disturbing the First GPRS traffic in a cell, an Ater reserve shall always be available. The Ater reserve consists on one or several free 64K Ater TSs and is defined per GPU. Every 64K TS of the Ater reserve may be connected to any DSP of the GPU to fulfil GCH requests: to establish the initial GCH in a cell with the Fast Initial GPRS Access feature activated, or; to ensure the First GPRS traffic in a cell with no active initial GCH. Each time a 64K TS is taken from the Ater reserve, a process is launched to retrieved another 64K TS to replace it in the Ater reserve. This is done by means of GCH pre-emption on the Best effort traffic supported by the GPU.

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2.10 RMS_I1 Improvements


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The goal of the feature is to monitor the usage of each allowed AMR codecs (FR or HR), and to provide statistics information on timing advance. This feature allows monitoring the proper operation of AMR and the quality of the radio coverage in a cell. It also gives the possibility to tune the AMR parameters. Indeed, statistics about frame erasure rate in uplink and comparison between codec distribution and RXLEV allow assessing the voice quality, and adapting AMR thresholds to the situation of a given cell.

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RMS_I1 Indicators:
Mnemonic RMS_AMR_FR_UL_BAD RMS_AMR_HR_UL_BAD RMS_AMR_FR_UL_RXLEV_UL Definition Number of bad speech frames using any AMR FR codec in uplink Number of bad speech frames using any AMR HR codec in uplink Number of speech frames using one AMR FR codec in uplink per Rxlev on the uplink path Number of speech frames using one AMR HR codec in uplink per Rxlev on the uplink path Number of speech frames using one AMR FR codec in downlink per Rxlev on the downlink path Number of speech frames using one AMR HR codec in downlink per Rxlev on the downlink path Formula RMS44a RMS45a RMS46a

RMS_AMR_HR_UL_RXLEV_UL

RMS48a

RMS_AMR_FR_DL_RXLEV_DL

RMS47a

RMS_AMR_HR_DL_RXLEV_DL

RMS49a

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Knowing which codecs are the most used, and comparing them with link level in the cell, the operator could assess the voice quality and possibly adapt the AMR parameters (definition of the subset, thresholds and hysteresis). These parameters are different for AMR FR and AMR HR, information shall be provided separately for AMR FR and AMR HR. The codecs used in UL and in DL can be different; therefore interpretation of results would be easier if results are provided separately for uplink and downlink.

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2.11 RMS_I2 Improvements


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The aim of this feature is to provide statistics information on timing advance, in order to understand geographical traffic distribution in a cell, to identify resurgences and hot spots. The improvement RMS_I2: Timing advance is a good indicator about the mobile position relative to a cell. Its usage in RMS B7.2 is very limited: only measurement reports done over a TA threshold are available, along with the max measured TA. This information is not detailed enough to understand geographical distribution in a cell, in order to identify resurgences and hot spot.

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RM_I2 Indicators: Mnemonic RMS_TPR_TIMING_ADVANCE Definition The distribution of number of measurement reports for which the value of timing advance is in TA band The average value of RXLEV per TA band in uplink. The average value of RXLEV per TA band in downlink. The average value of RXQUAL per TA band in uplink. The average value of RXQUAL per TA band in downlink. Formula RMS50a

RMS_TPR_UL_RXLEV_TA_BAN D RMS_TPR_DL_RXLEV_TA_BAN D RMS_TPR_UL_RXQUAL_TA_BA ND RMS_TPR_DL_RXQUAL_TA_BA ND

RMS51 RMS52 RMS53 RMS54

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This RMS improvement described here would provide help to the operator for optimization of his network planning, through identification of these resurgences and hot spots. Detecting hot spots can be very useful in order to re-design that part of the network in a most adapted way to the experienced traffic load.

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11

116

3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.1 Cell Reselection Overview


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In GSM, when an MS in idle mode moves from cell A to cell B, it performs a cell reselection applying the C1 or C2 criteria. In dedicated mode, MS performs a handover For (E)GPRS, the MS does in GMM READY state (PTM) cell reselection
In the old cell an abnormal TBF release takes place In the new cell the MS establishes a new resource. (Different to handover in GSM, where the new channel is reserved by the network in advance)
Cell 1

selection reselection

Cell 2

RA A
Cell 3

RA B

LA 1 LA 2

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.1 Cell Reselection Overview [cont.]


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Three modes of cell reselection have been defined for a MS in GPRS packet transfer mode:
NC0 mode: (E)GPRS MS performs autonomous cell reselection without sending measurement reports to the network NC1 mode: (E)GPRS MS performs autonomous cell reselection. Additionally it sends measurement reports to the network NC2 mode: (E)GPRS MS shall not perform autonomous cell reselection. It sends measurement reports to the network. The network controls the cell reselection

B9 release supports NC0 and NC2 modes


NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER parameter defines whether the MS or the BSS controls the cell reselections
NC0 mode: NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER = 0 NC2 mode: NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER = 3

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.1 Cell Reselection Overview [cont.]


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The attached (E)GPRS mobiles use different criteria, depending on whether the PBCCH is present or not in the serving cell
No PBCCH in the serving cell: GMM standby:
Only NC0 mode is applied. Cell reselection is identical to the basic GSM cell reselection in idle mode. C1 and C2 criteria are used

GMM ready:
NC2 mode is applied if set by the Operator. C1NC2, C2NC2 criteria are used NC0 mode is applied if NC2 mode is not set and consequently C1, C31 and C32 criteria are used

PBCCH established in the serving cell: GMM standby:


Only NC0 mode is applied. C1, C31 and C32 criteria are used

GMM ready:
NC2 mode is applied if set by the Operator. C1NC2, C31NC2 and C32NC2 criteria are used NC0 mode is applied if NC2 mode is not set and consequently C1, C31 and C32 criteria are used

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In GSM C1 = A - Max (0,B) with: - A = RLA_C - RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN - B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH - MS_TXPWR_MAX + POWER_OFFSET(1800) C2 = C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET - TEMPORARY_OFFSET(T) when Penalty_time<31 C2 = C1 - CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET when Penalty_Time=31 In GPRS ready and standby states, cell reselection is performed by the MS except for a class A MS while in dedicated mode of a circuit switched connection, in which case the cell is determined by the network according to the handover procedures. For a class B MS which can combine GSM and GPRS states, C1 criterion is used when the MS simultaneously attached to both, the network and the MS is in Packet Idle Mode (refer to GSM 05.08).

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.1 Cell Reselection Overview [cont.]


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Independent from the presence of the PBCCH


The GPRS cell adjacencies
are the same in packet idle mode as in packet transfer mode are set equal to the CS cell adjacencies (i.e. the BA(GPRS)=BA(BCCH) list )

Recommendation is to enable the GPRS service on all cells in order to prevent a MS to reselect a cell without GPRS support

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.2 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, no PBCCH established


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The same procedure as in GSM, with the following criteria applied:


C1: the pathloss criterion, for cell selection and reselection C2: for cell reselection

C1 criterion: the path loss criterion is satisfied if C1 > 0


C1 = A - Max(B,0) A = RLA_C - RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P
RLA_C = Received Level Average for CS service RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN = Minimum received signal level at the MS required for access to the system MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH = Maximum TX power level an MS may use when accessing the system P = Maximum RF output power of the MS

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The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighboring cell. In the above equations, the following notations mean: AV_RXLEV_NC2(n) is the average received signal level measured by the MS on the BCCH of the cell n. RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN(n) or GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN(n) is the minimum received signal level required to perform an access to the cell n. MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) or GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) is the maximum transmit power of the MS when accessing the cell n. P(n) is the maximum output RF power of the MS in the BCCH frequency band of the cell n. P(n) gives the MS Radio Access Capability Information Element provided in the Packet Resource Request message or in the DL LLC PDU. In the NC cell reselection procedure, the parameter P(n) shall always refer to the RF power capability of the GMSK modulation. Note that all values are expressed in dBm. The cell ranking criterion parameter C2NC2 is used to order the candidate cells on an radio criterion. This criterion applies only in serving cells where there is no PBCCH established. CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) is a positive offset which favors or disfavors the cell n. PENALTY_TIME(n) indicates whether the cell reselection offset shall be positive or negative.

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.2 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, no PBCCH established [cont.]


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C2 criterion:
PENALTY_TIME <> 11111 C2 = C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET - TEMPORARY OFFSET * H(PENALTY_TIME - T) *

non-serving cells: H(x) = 0 for x < 0; H(x)= 1 for x 0 serving cells: H(x) = 0 T is a timer implemented for each cell in the list of strongest carriers. T shall be started from zero at the time the cell is placed by the MS on the list of strongest carriers CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET may be used to give different priorities to different bands when multiband operation is used TEMPORARY_OFFSET applies a negative offset to C2 for the duration of PENALTY_TIME after the timer T has started for that cell.

PENALTY_TIME = 11111 C2 = C1 - CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET If CELL_RESELECT_PARAM_IND = 0 then C2 = C1

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established


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The following criteria are applied for cell reselection:


C1: when C1< 0 C31, C32: when a non-serving cell is evaluated to be better than the serving cell

C1: the pathloss criterion


Is used as a minimum signal level criterion for cell reselection for GPRS in the same way as for GSM Idle mode criterion Same as defined, but with specific GPRS parameters: C1 = A - Max(B,0) A = RLA_P - GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN B = GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P
GPRS specific parameters, are broadcast on PBCCH of the serving cell

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

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C31: the signal level threshold criterion parameter for hierarchical cell structures (HCS)
Is used to determine whether prioritized hierarchical GPRS and LSA cell re-selection shall apply For cells that fulfill C31criteria (C31>0):
The best cell is the cell with the highest C32 value, among those cells that have the highest priority class, among those cells that have highest LSA priority

If no cell fulfils the C31 criterion:


The best cell is the cell with the highest C32 value, among all the neighbor cells

C32: cell ranking criterion parameter is used to select cells among those with the same priority class

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The signal level threshold criterion parameter C31NC2 is used in hierarchical cellular networks to determine whether the signal level received from a neighboring cell n is sufficient to redirect the MS towards cell n based on a non-radio priority criterion. This criterion parameter is used only if there is a PBCCH established in the serving cell. HCS_THR(n) defines a signal threshold for applying the prioritized hierarchical GPRS cell reselection criterion. The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighboring cell. Contrary to the C31 criterion implemented in the MS, the Alcatel BSS does not manage the timer T implemented for each cell to monitor the time a neighboring cell is present in the list of the strongest carriers. Therefore, the Alcatel BSS always assumes that GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) = 0. As the GPRS_CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS, RA_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS, and C31_HYST are used to control the triggering conditions of a cell reselection, they are not taken into account in the criterion C31NC2 and C32NC2 parameters. The cell ranking criterion parameter C32NC2 is used to order the candidate cells on an radio criterion. This criterion applies only in serving cells where there is a PBCCH established. GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET(n) applies a positive or negative offset which favors or disfavors the neighboring cell n. The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighboring cell. If the parameter C32_QUAL is set, the determination of C32NC2 is modified so that the neighboring cell n having the highest AV_DL_RXLEV_NC2 among all the neighboring cells is applied a GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET (only if the offset is positive) and no GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET is applied to the other neighboring cells. The MFS shall take care of avoiding ping-pong effects between the old cell and the new cell (i.e., circular NC cell reselections). For that purpose, the MFS handles an anti-ping-pong timer and an anti ping-pong offset, respectively called T_NC_PING_PONG and NC_PING_PONG_OFFSET. While the timer T_NC_PING_PONG is running the neighboring cells are disfavored by the offset NC_PING_PONG_OFFSET (expressed in dB) in the cell ranking process. The MFS starts the anti-ping-pong timer at the creation of the NC2 context for the MS. The MFS stops the anti ping-pong timer at the deletion of the NC2 context.

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C31 criterion
Serving cell: C31(s) = RLA_P(s) GPRS_HCS_THR(s) Neighbor cell: C31(n) =
GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(n) GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(n)

<>
GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(s)

=
GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(s)

T(n) <= GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) T(n) > GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n)

= RLA_P(n) GPRS_HCS_THR(n) GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) = RLA_P(n) - GPRS_HCS_THR(n)

= RLA_P(n) - GPRS_HCS_THR(n) = RLA_P(n) - GPRS_HCS_THR(n)

RLA_P is the received level average for PS service (i.e. C value)

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

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The following parameters are broadcast on PBCCH of the serving cell:


GPRS_HCS_THR is the signal threshold for applying HCS GPRS and LSA reselection
Min: -110 dBm; Max: -48 dBm; Default: -84 dBm

GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS is the HCS priority of the cell


Min: 0 (lowest); Max: 7 (highest); Default: 0

GPRS_PENALTY_TIME is the time during which the GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET is active in neighbour cells
Min: 10s; Max: 320s ; Default: 10s

GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET applies a negative offset to C31/C32 for the duration of GPRS_PENALTY_TIME after the timer T has started for that cell
Min: 0; Max: infinity (coded 7); Default: 0

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

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C32 criterion
Serving Cell: C32(s) = C1(s) Neighbor cell: C32(n) =
GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(n) GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(n)

<>
GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(s)

=
GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(s)

T(n) <= GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) T(n) > GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n)

= C1(n) + = C1(n) + GPRS_ RESELECTION_OFFSET(n) GPRS_ RESELECTION_OFFSET(n) GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) = C1(n) + GPRS_ RESELECTION_OFFSET(n) = C1(n) + GPRS_ RESELECTION_OFFSET(n)

GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET is used to apply an permanent offset for GPRS cell reselection in neighbor cells Min: -52 dBm; Max: +48 dBm; Default: 4 dBm

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C1 is the same as in GSM except that A = RLA_P GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN: listening capacity of MS in the cell B = GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P: talking capacity of MS in the cell C1 shall be positive and as high as possible C32: if C32_QUAL=1, positive GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET value shall only be applied to the neighboring cell with the highest RLA_P value of those cells for which C32 is compared above. If GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET (neighbor) >0, the cell has a bonus to reselection If GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET (neighbor) <0, the cell has a handicap for reselection In Packet Idle Mode, the MS shall make one measurement for each BCCH carrier monitored every 4 seconds, as well as more than one sample per second for each BCCH carrier. A list of 6 strongest cells shall be kept updated at a rate of at least one update per running average period. In Packet Transfer Mode, the MS shall monitor a list of 6 strongest non-serving cell BCCH carriers. It shall attempt to check the BSIC for each of these 6 strongest cells at least once every 10 seconds.

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3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established [cont.]


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C32 is an improvement of C2. It applies an individual offset and hysteresis value to each pair of cells, as well as the same temporary offsets as for C2.
Additional hysteresis values apply for a cell re-selection that requires cell or routing area update

With C32, neighbor cells can be favored through the GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET(n) broadcast on the PBCCH. This allows favoring neighbor cells e.g. based on their frequency band C32 also gives the possibility to temporarily penalize neighbor cells having the same priority as the serving cell (contrary to C31 that penalizes cells of different priorities). The penalty is computed based on the GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) and GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) parameters, like for C31

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established [cont.]


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If cell B is belonging to another Routing Area (RA) than cell A, the MS has to make RA update
additional hysteresis are applied to avoid unnecessary RA updates:
CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS hysteresis for cell reselection applied on C1 criterion (no PBCCH), when the new cell is in a different LA or, for a GPRS MS, in a different RA, or when a GPRS MS is in GMM ready state RA_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS indicates in both STANDBY and READY state the additional hysteresis which applies on C31 and C32 (with PBCCH) when selecting a cell in a new RA

C31_HYST: Determines whether an additional cell hysteresis shall be applied to the C31 criterion in same RA, in READY state
GPRS_CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS additional hysteresis

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.4 Cell reselection execution: NC0 in PTM


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THERE ARE NO HANDOVERS IN GPRS The MS is performing now Cell Reselection during a TBF
it leaves the coverage area of the cell or enters in a building if a neighbor cell is better (from C Criterion point of view), the MS performs a cell re-selection abnormal TBF release happens in the new cell, a new TBF is automatically established, after (P)SI information acquisition only the remaining data from the old TBF will be sent then automatically Coding scheme adaptation is active in parallel and independently triggered

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.4 Cell reselection execution: NC0 in PTM [cont.]


