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2003

681.3.06
32.973.26-018.2
43

43

. .
AutoCAD: .
.: -, 2003. - 288 : .
ISBN 5-94157-210-7

AutoCAD. ,
, ,
. , . ,
. , , .
, Autodesk
. , , ,
AutoCAD .


681.3.06
32.973.26-018.2
:

.

02429 24.07.00. 28.02.03.


70x100Vi6. . . . . 23,22.
4000 . 758
"-", 198005, -, ., 29.
, Na 77.99.02.953..001537.03.02
13.03.2002 . .

""
199034, -, 9 , 12.
ISBN 5-94157-210-7

. ., 2003
, "-", 2003



AutoCAD

AutoCAD 2000
AutoCAD 2002


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7. AutoCAD DesignCenter

8.
9.
10.

11.

1. AutoCAD
2. UPRAGN :
3. AutoCAD

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
12
12
13
13
13
14

_/

1.

1.1.



1.2.


1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.
1.7.
1.8.
1.9.

1.10.
2.

2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.
2.5.
2.6.

2.7.
3.

3.1.

3.2.
3.3.
3.4.

3.5. PFACE

15
15
16
16
17
20
20
21
22
22
28
29
32
33
34
36
43

44
46
47
47
49
50
53
57

57
58
67
72
73
79


4.

V
81

4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.
4.5. 3D Orbit

4.6.
4.7.

4.8.
-

95

5.

103

5.1.
5.1.1.
5.1.2.
5.1.3.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.
5.5.
5.6.
5.7.
5.8.
5.9.

81
82
83
84
85
86
91
92

103
103
104
105
105
111
111
112
116
118
122
124

6.

6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.4.
6.5.







6.6.
6.7.

6.8.

127

128
136
139
145
146
148
152
154

_W
7. AUTOCAD DESIGNCENTER

7.1. AutoCAD DesignCenter


7.1.1.
7.1.2.
7.2.
7.3.
7.4.
7.5. Favorites
7.6.
7.7.
7.8.

159

160
162
162
165
168
168
174
176
177
178

8.

8.1. SOLVIEW/uni

8.2.
8.3. SOLPROF
8.4.

9.

9.1.
9.2.

181

182
187
191
192
199
199
204

10.

10.1.
10.2.
10.3.
10.4.
10.5.
10.6.
10.7.
10.8.
10.9.
10.10.

207

207
211
213
222
230
232
234
239
243
244

Vll_

10.11.
10.12.
10.13.

11.

11.1.
11.2.
11.3.
11.4.

AutoCAD




11.5.

247
249
251
255

256
257
259
261
263

267
269

1982 ., MicroCAD, AutoCAD


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Pro/Engineer, Inventor , , , .

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AutoCAD 2000
AutoCAD R14, AutoCAD
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MDE) .
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QDIM () .
(AutoSnap) / (AutoTrack)
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(Partial Open)
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ObjectARX API, ActiveX Automation API AutoLISP
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HTML AutoCAD.
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AutoCAD 2000

AutoCAD 2002

Windows 95, NT

Windows 98, NT

Pentium 233

Pentium 233

32

32

800x600 VGA,
256

800 600 VGA,


256

1 ()
/
5

AutoCAD 2000

AutoCAD 2002

130

130

64

64

60

50

CD-ROM

Windows

3D Open GL

Web-

Internet Explorer 3
Netscape Navigator 3

Internet Explorer 5
Netscape
Navigator 4.5


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1.
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10

2.
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3.

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4.
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( VPOINT ()),
( VPOINT ()), ( PLAN ()),
3D Orbit (3M ) ( AutoCAD 2000), ( DVIEW ()).

5.

,
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,
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6.

.
. .

11

7. AutoCAD DesignCenter

AutoCAD DesignCenter ( AutoCAD)
. . . . , . .
. .
Favorites (). .

8.

AutoCAD Solview, Soldraw
Solprof,
. SOLVIEW
(-) , SOLDRAW
(-) ,
SOLPROF (-) .
MVSETUP (), , .

9.
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,
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10.


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13

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R14, AutoCAD 2000.
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1. AutoCAD

:
1.
Windows.
2. : New | Shortcut ( | ).
3. Create Shortcut ( )
Browse ().
4. Browse () , AutoCAD, , Program Files\ AutoCAD2002,
.
5. acad.exe Open ().
6. , .

2. UPRAGN
:
1. : My Computer ( | :).
2. (:).

14_

3. : New | Folder ( | ).
4. New Folder ( ) UPRAGN
.

3. AutoCAD

1. Start Up (),
Start () Windows
Open (), Programs | Start Up ( | ).
2. Start Up () AutoCAD2002 Windows.

,
, . ,
. , . ,
( Z) .
.

1.1.
,
(. 1.1).

. 1.1.

WCS
() (. 1.2) UCS ().

16

: X , Y , Z XY ( ).
.

. 1.2.


,
X, Y Z.
.

<Enter> ,
.
AutoCAD
.
! 1.1

3.28, .41, 8. X = 3.28; Y = 6.41; Z = 8.0.


, .
@, . Z, Z
,
X Y, <Enter>. , @,8,
<Enter>,

17

1 = 6, A Y= 8, A Z = 0.
Z = 0, A Y= 0, . ., , @,,7.
1.2
0 - 2 . 3 , 4 - 2 , 8 . 6 1 = - 2 . 3 , = 4.2, A Z = 8.61.
(

@ <Enter>
, .



, . (. 1.6).

(. 1.3),
<Shift>.
Temporary tracjs point
o
im
ndpoint
Midpoint
Intersection
Apparent Intersect
Extension
enter
Quadrant
Tangent
Perpendicular
Parallel
No^e
Insert
Nearest
Mone
Qsnap Settings..

.X
.Y
"?
xz
.YZ

. 1..

, .
,
.

18

, , . X.
AutoCAD X ,
. . Y Z.
AutoCAD: .x, . Y, . z, .XY, .XZ, . YZ.
.
:' 1 . 3

V / ' - ;...''. '';:


' '^'^"'i^:, ;.

(. 1.4).

i
p ^ ,

::

. 1.4.

1-2-3-4 XY LINE ().


,
Z = 50 , :
1. Draw | Line ( | ).
2. Specify f i r s t point ( ): . <Enter>.
3. of
14 ( . 1.13 1.14)
(. 1.4).
4. of (need YZ) ( YZ)
.Y <Enter>.
5. of 12.
6. , , of (need z) ( z)
50 <Enter>.

19

specify
next point ( ),
.
7. Specify next point ( )
<Enter>, .
LINE ()
. AutoCAD of ,
.
, .
;

::

! 1.4 :' " '-;:: ''- . ;' :;!; ? .'. :': ' '".' ' ': : ::'\- '":' ' [.'
,
(. 1.5).

. 1.5.

1. Draw | Solids | Sphere ( | | ).


2. Specify center of sphere
( <,,>) . <Enter>.

<0,0,0>

3. of
1.
4. of (need YZ) ( YZ)
.Y <Enter>.
5. of
2.
6. of (need z) ( z)
. z <Enter>.
7. of
3.
8. specify radius of sphere or
[Diametr] ( [] )
( D ()) <Enter>.

20

1.2.
: D < , Z. , Z. D
XY, X -
XY, Z XY. D (<). AutoCAD .
. Drawing units ( ) (. 1.6), Format | Units ( | ),
Clockwise ( ).

\ Drawing Units

Ange
l :-: . ;:;.. v :;.::v:;:/ f'

::
1 Decm
i alDegree;li;s: l;l jjj:;
: 1 1 ;:i
io
i n '.:.:::T"''j:::.;ii!^::
'Erecisiort:.'::' "'.'>:' .:.:: v'-j \ Precs
.: J0.0000
V| : : 1
i l t;.

.||U3WHJS]JHHJJBHBBHBK >P:| \
:

:;tDrawingunitsfdr Desg
i nCenter blocks ;-' -:. -.'.f-^^~.^ :
'ji When insetting blocks into this drawing, scale them to;: : '...'' . J ".)
H| Milimeters
^ j : ". ':"'
"
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:.
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l Output :- - - - :;':::i.5.2.oo39.o:.;; ' ': ', .' . - :;; :;-
t'-r'OK-':-- j
'
' C
' ance.'l1j.
u.irection.,:!:;: f:,; .He|p/.>:
. 1.6. Drawing units


D
XY
, X
(. 1.7).
i

1 . 5

.. : ; '.' '' ' : ' . : . ' ; :,::: . . > . '

'

.'.

;:

- ; ; : / ' : : ^ ' ; ;'.':.:

80<60, 6 D = 80, = 60, Z = 6.

' -';:'.

:'::

; : ?

, -:!

21

. 1.7.


X Z ,
, , XY
X ,
XY (. 1.8).

. 1.8.

1.6

@8<,5 ,
XY 8 , ( UCS ()), 60 X
Z, 5.

22

1.3.

UCS (), X XY
XY. (<).
, : R < < / (. 1.9).
, . , . .
@.

