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..

. 1

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2013

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373.167.1:51
22.1721
444
20

..
20 . . 1 / .. . /: , 2013. 279 . ( ).

ISBN 978-5-222-20888-5

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ISBN 978-5-222-20888-5

373.167.1:51
22.1721

.., 2013
, , 2013

- www.phoenixbooks.ru


1
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,
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1.


1. I ()
: ax + b = 0.
1) a 0, a R, b R, x = b/a ( ).
2) a = 0, b 0, .
3) a = b = 0,
.

2. II ()
: ax2 + bx + c = 0, a 0.
a I () , b II ,
c .
D = b2 4ac ().
1) D > 0,
x1, 2 =
2) D = 0, x =

b D
.
2a

b
.
2a

3) D < 0, ().

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1.

:
1) :
) ax2 + c = 0, x1, 2 =

c
, a c
a

; a c ,
;
) ax2 + bx = 0, x1 = 0, x2 = b/a;
) ax2 = 0, x = 0.
2)
2

x + px + q = 0, x1, 2
2

p
p
= q.
2
2

3)
ax2 + 2kx + c = 0, x1, 2 =

k k2 ac
.
a

3.
) :
b
c
x1 + x2 = , x1x2 = ;
a
a
) :
x1 + x2 = p; x1x2 = q.
,
p, q, x1, x2 , x1 + x2 = p; x1x2 = q,
x1 x2 x2 + px + q = 0.

4.
ax2 + bx + c = a(x x1)(x x2),
x1 x2 , D > 0.
D = 0, ax2 + bx + c = a(x x1)2.

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. . 1

5.
: ax4 + bx2 + c = 0, a 0.
x2 = y
ay2 + by + c = 0.
:
x1, 2, 3, 4 =

b D
, D = b2 4ac.
2a

6. IV
: ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + bmx + am2 = 0, a 0.

m2
m

a x2 + 2 + b x + + c = 0
x
x

y = x +

m2
m
y2 2m = x2 + 2
x
x


ay2 + by + (c 2am) = 0.
:
1 1) ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + bx + a = 0, m =
I .
1
y = x + ;
x
2) ax4 + bx3 + cx2 bx + a = 0, m =
1 II .
1
y = x .
x

7.
x, y a > 0, b > 0
:

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1.

a0 = 1 ( );
ax ay = ax + y; ax : ay = ax y;
(ax)y = axy; (ab)x = axbx;
x

ax
1
1
a
x
1
= x ; a = x ; a = .
a
b
b
a

8.
a2 b2 = (a b)(a + b) ;
(a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 ;
(a b)2 = a2 2ab + b2 ;
(a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3 ;
(a b)3 = a3 3a2b + 3ab2 b3 ;
a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 ab + b2) =
= (a + b)3 3ab(a + b) ;
a3 b3 = (a b)(a2 + ab + b2) =
= (a b)3 + 3ab(a b) .

(a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab + 2ac + 2bc;
(a b c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 2ab 2ac + 2bc;
2

a+b ab


= ab;
2 2
a4 b4 = (a b)(a + b)(a2 + b2) =
= (a b)(a3 + a2b + ab2 + b3);
a5 b5 = (a b)(a4 + a3b + a2b2 + ab3 + b4);
a5 + b5 = (a + b)(a4 a3b + a2b2 ab3 + b4);
a6 b6 = (a b)(a + b)(a2 + ab + b2)(a2 ab + b2) =
= (a b)(a5 + a4b + a3b2 + a2b3 + ab4 + b5);
a6 + b6 = (a2 + b2)(a4 a2b + b4).

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. . 1

1. 6x3 x2 x =

1
.
3

.

, , .

3x + 3x2 + 1 = 18x3,

x3 + 3x2 + 3x + 1 = 19x3.
(1)
. ,
(1) , ..
(x + 1)3 = 19x3,
x+1=
x

x=

19x,

19 1 = 1,
3

1

19 1

.
:

1
.
19 1

2. x3 54x 84 3 = 0.
.
,
,
6- , ( ).
x = 3y.

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1.

3 3y3 54 3y 84 3 = 0,

y3 18y 28 = 0.
(1)
, (1)
y = 2,
y(y2 4) 14(y + 2) = 0,
(y + 2)(y2 2y 14) = 0, y1 = 2,
y2 2y 14 = 0, y2, 3 = 1 15.
y1 = 2, x1 = 2 3.

y2, 3 = 1 15, x2, 3 = 3 1 15 .


, 3 .
: 2 3;

3 1 15 .

3.
x(19 x)(19 + x2) = 84(x + 1)2.
.
, , , ,
3- .
, .
, x = 1 ,

, (x + 1)2 0,
.
2
19 x 19 + x
x
= 84,

x +1 x +1
19 x
19 x
x
x+
= 84.
x +1
x +1
x

19 x
19 x
= a, x +
= b, ab = 84,
x +1
x +1

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10

. . 1

a+b=

19 x
(x + 1) + x = 19.
x +1

,
a = 12,
a2 = 7,
a + b = 19,
1

ab = 84,
b1 = 7,
b2 = 12.
b = x +
:
x2 + 19
= 7,
1)
x +1

19 x x2 + 19
=
, 2 x +1
x +1

2)

x2 + 19
= 12,
x +1

x2 7x + 12 = 0,

x2 12x + 7 = 0,

x1 = 3, x2 = 4

x3, 4 = 6 29.