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Typical GPRS data transmission with cell reselection


Throughput [kbit/s]
1. CS change TBF 1 (Cell 1) Cell Re-Selection

Data Call Duration


1. CS change TBF 2 (Cell 2)

CS 2

Average Throughput Throughput


CS 1

t0
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t1

t2

t3

t4

t5

Time [s]

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode


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In NC2 mode of operation, the BSS controls the cell reselections of all MS when in packet transfer mode (PTM) or of all MS when in GMM Ready state (depending on the selected NC2 deactivation mode)
While the NC2 mode is activated for the concerned MS, the MS sends packet measurements reports (PMR) to the BSS

Aim: NC2 mode is to limit the number of reselections to the strict necessary ones increased data throughput
Alcatel NC2 implementation allows to favor GPRS traffic inside GPRS preferred cells (GPRS redirection)
Particular layer (e.g. macro) Particular frequency band (e.g. GSM 900)

reduced impact on signaling load

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Each time the MS performs a cell reselection, the data transfer is interrupted and a retransmission of some LLC PDUs may be required: The on-going TBF is released in the old cell. The MS performs the PSI or SI acquisition in the new cell. Then, the MS establishes a new UL TBF in this cell to send a Cell Update message to the SGSN. The MFS deletes or reroutes towards the new cell the LLC PDUs stored in the old cell. - if they are deleted, a retransmission is needed. Finally, the data transfer is re-started (after a DL TBF establishment, in case of DL transfer). All these steps degrade the data throughput or the page access time perceived by the enduser.

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]


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NC2 activation
An MS transit to NC2 mode when it receives a PACKET MEASUREMENT ORDER message from the BSS, at the beginning of a data transfer. It provides mainly the NC_REPORTING_PERIOD_T which is the reporting period of NC measurements sent by the MS while in PTM (default = 0.96s)

Measurement reporting and processing


MS periodically reports its NC2 measurements on PACCH through a PACKET MEASUREMENT REPORT The BSS handles the following measurements:
UL serving cell: RXQUAL for GPRS TBF and mean BEP for EGPRS TBF DL serving cell: RXQUAL for GPRS TBF and mean BEP for EGPRS TBF DL serving and neighbor cells: RXLEV measurements of BCCH

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NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER is a cell parameter tunable at the OMC-R. The R97 and R98 MSs are differentiated from the other MSs. Indeed, all the MSs shall support the NC2 mode, however since no network manufacturer has implemented the NC2 mode, the R97 and R98 MSs may not have been sufficiently tested and therefore there is a risk of interoperability with these MSs. The Packet Measurement Order message is used to activate and de-activate the NC2 mode of operation for a given MS. Activation - The Packet Measurement Order (NC2) message is sent when: establishing the first Downlink TBF of the Packet Transfer Mode or when re-establishing the DL TBF while T3192 is running and there is not any on-going UL TBF. no measurement report has already been received for that MS during its on-going packet transfer(s) (UL and/or DL). the MS has not been forced to operate in NC2 mode by a Packet Cell Change Order message (during an intra-RA cell reselection). De-activation - The Packet Measurement Order (RESET) message is sent at the end of the data transfer, in case of NC2_DEACTIVATION_MODE = NC2 deactivation at the end of the packet transfer. - When the MS goes back to the STANDBY state, in case of NC2_DEACTIVATION_MODE = NC2 deactivation at GMM Ready timer expiry.

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]


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Cell reselection detection


NC2 reselection are triggered only for EMERGENCY or for POWER BUDGET causes:
Cause Cause Cause Cause PT PT PT PT 1: Too low DL received signal level 2: Detection of a better cell 3: Too bad DL radio quality 4: Too bad UL radio quality

The criteria calculated by the BSS in NC2 mode are very near from those used by the MS in NC0 mode. This ensures that the target cell selected by the MS in NC0 mode or by the BSS in NC2 mode are identical in quite all cases
C1NC2, C2NC2, C31NC2 and C32NC2 criteria are calculated by the BSS and the parameters defined for cell reselections in NC0 are re-used

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]


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Cause PT1: Too low DL received signal level


AV_DL_RXLEV_NC2 < NC_DL_RXLEV_THR + Max(BNC2,0)
NC_DL_RXLEV_THR = -110 dBm (Never) deactivates Cause PT1 Cause PT1 is equivalent to check the condition C1NC2 < 0 assuming that the (GPRS_)RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN threshold is replaced by NC_DL_RXLEV_THR threshold

C1NC2: Pathloss Criterion parameter


C1NC2(n) = ANC2(n) max(BNC2(n),0) No PBCCH ANC2(n) = AV_RXLEV_NC2(n) RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN(n) BNC2(n) = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) P(n) PBCCH established ANC2(n) = AV_RXLEV_NC2(n) GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN(n) BNC2(n) = GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) P(n)

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The cause PT1 is equivalent to check the condition C1NC2 < 0 assuming that the (GPRS_)RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN threshold is replaced with NC_DL_RXLEV_THR threshold. Max (Bnc2,0) = handicap on threshold if MS can't reach max UL tx power recommended in the cell

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]


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Cause PT2: Detection of a better neighbor cell


AV_DL_RXLEV_NC2 NC_DL_RXLEV_LIMIT_THR and { No PBCCH: C2NC2(n) > C2NC2(s) + NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS (s,n) PBCCH established: C32NC2(n) > C32NC2(s) + NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS (s,n) }
NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS (s,n) defined per cell adjacency link NC_DL_RXLEV_LIMIT_THR = -110 dBm (Never) disables Cause PT2 The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighbor cell

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Cause PT2 is checked among the neighboring cells n upon receipt of a Packet Measurement Report message. It is triggered if the value C2NC2 or C32NC2 of one neighboring cell n exceeds the value C2NC2 or C32NC2 of the serving cell s by at least the O&M hysteresis NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS(s,n) defined per cell adjacency link (respectively whether or not there is a PBCCH in the serving cell).

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]


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C2NC2: Cell ranking criterion parameter


used to order the candidate cells on a radio criterion and applies only in serving cells where there is no PBCCH established PENALTY_TIME(n) <> 11111: C2NC2(n) = C1NC2(n) + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) PENALTY_TIME(n) = 11111: C2NC2(n) = C1NC2(n) CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET(n)
CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) is a positive offset which favors or disfavors the cell n PENALTY_TIME(n) indicates whether the cell reselection offset shall be positive or negative The n denotes either the serving cell or a neighbor cell

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Same parameter as GSM Reselection "11111" = value 31 (or infinity)

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]


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C31NC2: signal level threshold criterion parameter


Used in hierarchical networks to determine whether the signal level received from a neighbor cell n is sufficient to redirect the MS towards cell n based on a non-radio priority criterion Used only if there is a PBCCH established in the serving cell C31NC2(n) = AV_RXLEV_NC2(n) HCS_THR(n)
HCS_THR(n) defines a signal threshold for applying the prioritized hierarchical GPRS cell reselection criterion The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighbor cell

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 139

C32NC2: cell ranking criterion parameter


Used to order the candidate cells on a radio criterion Applies only in serving cells where there is a PBCCH established Cell n is the serving cell: C32NC2(n) = C1NC2(n) Cell n is a neighbor cell: C32NC2(n) = C1NC2(n) + GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n)
GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) applies an positive or negative offset which favors or disfavors the neighbor cell n. Cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighbor cell

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 140

Cause PT3: Too bad downlink radio quality


AV_DL_RXQUAL_NC2 > NC_DL_RXQUAL_THR
NC_DL_RXQUAL_THR: threshold above which Cause PT3 is triggered due to a too bad RXQUAL in DL (while the MS is in PTM) Min: 0; Max: 7; Default: 7; step size: 0.1 NC_DL_RXQUAL_THR = 7 (Never) deactivates Cause PT3

Cause PT4: Too bad uplink radio quality


AV_UL_RXQUAL_NC2 > NC_UL_RXQUAL_THR
NC_UL_RXQUAL_THR: threshold above which Cause PT4 is triggered due to a too bad RXQUAL in UL (while the MS is in PTM) Min: 0; Max: 7; Default: 7; step size: 0.1 NC_UL_RXQUAL_THR = 7 (Never) deactivates Cause PT4

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Cause PT4 is checked only for the serving cell whenever one UL RLC data block is correctly received for the ongoing UL TBF provided that T_NC_RXQUAL_VALID seconds have elapsed since the computation of the first UL samples of the UL TBF. T_NC_RXQUAL_VALID aims at not triggering false alarms at the beginning of the TBF and not triggering an NC cell reselection for a very short TBF. Cause PT3 is checked only for the serving cell each time a (EGPRS) Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message is received provided that the DL TBF is not in delayed release state and provided that the T_NC_RXQUAL_VALID seconds have elapsed since the receipt of the first Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message of the DL TBF. T_NC_RXQUAL_VALID aims at not triggering false alarms at the beginning of the TBF and not triggering an NC cell reselection for a very short TBF.

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 141

Candidate cell evaluation


Cell Filtering: this process removes from the list candidates the cells to which a previous NC2 cell reselection failed Cell Ranking:
No PBCCH
The cell are ranked to their C2NC2 value. The best cell candidate is the cell having the highest C2NC2 value

PBCCH established
The cell are ranked based on the C31NC2 and C32NC2 criteria. Among the cells, the best cell is the cell with the highest C32NC2 value among:
o For cells that fulfill C31NC2criterion (C31NC2>0):

Those cells having the highest PRIORITY_CLASS(n)


o If no cell fulfill C31NC2 criterion:

All cells

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 142

Cell reselection execution


The network triggers the cell reselection by sending a PACKET CELL CHANGE ORDER message

MS

Cell A

Cell B

SGSN

On-going data transfer (1)


Packet Measurement Report (2) (3) Packet Cell Change Order (4) (6) Packet Control Ack. (5)

UL TBF establishment (7)


UL LLC PDU (8) Flush-LL PDU (9) Flush-LL-Ack PDU (10)

NC2 deactivation
Two modes via the O&M parameter NC2_DEACTIVATION_MODE:
NC2 deactivation at the end of packet date transfer NC2 deactivation at Ready timer expiry

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.6 GPRS redirection


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Thanks to NC2 activation for MS in PTM B8/B9 release GPRS redirection is actually a NC cell reselection that is triggered at the beginning of the PTM in the serving cell even if the radio link is good Redirect the MS towards a target cell more appropriate to carry PS traffic The operator may wish to favor GPRS traffic in a particular layer/band:
MULTILAYER NETWORK, it may be more efficient to define GPRS resources in the UPPER LAYER only
Reduce the number of cell reselections Microcells have smaller traffic capacity and is assigned to CS

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.6 GPRS redirection [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 144

MULTIBAND NETWORK, it may be more efficient to favor GPRS traffic in the 900 MHz band, due to its better indoor penetration
MS GPRS mainly used in indoor environment Gain in stability of the GPRS session

Operator must tune the NC parameters so that a NC cell reselection is systematically triggered at the beginning of a data transfer on receipt of the first Packet Measurement Report
E.g. NC cell reselection Cause PT1 can be always activated by setting NC_DL_RXLEV_THR = - 47 dBm (Always)

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.7 GPRS Power Control: Overview


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GPRS power control is only implemented in uplink in open loop configuration


GSM recommendation 05.08

During open loop power control, the MS adapts its output power in UL per block (i.e. 4 timeslots), based on the measured average signal strength in DL Open loop:
There is no indication by the BTS whether the output power was sufficiently low or high: the same path loss in UL and DL is assumed by the MS

When accessing the network on the (P)RACH the MS uses the output power defined by (GPRS_)MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH, which is broadcasted on the (P)BCCH

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.8 GPRS Power Control: Measurements


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MS (E)GPRS performs the necessary LEVEL measurements for power control algorithm, either on the BCCH of the serving cell or on the PDCH (carrying the PACCH): The choice is made according to PC_MEAS_CHAN parameter, which is broadcasted on the BCCH:
PC_MEAS_CHAN = 1, measurements on PDCH (default)
24 measurements in 480 ms

PC_MEAS_CHAN = 0, measurements on BCCH


12 measurements in 480 ms

The LEVEL measurements are averaged with recursive filtering algorithms The average levels are calculated by the MS in PIM and PTM modes, thus proper average level available at transfer start

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.8 GPRS Power Control: Measurements [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 147

Averaging
Recursive Filtering (in the MS) to obtain average level Recursive Filtering Formula: Cn=a * SSn + (1-a) * Cn-1
Cn is the DL level average calculated by the MS (Cn-1 =previous value) SSn is mean of received signal level of 4 bursts a is the forgetting factor

Packet Idle Mode a = 1 / [min (n, max (5,T_AVG_W/TDRX) ) ]


TDRX= parameter which considers the number of measurements that are made and the paging group; TDRX=BS_PA_MFRMS BS_PA_MFRMS = number of multiframes needed to send all paging groups T_AVG_W = 2k/2 /6 (k=1..25, recommended k < 12) is the signal level filter period for PC in PIM

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.8 GPRS Power Control: Measurements [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 148

Packet transfer Mode


a = 1/[6* T_AVG_T] on BCCH a = 1/[12* T_AVG_T] on PDCH T_AVG_T= 2k/2 /6 signal level filter period for PC in PTM k for T_AVG_T for measurements on BCCH or on PDCH:
GSM averaging window size (A_LEV_PC) Default value of k Range to investigate

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
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4 7 8 8 9 9 9 9
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[1-7] [5-9] [6-10] [6-10] [6-10] [6-10] [7-10] [7-10]

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.8 GPRS Power Control: Measurements [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 149

Averaging
Tuning of k: average mechanism convergent between GSM and GPRS
Comparison between GSM averaging and the practical GPRS averaging with A_LEV_PC=2 and K =4:

50

45

40

35

30

25

20 1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 81 86 91 96 101 106 111 116 121 126 131 136 141

RXLEV_DL

GSM average

practical GPRS average

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.9 GPRS Power Control: Algorithm


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 150

Each block is transmitted by the MS with the output power PCH: PCH=min (0 - CH - * (C+48), (GPRS)MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH))
0 : is the maximum classmark power of the MS
= 39 dBm in GSM 900/850/400 = 36 dBm in GSM 1800/1900

CH : is sent to the MS. This parameter is used for grading the power control to a target received level at the BTS side
Min:0; Max: 62; Default: 30 dB in GSM 900, 24 dB in GSM 1800

: is send to the MS. This parameter can be described as a reactivity

factor. The 05.08 GSM recommendation suggest to use = 1 in order to have an open loop power control C : is the DL level average calculated by the MS

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.9 GPRS Power Control: Algorithm [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 151

Tuning of CH and
Idea: Tune PC algorithm to balance DL and UL paths

= 1 (according to GSM 05.08) CH


tune CH in order to reach the Minimum UL Level (RXLEVUL) at the BTS CH = 0 - 48 - RXLEVUL - PBTS

Balanced DL and UL paths:


PMS - RXLEVUL = PBTS RXLEVDL
PBTS : BTS power; PMS: MS power RXLEVUL: Received level at BTS side RXLEVDL: Received level at MS side (C value in the PC formula)

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.9 GPRS Power Control: Algorithm [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 152

Example: Tuning of CH and Settings:


MS_Power_MAX = 33 dBm PBTS after connector = 40 dBm

=1

CH
tune CH in order to reach the Minimum RXLEVUL at the BTS side assume RXLEVUL = - 80 dBm
CH = 0 - 48 - RXLEVUL - PBTS CH = 33 - 48 - (-80) - 40 = 25 dBm

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.10 Link adaptation: DL GPRS Radio Link Control


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 153

It relies on RXQUAL except between CS3 and CS4 adaptation, where the new metric I_LEVEL_TNi (interference level) is also considered
If CS-4 is used, the MS is allowed to report RXQUAL = 7

AV_RXQUAL_ST (Short Term average), AV_RXQUAL_LT (Long Term average) and AV_SIR (Signal to Interference Ratio) are respectively averaged values at MFS side, of the RXQUAL and I_LEVEL_TNi measurements received from the MS in Packet DL Ack/Nack messages
AV_RXQUAL_ST
Triggering condition AV_RXQual_ST aim to decrease the coding scheme number as fast as possible when the radio conditions degraded significantly. Reaction would be much slower if it was only based on a long-term average, which could results in a TBF release

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.10 Link adaptation: DL GPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 154

Interference measurements performed during idle frames of the 52 multiframe (twice during 240ms):
I_LEVEL_TN 0 I_LEVEL_TN 1 I_LEVEL_TN 2 I_LEVEL_TN 3
...