. 1.9.

1.4.


UCS (User Coordinat System ). ,
XY .
Z , , . , ELEV (), .
,
Tools | New UCS ( | ) (. 1.10):
World ( ) ;

23

Object () ;
Face () ;
View () ;
Origin () , ,
;
Z Axis Vector (Z )
Z;
3 Point (3 ) ;
X, Y Z ;
Apply ()
.
(
Tools | Orthographic UCS ( | )).

Spelling
Quick Select...
Display Order
Inquiry

Properties
Ctrl+1
AutoCAD DesignCenter Ctrl+2
dbConnect
Ctrl+G
Load Application...
Run Script...
Macro
AutoUSP

Djsplaji Image

NamedUCS...
Orthographic UCS
Move UCS
Neja UCS
Wizards
Drafting Settings...
Tablet
CustomEe Menus...
Options...

>
>

World
Obiect
Face

Z Axis Vector
3 Point
X
Y
Z

. 1.10.

24

| 1.1.

1. Tools | New UCS | Origin ( | | ).


2. .
3. Tools |
Move UCS ( | ).
\

| 1.2. XY

1. Tools | New UCS | 3 Point ( | | 3 ).


2. .
3. X.
4. Y.
1.3.

1. Tools | Named UCS ( | ).


2. Named UCSs ( ) UCS
() (. 1.11) Unnamed ( ),
,
. <Enter>.

Set Current ().

ucs
NamedUCSijOrthographci UCSs|Setn
igs|
CurentUCS:Unnamed

Set urrent

W World
Previous

Details

OK

Cancel

Help

. 1 . 1 1 . UCS, N a m e d UCSs

25

1 1.4. WCS ()

1. Tools | Named UCS ( | ).


2. UCS () Named UCSs (
) World ( ).
3. Set Current (),
.
j 1.5.

,
, , .
1. : ucs ()
<Enter>. :
Enter an o p t i o n [New / Move / orthoGraphic / Prev / Restore /
Save / Del / Apply / ? / World] <World> ( [ /
/ / / / / / 111 ] <>),
New () ;
Move () ;
orthoGraphic

()

Prev () ;

Restore () ;

Save () ;

Del () ;
Apply () ;
? ;
world () , .
2. ,
, , , <Enter> , .
j.,.........,.....,........,.....,.,..,,..,T.........

1 . 6 .

,...,,..

.,......,.,,,..,..

, . . ..

" '

':]


XY, .
2 . 758

26

,
X . XY
XY , (, ).
1. Tools | New UCS | Object ( | | ).
2. , . X
(. 1.1).
1.1.


. X


. X

.
X X,

, X .

, X

, X

, X ,

. X


, X


, X . Y . XY XY

\ 1.7.

1. Tools | Named UCS ( | ).

27

2. UCS () Named UCSs (


) <Del>.
3. .
| 1.8.

1. Tools | Ortopgraphic UCS | Preset ( | | ).


2. UCS ()
( ) .

Ortopgraphic UCSs

3. Depth () Z
(. 1.12). XY , .
XY, YZ XZ .
4. Depth UCS ( ) Z, .

Mucs

NamedUCSsOrthogaiphoi UCSsjSetn
igsj
;wrertUCS: Unnamed
Name ~
m
glFront
fliBack
Lett

| )epth
Set Qurrent
Reset
Depth
Details...

^2

moo

Set Current j
i
1

Details

Relative to:
j ( i World

OK

Cancel

Hep
l

. 1.12. UCS, O r t h o g r a p h i c UCSs

28

I 1.9.


.
.
1. .
2. Tools | Named UCS ( | ).
3. UCS () Named UCSs (
)
Set Current ().
4. .
1.10.

1. .
2. Tools | Named UCS ( | ), UCS () Settings ().
3. Save UCS with viewport ( )
.

1.5.
(+)
, XY . AutoCAD

(+), . , , XY . AutoCAD 2002
UCS Icon ( ) (. 1.13).
1.11.

1. View | Display | UCS Icon ( | ! ).


2.
ON (.).

29

(I

[ffjUCS Icon
UCS icon style - ! ("* 2^ 1^ Cone
' ** -P Line jyidth:

Preview- - ~
2

j UCSiconsize

<

'

fr>

UCS icon color

Model space icon color:


i

| Black

Layout lab icon color:


_vj

{ Black

IlIISEZjl

Cancel

Hep
l

. 1.13. UCS Icon

, Origin ().
;,,,.,...,....................,...,,,,,.,.,.,.,,.,,...,,.

,,.,.,..,,,,.,..,,...,.,,..,,,.,...,....,,...,.......,...,...,.............,...-.....--

! 1.12,

1. View | Display | UCS Icon ( | | ).


2.
Properties ().
3. UCS Icon ( )
(. 1.13) .

1.6.

.
.
.
Intersection (), .
, , .

30

Object Snap
( ) (. 1.14), .
Object Snap

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
. 1.14. Object Snap

1. Temporary Tracking Point ( )


.
2. Snap From () ,
.
3. Snap to Endpoint ()
.
4. Snap to Midpoint () .
5. Snap to Intersection () .
6. Snap to Apparent Intersection ( ) .
7. Snap to Extension ( )
.
8. Snap to Center () , ,
.
9. Snap to Quadrant () , , .
10. Snap to Tangent () , , , .
11. Snap to Perpendicular ()
.
12. Snap to Parallel () .
13. Snap to Insert ( )
(, , ).
14. Snap to Node () -.
15. Snap to Nearest () .
16. Snap to None ()
.
17. Object Snap Settings ( )
.

31

i 1.13.

.
1. , <Shift>, .
2. (. 1.15)
.
3. ,
.
.
Temporary track, point
rom
. Poir^ Filters
>
Endpoint
Midpoint
Intersection
Apparent Intersect
Extension
Center
Quadrant
Tangent
Eerpendicular
Parajlel
Node
I r\sert
Nearest
None
Osnap Settings...

. 1.15.

. |16|
1. Tools | Drafting Settings ( | ).
2. Drafting Settings ( )
Object Snap ( )
, (. 1.16).
3. , <F3>
OSNAP ()
.
.

32

1|1 Drafting Settings


Snap and Grid I Pol* Tracking !21$0!
Object Snap Tracking On (F11)

P Object Snap fin (F31,


r Object Snap modes
' D P fndpoint

.Midpoint

" Insertion

Select All

\x " Perpendicular

Clear All

0 " Tangent
X

Nearest

Quadrant ,

H " Apparent intersection

'/

P intersection

Parallel

" Extension
,<. To hack from an Osnap point, pause over the point while in a
command. A tracking vector appears when you move the cui
cursor.
v ' To stop (racking, pause over the point again.

Opikms..,

OK

||

Cancel

Help

. 1.16. D r a f t i n g S e t t i n g s

1.7.
, .
.

. . ,
. ,
<> <Enter>, : Stretch (), Move (), Rotate (), Scale () Mirror (). ,
. ,
, . ,
.

33

| 1.15.

" I

1. , .
2. , , . . ,
.
3.
Move ().
4. ,
, ( <Shift>).

1.8.
XY
Z, . ELEV () .
:
1. Thickness () Elevation ()
Properties (), Modify | Properties
( | );
2. ELEV (),

.

, .
. , ,
:
;
;
, SOLID ().
[ 1.16.

,
, .
1. Format | Thickness ( | ).

34

2. <Enter>.
,
.

1.9.


UCS () (. 1.17)
UCS II (-2) (. 1.18).

k. fc? i

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
. 1.17. UCS

, UCS ():
1. UCS () ;
2. Display UCS Dialog ( ) UCS ();
3. UCS Previous ( ) ;
4. World UCS (MCK) ;
5. Object UCS ( ) ;
6. Face UCS ( )
;
7. View UCS ( ) XY
, . . . ;
8. Origin UCS ( )
;
9. Z Axis Vector UCS ( ZOcb) Z;
10. 3 Point UCS ( 3 )
X Y;
11. Axis Rotate UCS ( X)
X;

35

12. Y Axis Rotate UCS ( Y)


Y;
13. Z Axis Rotate UCS ( Z)
Z;
14. Applay UCS ( ) .

9
tP fcfj #World
_ fllTop
1 2 gIBotbrn

fiJLeft
g

jrj
-V
'j
|

. 1.18. UCS II

UCS II (-2)
.
:
1. Display UCS Dialog ( ) UCS ();
2. Move UCS Origin ( )
XY
Z.
3.
. , . ,
Unnamed ( ).
(. 1.2), .
1.2.

ELEV()

PLAN ()

(View 13D Views |


Plan View) ( | | )

36

1
1.2 ()

UCSMAN ()

, , , ,
,

UCS ()

(Tools |
New UCS) ( | )

UCSICON ()


(View | Display | UCS Icon) ( | | )

1.10.

:
:


;
;
:
;
.
(. 1.19).

f1

< |
^.

. 1.19.

