Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 21

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

EXPERIMENT-1 STANDARD CONSISTENCY OF CEMENT OBJECT- To determine the quantity of water required to produce a cement paste of standard consistency. THEORY- Consistency means amount of water needed to prepare a plastic mix. consistency test is used to find the amount of water to be mixed with cement. It is necessary to find the consistency because amount of water present in the cement paste may affect the setting time. The standard consistency is that consistency, which will permit the vicat plunger to penetrate to a point 5 to 7mm from the bottom of the vicat mould when tested as described below. APPARATUS1. Vicat Apparatus- The vicat apparatus consists of a frame having a movable rod with a cap at one end and at the other end plunger or needle, which are interchangeable. 2. Plunger for Standard Consistency- It is of polished brass 10 0.05mm in diameter with a projection at the upper end for insertion into the movable rod. The lower end is flat. 3. Movable Rod- Movable rod carries an indicator which moves over a graduated scale attached to the frame (certain models have an additional attachment of dash pot, which facilitates lowering of movable rod slowly). 4. Graduated Scale- Graduated scale is 40mm in length and the smallest division of scale is 1mm. 5. Vicat Mould(Single mould)- The vicat mould is in the foam of a frustum of a cone having an internal diameter of 60+/-0.5mm at the top, 70 +/- 0.5mm at the bottom and height 40 +/_ 0.5mm.

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE CONSISTENCY OF CEMENTi) Weigh approximately 400g of cement and mix it with a weighed quantity of water. The time of gauging should be between 3 to 5 minutes. ii) Fill the Vicat mould with paste and level it with a trowel. iii) Lower the plunger gently till it touches the cement surface. iv) Release the plunger allowing it to sink into the paste. v) Note the reading on the gauge. vi) Repeat the above procedure taking fresh samples of cement and different quantities of water until the reading on the gauge is 5 to 7mm. OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS Weight of cement taken (g) = _________ Initial percentage of water added to cement = __________ Quantity of water added to cement =_______ S.No 1. 2. 3. Quantity of Water Added Depth of Penetration

STANDARD CONSISTENCY = (Quantity of water for 5-7 mm penetration/Weight of cement) X 100 POINTS TO BE NOTED 1. Consistency of cement should be less than 30% 2. The time of gauging should not be less than 3 minutes and not more than 5 minutes. Gauging time is the time elapsing from the time of adding water to the dry cement until commencing to fill the mould. 3. The test should be conducted at room temperature 27oC +/- 2oC 4. There should be no vibration on the working table. 5. The plunger should be cleaned during every repetition. RESULT- Percentage of water content for standard consistency = %

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

EXPERIMENT-2 INITIAL & FINAL SETTING TIMES OF CEMENT OBJECT- To determine the initial and final setting times of cement. THEORY- The initial setting time can be defined as time taken by paste to stiffen to such an extent that the Vicatts needle is not permitted to move down through the paste through 25 mm. The factors that affect initial setting time of cement are temperture, humidity and the fineness of the cement. The final setting time can be defined as it is the time after which the paste becomes so hard that Vicatts 5mm needle doesnt sinks visibly and leave no impression. With Portland cement and rapid hardening cement the normal initial setting time should not be less than 30 minutes and the final setting time should not be more than 10 hours. With quick setting cement the initial setting time should not be less than 5 minutes and the final setting time should not be more than 30 minutes. APPARTUS1. Vicat Apparatus- The vicat apparatus consists of a frame having a movable rod with a cap at one end and at the other end plunger or needle, which are interchangeable. 2. Needles- A removable needle, 1mm in diameter, for finding out the initial setting time, or A needle, 5mm in diameter for determining the final setting time. 3. Balance of capacity 1kg and sensitivity 1 gram. 4. Gauging trowel. PROCEDURE1. Prepare a paste of 300 grams of cement with 0.85 times the water required to give a paste of standard consistency IS: 4031 (Part 4) 1988. 2. The time of gauging in any case shall not be less than 3 minutes not more than 5 minutes and the gauging shall be completed before any sign of setting occurs. 3. Count the time of gauging from the time of adding water to the dry cement until commencing to fill the mould. 4. Fill the Vicatts mould with this paste making it level with the top of the mould. Slightly shake the mould to expel the air. 5. In filling the mould the operator hands and the blade the gauging trowel shall only be used.