= = = =

I>C C - 2dB < I C C - 4dB < I C - 2dB C - 6dB < I C - 4dB

MS
Packet DL Ack/Nack (RXQUAL, I_Level_TNi)

MFS

I_LEVEL_TN 14 = C - 28dB < I C - 26dB I_LEVEL_TN 15 = I C - 28dB

Packet DL Ack/Nack (RXQUAL, I_Level_TNi) Averaging - AV_RXQUAL_ST - AV_RXQUAL_LT - AV_SIR Link adaptation new CS current CS

MFS uses the I_LEVEL_TNi received to calculate the AV_SIR value In case of DL GPRS TBF with PDCH allocated on BCCH TRX and no frequency hopping on the BCCH TRX, the MS does not report any usage of BLER (Block interference levels Erasure Rate) instead of interference levels
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O&M threshold and hysteresis

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Drawback of putting GPRS on BCCH freq : no measure of interference levels

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.10 Link adaptation: DL GPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 155

Coding Scheme changing decision for a downlink GPRS TBF:

Current CS

CSi -> CSi+1


AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_DL_1_2

CSi -> CSi-1


AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_DL_1_2 + CS_HST_DL_LT

CS1 CS2

AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_DL_2_3

OR AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_DL_1_2 + CS_HST_DL_ST

AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_DL_3_4

CS3

AND AV_SIR > CS_SIR_DL_3_4 (CS3_BLER < CS_BLER_DL_3_4)

AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_DL_2_3 + CS_HST_DL_LT OR AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_DL_2_3 + CS_HST_DL_ST AV_SIR < CS_SIR_DL_3_4 + CS_SIR_HST_DL (CS4_BLER > CS_BLER_DL_4_3)

CS4

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As it has been observed (in the Alcatel labs during the B8 release validation) that some MS do not report any interference measurements when the BCCH carrier is included in the frequency hopping sequence of the allocated PDCH, the algorithm described above is slightly modified in the MR2 version of the B8 release. A new triggering condition is used for the CS change between CS3 and CS4. This new triggering condition shall be applied only to the TBF that do not report any interference level measurements. Each time a Packet DL Ack/Nack message is received: either it contains no interference measurements and the new algorithm is applied, or it contains interference measurements and the standard algorithm is applied. With the new algorithm, the interference level is replaced by the BLER (RLC BLock Error Rate): the CS3 BLER is used for a CS change from CS3 to CS4, the CS4 BLER is used for a CS change from CS4 to CS3. Remarks : case of a DL TBF with PDCH allocated on the BCCH TRX and no frequency hopping on the BCCH TRX : the MS does not report any interference level measurements in the Packet DL Ack/Nack message (no interference measurements on the BCCH carrier), case of a DL TBF with PDCH having the BCCH carrier belonging to the frequency hopping sequence : depending on MS implementation, some MS may not report any interference measurements (behavior observed in the Alcatel labs during the B8 release validation).

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.10 Link adaptation: DL GPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 156

CS_HST_DL_LT and CS_HST_DL_ST are introduced to have hysteresis mechanisms, to avoid ping-pong effects between coding schemes:
AV_RXQUAL_LT 7

CS1
CS_QUAL_DL_1_2 + CS_HST_DL_LT CS_QUAL_DL_1_2 CS1 or CS2 (hysteresis)

CS2
CS_QUAL_DL_2_3 + CS_HST_DL_LT CS_QUAL_DL_2_3 CS2 or CS3 (hysteresis) C S_QUAL_DL_3_4

CS3
0 0 CS_SIR_DL_4_3

CS3 or CS4

CS4
AV_SIR 15

CS_SIR_DL_3_4

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The change from CS-3 to CS-4 is not only based on AV_RXQUAL_LT for the two following reasons: RXQUAL range only goes down to 0.2%. However, the change of the coding scheme from CS-3 to CS-4 will probably have to be done for even lower values. Indeed, when the coding scheme is CS-4, in static (AWGN), a BLER of 0.1 (typical value of the BLER threshold to change from CS-3 to CS-4) is obtained for a raw BER of 1-(1-0.1)1/456 = 2.10-4. This raw BER would be larger in multipath channels but is likely to remain below 0.2%. This means that CS_QUAL_DL_3_4 should be close to 0 and that a condition based on RXQUAL is not sufficient to change the coding scheme from CS-3 to CS4. If the changes from CS-3 to CS-4 and from CS-4 to CS-3 are based on different metrics, a Ping-Pong effect may occur. Indeed, it may happen that the conditions to change from CS-3 to CS-4 and CS-4 to CS-3 are simultaneously true in some situations.

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.11 Link adaptation: UL GPRS Radio Link Control


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 157

MS

BTS

MFS

It is based only on RXQUAL, measured by the BTS Interference measurements are not reported by the BTS to the MFS AV_RXQUAL_ST (Short Term average), AV_RXQUAL_LT (Long Term average) are averaged values of the RXQUAL received from the BTS

UL RLC block (RXQUAL)

UL RLC block RXQUAL measurement UL RLC block (RXQUAL)

Averaging - AV_RXQUAL_ST - AV_RXQUAL_LT O&M threshold and hysteresis Link adaptation new CS current CS

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.11 Link adaptation: UL GPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 158

Coding Scheme changing decision for uplink GPRS TBF:


Current CS

CSi -> CSi+1


AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_UL_1_2

CSi -> CSi-1


AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_UL_1_2 + CS_HST_UL_LT

CS1 CS2

AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_UL_2_3

OR AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_UL_1_2 + CS_HST_UL_ST AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_UL_2_3 + CS_HST_UL_LT

CS3

AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_UL_3_4

OR AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_UL_2_3 + CS_HST_UL_ST AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_UL_3_4 + CS_HST_UL_LT

CS4

OR AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_UL_3_4 + CS_HST_UL_ST

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AV_RXQUAL_ST is a short term average whereas AV_RXQUAL_LT is a long term average. The short term average is used to react quickly in case of fast degradation of the radio conditions. X = FH or NFH: two thresholds are available for hopping and non-hopping TRXs. Y = ACK or NACK: two thresholds are available for RLC acknowledged and unacknowledged modes. The thresholds should be chosen so that: CS_HST_UL_ST > CS_HST_UL_LT > 0

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.11 Link adaptation: UL GPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 159

CS_HST_UL_LT and CS_HST_UL_ST are introduced to have hysteresis mechanisms, to avoid ping-pong effects between coding schemes:
AV_RXQUAL_LT 7

CS1
CS_QUAL_UL_1_2 + CS_HST_UL_LT CS_QUAL_UL_1_2 CS1 or CS2 (hysteresis)

CS2
CS_QUAL_UL_2_3 + CS_HST_UL_LT CS_QUAL_UL_2_3 CS2 or CS3 (hysteresis)

CS3
CS_QUAL_UL_3_4 + CS_HST_UL_LT CS_QUAL_UL_3_4 CS3 or CS4 (hysteresis)

CS4
0 0 15 AV_SIR

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In the uplink, the RXQUAL is available in CS-4 and the SIR measurements are not reported by the BTS to the MFS so far. Therefore, it is possible to also use RXQUAL measurements to change the coding scheme from CS-3 to CS-4 or from CS-4 to CS-3, contrary to the downlink algorithm, where the SIR was used.

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.12 Link adaptation in EGPRS: New metrics


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 160

Two new metrics are introduced in EGPRS, Mean_BEP (mean Bit error Probability) and CV_BEP (Coefficient of Variation of BEP), to offset the fact that RXQUAL, does not provide an accurate estimation of the bit error rate of the radio channel
BEP measured on burst basis, is a reflection of the current C/I, time dispersion of the signal and the velocity of the terminal

MEAN_BEPblock =

1 4 BEPburst i 4 i=1

The variation of BEP value over several bursts also provides additional information regarding velocity and frequency hopping
1 4 1 4 BEPburst k BEPburst i 3 k =1 4 i=1 4 1 BEPburst i 4 i=1
2

CV_BEPblock =

The mechanism is more efficient than in GPRS, since measurements are taken on every burst and not only during the idle frames

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For more details about MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP averages performed by the MS, refer to 3GPP 05.08. Raw measurements on a radio block basis For EGPRS (that is during an EGPRS DL TBF), the MS shall calculate the following values, for each radio block (1 radio block = 4 bursts) addressed to it (the DL TBF TFI contained in the radio block must be decoded) : Mean Bit Error Probability (BEP) of a radio block:

MEAN _ BEPblock =

Coefficient of variation of the Bit Error Probability of a radio block:

1 4 BEPburst i 4 i =1

In the above equations, the BEP is measured on a burst basis by the MS before channel decoding. Averaging of the raw measurements on a TS basis The raw measurements made by the MS on a radio block basis are averaged by the MS per TS (TN in the below equations) and per modulation type (GMSK (MCS1 to MCS4), 8-PSK (MCS5 to MCS9)) as follows:

1 4 1 4 BEP BEP burst k burst i 3 k =1 4 i=1 CV _ BEP block = 4 1 BEPburst i 4 i=1

MEAN_BEP_T N n = (1 e

xn x ) MEAN_BEP_T Nn1 + e n MEAN_BEP block, n Rn Rn x x CV_BEP_TN n = (1 e n ) CV_BEP_TN n 1 + e n CV_BEPblock,n Rn Rn


R n = (1 e) R n1 + e x n , R 1 = 0
(Rn gives the reliability of the averaged quality parameters)

with

In the above equations : n is the iteration index, incremented for each DL radio block, e is a forgetting factor and is calculated according to the BEP_PERIOD cell parameter (new in B8, OMC-R changeable), SEE NEXT SLIDE All Rights Reserved 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 Module 1 Page 160

3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.13 Link adaptation: DL EGPRS Radio Link Control


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 161

The link adaptation is based in DL on Mean_BEP and CV_BEP measurements reported by the MS in every EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack message
The MS can report 32 different Mean_BEP values (0..31) and 8 different CV_BEP values (0..7), per modulation type
Decision tables are different depending on whether the Incremental Redundancy is activated or not
IR current CS Link adaptation new CS Average Power Decrease in 8-PSK

MS

MFS

EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack (Mean_BEP, CV_BEP)

link adaptation tables

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xn denotes the existence of quality parameters for the nth block, i.e. if the radio block is intended for this MS. xn values 1 and 0 denote the existence and absence of quality parameters, respectively Measurements reporting A MS shall report the overall MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP (instead of reporting the RXQUAL and SIGN_VAR values) per modulation type (that is GMSK_MEAN_BEP, GMSK_CV_BEP and/or 8-PSK_MEAN_BEP, 8-PSK_CV_BEP depending on the received blocks since the last channel quality report sent to the network) averaged over all allocated channels (timeslots) as follows:

(j) n

(j) MEAN_BEP_T Nn

MEAN_BEP n =

Rn

(j)

where n is the iteration index at reporting time and j the TS number. The MS reports the Mean_BEP and CV_BEP values to the MFS in the Channel Quality Report included in the EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack and Packet Resource Request messages. The MS can report 32 different Mean_BEP values (MEAN_BEP_0 to MEAN_BEP_31). The mapping between the calculated Mean_BEP value (linear scale) and the reported Mean_BEP value (logarithmic scale) depends on the used modulation (two mapping tables are given in the 05.08 GSM recommendation : one for GMSK and one for 8-PSK). The MS can report 8 different CV_BEP values (CV_BEP_0 to CV_BEP_7). The mapping between the calculated and the reported values is identical for the GMSK and 8-PSK modulations. Measurements and reporting at BTS side The BTS measures for each UL burst the BEP and calculates for each UL radio block (4 bursts) the Mean_BEP and the CV_BEP = Std_BEP / Mean_BEP. The Mean_BEP and the CV_BEP are reported on a radio block basis by the BTS to the MFS.

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.13 Link adaptation: DL EGPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 162

MS

BTS

MFS

In the UL, Mean_BEP and CV_BEP are computed in the BTS and sent to the MFS, in each radio block The MFS averages Mean_BEP and CV_BEP and then, a decision can be taken on the link adaptation

UL RLC block (CV_BEP, Mean_BEP)

UL RLC block
CV_BEP, Mean_BEP

computation UL RLC block (CV_BEP, Mean_BEP)

Averaging Average Power Decrease in 8-PSK

IR current CS Link adaptation new CS

link adaptation tables

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.14 EGPRS Link Adaptation Decision


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 163

The MFS verify if a MCS change is needed each time it receives new MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP measurements, based on the following algorithm:
RLC Acknowledge Mode
YES

IR activated

NO

?
APD value APD value

GMSK

GMSK / 8-PSK

8-PSK

GMSK

GMSK / 8-PSK

8-PSK

?
GMSK tables 8-PSK tables GMSK tables

?
8-PSK tables

MCS 1..4

MCS 5..9

MCS 1..4

MCS 5..9

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.15 TRX ranking/TRX transmission pool set-up


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 164

TRX ranking
PS capable TRXs (TRX_PREF_MARK = 0) are ranked at BSC side for PS traffic (from the highest to the lowest), according to the following criteria :
TRX supporting the BCCH, if PS_Pref_BCCH_TRX = 0 TRX capability (EGPRS capable High Power, then EGPRS capable Medium Power and finally nonEGPRS capable) Dual Rate capability (FR, then DR) Size of the PDCH-group
TRX <--> TRE

TRX ranking for PS traffic

TRX characteristics

ordered list of TRXs for PS traffic

This ranking will be used in the reverse order for CS traffic

TRX transmission pool set-up

TRX transmission pools

TRX <--> TRX transmission pool

TRX transmission pool set-up


A TRX transmission pool groups, together extra Abis nibbles for one TRX The biggest TRX transmission pools are allocated to the TRXs having the highest ranking for PS traffic.

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p.90 et p.91

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.15 TRX ranking/TRX transmission pool set-up [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 165

Example:
5 TREs in a cell
1 G4-HP TRE 2 G4-MP TREs 2 G3 TREs

PS_Pref_BCCH_TRX = 0 (no specific preference) 5 TRXs


TRXa, TRXb, TRXc, TRXd: TRX_PREF_MARK = 0 (PS capable) TRXe: TRX_PREF_MARK > 0 (non PS capable)

3 DR TRXs Pool types


1 type 4 1 type 2 2 type 1
TREs Dual Rate usage
FR FR DR DR DR

associated TRXs
TRXa TRXb TRXc TRXd TRXe

PS capable TRX ranking


1 2 3 4

associated transmission pool


type type type type 4 2 1 1

G4 - HP G4 - MP G4 - MP G3 G3

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.16 TRX capability for PS traffic


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 166

TRX capabilities are determined at MFS side, taking into account:


For GPRS: the max CS configured (MAX_GPRS_CS) For EGPRS:
TRX type (n=1 to 5), received from BSC - HW PS Hardware PS capability of each TRX, received from capability - TRX the BSC Max_GPRS_CS type En_EGPRS (parameter to allow or not EGPRS in the cell), received from the BSC TRX GPRS Max_GPRS_CS (parameter which gives the highest usable CS in the cell), received from the BSC capability Max_EGPRS_MCS (parameter which gives the highest usable MCS in the cell) GPRS capability
(CS2/CS3/CS4)

BSC

O&M

En_EGPRS Max_EGPRS_MCS

TRX EGPRS capability


EGPRS capability (MCS 1-MCS 9)

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.17 Radio Resource Allocation: Overview


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 167

To offer high throughput to EGPRS MSs :


EGPRS TBFs are preferentially allocated on high class TRXs Multiplexing, on the same PDCH, a DL EGPRS TBF with an UL GPRS TBF has to be avoided, since in this case, the DL EGPRS is limited to GMSK (i.e. MCS4) new PDCH state: EGPRS

To fairly share throughput between EGPRS TBFs:


A higher number of EGPRS TBFs has to be piled up on high class TRXs than on low class TRXs. This ratio has to take into account the maximum throughput which can be offered by each class of TRX specific TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs

To optimize GPRS throughput (i.e. high class TRX usage), as long as it does not conflict with EGPRS traffic
A new reallocation trigger (T4) is created in order to reallocate an UL GPRS TBF which is multiplexed with a DL EGPRS TBF

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.18 Radio Resource Allocation: PDCH state


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 168

!!! New states in B9 !!!