37

1.
1. 0.00,
UNITS ().
20 20 LIMITS () 2
Drafting Settings ( ) (Tools | Drafting Settings ( | )). , GRID
() .
2. : View | Zoom | All ( | |
).
3. CONSTR Center () ,
Layer
Properties Manager ( ),
Format | Layer ( | ), ,
Current ().
4.
, 18 @,-1, LINE ().
5. ,
1, 15 018, 0.

6. OFFSET ()
10 .
7. ,
@14, .

2.
1. CHAIR Continious ()
.
2. From () Endpoint () 0.5 @2, .
3. Thickness () , 16:

Modify | Properties ( | )
Properties ();

Thickness ()
Properties () .

4. ORTHO (), , MIRROR () , Intersection ().

38

5. MIRROR ()
, (
, ORTHO () ).
6. , View |
3D Views | SW Isometric View ( | | ).

3.
1. , View | 3D Views |
Plan View | World UCS ( | | | ).
2. Elevation () 16
Thickness () 1, ELEV ().
3. , PLINE
()
Endpoint (). , Close ().
4. :

Modify | Polyline ( | );


Fit (), ;
<Enter>.
5. ,
View | 3D Views | SW Isometric ( | | ). ( ELEV ())
MOVE () @,,1.

4.
1. ,
Tools | Inquery | ID Point ( | | ) Center ().
2. : =. 00, Y=5 .00, z=o .00.
3. , Tools |
New UCS | Origin ( | | ).
4. X 90.
5. Tools | New UCS | View ( | | ).

39

6. ,
Draw | Text | Single Line Text ( | | ).
1 0
, Intersection (). : .
<Enter>.
7. , Endpoint () Tools | New UCS | Object ( | | ).
8. , , 17, Tools | New UCS | Origin ( | | ).

5.
1. Y -10,
. Tools | New UCS | Y ( | | Y), .
2. ,
View | 3D Views | Plan View |
Current UCS ( | | | ).
3. Thickness () 16, Properties () , Modify | Properties
( | ). .
4. CIRCLE () 0.5,
Center ().
HIDE ().
5. .
6. Thickness () -5 HIDE
().

7. ,
, , ARC
(). :

1 Quadrant ()
;

2 ( Intersection ());
3 .

40

8.
:
,
Tools | New UCS | World ( | | );
: View | 3D Views | SW Isometric ( |
| );
: View | Hide ( | ).
9. , View | Shade | Flat Shaded, Edges On
( | | , ).
10. , View | 3D Orbit ( |
).

6.
1. ,
View | 3D Views | SW Isometric ( | | ).
2. :
View | Zoom | Windows ( |
| );
, ,
Tools | New UCS | Object ( | | ).
3. .
4. RECTANG ()
, 16,2.5, .
5. 2 1:
, Draw | Text |
Single Line Text ( | | ).
6.
Tools | Named UCS ( | ).
7. UCS () World ( ),
Set Current ().
8. UCS () .

7.
1. ,
View | Zoom | All ( | | ),
ERASE ().

41

2.
View | 3D Views | Plan View | World UCS ( | |
| ).
3. PLINE () ,

Endpoint ().
4. :
Modify | Object | Polyline ( | | );

Fit () ;

<Enter>.
5. 1, Draw | Solids | Extrude ( | | ).
6. View | 3D Views | Bottom
( | | ).
7. 0.25 , Modify | Solid Editing | Shell ( | | ), , exit ().
8. , View | 3D Views | ( |
| ).
9. View |
3D Views | SW Isometric ( | | ).
10. MOVE () 0 0,0,16.
11. , View | Shade |
Flat Shaded, Edges On ( | | , ).
12. Stul.dwg.

, AutoCAD
: , .
(wireframe) ,
, , .
.
,
. Z ( Z ). LINE
(),
, 3 .
3DPOLY
(-), ,
.
. PEDIT ()
.

.
,
. , , ,
. , ,
. AutoCAD
. .

44

2.1.

,
PEDIT (),
.
2.1.

1. Modify | Object | Polyline ( | | ).


2. .
3. ,
<Enter>.
:

close () . , Open ();

Join () ,
;

width () ;
Edit vertex () ;

Fit () ;

Spline () ;

Decurve ( ): ,
F i t () S p l i n e ();

Ltype gen () PLINEGEN, , 1.


.
.
0.
( ) . , 1, ;

undo () .

4. , <Enter>.


j.."."..."...."V4".......",...,.,..."^^
,.,,.,,,.,.,.
! 2.2.

45
,.,
1

1. Modify | Object | Polyline ( | | ).


2. , .
3.
<Enter> .
4.
<Enter>.

| 2.3.

1. (. 2.2)
, ,
.
2. Join
() <Enter>.
3. , . <Enter>.
4. <Enter>
,
(. 2.1).

\ 2.4. Properties
;

1. .
2. Properties () , Modify | Properties ( | )
Properties () .
3. Properties () . , , Categorized ( )
Misc () Closed ()
Yes () No () (. 2.1).

46

2
Properties - Drawinql .dwq
I Polyline
Alphabetic Categorized j
Hyperlink
0
Thickness
El Geometry
1
Vertex
96.8649
Vertex X
174.7761
Vertex Y
Start segment width 0
End segment width 0
0
Global width
0
Elevation
Area
Misc

Mo
Lmetype generation Disabled

JDetefmlnes whether polyline is Open or Closed.


.Closed draws a line segment from current position
\o starting point of the polyline,

. 2 . 1 . Properties

2.2.
LINE (),
, AutoCAD 3DPOLY (-),
, . PLINE (). 3DPOLY (-) , :
;
;

.
2.5.

1. Draw | 3D Polyline ( | ).
2. - .
3. undo (),
.
, .

47

4. undo ()
. .
5. close (), .
. AutoCAD
. , , close
().
undo
().

6. <Enter> .

2.3.
PEDIT ()
, , ,
(. 2.1):
Enter
Undo]

an

option

(
] ).

[Close |

[ |

Edit

vertex |

Spline

curve |

Decurve |

<Enter>. , close ()
open (). ,
.
,
. , 3.

2.4.

, 3DFACE (-),
.

48

. :
;
Thickness ();

EXTRUDE ().

2.6.
3DFACE (-) ,
.
Z, . . invisible ()
,
.
1. Draw | Surfaces | 3DFACE ( | |
).
2. (
) (
). ,
<Enter>.
3. <Enter>
.
4. , Invisible () .
5. ,
invisible ().
.
, HIDE (), SHADE () RENDER
() (. 10).


I n v i s i b l e () 3DFACE (-)

:
EDGE () .
Draw | Surfaces | Edge ( |

49

| ). . .
,
Properties () .
SPLFRAME,
REGEN (). SPLFRAME = 1
, SPLFRAME = 0 .

2.5.


. , XY
.
, . 2.1.

( , ).
2.1.

3DPOLY (3-)

-
Continuous () (Draw |
3D Polyline ( | ))

LINE ()

,
(Draw | Line ( | ))

P E D I T ()


(Modify | Object | Polyline ( | | ))

S P L I N E ()


(Draw | Spline ( |
))

S P L I N E D I T ()


(Modify | Object | Spline ( | | ))

50

2.6.

:

:
;

;
:

VPOINT ()

. 2 . 2 .

1.
1. 0.0,
Format | Units ( | ).
2. 9 12, Format |
Drawing Limits ( | ), 1 Drafing settings ( ),
Tools | Drafting settings ( | ).
3. ,
GRID () SNAP ().
4.
View | Zoom | All ( | | ).

51

2.

1. Draw | Line ( | ) .
2. XY
: , ; 2, ; 2, 4; , 4; close ().
3. 0.5
1,3, CIRCLE ().
4. , XY
1.5 Z :
ELEV ()
, 1.5.
Draw | Line ( | ) : 0,2,1.5; 2,2,1.5; 2,4,1.5;
0 , 4 , 1 . 5 ; Close ().

0,2,1.5 X Y, . . , 1.5.
5. 0.5
1,3.

6. , 0.
7. :
VPOINT ();
Rotate ();
XY X, 50;

XY, 35.

3.
1. , X, 0.5:

Modify |
( | );


<Enter>;
;

Z @,,.5 <Enter>.

52

2. Endpoint (), .
3. VPOINT () ,
<Enter>:
0,-1,0 ;

1,, ;

1,1,1 , ;

120 X 60
XY , .

4.

1. , . 2.2, Tools | New UCS | 3 Point ( | | 3 ).
2. :
center (), Draw | Ellipse | Center ( | | );
,
. <Enter>;

Midpoint () , X;

. Y
<Enter>;

Midpoint () , Y;

. 9 , . .
3. VPOINT (), View | 3D Views | Viewpoint Presets ( | | ) , 2.

5.
1. File | Save As ( | ).
2. Save Drawing As ( ) Name
( ) ( ) Karkas.

53

3. In ( ) Save Drawing As (
) .
4. Save
Karkas.dwg.

().

2.7.

:

:
;
;

STRETCH ();

3DFACE

(-);

:
.

. 2 . 3 .