: 3; 4; 6 29.
4.
x9 2013x3 +

2012 = 0.

2012 = a,

a > 0, 2013 = a2 + 1


x9 (a2 + 1)x3 + a = 0.
(1)
(1) , ,
a:

x3a2 a + (x3 x9) = 0.
(2)
(2),
D = 1 4x3(x3 x9) = (1 2x6)2,
1 (1 2x6 )
1 x6
a1, 2 =
,
a
=
, a2 = x3.
1
2x3
x3

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11

1.

, :
1 x6
1)
= a, x6 + ax3 1 = 0, D = a2 + 4 > 0,
x3
x3 =

1
1
a a2 + 4 , x1, 2 = 3
a a2 + 4 .
2
2

a = 2012, x1, 2 = 3

1
2012 2016 .
2

2) x3 = a, x = 3 a, x3 = 3 2012 = 6 2012.
:

1
2012 2016 ,
2

2012.

5.
8(1 3x)3 27(x 2)3 = 343 729x3.
.
, 2(1 3x) 3(x 2) = 7 9x
. ,

, :
4(1 3x)2 + 6(1 3x)(x 2) + 9(x 2)2 = 49 + 63x + 81x2,
, ,
1
7
18x2 + 27x + 7 = 0, x1 = , x2 = .
3
6
7 9x = 0,
7
x3 = .
9
, 3 .
1
7 7
: ; ; .
3
6 9

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12

. . 1

6. 3x3 + 9x + 8 = 0.
.
, , .
1
x = y ,
y
3

1
1
1
x = y = y3 3 3 y .
y
y
y

1
3 y3 3
y

1
1
9 y y + 9 y y + 8 = 0,

1
3 y3 3
y

+ 8 = 0.

(1)

(1), ,
y 3. y 3 = a
3a2 + 8a 3 = 0, a1 = 3,
1
a2 = . , :
3
1
1) y3 = 3, y1 = 3 3, x = y ,
y
1
;
3

x1 = 3 3 +
2) y3 =

1
1
1
, y2 = 3 , x2 = 3 3 3.
3
3
3

, x1 = x2 =
:

1 3
3.
3

1 3
3.
3

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1.

13

7.
4 2x3 18x2 + 7 2x + 6 = 0.
.
, ,
.
y
x =
,
2

2y3 9y2 + 7y + 6 = 0.
(1)
(1) , , .
2 (1), , y =

(y 2)(2y2 5y 3) = 0, y1 = 2, 2y2 5y 3 = 0,
1
: y2 = 3, y3 = .
2
x =
x1 =

y
,
2

2
3
1
, x2 =
, x3 =
.
2
2
2 2

, 3 .
2
3
1
:
;
;
.
2
2
2 2
8.
x4 (2x 3)(4x2 6x + 9) = 0.
.
,
, 4x2 6x + 9
.

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14

. . 1

, x = 1,5
, , (2x 3)2 0,
x4
4x2 6x + 9

= 0,
(2x 3)2
2x 3
x4
4x2
3(2x 3)

+
= 0,
2
(2x 3) 2x 3
2x 3
x4
4x2

+ 3 = 0.
2
(2x 3) 2x 3
.
x2

= y, y2 4y + 3 = 0,
2x 3
y1 = 1, y2 = 3.
y = 1,

x2
= 1, x2 2x +
3 = 0 2x 3

.
x2
= 3, x2 6x + 9 = 0,
y = 3,
2x 3
3 (x 3)2 = 0, .. x =
.
: 3.
9.
x4 + x3 10x2 2x + 4 = 0.
.
, , (
). .

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1.

15



x4 + x3 4x2 2x + 4 = 6x2.
(1)
1 2
(1) x ( 4
):
1 2
1 2
4
2 1
3
2
x + x + x 4 x + x + 4 = 6x + x ,
4
2
4

25 2
2 1
2 1
x .
x + x 4x + x+4 =
2
2
4

(2)

, (2) 1
: x2 + x 2, (2) 2

2

2 1
25 2
x,
x + x 2 =
2
4

:
1
5
1
5
1) x2 + x 2 = x, 2) x2 + x 2 = x,
2
2
2
2
x2 2x 2 = 0,
D/4 = 1 + 2 = 3 > 0,
x1, 2 = 1 3;

x2 + 3x 2 = 0,
D = 9 + 8 = 17 > 0,
1
x3, 4 =
3 17 .
2

, 4 .
1
: 1 3;
3 17 .
2

10. 12x4 16x3 = 1.


.
,
.

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279


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4. ............................ 162
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1. ........................ 189
2. .................... 193

6.
.....................................................197
.......... 207
7. .....................211

.................................. 211
.................... 212
.......... 243
8. ........248
.......... 259
.............................................................261
1. ..................... 261
2. ........ 263
3. ................... 265
4. ...... 266
5.
.................................................. 267
6.
..................... 270
7. .............. 271
8.
.................................................. 274
.......................................................277

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