All the following PDCH states are related to establish TBFs:


Allocated : The PDCH is a slave PDCH, which has been indicated as usable for PS traffic by the BSC Active : An allocated PDCH is active if it supports at least one radio resource allocated for a TBF or for a RT PFC Full :
For GPRS TBF: The number of established TBFs (GPRS + EGPRS TBFs) is equal to MAX_UL/DL_TBF_SPDCH. For EGPRS TBF: The number of established EGPRS TBFs is equal to MAX_UL/DL_TBF_SPDCH.

EGPRS : SPDCH used in the DL direction by a 8-PSK capable EGPRS TBF. This state is meaningful only for non-EGPRS capable MSs and only in the UL direction.

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Full : for GPRS TBF : GPRS + EGPRS ts are counted, because some EGPRS TBF on GPRS PDCH are using GMSK MCS.

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.18 Radio Resource Allocation: PDCH state [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 169

New state for GPRS PDCH


PDCH used in DL direction by 8-PSK capable EGPRS TBF, i.e PDCH does not belong to a class 1 TRX meaningful only
for non-EGPRS capable MS only in UL direction

When meaningful, it overwrites active and busy states but not the full state Avoids multiplexing of UL GPRS TBF and DL EGPRS TBF, in order to not reduce the EGPRS throughput

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.18 Radio Resource Allocation: PDCH state [cont.]


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DOWNLINK

UPLINK

MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH

MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH

Allocated Active

Full

Allocated Active [EGPRS]

Full [EGPRS]

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One SPDCH has one state per direction (i.e., one state for the UL, one state for the DL). This state depends on the type of the MSs (EGPRS capable or non-EGPRS capable) for which the radio resource (re)-allocation algorithm is called. radio resource allocated to the MFS, but associated transmission resources are not allocated (i.e., the PDCH is not established). All the following states are related to established PDCHs: empty: the PDCH is established, but no established TBF. active: For GPRS TBF: at least one established TBF and the number of established TBFs (GPRS + EGPRS) is smaller than N_TBF_PER_SPDCH. For EGPRS TBF: at least one established EGPRS TBF and the number of EGPRS TBFs (1) is smaller than N_TBF_PER_SPDCH. busy: For GPRS TBF: the number of established TBFs (GPRS and EGPRS TBFs) is greater or equal to N_TBF_PER_SPDCH, but smaller than MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH/MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH. For EGPRS TBF: the number of established EGPRS TBFs (1) is greater or equal to N_TBF_PER_SPDCH, but smaller than MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH/MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH. full: For GPRS TBF: the number of established TBFs (GPRS + EGPRS TBFs) is equal to MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH/MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH. For EGPRS TBF: the number of established EGPRS TBFs (3) is equal to MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH/MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH. EGPRS (2) PDCH used in the DL direction by an 8-PSK capable EGPRS TBF (i.e., the PDCH does not belong to a class 1 TRX). This state is meaningful only for non-EGPRS capable MSs and only in the UL direction. When meaningful, it overwrites active and busy states (but not the full state). (1): Only EGPRS TBFs are taken into account to avoid to establish EGPRS TBFs on PDCHs with a low EGPRS capability, because of GPRS TBFs. (2): The aim of this new state is to avoid multiplexing UL GPRS TBF and DL EGPRS TBF, in order not to reduce EGPRS throughput. (3): Only EGPRS TBFs are taken into account to avoid radio resource allocation failure because of the restricted list of EGPRS capable TRXs.

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 171

Specific conditions are defined for TRX selection in case of allocation or reallocation for EGPRS capable MS
To allocate EGPRS TBFs preferentially on TRX which allows a high throughput

Principle:
As long as the TRXs with the highest throughput do not support a maximum number of EGPRS TBFs, the other EGPRS capable TRXs are not taken into account by the algorithm

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs [cont.]


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Following internal variables are defined:


N_TRX_EGPRS : number of TRXs on which EGPRS MSs are served in EGPRS mode MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current(TRXi) : maximum number of EGPRS TBFs per PDCH, currently allocated in TRXi N_TBF_PDCH_MCSi_MCSj
It defines for each EGPRS TRX capability (MCSi) in the cell the number of EGPRS TBFs per PDCH beyond which it becomes more interesting to serve upcoming EGPRS MSs on TRXs with a lower EGPRS capability (MCSj). Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSi / Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSj with Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSx is the maximum theoretical throughput that can be achieved at RLC/MAC per PDCH using MCSx encoding

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs [cont.]


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All the values between MCS2 and MCS9 are possible because of the O&M parameter Max_EGPRS_MCS Different used thresholds :
EGPRS TRX capability (MCSi) MCS3 MCS4 MCS5 MCS6 Immediately lower TRX capability (MCSj) MCS2 MCS2 MCS2 MCS5 MCS2 MCS6 MCS5 MCS2 MCS6 MCS5 MCS2 MCS8 MCS6 MCS5 MCS2
N_TBF_PDCH_MCSi_MCSj

MCS7

MCS8

MCS9

1 1 2 1 2 1 2 4 1 2 4 1 2 2 5

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N_TBF_PDCH_MCSi_MCSj are internal parameters which define for each EGPRS TRX capability, in the cell, the number of EGPRS TBFs per PDCH beyond which it becomes more interesting to serve upcoming EGPRS MSs on TRXs with a lower EGPRS capability. This value depends on the throughput gap between 2 consecutive TRXs inside the ordered (according to TRX Rank) list of EGPRS capable TRXs. N_TBF_PDCH_MCSi_MCSj = Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSi DIV Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSj Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSx is the maximum theoretical throughput that can be achieved at RLC/MAC per PDCH using MCSx encoding.

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 174

Example
Assuming that in a cell the following TRXs are EGPRS capable: TRXa: EGPRS capability = MCS9 TRXb: EGPRS capability = MCS5 TRXc: EGPRS capability = MCS5 TRXd: EGPRS capability = MCS2 TRXe: EGPRS capability = MCS2 Two thresholds are used :
N_TBF_PDCH_MCS9_MCS5 = 2 N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 = 2

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs [cont.]


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CELL START
MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXi) = 0 (with i = a, b, c, d or e ) MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXa) < N_TBF_PDCH_MCS9_MCS5

TRXa

MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXa) < N_TBF_PDCH_MCS9_MCS5

MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXa) = N_TBF_PDCH_MCS9_MCS5 MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXb) < N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _ OR MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXc) < N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _ MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXb) = N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _ AND MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXc) = N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _

TRXa, TRXb, TRXc


MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXb) < N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _ OR MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXc) < N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _

TRXa, TRXb, TRXc, TRXd, TRXe

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.20 Radio Resource Allocation: GPRS/EGPRS TBFs


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 176

!!! New in B9 !!!


HIGH

. If it is not a T3 reallocation TRXs for which have already enough GCHs established on the M-EGCH link

A.
IMPORTANCE

Lowest number of PDCHs in the EGPRS state Highest available throughput in the direction of the bias Highest available throughput in the direction opposite to the bias TRX with the highest priority For EGPRS Best Effort TBFs establishments TBFs in the direction of the bias Lowest number of GPRS

B. C. D. E.

LOW

F.

Combination with the PDCHs that have the lowest index.

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.20 Radio Resource Allocation: EGPRS TBFs [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 177

HIGH

E) The candidate timeslot allocations which have the lowest number of established EGPRS TBFs in the direction of the bias are preferred It is preferred to multiplex an EGPRS TBF with a GPRS TBF, rather than with another EGPRS TBF F) The candidate timeslot allocations which have the lowest number of established EGPRS TBFs in the direction opposite to the bias are preferred G) The candidate timeslot allocations which are on a TRX with highest priority are preferred H) The candidate timeslot allocations which have the lowest number of established GPRS TBFs in the direction of the bias are preferred H has a lowest priority than G, in order to avoid to establish EGPRS TBFs on low class TRXs, because of GPRS TBFs

LOW

IMPORTANCE

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.20 Radio Resource Allocation: EGPRS TBFs [cont.]


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 178

HIGH

I) The candidate timeslot allocations which have all their PDCHs established are preferred. If all the preferred best candidate timeslot allocations require additional PDCHs, then a request is sent to the BSC and the algorithm is stopped J) If the MS has already one or 2 TBFs established, preference is given to the candidate timeslot allocation which does not require a T2 reallocation of the on-going TBFs K) The candidate timeslot allocation with the PDCHs that have the lowest index is preferred

LOW

IMPORTANCE

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.21 Radio Resource Allocation: TBF Re-allocation


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B8/B9 release: 4 types of TBF reallocations:


T1: re-allocation to
maintain a TBF alive despite a pre-emption on a PACCH of a TBF or if MEGCH becomes too low to provide MAX MCS of the TBF [B9]

T2: re-allocation of an on-going TBF when establishing a concurrent TBF


in order to provide a better throughput

T3: re-allocation to offer a better throughput to an on-going TBFs


In order to provide a higher throughput, if it is possible, to any TBF in the cell.

T4: re-allocation condition to move


UL GPRS TBF sharing one PDCH with a DL EGPRS TBF PDCHs which do not carry a DL EGPRS TBF B9 : Same types as in B8, but extended possibilities

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T2 : It is the case in the following scenarios: - establishment of a downlink TBF, concurrent to an existing uplink TBF, which is allocated in such a way that the maximum number of timeslots supported in the direction of the bias cannot be offered to the MS. - similar situation in case of uplink TBF establishment concurrent to a downlink TBF;

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.22 Radio Resource Allocation: Min_PDCH


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 180

Min_PDCH: O&M parameter per cell


Minimum number of PDCHs that are always allocated to the MFS.

B8/B9 release: Min_PDCH takes into account:


The pre-allocated SPDCH but not established (w/o GCH resource) The SPDCH pre-allocated and established for the fast initial (E)GPRS access The MPDCH represented by the parameter Nb_TS_MPDCH

Thus, the initial allocation process takes into consideration:


IF EN_FAST_INITIAL_GPRS_ACCESS = 0 (false)
MIN_PDCH - Nb_TS_MPDCH SPDCH are requested to the BSC and pre-allocated on the TRX with the highest priority

IF EN_FAST_INITIAL_GPRS_ACCESS = 1 (true)
MIN_PDCH - Nb_TS_MPDCH - 1 SPDCH are requested to the BSC and preallocated on the TRX with the highest priority

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3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.23 Radio Resource Allocation: Fast initial (E)GPRS access


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 181

Also called : Immediate UL TBF establishment To provide always one established PDCH, usable for UL GPRS and UL EGPRS TBFs, even if there is no PS traffic at all A TBF can be immediately established without requesting transmission resource connection to the BSC EN_FAST_INITIAL_GPRS_ACCESS, parameter per cell
flag to indicate whether or not one Slave PDCH for (E)GPRS traffic usage will be statically established in the cell
Min: 0; Max: 1; Default 0

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182

4 General (E)GPRS planning principels

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4 General (E)GPRS planning principles

4.1 Throughput Dependency -> Interference (and Level)


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Level of serving cell Level (dBm)


C/I = 13 dB C/I = 9 dB

Level of interfer cell


CS-2 CS-1

Distance

RL/MAC net Data Throughput 12 (kbit/s) 10.8 8 7.2


Note: the throughput values are ETSI requirements, the C/I values are valid for TU3, SFH enabled

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Neighbor cell not really, it is a cell using identical interfering frequencies. Depending on C/I, CS2 wont provide the same tput (due to lost packets and retransmissions, the useful tput decreases down to 10.8) For instance MCS9 can vary from 45 59 kbps

If performing a planning with C/I > 12db : only MS with good C/I will get enough C/I to have max tput. It is possible to link the C/I and RXLEV to simplify analysis (rxlev = f(C/I), depending on netwpork planning)

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4 General (E)GPRS planning principles

4.2 Packet data throughput


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Packet data throughput (ETSI)


Maximum (error free transmission) on Air Interface at BLER=10% Degradation of RLC by Level and Interference

System Scheme Max RLC data throughput (RLC payload) [kbps]

RLC data throughput at Reference Point (BLER=10%) [kbps] 53.3 49.0 40.3 26.7 20.2 15.9 13.3 10.1 7.9 18.0 13.0 10.8 7.2

EGPRS

MCS-9 MCS-8 MCS-7 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 CS-4 CS-3 CS-2 CS-1

59.2 54.4 44.8 29.6 22.4 17.6 14.8 11.2 8.8 20.0 14.4 12.0 8.0

GPRS

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p.52 and p.64 of 3GPP 45.005 Type of channel PDTCH/MCS-5 PDTCH/MCS-6 PDTCH/MCS-7 PDTCH/MCS-8 PDTCH/MCS-9 Propagation conditions TU3(no FH) dB dB dB dB dB TU3(ideal FH) 18 20 23.5 28.5 30 TU50(no FH) 14.5 17 23.5 29 32 TU50(ideal FH) RA250(no FH) 15.5 18 24 30 33 14.5 17.5 24.5 30 35 16 21 26.5** * *

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4 General (E)GPRS planning principles

4.3 Reference performance point


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ETSI -> Simulation of coding scheme performance under different environment and fading conditions
typical urban environment with mobile speed of 3 km/h (TU3) typical urban environment with mobile speed of 50 km/h (TU50) typical hilly terrain with mobile speed of 100 km/h (HT100) typical rural area with mobile speed of 250 km/h (RA250)

The impact of Level and interference has been studied in order to find the minimum required Level and C/I ratio for the reference error performance, defined by a block error rate Block Error Rate (BLER) of 10%, the reference performance point Why is this important?
Saturation effect

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For data, most users are static (TU3) Japanese/Korean behaviour : they use data while in subways and trains. Appearing in France due to tv online.

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4 General (E)GPRS planning principles

4.4 Saturation effect


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kbit/s 20 16 12

The reference performance point is reached at BLER=10% The following data rates can be achieved at this point: CS-1: C/I=9 dB =>7.2 kbit/s (saturation: 8 kbit/s) CS-2: C/I=13 dB =>10.8 kbit/s (saturation: 12 kbit/s)

CS1 CS2

8 4 0 3dB C/I 7dB 11dB 15dB 19dB 23dB 27dB

Throughput curve as required by ETSI for CS-1and CS-2, typical urban environment with MS speed 3 km/h TU3 with SFH
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4 General (E)GPRS planning principles

4.4 Saturation effect [cont.]


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By increase of the C/I ratio Less retransmission has to be performed (less data blocks are erroneous)
since saturation occurs. e.g. for CS-1 starting with 7.2 kbit/s at a C/I ratio of 9dB With an increasing C/I ratio the data throughput increases only little up to its maximum value of 8kbit/s (saturation point)

Data throughput increases Due to this saturation effect, a further increase of the C/I ratio does not have large impact on the data throughput of a single coding scheme: possibly a switch to a higher CS may occur (C/I ~ 7 dB for CS-1 to CS-2) Reference Performance Point : A tradeoff between the maximisation of the network throughput and excessive C/I constraints.