1.
1. , File | New ( | ).
2. Create New Drawing ( )
USE a Wizard ( ) Select a Wizard

54

2
( ) Quick Setup ( ), .

3. Quick Setup ( )
Decimal () .
4. 60 40 .
5. 2 2 Drafting Settings (
), Tools | Drafting Settings | Snap
and Grid ( | | ).
Grid ( .) .
6.
, View | Zoom | ( | | ).

2.
1. , Draw |
Rectangle ( | ).
2. : 0,0,20; 40,15 (
Z = 20 ).
3. 2 :

Modify | ( | );

,
;

Z 2
@,0,2.

4. , View | 3D Views |
SW Isometric View ( | | ).
5. Endpoint ().
6. :

LINE (), ( Endpoint ()) , , ;

, , 1,0, ;

, , 1,, 1,,22.

7. COPY ()
39 X: @39,0,0.
8. 15 : @,15,.

55

3.
1.

15 X :

Modify | Stretch ( | );

(8 );

2.

, Endpoint ()
;
@-15,,0 .

:
Draw | Line ( | );

Endpoint () ;

.XY;

Z, 4 5;
. YZ;

Endpoint () ;
Endpoint ()
X;
<Enter>.

3. .

4.

1. :
Draw | Surfaces | 3D Face ( | |
);

Endpoint () <Enter>.

2. , 4 . .
3. , , View | Shade | Flat Shaded, Edges On ( | | , ).
4. 3DORBIT (-), View | 3D Orbit ( | ).

56

5.
1. , , , SHADEMODE ()
View | Shade ( | ).
2. 3DORBIT (-).

6.
Wire.dwg:
1. File | Save As ( | ).
2. Save Drawing As ( )
Save ().



, .
, ,
.
. , AutoCAD , , , , .
, ,
.

3.1.
,
. . . .
PEDIT (). ,
, ,
.
:
3DMESH (-)
;
RULESURF (-) , ;
TABSURF (-) ,
,
;
3 . 758

58

REVSURF (-) , , ;
EDGE SURF (-) ,
, ( ).
3DMESH (-) N .
SURFTAB1 SURFTAB2.
SURFTAB1 , RULESURF (-) TABSURF (-). SURFTAB1 SURFTAB2
N , REVSURF (-) EDGESURF (-) .
,
. , ,
, ,
, .




Surfaces () (. 3.1),
View | Toolbars | Surfaces ( | | ).

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
. 3 . 1 . Surfaces

Surfaces ():
1. 2D Solid (2M ) ;
2. 3D Face (3M ) ;
3. Box () ;
4. Wedge () ;
5. Pyramid () ;
6. Cone () ;
7. Sphere () ;

59

8. Dome () ;
9. Dish () ;
10. Torus (Top) ;
11. Edge () ;
12. 3D Mesh (3M ) ;
13. Revolved Surface ( )
;
14. Tabulated Surface ( ) ;
15. Ruled Surface ( ) , ;
16. Edge Surface ( ) ,
.

| 3.1.
;

. ,
.
3. Draw | Surfaces | 3D Mesh ( | |
).
4. ( 2 256).
5. N ( 2 256).
6.
. (. 3.2).

. 3.2.

j
I

60


N, N . PEDIT ().
&2. ^^^

{^:^

7^-'i:%
. 1:-\:

1. Modify | Object | Polyline ( | | ).


2. .
3. :

Edit v e r t e x ()
(. 3.3).
X
:
[Next | Previous | Left | Right | Up | Down | Move | REgen |
exit]
([ | I | | | I |
| ]).

Next
() Previous (), N. Right () Left () N, up ()
Down () .
, Move (),
, . REgen ()
,
exit ();
Smoth Surfaces () .
SURFTYPE
(. 3.1).
3.1. SURFTYPE

3 x 3

61
3.1 ()

4 x 4

,
11 -

[ N)

. 3.3.


SURFU
SURFV.
SURFU, N SURFV. 6,
.
SPLFRAME .
SPLFRAME = 0,

,
;

Desmooth ( .) , ;

Mclose () (. 3.4);
Nciose () N;
undo () .
4. ,
,
<Esc> <Enter>.

62

. 3 . 4 .

. 3 . 5 .

i 3.3.

, (. 3.5). , , , ,
. , .
,
,
. ,
. ,
.
2 N,
, , ,
.

63

SURFTAB1,
N . . , N SURFTAB1,
N SURFTAB1 + 1, . .
( + 1) .
1. Draw | Surfaces | Ruled Surface ( | | ).
2. , .
, .

. , , . . , .
[

,
, . , , ,
(. 3.6).
, .
, . .
.
2 N, . ,
N. ./V SURFTAB1, . , , , , SURFTAB1.
,
, SURFTAB1.

. 3.6. SURFTAB1 = 6

64

1. Draw | Surfaces | Tabulated surface ( | |


).
2. .
3. .
\ 3.5.

(
) (. 3.7). , , ,
. N . .

. 3.7.

, , ,
. . :
SURFTAB1 , SURFTAB2 . , ,
, , SURFTAB2. ,
, , SURFTAB2.
1. Draw | Surfaces | Revolved Surface ( | | ).
2. .
3. .

65

4. .
0, 360 (
). ,
. ,
360, .
, , .
| 3.6. ,

1. Draw | Surfaces | Edge Surface ( | |


).
2. .
, N
(. 3.8).
N
SURFTAB1 SURFTAB2 .
(SURFTAB1 + 1) (SURFTAB2 + 1).

. 3.8.

1 3.7.
I

|
j

3DFACE (-). :
1. I n v i s i b l e () 3DFACE
(-).
2. EDGE ().
3. SPLFRAME.

66

SPLFRAME = 1 ,


SPLFRAME = 0. .
1. Draw | Surfaces | 3D Face ( | !
3-).
2.
<Enter> .
3. ,

<Enter>.
,
.

1.

PFACE ().

2. ( ), .
3. , <Enter>.
4. , .

PFACE ()

( . 3.9).

. 3 . 9 .

,
, , .
.
,
.

67

.
,
,
, .

3.2.

AutoCAD 3DMESH
(-).
3D Objects ( ) (. 3.10) Draw |
Surfaces | 3D Surfaces ( | | ), Surfaces
() (. 3.10).

3D Objects

. 3 . 1 0 . 3D Objects

I 3;9. ?%:;::^
1. Box () Surfaces ().
2. .
3. ( X).

68

4. ( Y).
5. ( Z).
6. , Z .
, XY (. 3.11).

X
. 3.11.

. 3.12.
| 3.10.

1. Wedge () Surfaces ().


2. .
3. X.
4. Y.
5. Z.
6. Z.
. ,
, XY (. 3.12).

69

{ 3.11.
1. Pyramid () Surfaces
().
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. Tetrahedron (), .
.
6. ()
.
7. .

. 3.13.

3,12.
1. Cone () Surfaces ().
2. .
3. .
4. ( 0).
5. .
6. ( 16).

70

. 3.14.
i 3.13.

1. Sphere () Surfaces ().


2. .
3. .
4. ( 16).
5. ( 8).

\ W

. 3.15.
3.14.

1. Dome () Surfaces ().


2. .

71

3. .
4. ( 16).
5. ( 8).

. 3.16.

3.15.
1. Dish () Surfaces ().
2. .
3. .
4. ( 16).
5. ( 8).

. 3.17.

3.16.
1. Torus (Top) Surfaces ().
2. .
3. .

72

4. ( 16).
5. ( ).

. 3.18.

| 3.17.
1. Draw | Surfaces | 3D Surfaces ( | |
).
2. Mesh
( ).

()

3D Objects

3. .
4. N.

3.3.

, Surfaces (),
. <Enter>. . 3.2
.
3.2.

3D ()

,
(Draw | Surfaces I
3D Surfaces ( | | ))

73
3.2 ()

3DFACE (3-)


, (Draw I Surfaces I 3D Face ( | | ))

3DMESH (3-)


, N (Draw | Surfaces I 3D Mesh ( |
| ))

EDGE ()

(Draw |
Surfaces | Edge ( | | ))

EDGESURF (-)

( )
(Draw | Surfaces | Edge Surface ( | | ))

PFACE (-)

REVSURF (-)



(Draw I Surfaces I Revolved Surface ( | | ))

RULESURF (-)

, (Draw | Surfaces | Ruled Surface


( | | ))

TABSURF(-)

,
,
(Draw |
Surfaces | Tabulated Surface ( I | ))

3.4.

:
:
;
;
;
;

74

:
.
(. 3.19).

. 3 . 1 9 . ,

1.
1. , 0.0. 420 297 10. .
2. : View | Zoom | All ( | |
).

(~

~^)

3. STEP, Contintous () .
4. , 160,160.
5. 5, Properties
() Modify |
Properties ( | ), Thickness
().

75

6. ELEV () Elevation (),


5.
7. 5,5
155,155.

8. Thickness () = 5.
9. Elevation () = 10.
10.

150,150.

