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Industrial and Field Exposure Training

June 2012 to 26 July 2012)

At

ALL INDIA RADIO, ALMORA

The motto of All India Radio is educating entertaining and informing people of this region. A radio station with type one station facilities & 1KW MW transmitter was made on 15/6/1986 by Shri V.N.Gadgil. This Radio station has a Control room, Receiving Room and other associated technical facilities. Operative frequency of this station is 999 KHZ and coverage area of this station is 23 Km to 42 Km.

Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light.

Radio is based on wireless communication or satellite communication.

1. TRANSMITTING:

Step1. A Radio wave carries information signal. Step2. Signals are converted into electrical signals. Step3. A carrier wave is then produced from the modulation. Step4. The wave is then amplified , and sent to the antenna. Step5. The antenna then converts signal into an EM wave.

Step1. An antenna on receiving the signal send it to the receiver. Step2. The receiver then converts the electrical signal and sends it to the amplifier. Step3. With the help of speaker/headphones jack this is converted into a sound wave.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

MICROPHONES COMPACT DISC AND PLAYERS AUDIO PROCESSOR CONSOLE TAPE RECODER (CTR) AUDIO AMPLIFIERS TRANSMITTER CAPTIVE EARTH STATION(CES) TRAVELING WAVE TUBE AMPLIFIER (TWTA)

It converts sound waves into electrical signal When sound waves strike a microphones diaphragm, they cause it to move within an electro-magnetic field This electro-magnetic field in turn creates a variance in an electrical current. This signal is then transmitted to output device which reproduce the original sound waves and reinforce it.

Combined Microphones. Lip Ribbon Microphones. Lapel Microphones. Contact Microphones. Gun Microphones. Cordless Microphones.

It is a digital audio storage medium. It stores 0 & 1 as a digital medium. 1 is stored at the pits and 0 is stored at FLATS or no-pits. In the disc medium optical methods are used for writing out recoding process.

Analog audio signal is converted into digital signal by ADCS with 16 linear quantization at a sampling frequency rate of 44.1 KHz.

Prevent over modulation as much possible and minimize it when it occurs.

Compensate for non-linear transmitter, more common with medium wave and short wave broadcasting.

Adjust overall loudness to desired level.


Correct errors in audio levels.

Console tape recorder is an audio storage device.

An audio amplifier is an electronic amplifier that amplifies low-power audio signals.

It performs tasks like preamplification, equalization, tone control,

mixing effects.

Pre-Amplifier:

It is the first amplifier in the broadcast chain. The output from a microphone or a

pickup which is at very low level is


fed to its input

Programme amplifier provides second stage of amplification.

The output obtained from the fader box or mixing console is fed to the input of this amplifier.

This amplifier gives a maximum output.

These Amplifiers are used as a boosting module for the signals. Output from programme amplifier is not enough to drive the loudspeaker. Therefore these amplifiers are provided to boost these signals further.

Transmitter provides a power output of 1000 W on carrier. A medium wave antenna is used as a transmitter. Almora station is provided with a 1KW Medium Wave Transmitter operating on the frequency of 999 kHz.

CES are used to uplink its programme for distribution in its Network through satellite.

The programme up linked by the CES is received by other AIR stations with their radio networking terminals

TWTA is an electronic device used to amplify radio frequency signals to high power. Its operating frequencies range from 300 MHz to 50 GHz.

: It is an acoustically treated room to give minimum noise level. Microphones, Turn Table, Tape Disk, CD & are some equipments used in Broadcast Studio

Studio Center comprises of one and more studios

:
Equipment provided in recording room are console tape recorded console tape decks, recording, dubbing panel having switches, Jacks and Keys.

Arrangement similar to recording room except that as additional tape deck and mixer unit has been provided.

:
Opposite function to microphone it converts electrical signal into sound wave.

Control room consists of control console. Control console is also known as switching console.

Modulation is a process of superimposing information on a carrier by varying one of its parameters (amplitude, frequency or phase).

Need for Modulation

Antenna size can be reduced by modulating the signal over higher frequency. To differentiate among transmissions (stations) Maximum to minimum frequency ratio can be reduced to minimum by modulating the signal on a high frequency.

There are basically 3 types of modulation process.


Amplitude Modulation. Angle Modulation. Pulse Modulation.

NATURAL OR ARTIFICIAL OBJECT THAT REVOLVES AROUND A LARGER ASTRONOMICAL OBJECT, USUALLY A PLANET. THE MOON IS THE MOST OBVIOUS EXAMPLE.

FIXED SATELLITE SERVICE (FSS).


Example: Point to Point Communication.

MOBILE SATELLITE SERVICE (MSS).


Example: Satellite Television/Radio Also called Direct Broadcast Service (DBS).

BROADCASTING SATELLITE SERVICE (BSS).


Example: Satellite Phones.

Satellite Orbits

GEO LEO MEO Molniya Orbit HAPs

These satellites are in orbit 35,863 km above the earths surface along the equator. Objects in Geostationary orbit revolve around the earth at the same speed as the earth rotates. This means GEO satellites remain in the same position relative to the surface of earth.

LEO satellites are much closer to the earth than GEO satellites, ranging from 500 to 1,500 km above the surface. LEO satellites dont stay in fixed position relative to the surface, and are only visible for 15 to 20 minutes each pass. A network of LEO satellites is necessary for LEO satellites to be useful.

A MEO satellite is in orbit somewhere between 8,000 km and 18,000 km above the earths surface. MEO satellites are similar to LEO satellites in functionality. MEO satellites are visible for much longer periods of time than LEO satellites, usually between 2 to 8 hours. MEO satellites have a larger coverage area than LEO satellites.

Used by

Russia for decades. Molniya Orbit is an elliptical orbit. The satellite remains in a nearly fixed position relative to earth for eight hours. A series of three Molniya satellites can act like a GEO satellite. Useful in near polar regions.

One

of the newest ideas in satellite communication. A blimp or plane around 20 km above the earths surface is used as a satellite. HAPs would have very small coverage area, but would have a comparatively strong signal. Cheaper to put in position, but would require a lot of them in a network.

To upload the unity and integrity of the country and

the values enshrined in the constitution.

To promote national integration.

To provide adequate coverage to the diverse culture,


sports, game and current affairs.

To safe guard citizens right to be informed on all


matters of public interest and presenting a fair & balance flow of information.

THANK YOU