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4 General (E)GPRS planning principles

4.5 Cell area and throughput


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Level of serving cell Level (dBm)


C/I = 13 dB C/I = 9 dB

Level of neighbor-cell Distance

CS-2 CS-1

RL/MAC net Data Throughput (kbit/s)

12 10.8 8 7.2

1. Throughput at CS-2 saturation point 2. Throughput at CS-2 reference performance point

4. Throughput at CS-1 reference performance point 3. Throughput at CS-1 saturation point

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4 General (E)GPRS planning principles

4.6 Throughput <-> C/I


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ETSI requirements and Alcatel values for C/Ico and C/Iadj for CS and GPRS (PDCH) GSM 900 (Requirement for GMSK modulation: C/Iadj = C/Ico 18dB)
In general: With higher coding scheme, higher C/I ratios required GPRS functionality more sensitive against interference
Packet switched GSM 900 Circuit switched TU3 C/I cochannel ETSI C/I adjchannel ETSI C/I cochannel Alcatel C/I adjchannel Alcatel CS1 TU3 ideal FH 9 TU50 TU50 ideal FH 9 TU3 TU3 ideal FH 13 CS2 TU50 TU50 ideal FH 13

13

10

15

14

-9

-5

-9

-8

-9

-3

-5

-4

-5

11.5

6.7

7.5

6.5

13.1

10.3

11.1

10.8

-9

-13

-12

-13

-6

-8.8

-8.2

-9

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Ideal FH : hopping on 4 or more frequencies with at least 800kHz separation between each channel offers the "ideal FH" diversity gain (4 to 5 dB)

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4 General (E)GPRS planning principles

4.6 Throughput <-> C/I [cont.]


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TU50 (900 MHz) no fh

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 5

10 15 C / I c o [dB]

20

25

30

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CS4 can't resist to interference, even with high C/I, it doesn't reach the saturation point. Expect high retransmission % when using CS4. For each C/I, a typical tput can be expected. CS adaptation gives flexibility in case of radio conditions changes. At start of a session, which CS to choose? How would the curve looks like if TU3 was used ? (C/I scale would be squeezed)

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13Jul2000 09:45:44

Throughput

Parameters : GPRS C/I Throughput Co-channel Interferer TU 50 no FH

20 18 16 14 CS4 CS3 CS2 CS1

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5 (E)GPRS Network introduction

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5 (E)GPRS Network introduction

5.1 GPRS network planning


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Two different cases are possible to introduce GPRS service:


GPRS Greenfield planning means
Dedicated analysis of GPRS network design All GPRS cells will be designed for maximum throughput performances So the (GPRS) cell ranges could be smaller as used to be in a pure GSM network, designed for speech service only

Introduction of GPRS in operating GSM cells


GPRS performance is strongly depending on GSM network quality Cell ranges are depending from GSM service planning

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5 (E)GPRS Network introduction

5.2 GPRS Greenfield planning


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Traffic Analysis Field strength prediction Mutual interference calculation GSM/GPRS frequency planning Cell specific interference calculation TRX assignment to GPRS service

GPRS Throughput Analysis RA Planning + CAE Data Measures to reach GPRS QoS GPRS features GSM features
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Objectives Traffic Analysis PS Traffic User Profile Market applications Customer questionnaire Traffic model: Example GPRS traffic calculation - Straight forward - Erlang C - Traffic tool - Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods

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GPRS traffic calculation


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Traffic Analysis
PS Traffic User Profile User Behavior Market applications Customer questionnaire Traffic model: Example GPRS traffic calculation
Straight forward Erlang C Traffic tool Different traffic calculation procedure for packet traffic compared to speech traffic calculation

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5 (E)GPRS Network introduction

5.3 GPRS traffic calculation and traffic analysis


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The traffic analysis is done to have the amount of resources (frequencies) one needs to carry GSM+GPRS traffic
CS traffic demand (Circuit Switched, derived from Erlang B formula) PS (Packet Switched) traffic demand has also to be taken into account for the capacity calculation
What is PS or GPRS traffic?

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5 (E)GPRS Network introduction

5.4 GPRS traffic calculation and PS traffic


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The PS traffic demand (or user throughput demand) is derived from an average traffic data volume generated by each type of GPRS subscriber
GPRS traffic volume is given on a monthly basis as sum of used applications data volume.

Today all PS traffic values are based on assumptions until useful experience values are available The traffic values are collected in a traffic model In general, the traffic from PS services is depending on:
User profile User behavior Market applications and service distributions

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User profile : what kind of applications ? which volumes ? User behaviour : what time ? how long ? where ? Market applications : what is proposed to customers : video on demand ? Live tv ? Mmp games ?

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5.4 GPRS traffic calculation and PS traffic [cont.]


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U s e r p ro file

U s e r b e h a v io r

C u s to m e r Q u e s tio n n a ire

M a rk e t a p p lic a tio n s a n d s e rv ic e d istrib u tio n s

T ra ffic m o d e l

T ra ffic c a lc u la tio n

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A user profile defines a typical user for packet data services, using a certain amount of applications
It is useful to limit the amount of user profiles to keep the calculation simple, e.g. two profiles can be introduced, business and private user

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5.6 GPRS traffic calculation and market applications


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Market applications
Different services are possible for packet data use e.g. new designed services or services known from the fixed network Market applications and user profiles are related to each other, thus some applications are assigned to one user profile only Each service is characterized by its occurrence: action time per month and the related bit rate per action. In some applications, the data exchange traffic is oriented to downlink, in some others to uplink. Generally the downlink traffic is preponderant in asymmetrical applications such as: web browsing, information downloading, audio downloading etc. This shall be taken into account for the dimensioning process: so the dimensioning will be downlink oriented.

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Difference between prepaid and postpaid ? Daily services : weather forecast, news Hourly : road traffic, market shares Uplink bias applications : MMS, ftp upload. Create problem for dimesionning ? No, because MMS are uploaded and then downloaded. They create equal traffic in both ways. Current Ms use 2ts in uplink, class 11 and 12 are coming (up to 4 TS in uplink, but still simplex.

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5.7 GPRS traffic calculation and user behavior


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Important for the user behavior is the daily distribution


Duration and occurrence time of busy hour (BH), assumption busy hour is same for CS and PS The user distribution over the planning area

Following definitions can be only expected values for the introduction of GPRS (homogeneous traffic distribution over the cell area is assumed)
GPRS subscriber percentage (%), related to the total (CS+PD) subscriber number GPRS user profiles percentage (%), related to the total GPRS subscriber number Geographical percentage distribution (%) of GPRS user profiles related to morphostructure Daily GPRS user profile activity (days/month)

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Core network : can provide statistics per user (pdp context activation, gprs attach, APN usage, etc) Which interface : Gb (mfs-sgsn) , Gn (sgsn-ggsn) Special tools : astelia

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5.8 Customer questionnaire


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Customer questionnaire
Data collection from Operator -> Forecast data To keep process simple -> 12 Points questionnaire
1. Total amount of GSM subscribers in the network (CS+PS subscribers) 2. Blocking at air interface (speech) 3. Speech traffic per subscriber (mErl/sub) 4. Distribution of CS subscribers to different morpho classes 5. Percentage of GPRS subscribers related to the total amount of GSM subscribers 6. Busy hour occurrence for speech traffic and packet data traffic

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This questions are asked to the operator Speech traffic : from 10mErl to 25 mErl (depends on network age and area covered) 6. Busy hour mix (BHM) : at busy hour, split of different types of traffic

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5.8 Customer questionnaire [cont.]


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7. User profile definition 8. Market applications definition and relation to user profiles 9. PS user behaviour/distribution:
daily GPRS user profile activity (days/month) GPRS user profiles percentage (%), related to the total GPRS subscriber number geographical percentage distribution (%) of GPRS user profiles related to morphostructure

10. Number of BTS in the existing network 11. Distribution of existing BTS to morphoclasses 12. Number of TRX/BTS, in accordance to morphoclass

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5 (E)GPRS Network introduction

5.9 Traffic Model (Example)


Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 User Profile Market Application Remote access (e.g. WEB data bases general and specific (law, medicine, ...) E-mail+Attachment

203

The table summarizes the assumptions made for the traffic profiles of GPRS subscribers
(days/month): business 22 days, private 30 Total GPRS Users 7%: 2% private and 5 % business urban = 70% business, 50% private rural = 30% business, 50% private

Business

Private

during GPRS ntroduction Update/Month Kbytes Mbytes/Month mail/Month Kbytes Mbytes/Month 6 20 0.117 24 150 3.516 25 100 2.441 25 60 1.464 8 75 0.586 8.124 3 30 0.0878 10 100 0.977 20 60 1.17 2 75 0.146 1024 2.380

WWW

Pages/Month Kbytes Mbytes/Month

Information (e.g. Location, event, transportation services) e-Commerce (e.g. On-line shopping)

info/Month Kbytes Mbytes/Month usage/Month Kbytes Mbytes/Month

Audio (MP3) e.g. (Access audio files on the net) TOTAL EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning
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Min/Month Kbytes/Min Mbytes/Month Mbytes/Month

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5 (E)GPRS Network introduction

5.10 User mapping


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User mapping and Multi-service mapping


GOAL : to categorize the quality of the three calculation methods

User mapping
One certain resource can be shared simultaneously by different users. Behavior in GPRS -> Packet switched service for different users on one timeslot.
User User 3 User 2 User 1

Timeslot 1

TS 2

TS 3

TS 4

TS 5 TRX

TS 6

TS 7

TS 8

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In dimensionning, never take maximum usage as an average value! User mapping should be quite low, in order to allow a high throughput but requires higher capacity

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5 (E)GPRS Network introduction

5.11 Multi-Service
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Multi-Service with GPRS One user can use different services. So one user is not directly mapped to only one service in the traffic model examination

S e r v ic e 2

e .g . F T P
S e r v ic e 1 S e r v ic e 3

e .g . H T T P

e .g . W A P

U ser

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Typical http "surfing" usage : 10kB/s (average on 1 hour)

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5.12 QoS per User Application


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QoS per User Application Volume@BH


Page size Queue Delay
Acceptable delay if no resource is available at service attempt

Quantile
Specific elements in the range of a variety X are called quantiles

Bit rate

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Queue delay : how long a user can wait before disconnecting ? Usually for data, user can wait up to 30s. Quantile : percentage of throughputs measures that are within a certain range (to check) DEVIATION !! STANDARD

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5.13 GPRS traffic calculation


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3 different calculations can be used for GPRS traffic calculation


Straight forward Erlang C Traffic tool

User mapping Straight Forward result for PS Erlang C for PS Traffic Model

QoS per service _

Multi-service mapping _ _

+ + +
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+ +

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5.13 GPRS traffic calculation [cont.]


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The straightforward calculation


gives the smallest number of needed PS TS among the traffic calculation methods It calculates for the whole data volume, sum of all users data, the number of PDCH TS needed to transfer this data volume, regardless of data transfer peaks This method is not taking into account parallel data transfer, which is the benefit of packet transfer (GPRS). So no service attempt queuing and no service multiplexing is taken into account by this method. A calculation method to get in the first step of GPRS planning an idea of minimum needed PDCH TS.

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5 (E)GPRS Network introduction

5.13 GPRS traffic calculation [cont.]


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Erlang C calculation
gives for a required service attempt probability (Quantile) and the queue delay time of it (e.g. 2 s delay can be set if no resource is available at service attempt), the number of needed resources (TS). The result of Erlang C will give the biggest number of needed PDCH TS among the presented packet traffic calculations. The reason is that a constant data flow is considered which is not the case for different applications like WAP For all different services the PDCH TS with Erlang C has to be calculated and summarized. Afterwards the sum of PDCH TS for the different services leads to an over dimensioning. This method can be used to give very fast a planning result on how many PDCH as maximum can be expected.

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5 (E)GPRS Network introduction

5.13 GPRS traffic calculation [cont.]


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Traffic Model from Alcatel


The traffic tool is the most exact method to calculate the needed PDCH compared to the above calculation methods
Traffic tool is an automated tool (processed by Alcatel-Lucent only) Result of this calculation will be most probably between the above calculation methods

Additionally operator agreed/suggested handling of GPRS channels must be fixed. This is for example the usage of:
Activation of MPDCH or not BCCH combined mode or not Usage of Delayed DL TBF Release or not QUALITY OF SERVICES [Volume @BH, Page size (KBytes), Queue delay (seconds), Quantile (%), Bit rate (kbit/s)]

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5 (E)GPRS Network introduction

5.13 GPRS traffic calculation [cont.]


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Traffic Model from Alcatel


The traffic tool can calculate the result:
TS needed for CS traffic and signaling in DL/UL TS needed PS traffic and signaling in DL/UL

TRX calculation for CS and PS with application of reuse of CS TS for PDCH (PS) when dynamic/smooth PDCH adaptation and /or fast preemption feature is activated

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5.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods


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General Input data for all 3 calculation methods


GPRS users (Packet Switched Service)=600 per cell
WAP users: 60 WEB users: 180 MMS users: 360

Service data size per user in busy hour (per 3600s)


WAP data size per user 12KB WEB data size per user 40KB MMS data size per user 40KB

Coding Scheme : CS-2

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5 (E)GPRS Network introduction

5.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods [cont.]


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Straight Forward calculation for GPRS Traffic Needed transfer rate per service for all users
WAP WEB MMS 12KB x 8bit/3600s x 60 users 40KB x 8bit/3600s x 180 users 40KB x 8bit/3600s x 360 users = 1.6 kbit/s = 16 kbit/s = 32 kbit/s

Total number of needed PDCH's


Sum of data rate for all services: 49.6 kbit/s Expected transfer rate per Timeslot (PDCH)= 10 kbit/s in good radio conditions

Total needed PDCH = 5 PDCH TS / cell (= 49.6 kbps / 10 kbps)


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But assumption is : all users can bare to wait for 3600 sec to finish their download

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5.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods [cont.]


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Erlang C GPRS traffic calculation QoS per service


WAP service: bit rate = 5 kbit/s for 90% Quantile and 2s queue delay WEB service: bit rate = 30 kbit/s for 90% Quantile and 2s queue delay MMS service: bit rate = 30 kbit/s for 90% Quantile and 2s queue delay

Number of needed PDCH per service


The following results calculation can be done with an Erlang C tool. The results are listed for each service
in this example here for WAP, WEB and MMS

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5 (E)GPRS Network introduction

5.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods [cont.]


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Page size (Kbytes)

Erlang C GPRS traffic calculation


WAP WEB
Volume@BH

MMS
Volume@BH

ERLANG C
Queue delay (s)

Subscribers

Quantile

4 0R L A N G 2 E C

Page size (Kbytes)

Queue delay (s)

360 1 .0 6 6 7 RO =

2 s 1 .8 7 5 0 MU =

9 0 .0 %

30

Subscribers

PDCH =

Quantile

40 1 PDCH =

180 0 .5 3 3 3 RO =

2 s 1 .8 7 5 0 MU =

9 0 .0 %

30

Total number of needed PDCH = 10 PDCH TS


Assumption: Expected rate per TS of 10 kbit/s For the WAP service 1 resource of 5 kbit/s is needed = 1 PDCH TS For the WEB service 1 resource of 30 kbit/s is needed = 3 PDCH TS For the MMS service 2 resources of 30 kbit/s is needed = 6 PDCH TS
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Bit rate

Bit rate

5 (E)GPRS Network introduction

5.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods [cont.]


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TRAFFIC TOOL version 1.0 Results of the traffic tool is:

6 PDCH TS / cell needed to cope with GPRS traffic per cell


Used settings in the traffic tool: No activation of: Combined mode, DL Delayed TBF Release and MPDCH Call Mix Reference used is: Alcatel B7 reference

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5 (E)GPRS Network introduction

5.15 GPRS traffic calculation result


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General GPRS traffic calculation result:


Needed amount of timeslots for PS traffic
makes it possible to go to the next step of GPRS network design process

The user throughput demand is then related to a daily traffic occurrence (user capacity)

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11

218

6 (E)GPRS Network design

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.1 General
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With the input from GPRS traffic calculation the GPRS Design process can start:
Basis: The knowledge of the amount of timeslots makes it possible to go to the next step of GPRS network design process The user throughput demand is then related to a daily traffic occurrence (user capacity) and in combination with the CS traffic demand, the needed equipment amount is calculated:
Number of timeslots which may be reserved for GPRS in normal and high load state of the BSC Number of timeslots which have to be reserved exclusively for GPRS Number of remaining timeslots for CS traffic => Standard BTS configuration

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.1 General [cont.]


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220

Standard BTS configuration


The result of traffic analysis gives the standard BTS configuration for the different traffic areas. The traffic areas are most commonly linked to a specific morpho class

Next steps:
1. GPRS Field strength prediction is done as for the GSM network planning

[A9155]
2. 3.

Inputs for mutual interference calculation [A9155] Inputs for a GSM/GPRS frequency planning [A9155/AFP module]

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.1 General [cont.]


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Cell specific interference calculation


It is done with the results of the GSM/GPRS frequency planning. The cell specific interference calculation will be used to identify less interfered frequencies for TRX assignment.

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.2 Frequency planning


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Mostly all GPRS networks will be INTERFERENCE limited Therefore:


Proper Frequency Re-use Introduction of Frequency hopping [FH doesn't bring better throughput in GPRS and E-GPRS while using high CS & MCS] What is the best Carrier for GPRS - BCCH or TCH? Make use of improvement strategies site design changes
e.g. antenna changes, electrical down tilt

site lowering site densification network expansion/enhancement strategies (like Dual Band)

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Interference limited = C/I limited. Needs an higher C/I to ensure better tput. Redo a frequency planning with greater constraints on C/I Best carrier = the carrier with the less interference BCCH ? Normally, yes.