11. Thickness () = 5.
12. View |
3D Views | SW Isometric ( | | ).

2.
1. View |
3D Views | Plan View | World UCS ( | | | ).
2. STEP.
3. FOUND Contintous () .
4. Elevation (), 90,
ELEV ().

5. , 150,150.
6. Thickness () = 5.

3.
1. FOUND.
2. ROOF Contintous () .
3. Elevation () = 95, ELEV () .
4. , Draw |
Line ( | ), : , ;
160,0;160,160; 0,160; Close ().

5. 95
Z, Tools | New UCS | Origin ( |
| ) , , 95.
6. X 90.

76

7. , UCS
(), Tools | Named UCS ( | ).
8. 3 Draw | Arc | 3 Points ( | |
3 ): ,; 80,15; 160,0. Z .
9. (
0,0,-160), Tools | New UCS | Origin ( |
| ), .
10. .
11. -90 Y, BY
8 .
12. BY Z 160 ,
8 .
13. , :
Tools | Named UCS ( | ),
UCS () World ();
View | 3D Views | SW Isometric ( | |
).
14. 4 ,
, , BY, Draw |
Surfaces | Ruled Surface ( | | ).
15. , ,
( ) Draw | Surfaces |
Edge Surface ( | | ).

4.
1. ,
.
2. 80,80,110,
Tools | New UCS | Origin ( | | ).
3. 20 45 Draw | Surfaces | 3D Surface | Cone ( |
| | ).
4.
90 , , 2 0 Draw |

77

Surfaces | 3D Surface | Dome ( | | |


).
5. 20 , 0,0,75,
Draw | Surfaces | 3D Surface | Sphere ( | | | ).
6. 10 ,,8 (Draw | Surfaces | 3D Surface | Cone (
| | )).
7. , View |
3D Views | SW Isometric ( | | ).

5.

1.
View | 3D Views | Plan View | World UCS ( | | | ).
2. ROOF.
3. CONSTR Continious
() , .
4. STEP,
( ).
5. Elevation () = 15 ELEV ().
6. 0,20 160,20,
6 .
7. 20, 20,160, , .
.

6.
1. COLON Continious () .
2. , Draw | Line ( |
) : 20,20,15 20, 20, 90.
3.
:
20,20,15 Tools |
New UCS | Origin ( | | );

78_

X 90, Tools | New UCS |


X ( | | X);
STOLB,
Named UCS ( | );

Tools |

View |
Display | UCS Icon | Origin ( | | |
).
4. , Draw | Polyline
( | ) : 5,5 5,75.
5.
, Draw | Surfaces | Revolved Surface ( |
| ).
6.
View | 3D Views | Plan View | World ( | | | ).
7. COPY ()
, Intersection ().

7.
1. , CONSTR, .
2.
, :
Tools | New UCS | World ( | | );
View | 3D Views | SW Isometric ( | |
);
View | Hide ( | ).
3. , View | Shade |
Flat Shaded, Edges On ( | | , ).
4. , View |
3D Orbit ( | ).

8.
1. File | Save As ( | ).
2. Save Drawing As ( ) Name
( ) ( ) Besedka.
3. In ( ) .
4. Save
Besedka.dwg.

().

79

3.5.
PFACE
(. 3.20).

--\
J

X
.

/\

'

_--^

. 3.20.

1.
1. 0.0 (Format | Units ( | )).
2. 0,0 60,100 Format | Drawing Limits ( | ).
3. 2 x 2 , Tools | Drafting
Settings | Grid and Snap ( j | ).
4. ,
GRID ().
5. , View | Zoom | All
( | | ).

2.
1. , 30.
2. 70 Z,
COPY ().

3.
1.
( 1-6, 7-12).

80

2. PFACE () .
3. ,
.
4. , ( ). 7 . <Enter> 8- .

4.
1. , View | Hide ( | ).
2. View |
Shade | Flat Shaded, Edges On ( | | , ).
3. 3DORBIT (-).

5.
1.
Properties () .
2. ,
.

6.
1. Pface.dwg, File | Save As
( | ).
2. Save Drawing As ( ) Name
( ) ( ) Pface
Save ().


, AutoCAD, :
1.
VPOINT(T3PEHMH).
2. ,
VPOINT ().
3. PLAN ().
4. 3D Orbit
AutoCAD 2000.

(3M ),

5. DVIEW ().
6. SHADEMODE ().
, ,
.
, , 10.

4.1.
,
VPOINT (), View () View | 3D Views ( |
) (. 4.1).
:
() , ;
Bottom () ;
Left () ;

82

Right () ;
Front () ( );
Back () ;
SW Isometric ( ) - ;
SE Isometric ( ) - ;
NE Isometric (CB ) - ;
NW Isometric ( ) - .
Redraw
Regen :
Regen All
: Zoom
>
Pan .

Aerial Ve
iw
Viewports

Named Views..,
3D Orbit
Sbade
>
Render

Display
>
: Toolbars..,

Viewpoint Presets.., :
Pa
l n Ve
iw
:>.
Top
Botom :
Left'.. ' ..'' ....:'
Right
Front :
Back
SW Isometric :
SE Isometric
NE Isometric
NW Isometric

. 4 . 1 .

(. 4.1)
(), PLAN ().

VPOINT

4.2.

VPOINT () . ,
,
( ),

83

Rotate ().
VPOINT () View | 3D Views | Viewpoint
presets ( | | )
Viewpoint presets ( ), . 4.2, DDVPOINT ().

Set Viewing Ange


ls
<? Absolute toaCS

Relative to UCS

P-

acr4
221 /

From: Xfixis:

|270

[ Plane:

[^

Set to Plan View


If

OK ll

Cancel

Help

. 4 . 2 . Viewpoint Presets

X
XY (
From: X Axis ( X)).
XY (
From: XY Plane ( XY)).

WCS () ( Absolute to WCS (
)),
UCS () ( Relative to UCS ( )), . Set to
Plan View ( ) .

4.3.
(. 4.3)
VPOINT () d i s p l a y compass and t r i p o i d

( ),
View | 3D Views | VPOINT ( | | ).

84

. 4.3.

, VPOINT () <Enter>.
, , ,
.
, .
, . , , X Y.

, . 4.2, X Y :
, X;
X;
Y;
Y.

.

4.4.
PLAN (),
View | 3D Views | Plan View ( | | ), , :
Current UCS ( )
;
TJCS ()
, ;

85

World (MCK)
.
UCSFOLLOW 1,
. UCSFOLLOW = ,
.

4.5. 3D Orbit
, 3DORBIT (-), ,

AutoCAD.
. , . 3D Orbit (3M )
View | 3D Orbit ( | ).
, (. 4.4).

<Enter> <Esc>, ,
Exit () (. 4.5).

. 4 . 4 . 3D Orbit

, , , . , ,
, , .

86


3D Orbit (3M ).

,
, , , ,
.

, .

, .
,
.

,
, , .


,
(. 4.5)
3D Orbit (3M ).
E.W!
Pan
Z.oom
./ Qrfait
Projeslion >
Shadn
i g Modes
Visual Aids
Reset Ve
iw
Preset Ve
i ws

Adjust Distance
wivel Camera
Contn
i uous Orbit
Zoom Wn
i dow
Zoom xtents
Adjust Clipping Pa
l nes
Front Clipping On
Qack Clipping On

. 4 . 5 . 3D Orbit

3D Orbit (3M ):
Exit () 3D Orbit (3M );

87

Pan () ;
Zoom () ;
Orbit () Zoom
(), Pan () Continious Orbit (
);
More ( ) ;
Projection () ;
Shading Modes () ;
Visual Aids ( ) , , ,
;
Reset View ( ) ,
3D Orbit (3M );
Preset Views ( ) ( ).
. 4.1 More ( ),
. 4.5.
4.1. More

Adjust Distance ( )

Swivel Camera ( )

Continuous Orbit (
)

Zoom Window ( )

Zoom Extents ( )

Adjust Clipping Planes (- )


,
Front Clipping On ( - ,
)

Back Clipping On ( - ,
)

88

4.1.

1. 3D Orbit ( ) More |
Continuous ( | ).
2. .
3. .
4.
.
4.2.

3D Orbit (3M ) Projection


() (. 4.6).
:
Parallel () , ,
.
Perspective () ,
. .

Shading Modes
ytsual Aids
Reset View
PreseJ Views *

Perspective

. 4 . 6 . Projection

3D Orbit
( ), ,
, .


\ 4.3.

89
|

1. 3D Orbit ( ) More |
Adjust Clipping Planes ( | ).
Adjust Clipping Planes (
) (. 4.7).
2. ,
( ):

Adjust
Front Clipping ( );

Adjust
Back Clipping ( );

Create Slice ( );

;


Front Clipping On/Off (./. );

Back Clipping On/Off (./. ).

. 4 . 7 . Adjust Clipping Planes

,
.
4 3. 758

90

! 4.4.