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

INITIAL SETTING TIME 1. Immediately place the test block with the non-porous resting plate, under the rod bearing the initial setting needle. 2. Lower the needle and quickly release allowing it to penetrate in to the mould. 3. In the beginning the needle will completely pierce the mould 4. Repeat this procedure until the needle fails to pierce the mould for 5 + 0.5mm. 5. Record the time-period elapsed between the adding water to the cement to when needle fails to pierce the mould by 5 + 0.5mm as the initial setting time. FINAL SETTING TIME 1. Replace the needle of the Vicatts apparatus by the needle with an annular ring. 2. Lower the needle and quickly release. 3. Repeat the process until the annular ring makes an impression on the mould. 4. Record the period elapsed between the time of adding water to the cement to the time when the annular ring fails to make the impression on the mould as the final setting time. REPORT- Report the initial setting time and final setting time in minutes.

PRECAUTION1. The time of gauging in any case shall not be less than 3 minutes not more than 5minutes. 2. The mixing of cement should be done in non-porous glass plate. 3. The plunger needle should be clean every time before its penetration in the cement paste. 4. The mixing time including placing the cement in the mould shall not exceed 4 minutes. 5. Vicatts apparatus should be free from vibration during the penetration.

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

EXPERIMENT-3 SEIVE ANALYSIS OF FINE & COARSE AGGREGATES OBJECT-To determines fineness modulus of the given Fine aggregate and Coarse aggregates. THEORY -Fine aggregate is the sand used in mortars. Coarse aggregate is the broken stone used in concrete. The coarse aggregate unless mixed with fine aggregate serves no purpose in cement works. The size of fine aggregate is limited to a maximum of 4.75 mm gauge beyond which it is known as coarse aggregate. Fineness modulus is only a numerical index of fineness, giving some idea of the mean size of the particle s in the entire body of the aggregate. To a certain extent it is a method of standardization of the grading of the aggregate. It is obtained by adding the percentage weight of material retained in each of the standard sieves and dividing it by 100. Certain limits of fineness modulus for fine coarse aggregates are given in the table below and a sample under test should satisfy these results so that the aggregate may give good workability under economical conditions. If the test aggregate gives higher fineness modulus the mix will be harsh and if on the other hand gives a lower fineness modulus it gives uneconomical mix. EFFECTIVE SIZE-Effective size (in microns) is the maximum particle size of the smallest 10% of the aggregate or it is the sieve opening corresponding to 10% finer and is designated by the symbol D10. UNIFORMITY COEFFICIENT-This is the ratio of the maximum size of the smallest 60% to the effective size. Uniformity coefficient = D60/D10 APPARATUES-Indian standard test sieves, weighing balance, sieve shaker etc. Following sieves are used(I) for fine aggregate- 4.75mm, 2mm, 1mm, 600 microns, 300microns, 212 microns, 150 microns, 75 microns (II) For coarse aggregate-100mm,80mm, 40mm, 20mm, 10mm, 4.75mm.

PROCEDURE-

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

FINE AGGREGATE 1. Take one kg of sand from the laboratory sample. 2. Arrange the sieves in order of IS sieves nos 4.75mm, 2mm, 1mm, 600 microns, 300microns, 212microns, 150microns, 75microns, Keeping sieve no. 4.75 mm at the top and 75 microns at the bottom and cover the top. 3. Keep the sample in the top sieve no 4.75mm. 4. Carry out the sieving in the set of sieves for not less than 10 minutes. 5. Find the weight of sample retained in each sieve. 6. Tabulate the values in given tabular column. COARS AGGREGATES1. Take one kg of coarse aggregate 2. Arrange the sieves one over the other in relation to their size of opening 100mm, 80mm, 40mm, 20mm, 10mm, and 4.75mm. 3. Carry out the sieving for the specified time 4. Find the weight of aggregate retained on each sieve taken in order and tabulate in table. RESULTFINE AGGREGATE Fineness modulus (Sum of cumulative % wt retained /100) = COARSEAGGREGATE Fineness modulus (Sum of cumulative % wt retained /100) =