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.2 Frequency planning [cont.]


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BCCH
no DTX, PC (Power Control) or FH (Frequency Hopping) C/I of minimum 11.5 dB is recommended (Alcatel values) Disadvantage: only 6 TS available for GPRS

TCH
Hopping, (PC) all 8 TS available for GPRS Disadvantage: by hopping -> Interference is RF_load dependent
the increase of RF_load implies a decrease of C/I and therefore of the throughput

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.3 Throughput
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Throughput -> directly related to link quality and level Due to this dependency, the shape of a cell is related to the throughput GPRS cells are designed in respect to the
desired data transmission (throughput) behavior of the customers in the planned area

Attention: GPRS service more sensitive against interference and level than CS service
Therefore GPRS designed cells are smaller than CS designed ones

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.4 Link budget


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In general, the link budget calculation is the same like for CS design Attention has to be paid to the hardware related values:
BTS/MS performance -> Supplier dependent

BTS output power & receiver sensitivity according to the coding scheme MS output power & receiver sensitivity according to the coding scheme

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.4 Link budget [cont.]


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Some differences compared to the well-known power budget is the handling of some losses and margins:
body loss, for PS: 2 dB, due to the fact, that for the most PS applications the MS is not close to the body , but on an other, from the propagation point of view unfavorable position (e.g. on the table) interference margin: minimum 3 dB (urban and dense urban area up to 5 dB, depending of the frequency re-use), due to the high dependency of the PS service on C/I (lognormal) fading margin can be added to increase the coverage probability from 50% up to 95%; e.g. assuming standard deviation sigma = 7 dB =>fading margin:1.65 sigma ~11 dB

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.4 Link budget [cont.]


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Circuit switched mode TX Uplink 33.00 dBm 0.00 dB 33.00 dBm 0.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.00 dBi 30.00 dBm Uplink -111.00 dBm 0.00 dB 3.00 dB 18.00 dBi 3.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.0 dB -126.00 dBm Uplink 156 dB Downlink 45.44 dBm 5.01 dB 40.39 dBm 3.00 dB 0.0 dB 18.00 dBi 55.43 dBm Downlink -102.00 dBm 3.00 dB 0.00 dB 0.00 dBi 0.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.0 dB -96.00 dBm Downlink 151.43 dB

CS1 (TU 50) Uplink 33.00 dBm 0.00 dB 33.00 dBm 0.00 dB 2.00 dB 0.00 dBi 31.00 dBm Uplink -109.00 dBm 0.00 dB 3.00 dB 18.00 dBi 3.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.0 dB -124.00 dBm Uplink 155 dB Downlink 45.44 dBm 5.05dB 40.39 dBm 3.00 dB 0.00 dB 18.00 dBi 55.43 dBm Downlink -102.00 dBm 2.00 dB 0.00 dB 0.00 dBi 0.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.0 dB -97.00 dBm Downlink 152.43 dB

CS2 (TU 50) Uplink 33.00 dBm 0.00 dB 33.00 dBm 0.00 dB 2.00 dB 0.00 dBi 31.00 dBm Uplink -105.00 dBm 0.00 dB 3.00 dB 18.00 dBi 3.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.0 dB -120.00 dBm Downlink 45.44 dBm 5.05dB 40.39 dBm 3.00 dB 0.00 dB 18.00 dBi 55.43 dBm Downlink -98.00 dBm 2.00 dB 0.00 dB 0.00 dBi 0.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.0 dB -93.00 dBm

Internal Power: Isol.,Comb.,Filter Loss:


Output Power

Cable,Connectors Loss: Body Loss: Antenna Gain:


Eff. Isotr. Rad. Power: RX

Rec. Sensitivity: Body Loss: Cables, Connectors Loss: Antenna Gain: Diversity Gain: Interference Margin Fading Margin
Isotr. Rec. Power:

GPRS link budget example, dimensioned for the Evolium BTS (without TRE): Evolium/900, 3x4 configuration, 1 X-Pol Antenna/sector, in comparison to a CS link budget

Balance
Max. Path loss

Uplink 151 dB

Downlink 148.43 dB

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Path loss difference = 3dB standard, 5dB alcatel standard Uplink Rx sensitivity depends on CS being used. p. 92 radio network planning aspects

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.5 Interference analysis on BCCH frequencies


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Network wide C/I (BCCH)

Legend (dB) > 25 dB > 16 dB > 13 dB > 9 dB < 9 dB

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.6 Interference analysis on TCH frequencies


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Network wide C/I (worst TCH)

C/I reduction

Legend (dB) > 25 dB > 16 dB > 13 dB > 9 dB < 9 dB

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.7 TRX assignment to GPRS service


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Some general considerations apply independently from the BSS software release:
GPRS/EDGE shall be mapped on the TRX(s) with the best radio quality (lowest interference probability); this can be any TRX in the cell.
Identification of less interfered frequencies and their ranking Assigning the preference for PS traffic handling to the best ranked frequencies (e.g High Power TRX, Full rate capable TRX) with the help of the parameters: TRX_PREF_MARK; PS_PREF_BCCH_TRX, TRX Classes, Since B7 up to 16 TRX per cell are available for GPRS service. So a differentiation of GSM and GPRS TS allocation priority on the TRX must be fixed during planning. The allocation priority for GPRS shall be set according to GPRS QoS needs.

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How to map TRE with TRX ? PS capable TRXs have to be preferentially mapped (from the best choice to the worst) on: - FR, HP, EGPRS capable TREs - DR, HP, EGPRS capable TREs - FR, MP, EGPRS capable TREs - DR, MP, EGPRS capable TREs - FR, non-EGPRS capable TREs - DR, non-EGPRS capable TREs (When PS_Pref_BCCH_TRX = TRUE, the TRX supporting the BCCH is mapped on the best TRE)

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6.8 GPRS Analysis


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GPRS coverage analysis


What area is covered with what coding scheme? Area and average throughput distribution

Environment definition (Example)


TU 50 GSM 900 Band BCCH as GPRS carrier

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6.8 GPRS Analysis [cont.]


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GPRS analysis Steps:


C/I based analysis Coding scheme Throughput

Analysis in respect to:


Average throughput or/and throughout hot spots

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6.8 GPRS Analysis [cont.]


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GPRS service is C/I limited Improvements for a larger CS-4 coverage


-> reduction of the overall interference situation in the network (higher achievable throughput)

Network wide Coding Scheme Distribution (C/I based)

Legend (CS value) CS 4 CS 3 CS 2 CS 1

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.8 GPRS Analysis [cont.]


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The system keeps always the highest coding scheme (and due to this, the highest achievable throughput), until the C/I proportions lead to change to a lower coding scheme By driving through the CS4 area from the center to the border, a stepwise degradation Legend (kbit/s) of the throughput depending 19..20 kbit/s from the 16..18 kbit/s C/I ratio is visible 14..15 kbit/s
7..13 kbit/s < 7 kbit/s

Network wide GPRS Throughput (C/I based)

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.9 LA and RA planning


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Routing Area (RA) Definition


CS case with a mobile terminating call: the MS in idle mode will be paged in all cells belonging to the LA where the MS is assigned. The signalling effort for paging is thus focused to a certain area, the LA. GPRS: the SGSN pages the MS in STANDBY state, in case of a downlink TBF (comparable to a CS MT call). Paging GSM+ paging GPRS additional signalling effort will be produced in the network ETSI introduced Routing Areas (RA), which are smaller than LA. The signalling effort for paging is now more focused to a smaller area. Since not all cells of a LA are involved in the paging process, the signalling load for the cells is reduced

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]


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Routing Area (RA)


A Routing Area is a sub-set of one LA and identifies one or several cells in a location area. The location of a MS in STANDBY state is known in the SGSN on a RA level.

Each cell in a network is now (additionally to CI and LAC) characterized by:


Routing Area Code (RA_code) RA_Colour range 0255 range 07

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In SI3, if RA COLOUR = -1 : no gprs in the cell Allows the mobile to quickly check if change of RA : ra colour change (because SI3 update frequent)

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]


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Routing Area (RA) RA information is sent to MS on BCCH by


RA_Colour (SI 3 and 4) RA_Code (SI 13, less often )

RA_Colour indicates the MS:


if GPRS is supported in the cell (if -1) the fast identification of the RA membership of the serving cell and neighbour cells (what cell belongs to what RA)

As a consequence, the assignment of the cells belonging to RA has to be done carefully, to avoid additional signaling load on the cell (additional to the signaling for the CS traffic too)
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Mapping of BCCH data in 3GPP 45.002 (6.3.1.3) SI3 : twice in 1.9s SI4 : twice in 1.9s SI 13 : once in 1.9s

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]


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LA planning
in accordance to the common rules for CS planning, no extra adaptation (e.g. on the neighbour list) has to be made for PS services

RA planning
follows in general the rules of the common LA assignment, e.g. avoid roads with fast moving traffic through RA

The RA planning consists of:


assignment of each cell to a RA assignment of the RA_Code to each RA assignment of a RA_Colour to each RA

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Routing area code can be, ie, LAC+0,1,2,3... Routing area color : shouldn't be the same between two areas that are next to each other

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]


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The following rules are mandatory:


256 possible RA_Code (0..255) 8 possible RA_Colour_Code (0..7) one RA must belong to only one LA, it is not possible to define a RA across a LA border (e.g. 1 cell from LA1 and 2 cells from LA2) a RA can contain one or several cells one cell can not belong to two RA cells from one BTS can be allocated to different RA the maximum number of RA in a LA is 256 it is possible to reuse the RA_Colour in a LA two adjacent RA in a LA must have different RA_Colour

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]


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For the dimensioning of the number of RA in a LA, of the number of cells belonging to a RA and the number of RA_Codes per LA, the following steps are proposed, function of different network growths Step 1: Network with low GPRS/E-GPRS traffic
RA as big as LA =>1 RA_Code (same for each cell) per LA, 1 RA_colour (same for each cell) per LA The first introduction step is based on the assumption, that in the beginning not much PS services is expected. The expense of this implementation is low

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]


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Step 2: Network with medium GPRS/E-GPRS traffic


The LA is split into maximum 8 RA For each RA in a LA one unique RA_Code is assigned A balanced number of cells per RA needs to be acquired, however for identified hot spots an unbalanced assignment is possible (smaller RA for hot spots) This step represents a reasonable split of the LA into RA if packet data traffic rises It can also be carried out right from the start to be prepared for the traffic growth The planning effort is medium

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]


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Step 2: Network with medium GPRS/E-GPRS traffic


The LA is split into maximum 8 RA

RA 1 RA_C: 0 RA 4 RA_C: 3 RA 7 RA_C: 6

RA 2 RA_C: 1 RA 5 RA_C: 4 RA 8 RA_C: 7

RA 3 RA_C: 2 RA 6 RA_C: 5

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]


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Step 3: Network with high packet data traffic or dense network


LA = up to n RA (max 256) If the number of RA in a LA is larger than 9, the RA_Colour reuse is necessary, and a large-scale careful planning is recommended As described before, frequent RA change by cell-reselection is not desired =>thus the RA should be not to small by reusing the RA_Colour, adjacencies of RA's with the same RA_Colour have to be avoided

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]


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Step 3: Network with high packet data traffic or dense network


LA = up to n RA (max 256)
RA 1 RA_C: 0 RA 4 RA_C: 3 RA 7 RA_C: 6 RA 10 RA_C: 1 RA 2 RA_C: 1 RA 5 RA_C: 4 RA 8 RA_C: 7 RA 11 RA_C: 2 RA 3 RA_C: 2 RA 6 RA_C: 5 RA 9 RA_C: 0 RA 12 RA_C: 3

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6.10 Quality of Service


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GPRS QoS is not an isolated topic It is necessary to use GSM counters in order to complete the analysis of :
GPRS QoS the impact of GPRS on GSM QoS
Note: for more information refer to the GPRS QoS follow up expert training

GSM QoS Impact of GSM on GPRS GPRS QoS

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.10 Quality of Service [cont.]


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Use GSM indicators in order to complete the analysis of GPRS QoS Example :
high number of TBF establishment failures due to radio problems => check with GSM counters if there are interferences (quality HO, interference HO)

Use GSM counters in order to complete the analysis of the impact of GPRS traffic on GSM QoS Example :
CCCH load due to GSM and GPRS TCH Erlang TCH Congestion (call establishment and incoming HO)

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.10 Quality of Service [cont.]


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OMC-R indicator comparison


According to GSM, QoS indicators for the Air interface available for GPRS Indicators based on counters, computed by the MFS, transferred to the OMC-R
GSM Radio interface indi- Call setup cator rate Call drop rate GPRS success TBF establishment success rate TBF normal release rate Abnormal TBF release

Call success rate

Note: To obtain the QoS for GPRS, it is not sufficient to study only the GPRS indicators. There is always an influence of GSM service on GPRS service, e.g. TCH congestion in GSM could be influenced by high CS traffic or the additional high packed data traffic.

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7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS target

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7.1 General
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GSM QoS and Interference problems if existing shall be fixed, e.g. by


Introduction of Frequency Hopping GSM Power Control (UL)

If the GPRS QoS is still not reached, then


New GPRS features as mentioned in next slides shall be introduced

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7.1 Optimization campaign on parameters


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If still the GPRS QoS requirement is not fulfilled, then an optimization campaign on parameters has to be started
Use of unique values of (GPRS) parameter settings has to be checked Use of latest Alcatel default parameters Optimize parameters for the different GPRS features, if implemented in the network

TMA (Tower Mounted Amplifier) from hardware point of view can be considered to increase UL throughput, see also GPRS power control topic

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7.2 MPDCH
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MPDCH and SPDCH Planning


The enabling of MPDCH and the decision to allocate them dynamic or static is depending on
Traffic capacity the operator has for GSM and GPRS Traffic capacity the operator can reserve directly to GPRS Amount of traffic for GSM (Voice, SMS signaling, Location Area Update signaling) and GPRS (data, signaling, Routing Area Update signaling) Subscriber distribution per service and area Mobility (cell reselection) of users during GPRS transfer

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7.2 MPDCH [cont.]


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Planning Recommendation on MPDCH


Till the penetration rate of GPRS MS, which support master channel feature, is unclear the MPDCH should be not enabled
So it is guaranteed that all GPRS mobiles in the network can access for GPRS service. MS, which do not support MPDCH, cannot access the GPRS service if MPDCH is enabled. Note: MPDCH can be enabled in network mode of operation: NMO I and NMO III.
L o w p r io r ity fo r G P R S o r lo w G P R S tra ffic ? YES NO

NO M PDCH

S ta tic M P D C H
(D y n a m ic M P D C H )

G P R S s ig n a lin g c o n g e stio n YES NO

E n a b le s e c o n d a ry M P D C H s d e p e n d in g o n G P R S s ig n a lin g n e e d

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7.2 MPDCH [cont.]


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Traffic dependent recommendation (with respect to condition for MPDCH):


Low GPRS traffic
If GPRS traffic is low no Primary Master Channel needs to be activated

High GPRS traffic


Static Primary Master channel
If the available TS are not scarce Operator wants the GPRS MS to perform autonomous cell re-selection based on C31 and C32 criterion

Dynamic Primary Master Channel


If the CS signaling channels CCCH getting overloaded due to high GPRS traffic and signaling in addition to CS signaling

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7.3 Enhanced PDCH Adaptation & Fast pre-emption


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Feature Smooth/Enhanced PDCH Adaptation is recommended to be enabled, leads to higher GPRS QoS [B7] There are no parameter to control this feature in B9. Soft Pre-emption
T1 reallocation of TBF's whose PACCH is supported by a preempted time slot T1 reallocation of TBF's whose MEGCH link becomes too small (basic nibbles are allocated to the CS calls)

Fast pre-emption
After T_PDCH_Pre-emption = 4s
Soft pre-empted PDCH's are released Other "locked" PDCH's are released

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Locked PDCH = PDCH's that are required by the BSC to the MFS for CS calls

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7.4 User multiplexing


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The strategy of the TBF resource sharing is to use the PDCH resources in a most effective way, that means not to waste a PDCH just with one user and therefore to limit the available PS capacity. On the other hand, the more users (different TBFs) share a PDCH, the less effective the data flow and the longer the download or upload time is Trade-off between radio resource capacity sharing and optimum data throughput
Since GSM speech service users are still to be preferred, it is recommended to set N_MAX_UL/DL_TBF_PDCH 1 (e.g.=2)
E.g. if N_MAX_DL_TBF_PDCH and CS-2 is used, the DL bit rate per MS will be 6.0 kbit/s (=12/2) per used timeslot for this MS

If operators goal is to maximize the PS throughput then N_MAX_UL/DL_TBF_PDCH = 1 (default value) is recommended

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7.5 PDCH Resource Multiplexing


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Multislot access is the allocation of more than one PDCH to one MS (multislot access). However to prevent one multislot MS to use too many PDCHs each time it wants to transmit data (detriment of other users), following parameter is used:
MAX_PDCH_PER_TBF : Maximum number of PDCHs, which can be allocated to a single TBF (or MS)
Range: [1..5], default value: 5 (todays MS capabilities)

Radio Network Planning Impacts


A few multi slot mobiles can occupy all resources with the default value of MAX_PDCH_PER_TBF. Thus the parameter has to be set, depending from the expected load and in combination with N_TBF_PER_S/MPDCH to reflect operators strategy on GPRS QoS.