1. 3D Orbit (3M ) Shading


Modes ().
2.
(. 4.8):

Wireframe () .
Hidden ( ) ,
, , .
Flat Shaded () .
Gouraud Shaded ( ) .
Flat Shaded, Edges On (, )
.
Gouraud Shaded, Edges On ( , ) Gouraud Shaded ( ) Wireframe ().

Exlf
Pan
2oom
* Orbit
Projection

Shading Modes
YJsual Aids >

illilp

Wtireframe
Hidden
flat Shaded
Souraud Shaded

Reset View
Preset Views
^ Flat Shaded, Edges On
Gouraud Shaded, Edges On
. 4 . 8 . Shading M o d e s


3D Orbit (3M ).

91

4.6.
3D Orbit (3M ).
DVIEW (), . Camera () Target point ()
.
I 4.5.

1. (, SW Isometric
( )).
2. DVIEW () <Enter>.
3.
All () <Enter>
.
4. POints ()
.
5. .
6. Distance (). .
7. ,
.
8. <Enter> .

:
Camera () , ;
Target () ,
;
Twist () ;
Clip () ;
Hide () ;
Off (.) ;
Exit () .

92

4.7.


View () (. 4.9),
3D Orbit ( ) (. 4.10) Shade () (. 4.11).

View () , 3D Orbit
( ).

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
. 4.9. View

:
1. Named Views ( )
Named Views ( );

2. Top View ( ) ;
3. Bottom View ( ) ;
4. Left View ( ) ;
5. Right View ( ) ;
6. Front View ( ) ;
7. Back View ( ) ;
8. SW Isometric View ( ) -
;
9. SE Isometric View ( ) -
;
10. NE Isometric View (CB ) -
;
11. NW Isometric View ( ) -
;
12. Camera () .

93

H I
fS\|ISWsIometrci
**
1 2 3 4 5 6 7c3 9 T
Boopo
tm
Front
Back
Left
Rg
iht
SEsIometrci
NEsIometrci
N
WsIometrci
. 4 . 1 0 . 3D Orbit
3D Orbit (3M ) :
1. 3D Pan ( ) ;
2. 3D Zoom ( ) ;
3. 3D Orbit (-) -;
4. 3D Continious Orbit ( ) - ;
5. 3D Swivel ( ) ;
6. 3D Adjust Distance ( ) 3DORBIT (-)
;
7. 3D Adjust Clip Planes ( ) - Adjust Clipping Planes ( );
8. Front Clip On/Off ( /);
9. Back Clip On/Off ( /).
, .

12 3 4 5 6 7
. 4 . 1 1 . Shade

94

Shade () (. 4.11) :
1. 2D Wireframe (2M )
( );
2. 3D Wireframe (3M )
( ). ();
3. Hidden ( ) ;
, , ;
4. Flat Shaded () .
,
.
;
5. Gouraud Shaded ( ) - ; . .
;
6. Flat Shaded, Edges On ( )
"" "". ,
;
7. Gouraud Shaded, Edges On ( , )
. ,
.
,
(. 4.2).
4.2.

CAMERA
()

DDVPOINT
()

(View |
3D Views | Viewpoint Presets ( | | ))

DVIEW

3
4

()
HIDE
()

PLAN
()

(View |
3D Views | Plan View ( | | ))

95

4.2 ()

SHADEMODE
()


(View | Shade ( | ))

VPOINT
()

(View |
3D Views | VPOINT ( I 3M | ))

VPORTS
()

(View |
Viewports ( I ))

3DCLIP
(3-)

. 3D Orbit
( )

3DCORBIT

3DORBIT

10

(-)

(-)

3DDISTANCE
(3-)


3DORBIT (-)

3DORBIT
(-)


(View I 3D Orbit ( | ))

13

3D PAN
(3-)

Pan ()
3DORBIT (-)

14

3DSWIVEL
(-)

3DORBIT

3DZOOM
(3-)

Zoom () 3DORBIT

11
12

15

(-)
(-)

4.8.
-
:
:
3D Orbit ( );
;

3D Orbit ( )
Shade ();

:

;
;
.

96

(. 4.12). ,
.

. 4.12.

1.
1. 0.0.
2. 80 60 2 x 2 . .
3. View | Zoom | All
( | | ).
4. Solids ()
View | Toolbars | Solids ( | | ).

2.
1. Box () Solids ().
2. :
, , .
( X), ( Y), ( Z),
. . 60,40,40 Z, .
3. :
View | 3D Views | Viewpoint Presets ( | |
).

97

:
1. X, 300;
2. XY, 35.
4. Endpoint (), ( Intersection () ).
5. Midpoint ().
6. :
Solids () Box ().

Center () <Enter>.

Midpoint () .
:
0-20,10,20.

7. , , ERASE ().
8. ,
Modify | Solid editing | Subtract ( | | ).
9. :
, View | 3D Views |
SW Isometric ( | - | ).
View | Shade | Flat Shaded ( | | ).
10. , View | Shade |
2D Wireframe ( | | 2 ).

3.
1.
,
Tools | New UCS | 3 Points ( | | 3 ):
, , .
Endpoint () X
.

_9S

Endpoint () Y
.

2. FR, UCS (), Tools |


Named UCS ( | ).
3.
View | 3D Views | Front ( | | ).
4. Endpoint ().
5. Midpoint (), 10 -50 ( Z ,
).
6. ERASE ().
7. ,
Modify | Solid Editing | Subtract ( | | ).
8.
:
Tools | Named UCS |
World ( | | ).
View | 3D Views | SW Isometric ( | | ) .

4.
1. = 20
:

Solids () Box ()
.

Endpoint () .

: @15,15.

, 20.

2. , Modify | Solid editing | Union


( | | ).

5. -
1. 3D
( ) .

Orbit

99

2. 3D Orbit (3M ) , .
3. , 3D Orbit
( ).
4. Shade ().
5. Gourant ( ). .
6. Object properties ( )
Layers (). Layer
Properties Manager ( ).
51 .
.
7. , 3D Orbit (3M ).
8. View | 3D Views | SW
Isometric ( | | ).
9. :
3D Continious Orbit ( ) 3D Orbit ( ).
, . : .
3D Orbit ( ).
10. View | 3D Views | SW
Isometric ( | | ).

6.
1. 3D Orbit ( ) 3D Adjust
Clip Planes ( ). Adjust
Clipping Planes ( ) (. 4.7).
2. :
( ) Adjust Front Clipping ( ).

( ) Front
Clipping On/Off ( /).

.
3. :

( )
Adjust Bask Clipping ( ).

100

( ) Bask
Clipping On/Off ( /).

,
.

4. Create Slice ( ) ( ). , .
5. 3D Orbit (3M ) 3D Orbit
( ).
6. .
7. .
Y.
8. 3D Orbit (3M ),
Exit ().
9. ,
View | 3D Views | SW Isometric ( | | ).

7.

3D Orbit ( ) , , UCS ().
,
:
1. 3D Orbit ( ) 3D Orbit ( ).
2. Visual Aids ( ),
Compass ().
3. .
4. . Visual Aids (
), Grid ().
5. .
6. SW Isometric ( ),
3D Orbit ( ).
7. Projection (),
Perspective ().
8. .
9. :

101

SW Isometric ( ).
3D Orbit (3M ).

8.
, 4
.
1. , Options () Tool | Options
Options ()
System ().
2. Current 3D Graphics Display ( -)
Properties ().
3. Materials () Enable Materials
( ). Apply&Close (), .
4. , , Render ().
Render ().
5. Materials ().
6. Materials () Materials
Library ( ).
.
7. AQUA GLAZE, Import () . .
8. Materials ():
Attach () ;

.
.

9. 4 , View | View port | 4 View ports


( | | 4 ).
10. . Shade
() 3D Wireframe (3M ).
11. .
12. Shade () Flat
Shaded ().

102

13.
Gourand Shaded, Edges On ( , ).
14. .
15. Render (), Render
().
16. View | Regen ( | ) REGEN ().


,
, . ,
. ,
,
. AutoCAD

.
.

5.1.

.
. , .

5.1.1.

ISOLINES (0-2047). ISOLINES = 4.


:
1. ISOLINES ,
<Enter>.
2. Tools | Options ( | ) Options ().

104

Display () Display Resolution ( ) Contour lines per


surface ( ). Apply (), .
(. 5.1) , ,
View | Regen ( | ). , HIDE ().

. 5 . 1 . ISOLINES = 4 16

5.1.2.

HIDE (), SHADE () RENDER ()
FACETRES, 0.01 10.0 (
0.5),
. . 5.2
.
:
1.
.

mm
-
^.

TV
/ (\

,i^iil

X
. 5 . 2 . HIDE FACETRES = 0.01 10

105

2. Tools | Options ( | ) Options ().


Display () Display Resolution ( ) Rendered object
smoothness ( ). Apply
(), .

5.1.3.

DISPSILH, 0 1 ( 0), , (. 5.3),
, 1.

. 5 . 3 . HIDE DISPSILH = 0 1

:
1. DISPSILH ,
<Enter>.

2. Tools | Options ( | ) Options (). Display () Display performance ( )


Show silhouettes in wireframe ( ). Apply (), .

5.2.
, . , ,
. ,

106

AutoCAD . , , .
| 5.1.
1. (. 5.4) Draw | Solids | Box ( | |
) .
2.
, <Enter>
.
3. XY.
4. , <Enter>.

('. Ray'.. : . : , .:: :.


:ConstructlonUne
: 'Multilinei: .
Polyline:
3D: Polyline
Poy
lgon "['
(Rectangle
Circle

Spline
.
!:? Efitpse i ":-'> '
j Bo
l ck
>
;
/:Poi
nt
/
Hatch.. :;
1
: Boundary..,
Rego
in
:Text

Surfaces

B2BHHH9

Box
Sphere

::

cone ;':';.
Wedge: i v
Torus::
Extrude w ,:'
Revolve :
Slice
Section \
Interference
Setup ..

. 5.4. Solids

XY (. 5.5). () CEnter (),


.

107

>

. 5.5.

1. (. 5.4) Draw | Solids | Cone ( | | ) .


2.
. E l l i p t i c a l ().
3. ( )
.
4. Apex (),

, XY.
,
(. 5.6). CONE () .
(. 5.7) EXTRUDE ().
! 5.3.

1. (. 5.4) Draw | Solids | Extrude ( |


| ) .
2. , .
3. ( ) <Enter>. .

108

4. ( ). .

. 5.6. , , XY

. 5.7. ,
.
5.4.

1. (. 5.4) Draw | Solids | Cylinder ( |


| ) .
2. E l l i p t i c a l ()
.
3. ( )
.
4. Center of o t h e r end (
), , XY.

109

, (. 5.8).

. 5.8. , XY

pfijri 5.5.
1. (. 5.4) Draw | Solids | Sphere ( |
| ) .
2. .
3. .
XY, Z .
[ 5-6;

(. 5.9). XY
.
1. (. 5.4) Draw | Solids | Torus ( ]
| ) .
2. .
3. .
4. .
,
. ,
-2.0 , 2.0.
, .

110

. 5 . 9 . ,

5.7.

1. (. 5.4) Draw | Solids | Wedge ( |


| ) .
2.
XY,
<Enter> .
3. XY.
4. .
XY ,
(. 5.10).
( , )
Z.

. 5 . 1 0 .

WEDGE (), ,
CEnter (),
.

111

5.3.
X Y , , REVOLVE ().
, , , , , , .
| 5.8.

1. Draw | Solids | Revolve ( | | )


.
2. , , .
3.
.
,
(. 5.11). .
4. .

. 5 . 1 1 . , 90

DELOBJ ,
. DELOBJ = 1 ( )
. DELOBJ = 0.

5.4.
, . . , , , , , , , ,

112

EXTRUDE (). (. 5.12).

. 5.12. ,

i 5.9.

1. Draw | Solids | Extrude ( | | )


.
2. .
3. (-).
4. , .
( 0 1 DELOBJ). .
, , .

5.5.
(. 5.13), (. 5.14) (. 5.15) .
; 5.10.

1. Modify | Solid Editing | Union ( |


| ).
2. .
,
.
.

113

. 5 . 1 3 .

5.11.
1. Modify | Solid Editing | Subtract ( |
| ).
2. , .
<Enter>.
3. , . <Enter>.

, (. 5.14). ,
.

. 5 . 1 4 .

|=5.12& ^?

; I

1. Modify | Solid Editing | Intersect ( |


| ).
2. .

114

, (. 5.15).

. 5.15.

, INTERFERE () , INTERSECT (),


(. 5.16).
, .
INTERFERE () Draw | Solids | Interfere ( | | ).

. 5.16. INTERFERE
( MOVE)

<^^
SECTION () , . .
1. Draw | Solids | Section ( | | ).
2. , .
3. . , SLICE (). .
object () (, , , , ).

115

zaxis () Z, .
, Z.

view () ,
.

XY, YZ zx
.

3points () ( ).

(. 5.17).

. 5 . 1 7 . ,

5.14. fuioctfocf
SLICE () . UNION
().
. . (. 5.18).

. 5 . 1 8 . , SLICE UNION

116

1. Draw | Solids | Slice ( | | ).


2. .
3. ( ). ,
SECTION ().
4. ,
keep Both sides (), .

5.6.

:
1. .
2. Solids () (. 5.19),
.
3. ,
<Enter>.

GO

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
. 5 . 1 9 . Solids

Solids () (. 5.19) :
1. Box ()
();
2. Sphere () ;
3. Cylinder () ;
4. Cone () ;
5. Wedge ()
, X;
6. Torus (Top) , ;
7. Extrude () ;
8. Revolve ()
;

117

9. Slice () ;
10. Section ()
;
11. Interfere () -,
;
12. Setup Drawing (: )
;
13. Setup View (: )
;
14. Setup Profile (: ) , .

(. 5.1). ,
, .
5.1.

ACISN

ACIS , (Insert | ACIS File ( |


ACIS))

ACISOUT

ACIS-

AMECONVERT

12- AutoCAD

BOX ()

(Draw | Solids | Box ( | | ))

CONE ()

(Draw |
Solids | Cone ( | | ))

.6

CYLINDER


(Draw | Solids I Cylinder ( | | ))

()
7

EXTRUDE
()


(Draw | Solids | Extrude ( |
| ))

INTERFERE
()


(Draw | Solids ] Interference ( | | ))

118

5
5.1 ()

INTERSECT


. (Modify |
Solid Editing | Intersect ( | | ))

()

10 MASSPROP
(-)

11

REGION
()

12 REVOLVE
()

13 SECTION
()

14 SLICE
()
15

16

- , (Tools | Inquery | Mass Properties) ( |


| )
(Draw | Region ( | ))

(Draw | Solids | Revolve ( I I ))
(Draw I Solids I Section ( | |
))
(Draw | Solids | Slice ( | | ))

SPHERE ()

(Draw | Solids I
Sphere ( | | ))

SUBTRACT



(Modify | Solid Editing I Subtract ( | | ))

()

17 TORUS (TOP)

(Draw | Solids |
Torus ( | | ))

18 WEDGE()

(Draw | Solids |
Wedge ( | | ))

19 UNION

(Modify |
Solid Editing I Union ( | | ))

()

5.7.

(. 5.20) ,
.

119

. 5.20.

1.
1. 0,0 500,500
.
2. Decimal () Precision (), 0.
3. , View | Viewports | 2 Viewports |
Vertical ( | | 2 | ).
4. 25 X Y Drafting
Settings ( ) Snap and Grid ( ), Tools | Drafting Settings ( | ).
5. View |
Zoom | All ( | | ).
6. :
Format | Layer ( | ) Layer Properties Manager ( ) New ();

Chair ;

Color, -
Select Color ( ) ;

Current () Layer
Properties Manager.

120

7.

, View | 3D Views | SW Isometric ( | - |


).

2.
1. File | Save As ( | ).
2. In ( ) Save Drawing As (
) .
3. File name () ( ).
Files of type ( )
dwg.
4. Save () .
5. Save () .

3.
25 25
400.
1. :

(), Draw | Solids |


Box ( | | );

,
25,25,400 <Enter>.
2. :
Modify | ( | ) ;

( ), , @4 00,,
.

3. 400:

Modify | ( | ) ;

, ,
<Enter>, @, , 4 .

800.

121

4. :
Draw | Solids | Box ( | | )
;

Endpoint ()
( View | Zoom | Window ( | | ));

@375,25,-25.
5. :
;
Modify | ( | ) ;

, @,4, , <Enter>;
View | Zoom | All ( |
| ) .
6. :
0
. ;
;
()
Endpoint () .
.
7. :
Modify | ( | ) ;

Multiple ()
. ();
,
<Enter>: @o,o-2o; @400,,; @4,,4; @40,,; @4,,-.
5 3. 758

122

8. , View | Zoom | All ( | | ).


9. , @,,-2.

4.
1. ,
Endpoint ()
, 0400,425,25.
2. () . Endpoint () .
@-25,425,225.
3. .
4. ,

@0,-25,0.
5. .

5.8.

(. 5.21),
.
, , .

z
V

. 5.21.

123

1.
1. Format | Drawings Limits ( | ). AutoCAD
.
<Enter> , , , .
2. Format | Units ( | )
Precision () Drawing Units ( ) , 0.
3. .
4. 250 250 .
5. .
6. Stol .
7. SW Isometric ( )
.
8. Table.dwg.

2.
1. Draw () Rectangle (),
.
.
2. @50,50.
3. View | Toolbars | Solids ( | | ).
4. Solids () Extrude ()
.
5. : @1850,,; @,85,; @185,85,.
6. .

3.
1. View |
Zoom | Windows ( | | ).
2. () Solids ().
3. , FROM () Endpoint ()

124

@-50,-50 .
4.
02000,1000,35.

5. .

5.9.

(. 5.22). ROTATE3D (-) 90 ,
XY.

. 5.22.