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7.6 Radio (TBF) Resource Reallocation


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With the feature TBF reallocation, the radio resources allocated to a TBF can be changed during TBF lifetime, which increases successful and efficient TS allocation (according to multislot capability) during ongoing data transfer for PS case. Radio Network Planning Impacts
EN_RES_REALLOCATION is enabling / disabling the Radio Resource reallocation feature per trigger and per BSS All event triggers for TBF resource reallocation shall be considered:
Trigger Trigger Trigger Trigger T1 T2 T3 T4 (new in B8 for EGPRS purposes)

!!! B9 : this feature is always activated !!! Not changeable !


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Trigger T1 (target maintain a TBF alive when its PACCH is fast preempted): Reallocate all impacted TBFs using the pre-empted PDCHs instead of releasing them using the Packet TBF Release procedure Trigger T2 (target attempt offering more PDCHs to an MS upon concurrent TBF establishment): get rid of the concurrence constraints imposed by the multislot class of the MS and an existing TBF to offer the best throughput, the initial TBF can be moved to other PDCHs Trigger T3 (target periodically attempt offering more PDCHs to an MS which has a TBF in the direction of the bias with less PDCHs than it can support according to its multislot class): take benefit of PDCH resource usage variations in a cell to reallocate the resources granted to a Mobile Station, in case those resources were not using the full multislot class capabilities of the MS to offer the best throughput in the direction of the bias and even adapt to bias changes in the course of a packet transfer Parameters for trigger T3 : - T_CANDIDATE_TBF_REALLOC: Timer value controlling the time duration between successive resource reallocation attempts for candidate MSs with the trigger T3

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7.6 Radio (TBF) Resource Reallocation [cont.]


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Advantages
The advantage of the feature TBF resource reallocation is to serve a better PDCH allocation to a TBF (throughput can be optimized), according to the available radio, transmission, DSP and CPU resources, during establishment and lifetime of TBF

Drawback
The allocation process is based on the number of PDCHs that the TBF can be mapped on a new resource and not on the throughput the TBF will get on these PDCHs Consequence: in certain cases, available PDCHs will not be used for TBF reallocation, whilst using them would have improved the TBF throughput

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7.7 Coding Scheme Adaptation


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Different quality threshold are introduced since B7 to optimize coding scheme adaptation algorithm Radio Network Planning Impacts
Recommendation: Enable Coding scheme adaptation mechanism in GPRS RLC acknowledged, un-acknowledged mode with parameters EN_CS_ADAPTATION_ACK/EN_CS_ADAPTATION_NACK Default parameter setting = enable.

If the network interference is low it allows to start CS-2 usage at the beginning of a TBF:
TBF_UL/DL_INIT_CS = CS-2 (default setting = CS-2) TBF_UL/DL_INIT_MCS = MCS-6 (default setting = MCS-3)

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7.8 Cell Reselection


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Network control order (NC) parameter defines cell reselection mode, GMM state and the presence of PBCCH in the serving cell.
Network Control Order parameter MS GMM State Standby NC0 Ready NC1 Standby NC2 Ready (or RMM Mode = PTM) MS autonomous cell reselection (NC0 mode) C1, C31, C32 C1, C2 Mode of cell reselection MS autonomous cell reselection (NC0 mode) Presence of the PBCCH C1, C31, C32 Absence of the PBCCH C1, C2

Not supported in B8 MS autonomous cell reselection (NC0 mode) Network controlled reselection (NC2 mode) C1, C2 C1, C2

Independent from the presence of the MPDCH:


GPRS cell adjacencies are same in packet idle mode as in packet transfer mode GPRS cell adjacencies are set equal to the GSM cell adjacencies (i.e. the BA(GPRS) list = BA(BCCH) list )
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7.8 Cell Reselection [cont.]


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Radio Network Planning Impacts


Possible to reselect a cell without GPRS service (if in the target cell GPRS is disabled) Recommendation : enable the GPRS service on all cells in order to prevent a MS to reselect a cell without GPRS support

"NC0" Cell reselection criterion for PBCCH established or not


MS triggers GPRS reselection according to GSM reselection criteria (C1, C2) Radio Network Planning Impacts
Generally optimized GSM/CS parameters for cell reselection shall be kept also for PS cell reselection Default values for the parameters are kept

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7.8 GPRS Power Control


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Compatibility of GSM and GPRS UL Power control


For GPRS rollouts it is recommended to disable the GPRS UL PC by setting: =0 and TNX=0 The reasons why GPRS UL PC shall be disabled:
MS controlled open loop PC is not working reliably (MS software implementation) Field tests show a better throughput performance since the acknowledge message is sent in UL with full power Remark: It is possible to deactivate GPRS UL power control (GCH=0 and a=0) and to let GSM UL power control activated (EN_MS_PC=enabled, default), different power control parameters for GSM and GPRS

Increase UL GPRS throughput


If TMA (Tower Mounted Amplifier) is used and UL GPRS PC is disabled on a site than better throughput in UL is expected

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7.8 Features on DL TBF establishment and release


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3 different features are presented which preemptively delay the TBF release to speed up the setup of subsequent TBF
Delayed DL TBF release Fast DL TBF re-establishment Non DRX Mode

Their success depends on the users download behavior e.g. how often pages are changed and the content of the downloaded http looks like. For Web browsing and WAP applications where the PS traffic is bursty, the gain of the features to delay TBF release will be very high The 3 features are complementary and can be activated independently from each other. Delays to start download of new LLC PDU depending on feature

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7.8.1 Delayed DL TBF release


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This feature should be enabled if there is no lack of resources to achieve higher user application throughput
Main beneficiaries will be the applications consecutive pings, WAP and HTTP (clustered web page). The round trip time (RTT) can be shortened by the availability of an already opened TBF. This, in turn, is affected by the TBF hold time and the time between pings So in fact less signaling is needed for e.g. download of successive WAP pages or HTTP links because there is no need to establish a new TBF during T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL time T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL should be in between of 1.5s up to 2s depending on available resources in the cell. The higher the TS capacity in a cell is the higher the value of T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL can be tuned
T_NETWORK_RESPONSE_TIME T3192

DRX_TIMER_MAX

DL TBF
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Non-DRX mode

DL TBF establishment via PCH or PPCH of MS paging group

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p.82 During the delayed release of the DL TBF, the BSS periodically sends to the MS a DL RLC data block (with a polling request) containing a Dummy UI Command which is a LLC PDU whose checksum is deliberately wrong. This LLC PDU is hence discarded by the LLC layer of the MS. Sending periodically Dummy UI Commands enables the mobile station to request an UL TBF establishment in a PACKET DL Ack/Nack message if it has data to send, and prevents defense RLC timers from expiring in the mobile station. If new DL LLC PDUs are received for that MS, the DL LLC PDUs can be sent immediately on the DL TBF. If the BSS does not receive any DL LLC PDU during the inactivity period, it releases the DL TBF through the normal TBF release procedure.

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7.8.1 Delayed DL TBF release [cont.]


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Delayed Downlink TBF release -> Total TBF release time is:
T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL = T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL_RADIO + T_Delayed_DL_TBF_Rel = T_NETWORK_RESPONSE_TIME (= 1600ms) T_NETWORK_RESPONSE_TIME.
= 800 ms + 700 ms (defaults) = 1500 ms if delayed DL TBF Release is enabled by parameter EN_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL

Advantage
no delay to start DL data transfer for new DL LLC PDUs less signaling throughput improved for reason: long RTT. RTT can be shortened by the availability of an already opened TBF. This, in turn, is affect by the TBF hold time, and the time between pings.

Drawback
waste of resources, TBF is kept open during delayed downlink time, available USF values are limited

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7.8.2 Fast Downlink TBF re-establishment process


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Fast Downlink TBF re-establishment process


After reception of the final block by the MS and after the sending of the last PACKET DL ACK/NACK message, the MS still listens on the PACCH during T3192 sec BSS re-establishes a DL TBF on the PACCH of the previous DL TBF (i.e. to send a PACKET DL ASSIGNMENT message on the PACCH) fast DL TBF re-establishment without impacting the (P)CCCH resources; i.e. a new TBF is established but with the parameters of the old TBF (TFI, TAI)

Rules
T3192 > MS-BSS roundtrip delay + RRBP maximum duration (120 ms) T3192 + T_MAX_EXTENDED_UL + round_trip_delay < 5 sec

Default Values
T3192 = 1000ms when non-DRX mode is not activated T3192 = 500ms when non-DRX mode is active
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Relative Reserved Block Period : waiting time before UL emission (=> for PACCH) is allowed (cf. USF mechanism) RRBP : +3RB, +4RB, +5RB or +6RB (approx)

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7.8.3 Non-DRX feature


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Non-DRX feature benefits


Continuous monitoring of AGCH messages by the MS The MFS establishes a DL TBF on the first available AGCH block (without MPDCH) or the first PPCH occurrence (with MPDCH) Higher downlink throughput and shorter transfer delay for cell reselection and bursty download application (HTTP, WAP).

Radio Network Planning Impacts


DRX_TIMER_MAX = 2s (Max = 4s) Non-DRX mode possible for 2 seconds If Non-DRX feature possible, influence on following parameters settings:
BS_AG_BLKS_RES, BS_PA_MFRMS, T_PDA, T_PUA, T_GPRS_assign_AGCH T_GPRS_assign_AGCH parameter can be found in the memo MND/TD/SYT/EBR/0342.2001.

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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In B7, the default value was set to 0.7 s The discontinuous (DRX) mode applies when the MS is in packet idle mode. This function allows a MS not to monitor all PCCCH blocks, but only blocks defined by its paging group. The MS applies existing GSM DRX procedures if there is no MPDCH. Remove 0.6 seconds, due to AGCH queuing time. So real time in non-DRX is 1.4s.

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8 GPRS introduction into operational GSM network

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8.1 General
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Following aspects are considered if GPRS is introduced into a mature GSM network without network design changes
Different to the approach of GPRS Greenfield planning If the operator foresees design changes due to GPRS QoS requirements than traffic analysis and GPRS network design tasks has to be done before the GPRS introduction step

Actual status of the GSM network


GSM QoS and Interference
All GSM network enhancement features and GSM network problems, mainly GSM QoS and interference, shall be fixed before GPRS is implemented

New network design/frequency planning


If a new network design and frequency planning is developed to improve GSM QoS and interference, then the implementation of this design should be done before GPRS is implemented

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8.1 General [cont.]


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yes
Tasks before GPRS Introduction

GSM QoS and Interference problems? no New Frequency plan foreseen? no Actual GSM capacity enough to cope with GSM and GPRS traffic? yes yes

GSM problem fixing

Implement Frequency Plan Increase capacity yes GSM QoS and Interference problems no Add new GPRS features if needed Optimize GPRS parameters if needed

no

GPRS Introduction

Introduction of GPRS and related features/settings. Check GPRS throughput map RA planning CAE data generation no

How to reach GPRS QoS?

GPRS QoS reached? Considerable features to reach GPRS QoS target

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8.1 General [cont.]


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Occurred traffic and handled traffic balance GPRS QoS requirements


Operator requirements define the needed GPRS capacity and GPRS QoS per user in relation to specific definitions for user and used service:
Volume @BH (Kbytes) Page size (Kbytes) Queue delay (seconds) Quantile (%) Bit rate (kbit/s)

Expected GPRS traffic


The calculation of expected GPRS traffic has to be done before Following results will be then available:
TS needed for CS traffic and signaling in DL/UL and TS needed for PS traffic and signaling in DL/UL
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8.1 General [cont.]


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Amount of TS, TRX's & frequencies needed :


If resources are enough for GSM and GPRS
TRX assignment to GPRS service and the PDCH planning can be done.

If resources are not enough for GSM and GPRS


Additional TRX & frequencies must be allocated to the sites with not enough traffic capacity. A new frequency planning should be done when a not negligible amount of new frequencies have to be added to a planning area to fulfill (GSM+GPRS) capacity requirements.

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Introduction of GPRS and related features/settings The prerequisites for a GPRS analysis are following tasks
Field strength prediction Interference analysis If new sites after GPRS analysis are required to fulfill operators GPRS requirements, a new frequency planning with a certain frequency band range planning has to be done.

Routing area, CAE data


The routing area (RA) planning is a must for GPRS introduction into GSM network, see chapter 7 for details on RA planning and CAE data generation.

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GPRS QoS increasing tasks to be done are depending on dimensions of QoS requirements. What kind of tasks and references can be done to increase GPRS QoS ? As seen earlier :
Dedicated TRX for GPRS in a cell can be done if TRX number in the cell is 2 Introduction of GPRS Master channels (MPDCH to separate GPRS and GSM signaling Open question: Penetration rate of GPRS MS which can decode MPDCH The parameters for PDCH dynamic allocation (and TBF resource management) depends on GPRS QoS requirements :
Weaker GPRS requirements value of MAX_PDCH more TS for GSM can be reserved with a low

For GSM tasks see next slides

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9 GSM Network enhancement features & GPRS

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9.1 Frequency Hopping


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The dependency between FH usage and Coding scheme distribution and the consequences on CS1-CS3 and CS 4
Generally Frequency Hopping (FH) leads to Interference averaging. Thus calls having good quality will get worse, bad calls will get better. This is valid for GSM, similar it is valid for GPRS. CS1 is used in bad conditions, thus it will be improved if FH is introduced. CS4 is used in very good conditions, which are more seldom in a hopping network. Thus CS4 will perform less good and will be used more seldom. The overall gain of CS1 - CS3 will depend on the C/I situation before and after FH. CS adaptation parameters can be tuned more optimistic in respect to throughput and Coding Scheme if FH is used:
CS_QUAL_XX_1_2_FH_Z > CS_QUAL_XX_1_2_NFH_Z

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9.1 Frequency Hopping [cont.]


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GPRS load and GPRS performance


GSM + GPRS load increases Higher probability for interference Because GPRS performance is mainly based on C/I it will reduce the performance.

Radio Network Planning Impacts


To reduce the load in the network/cell following GSM activities can be started:
Adding more resources, frequencies Make smaller cell sizes (e.g. achieved by stronger tilt) Do proper cell planning

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9.2 -cell
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The main advantage of a -cell environment may be a better frequency re-use possibility, thus better C/I value and higher throughput can be expected (especially for E-GPRS with higher C/I requirements than GPRS s). Following two steps is proposed for GPRS implementation 1. Step: GPRS traffic is low => introduction of GPRS for macro and -cell together
Disadvantages in both layers :
Emergency capacity on macro cell layer reduced Higher blocking probability on -cell layer for CS traffic

Solution:
Reduction of the maximum GPRS capacity of the -cell to 30-50% by parameters setting Tuning of the GPRS user access handling (TBF and PDCH share)

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9.2 -cell [cont.]


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Step 2: Increasing GPRS traffic => network densification Measures:


Hardware : TRX upgrade, -cell and macro cell densification, site design Parameter: GPRS capacity and user access handling tuning
Basis: OMC-R Load measurements and GPRS customer behavior (location) Assumption: 80% of packet data traffic is static, 20% is dynamic (driving) The strategy is also valid for a different assumption, but this assumption is more probable.