1.
.
1. Table.dwg, , File | Open ( | ).
2. .
3. :? , ERASE ().
4. SAVEAS () Vase.dwg.
5. Stol Vaza.

125

2.
1. Polyline () Draw (), (
).
2. <Enter> ,
:
@15,; @,-; @5,; @,5;
Arc (); 050,100; 6-100,1500; 00,50; 0-50,25;

Line (); @0,-85; @60,-50;

Arc (); @15,-1420;


Line (); ORTHO () ;

.
X, <Enter>, ,
Endpoint (), ;

40 , close () ;

3.
1. Draw | Solids | Revolve ( | | )
.
2. Select objects ( )
.
3. ,
Endpoint (), .
4. ORTHO (),
. - ,
" ".
5. XY.
Modify | 3D Operation | Rotate 3D ( | |
), ;

6.

Endpoint ()
, @, , ;

90
<Enter>.
.

126

7. , View | Shade | Flat Shaded, Edges On ( | | ,


).

4.
1. ,
View | Shade | 2D Wireframe ( | | 2 ).
2. ,
ISOLINES = 2, 8, 16,
24, 32 ( ISOLINES = 4).
3. , View | Regen ( | ), .
4. , View | Shade |
2D Wireframe ( | | 2-)
ISOLINES = 4.
5. FACETRES = 0.01,
, View | Hide ( |
).
6. FACETRES = 10 (
FACETRES = 0.5).
7. FACETRES = 0.5 .
HIDE (), SHADE (), RENDER ().
8. DISPSILH = 1 ( 0),
, View | Hide ( |
). .



, ,
. ROTATE (),
() ARRAY () :

MIRROR

ROTATE3D (-) ;
3DARRAY (-) ;
MIRROR3D (-)
.
, , :
ERASE () ;
COPY () ;

MOVE () ;
SCALE () ;

EXPLODE ()
;
ALIGN () .
, , :
TRIM () , ;
EXTEND () ( );
CHAMFER () ;

FILLET () .

128

,
:
OFFSET () ,
;
STRETCH () ;
LENGTHEN () ;
BREAK ()
.
, .

6.1.

!6.1.
' ;:'..,V'^'^:Xi::i:F::r-v^Ar'-':
1. Modify | 3D Operation | Rotate 3D ( | |
) ROTATE3D (-) <Enter>.
2. , .
3. :
object () , , ,
. ,
;
Last () ;
view () , ;

Xaxis (), Yaxis (Yocb), Zaxis (Zocb) -

2points (2) , ( ).

, .
4.
<Enter> ( . 6.1).

129

. 6 . 1 . 90

6.2.
1. Modify | 3D Operation | 3D Array ( | |
) 3DARRAY (-)
<Enter>.
2. <Enter>.
3. Rectangular () <Enter>.
4. <Enter>.
5. <Enter>.
6. ( Z)
<Enter>.
7. , , <Enter>, .
8. .
9. <Enter> (
. 6.2).
| 6.3.

1. Modify | 3D Operation | 3D Array ( | |


) 3DARRAY (-)
<Enter>.
2. , <Enter>.
3. Polar ()
<Enter>.
4.
<Enter>.

130

5. (
) <Enter>.
6. <Enter>
NO () .
7. ,
.
8. ( . 6.3).

. 6.2.
(4 , 3 5 )

. 6.3. ,

i 6.4.
\
\
j
1. Modify | 3D Operation | Mirror 3D ( | |
) MIRROR3D (-) <Enter>.
2. ,
<Enter>.

131

3. :
object () (, , , , );
Last () ;
zaxis (zocb) Z,
XY. ,
Z;

view ()
;

XY, YZ, zx ;

3points () , ( ).

4. <Enter>
Yes () ( . 6.4).

. 6.4.

6.5.

ALIGN ()
, . (
) , ( ), ( ).
(. 6.5)
. ,

132

.
HIDE ().
1. Modify | 3D Operation | Align ( | | ).
2. .
3. , .
4. <Enter>, .
5. , .
6. , ,
.
continue () .

. 6 . 5 .

( ), . ,
,
.
6.6.

, ,
, , ,
Project () TRIM ().

133

, , .
1. Modify | Trim ( | ).
2. <Enter>
,
XY . , .
3. Project (),
, ,
<Enter>.
4. , <Enter>:
None () ,
;
ucs () XY ( );
view () .
<Enter> .
5.

, , <Enter> .

, (. 6.6), .

. 6 . 6 .

134

I 6.7.

EXTEND () P r o j e c t ()

TRIM (),
Edge (), .
1. Modify | Extend ( | ).
2. , ,
<Enter> . , , , , , , , ,
.
3. Edge (), ,
<Enter>.
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SOLIDS
Mass:
288128.4281
Volume:
288128.4281
Bounding box:
X: 61.0198 253.9712
Y: -5.9035 186.4895
Z: 0.0000 50.0000
Centroid:
X: 124.2515
Y: 123.3186
Z: 30.2055
Moments of inertia: X: 5044800320.5255
Y: 5113983130.5603
Z: 9522420717.4776
Products of inertia : XY: 4214777608.6221
YZ: 1086604751.1654
ZX: 1067924626.0601
Radii of gyration:
X: 132.3210
Y: 133.2253
Z: 181.7945
Principal moments and X-Y-Z directions about centroid:
I: 200723996 4237 along [0.7089 -0.7042 -0.0385]
J: 601612755.4244 along [0.7048 0.7094 0.0000]
K: 693195210.3149 along [0.0273 -0.0271 0.9993]
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203

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204

\ 9.6. - ;
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205

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206

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212
10.6.

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. 1 0 . 3 . 3D Graphics System C o n f i g u r a t i o n

213

10.3.
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214

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215

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216
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5. Attributes () Ambient
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217

Value () 0.3
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218

10

2. Materials () (. . 10.5) Modify ().


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219

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220

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221

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223

. 1 0 . 1 2 . Lights

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224

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226

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View | Render | Lights ( | | )


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228

10

2. Lights ( )
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229

2. Lights ( ) Lights
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5. View | Render | Lights ( | | ) Lights ( ) Render
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10

230

6. Lights ( )
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7. .
8. Shadows () Shadows On (),
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232

10

| 10.19.

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10.6.
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View | Render | Landscape Library ( | |


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233

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. 1 0 . 2 2 . Landscape Library
Landscape New
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234

10

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235

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Photo Raytrace ( )
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3. Scenes to Render ( ) .

236

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Applay Materials ( )
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237

Render Cache () .
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10.25.

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Background ().

10

238

Background () (. 10.27) (
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239

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. 1 0 . 2 8 . File Output Configuration

240

10

5. Render () Render ().


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7.
Image File ( ),

241

. 10.29, , .
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10

242

2. Destination () Render
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.
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. 1 0 . 3 2 . Image S p e c i f i c a t i o n s

243

10.9.
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.
{ 10.30. Render

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10

244

, BMP,
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10.10.

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. 1 0 . 3 4 . Render

, :
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3. Scenes () ;
4. Lights ( ) ;
5. Materials () ;

245

6. Materials Library ( ) ;
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;
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,
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(View | Render | Landscape Edit ( | | ))

10

246

10.2 ()

L S L I B ()

(View |
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(View I Render | Material
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10 RMAT()

,
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(View | Render | Preferences ( | | ))

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(Tools I Display Image | Save ( | | ))

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,
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()

247

10.11.

,
, (. 10.35).
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. 10.35.

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, .
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2.
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2. Lights ( ) , 0.5.
3. Point light ( ) 1500 1.
, ,
Z = 2500.

248

10

3.
1. Materials ().
2. Materials Library ( ).
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CROSSHATCH PATRN - ;

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249

10.12.
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.

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250

10

6. , 3DFACE (-).
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3.
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Material ( ) SKY .
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sky.jpg), Open ().
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;
,
;

Fit To Object ( );
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5. , Materials ()
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, .
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, .
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25?

9. Adjust Planar Coordinates ( )


WCS XYPlane ( XY ) .
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Apply Materials ( );
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Render () .

4.
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3. , Tools |
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10.13.

,
. 3.4. .

1.
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3. , View |
Zoom | Realtime ( | | ), .
4.


, , Draw | Region (
), , .
5. ,
.
3D Orbit (3M ).

252

10

2.
1. Render ().
2. Lights ( ) , 0.8.
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View | Render | Lights ( | | )
Lights ( )
Render ();
Lights ( )
Distant Light () New ();
New Distant Light ( ) SUN Light Name
( ), , 1;
, Sun Angle Calculator ( ). Sun Angle Calculator (
) , ( Y);
Geographic Location ( ) : Europa | Saint
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Geographic Location ( ), Sun Angle Calculator ( ),
New Distant Light ( ), Lights ( ) .

3.
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3. :
BLUE MATTE ;
YELLOW PLASTIC ;
GRANITE PEBBLES .
4. ZEMLA,
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254

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257

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260

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261

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264

11

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265
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IMAGE ()

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PSOUT ()

PostScript (EPS)

10

SKETCH ()

11

TRACE ()

12

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