!!! Activate Outgoing Redirection from MICRO !!! EN_OUTGOING_GPRS_REDIR(Umbrella) = Disable EN_OUTGOING_GPRS_REDIR(Micro) = Enable NC_DL_RXLEV_THR(Micro) = -47 dBm NC2_DEACTIVATION_MODE(Umbrella) = at the expiry of the GMM Ready timer
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9.3 Dual Band


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The consequence for the PDCH configuration will be explained related to Alcatels dual band approaches.
Reminder: there are no HO in GPRS for PS services supported MS classes to be checked

Two Approaches
Multiband BSS approach Multiband cell approach

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9.3 Dual Band [cont.]


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Multiband BSS approach


A dedicated BCCH for each cell/frequency band Class B and C MSs can make interband cell reselection during data transmission
if C2 parameters are used in order to give a higher priority to a given layer for circuit mode the same priority is obtained for packet mode thus GPRS can not be kept in 900 MHz layer, if GSM MS is sent to 1800 MHz layer

therefore PS functionality should be configured in both bands

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9.3 Dual Band [cont.]


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Multiband cell approach


TRXs of one band are allocated to the outer zone and the TRXs of the other band to the inner zone. The BCCH is configured to the outer zone. The principle is similar to the concentric cell ones. During PS traffic, class B and C MSs will always be served by the outer zone GPRS TRX.
if C2 parameters are used in order to give a higher priority to a given layer for circuit mode the same priority is obtained for packet mode if GSM MS is sent to inner zone in dedicated mode, the GPRS service cannot be ensured in the inner zone

PS functionality in outer zone only No use of C2 to give a higher priority to non-GPRS layer

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9.4 Concentric cell


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For the two possible cases:


Concentric cells which are disturbing other cells: the inner zone is smaller than the outer zone and keeps the disturbing carriers concentric cells which are disturbed by other cells: the inner zone and outer zone carriers have the same output powers; nevertheless, the size of the inner zone is dimensioned by proper parameter setting the same recommendation holds: the TRX for PS traffic must be configured in the outer zone of the concentric cell

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10 E-GPRS

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10 E-GPRS

10.1 E-GPRS main differences


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E-GPRS main differences


TRX output power RX sensitivity

EDGE timeslot 8PSK TX power Reference sensitivity

GSM900 GSM1800 15 W or 41.76 dBm 12 W or 40.8 dBm (tolerance 0.5 + 0.5 dB) (tolerance -0.5 + 0.5 dB) -112 dBm (static MCS-1) 108 dBm (TU50 ideal FH, MCS1) -104 dBm (static MCS-5) - 100 dBm (TU50 ideal FH, MCS5)

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10.1 E-GPRS main differences [cont.]


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60

MCS-9 MCS-8 MCS-7

50

MCS-6 MCS-5

Throughput [kbps]

MCS-4 40 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 30

20

10

-110

-105

-100

-95

-90

-85

Level [dBm]
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10 E-GPRS

10.1 E-GPRS main differences [cont.]


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60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20
C/Ico(dB)
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Throughput [kbps]

MCS-9 MCS-8 MCS-7 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1

25

30

35

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11 GPRS traffic calculation example

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11 GPRS traffic calculation example

11.1 Customer questionnaire (Example) [cont.]


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1. Total amount of GSM subscribers in the network (CS+PS subscribers)


1Mio

2. Blocking at air interface (speech)


2%

3. Speech traffic per subscriber (mErl/sub)


20 mErl/Sub rural, 25 mErl/Sub urban

4. Distribution of CS subscribers to different morpho classes


80% urban 20% rural)

5. Percentage of GPRS subscribers


7% of total GSM subscribers

6. Busy hour occurrence for speech traffic and packet data traffic:
Speech traffic busy hour: 8-11, 13-17 and 18-22 oclock Packet data service hours: Business: 8-11 and 14-17, private 14-20 oclock

7. and 8. see table


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11.1 Customer questionnaire (Example) [cont.]


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9. PS user behaviour/distribution:

daily GPRS user profile activity (days/month): business 22 days, private 30 days GPRS user profiles percentage (%), related to the total GPRS subscriber number = 7%: 2% private and 5 % business Geographical percentage distribution (%) of GPRS user profiles related to morphostructure: urban = 70% business, 50% private rural = 30% business, 50% private 10. Number of BTS in the existing network 2000 BTSs 11. Distribution of existing BTS to morphoclasses: 1200 BTSs in urban, 800 in rural 12. Number of TRX/BTS, in accordance to morphoclass: 3*2 configuration in urban, 3*1 configuration in rural
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11.2 User and area distribution determination


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According the questionnaire, the GPRS user distribution will be calculated Due to the different network capacity in urban and rural area and the different ratio of business and private users in the area, the GPRS and speech subscriber are split to urban and rural area

Packet data

GPRS share 7% total Urban area Rural area

Total GSM subscriber: 1 Mio Business Private 5% (50000 subs.) 2% (20000 subs.) 70% (35000) 50% (10000) 30% (15000) 50% (10000)

Speech

Total CS subscriber: 1 Mio Urban area 80% (800000 subs.) Rural area 20% (200000 subs)

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11.3 Traffic demand for CS traffic


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The traffic demand for CS subscribers


2% blocking during the busy hour Urban area 25 mErlang/Subs. Rural area 20 mErlang/Subs.

Traffic [Erlang]

Total CS subscriber: 1 Mio Urban area Rural area 20000 4000

Assumption: Homogeneous traffic distribution in each morpho class

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11.4 Traffic demand for packet traffic


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The traffic demand for PS is calculated in two steps:


First step: throughput demand per user profile calculation (due to the different user behaviours) Second step: Relation of throughput demand to the total subscriber amount in urban and rural area Assumptions:
packet data traffic per month is user profile depending (e.g. not during the whole month, like speech traffic) PS traffic is not to be spread over the whole day, there are now service hours/day, depending on the user profile Packet data traffic occurs only during the service hours. Packet data traffic is homogeneously distributed over the service hours, During service hours, the user is continuously active (worst case calculation)

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11.4 Traffic demand for packet traffic [cont.]


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What is the busy hour?


1. CS traffic is maximum 2. PS traffic is also maximum in that period

Exception:
CS and PS busy hour not overlapping -> separate dimensioning

Reserve still sufficient capacity for CS during PS busy hour! Use user profile with highest throughput demand

PS user profile service hours not overlapping

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11.4 Traffic demand for packet traffic [cont.]


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In our example, the service hours for PS traffic are in total 6 hours, but from 14 to17 oclock business and private subscriber will make data traffic at the same time Thus the busy hours for data traffic are these 3 hours It is also visible, that during that time, also for speech traffic a busy time occurs Busy hour: GPRS traffic dimensioning will be 14 to17
Speech Packet
Business Private 8 11 1314 17 20 22

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11.4 Traffic demand for packet traffic [cont.]


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Packet data throughput demand (user profile):


Traffic/month [Mbyte] Traffic/month [kbit] traffic volume demand /day [kbit] throughput demand /service hours [kbit/s] throughput demand /busy hours [kbit/s] Business 8.124 68149.05= 8.124*1024*1024*8/1000 3097.68 =68149.05/22 days 0.14 =3097.68/(6 hrs*3600) 0.14 during 3 busy hours Private 2.380 =19964.88 665.49 for 30 days 0.03 6 serv. hours 0.03 during 3 busy hrs

Packet data throughput demand (total network):


throughput demand /busy hours [kbit/s] Total: Urban area Business Private 4900 300 5200 Rural area Business Private 2100 300 2400

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11.5 Network capacity calculation


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For CS traffic:
Total BTS BTS Configuration Capacity/Erlang 2% Blocking CS traffic demand Urban area 1200 3x2 29520 =1200*3*8.2 20000 2000 Rural area 800 3x1 6960 =800*3*2.9 4000

The actual network capacity is sufficient to handle the CS traffic during the busy hour by assuming a maximal blocking probability of 2%

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11.5 Network capacity calculation [cont.]


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Network throughput capacity for PS traffic:


The network throughput capacity for PS traffic is based on the cell throughput capacity For this dimensioning example it is appropriate to consider the result of the cell ranges dimensioning example According to it, 59% of the cell area is operated in CS-2 and 41% in CS-1 mode The cell throughput capacity can be estimated with a data rate of (0.41*8+0.59*12) kbit/s = 10.36 kbit/s per timeslot

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11.5 Network capacity calculation [cont.]


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The network capacity is depending from the allocated TS for PDCH use:
parameter MAX_PDCH in cell's CS normal load situation parameter MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD in cell's CS high load parameter MIN_PDCH (optional)

Example:
MAX_PDCH is set to 8 TS for the 3x2 BTS configuration (2nd TRX allocated for GPRS), MAX_PDCH for the 3x1 BTS, only 7 TS can be allocated for packet data (TS 0 is reserved for BCCH) MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD =1 (Under CS high load conditions, only one TS will be present for packet data usage)

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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11.5 Network capacity calculation [cont.]


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Total BTS BTS Configuration Total Available TS, BCCH not incl. Available TS, BCCH not incl. MAX_PDCH_GROUP = 8 TS Available TS if BSC in HIGH_LOAD MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD = 1 TS Capacity [kbit/s] (10.36 kbit/s /TS) Capacity [kbit/s] if BSC in HIGH_LOAD (10.36 kbit/s /TS) Urban area 1200 3x2 54000 =(7+8)*3*1200 28800 =8*3*1200 3600 =28800/8 298368 =28800*10.36 37296 =3600*10.36

2000 Rural area 800 3x1 16800 =7*3*300 16800 =7*3*800 2400 =16800/7 174048 24864

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11.6 Traffic dimensioning


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Allocating TS to GPRS traffic reduces the capacity within the circuit switched design For the busy hour, the BSC is in high load situation, i.e the maximum of PDCHs is equal to MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD (resource control) The following table gives the CS capacities based on a blocking probability of 2% (in Erlang), according to the amount of allocated timeslots for GPRS in BSC high load situation
Amount of TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4 TRX 5 TRX 6 TRX Amount SDCCH 1 2 3 4 4 5 Amount TCH +PDCH 7 14 21 28 36 43
0 1 2 Amount PDCH 3 4 5 6 7

2.93 8.2 14.03 20.15 27.34 33.75

2.27 7.4 13.18 19.26 26.43 32.83

1.65 6.61 12.33 18.38 25.52 31.91

1.09 5.84 11.49 17.50 24.62 30.99

0.6 5.08 10.65 16.63 23.72 30.08

0.2 4.34 9.82 15.76 22.82 29.16

0.02 3.62 9.01 14.89 21.93 28.25

0 2.93 8.2 14.03 21.03 27.34

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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11.6 Traffic dimensioning [cont.]


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MAX_PDCH_Group = 8 or 7 MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD = 1 Network capacity for CS and PS traffic (1 TS for PS):


Total BTS =2000 Urban area Rural area 1200 800 3x2 3x1 29520 6960 26640 5448 =1200*3*7.4 =800*3*2.27 20000 4000 298368 174048 37296 24864 5200 2400

Speech

number of BTS Configuration Capacity/Erlang @2 % Blocking Capacity/Erlang @2% Blocking and 1 PDCH CS traffic demand [Erl] Capacity [kbit/s] (10.36 kbit/s /TS) Capacity [kbit/s] if BSC in HIGH_LOAD (10.36 kbit/s /TS) PD busy hour throughput demand [kbit/s]

Packet data

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11.6 Traffic dimensioning [cont.]


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Conclusions:
Network is able to serve CS traffic. One TS is necessary to handle PS traffic. One TS is sufficient for PS traffic during the busy hour. No CS service degradation during busy hour.
The reservation of 1 TS for PS traffic represents no service degradation for CS traffic, since the remaining network capacity is still sufficient to handle the CS traffic. To guarantee a permanent PS service independent form the load situation, the parameter Min_PDCH_GROUP was set to 1 (I.e. 1 TS/ cell is permanently reserved for PS service and not available for CS traffic), however Min_PDCH_GROUP = 0 is recommended (load reduction on Atermux interface)

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11.6 Traffic dimensioning [cont.]


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Further iterations would be necessary (increase of MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD) if the PS traffic demand could not be handled with MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD = 1 timeslot Further, if the CS traffic demand could not be handled with the remaining timeslots some measures are necessary e.g.:
add a TRX to the considered serving cell shrink the cell size of the serving cell (e.g. introduce downtilt) and increase the cell size of a neighbouring cell which offers sufficient capacity to handle the traffic demand surplus of the serving cell reduce interference (network changes) to get higher average throughput

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11.6 Traffic dimensioning [cont.]


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In the Alcatel GPRS implementation step 1, the number of TRX's which can be allocated to GPRS is maximum NTRXGPRS =1. In our worst case consideration, this TRX comes to its limit when the packet throughput demand is higher than the throughput capacity and cannot be satisfied even if the number of allocated TS for PS reaches Max_PDCH_Group

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Abbreviations and Acronyms


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ALMAP: ALcatel MAnagement Platform PCO: Protocol APN: Access Point Name PCU: Packet Control Unit AS: Alpha Server (Compaq) PDCH: Packet Data CHannel BG: Border Gateway PDN: Packet Data Network BSC: Base Station Controller PDP: Packet Data Protocol (IP or X25) BSS: Base Station Subsystem PDU: Protocol Data Unit BSCGP: BSC-GPRS Protocol PPCH: Packet- Paging CHannel BSSGP: BSS-GPRS Protocol PRACH: Packet- Random Access CHannel BVCI: BSSGP Virtual Connection Identifier PS: Packet Switching CCBS: Customer Care and Billing Center P-TMSI: Packet- Temporary Mobile Subscriber CCU: Channel Codec Unit Identity CDR: Call Detail Record PVC: Permanent Virtual Circuit CG: Charging Gateway P-VLR: Packet- Visitors Location Register CS: Circuit Switching QoS: Quality of Service DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol RA: Routing Area DL: Down Link RIP : Routing Information Protocol DLCI= Data Link Connection Identifier RLC: Radio Link Control DNS: Domain Name System RADIUS: Remote Authentication Dial In Use EDGE: Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution Service FUMO : Frame Unit Module RRDTUF : Roaming Restriction Data Towards FR: Frame Relay Unknown Foreign PLMN GPRS: General Packet Radio Service RRM: Radio Resource Management GGSN: Gateway GSN RSZ : Regional Subscription Zone GMM: GPRS Mobility Management SGSN: Serving GSN GR: GPRS Register SM: Session Management | Short Message GSL: GPRS Signaling Link SMS: Short Message Service GSM: Global System for Mobile communication SMS-C: SMS-Center GSN: GPRS Support Node SNDCP: Sub Network-Dependent Convergence GSS: GPRS Sub-System Protocol EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007 GTP: GPRSPlanning Tunneling Protocol SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol Radio Network HLR: Home Location Register SNS: Sub-Network Service layer HSCSD: High Speed Circuit-Switching Data TBF: Temporary Block Flow IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identity TC: Trans Coder IP: Internet Protocol TCH: Traffic CHannel ISDN : Integrated Service Digital Network TCP: Transmission Control Protocol ISP: Internet Service Provider TDMA: Time-Division Multiplexing Access LAN: Local Area Network TFI: Temporary block Flow Identifier LLC: Logical Link Control TID: Tunnel IDentity MAC: Medium Access Control TLLI: Temporary Logical Link Identity MFS: Multi-Bsc Fast packet Server TMN: Telecommunication Management Protocol MNRG: Mobile Not Reachable for Gprs TS: Time Slot MS: Mobile Station UDP: User Datagram protocol MSC: Mobile Switching Center UL: Up Link MT: Mobile Terminal UMTS: Universal Mobile Transmission System NE: Network Element WAP: Wireless Application Protocol NMC: Network Management Center WAN: Wide Area Network NNM: Network Node Manager NRPA : Network Requested PDP Context Activation NSAPI: Network Service Access Point Identifier NSC: Network Service Control layer NSEI: Network Service Entity Identifier NSS: Network Sub-System NS-VC: Network Service- Virtual Circuit NTP: Network Time Protocol DB : On Demand Bandwidth OMC: Operation & Maintenance Center OS: Operation System PAGCH: Packet- Access Grant Channel PCCCH: Packet- Common Control Channel

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End of Module EVOLIUM BSS GPRS and EGPRS

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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