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

OBSERVATION TABLES. No. IS sieve Observations Size of openings Calculations Mass of Percentage Cumulative soil retained percentage retained retained For Coarse Fraction 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 100 mm 80 mm 40 mm 20 mm 10mm 100 mm 80 mm 40 mm 20 mm 10mm % finer

4.75 mm 4.75 mm For Fine Fraction

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

4.75 mm 4.75 mm 2 mm 1 mm 600 425 300 150 75 Pan 2 mm 1 mm 600 425 300 150 75 Pan

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

EXPERIMENT-5 SLUMP CONE TEST OBJECT- To measure the consistency (Workability) of concrete by slump cone apparatus. Apparatus: Slump cone, tamping rod, metallic sheet. Theory- The slump test result is a measure of the behavior of a compacted inverted cone of concrete under the action of gravity. It measures the consistency or the wetness of concrete. This test is performed to check the consistency of freshly made concrete. Consistency is a term very closely related to workability. It is a term which describes the state of fresh concrete. Procedure. 1. The internal surface of the mould is thoroughly cleaned and freed from superfluous moisture and adherence of any old set concrete before commencing the test. 2. The mould is placed on a smooth, horizontal rigid and non absorbent surface. 3. The mould is then filled in four layers each approximately of the height of the mould. 4. Each layer is tamped 25 times rod taking care to distribute the strokes evenly over the cross section. After the top layer has been rodded, the concrete is struck off level with a trowel and tamping rod. 5. The mould is removed from the concrete immediately by raising it slowly and carefully in a vertical direction. 6. This allows the concrete to subside. This subside is referred as slump of concrete.

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

7. The difference in level between the height of the mould and that of the highest point of the subsided concrete is measured. This difference in height in mm is taken as slump of concrete. 8. The pattern of slump indicates the characteristics of concrete in addition to the slump value. If the concrete slumps evenly it is called true slump. If one half of the cone slides down, it is called shear slump. In case of a shear slump, the slump value is measured as the difference in height between the height of the mould and the average value of the subsidence. Shear slump also indicates that the concrete is non-cohesive and shows the characteristic of segregation. Results- The value of Slump is=

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

EXPERIMENT-6 COMPACTION FACTOR TEST Object- To measure the workability of concrete by compaction factor test Apparatus required- Compaction factor test apparatus Theory- This is a site test to determine the consistency or workability of concrete and is conducted in the lab or on site .Nowadays, this test is commonly replaced by the Slump Test to determine the workability of the concrete. Procedure1. The sample of concrete to be tested is placed in the upper hopper up to the brim. The trap-door is opened so that the concrete falls into the lower hopper. 2. Then the trap-door of the lower hopper is opened and the concrete is allowed to fall in to the cylinder. In the case of a dry-mix, it is likely that the concrete may not fall on opening the trap-door 3. In such a case, a slight poking by a rod may be required to set the concrete in motion. The excess concrete remaining above the top level of the cylinder is then cut off with the help of plane blades. 4. The outside of the cylinder is wiped clean. The concrete is filled up exactly up to the top level of the cylinder. 5. It is weighed to the nearest 10 grams. This weight is known as weight of partially compacted concrete 6. The cylinder is emptied and then refilled with the concrete from the same sample in layers approximately 5cm deep. The layers are heavily rammed or preferably vibrated so as to obtain full compaction. The top surface of the fully compacted concrete is then carefully struck off level with the top of the cylinder and weighed to the nearest 10 gm. This weight is known as weight of fully compacted concrete

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

Results- The compaction factor =

The compaction factor of the given sample of concrete is_______________%

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

EXPERIMENT-7 FLOW TABLE TEST Object- To measure the flow and workability of the concrete by using flow table. Apparatus required: Flow table test apparatus Procedure. 1. The apparatus consists of flow table about 76cm. in diameter over which concentric circles are marked. 2. A mould made from smooth metal casing in the form of a frustum of a cone is used with the following internal dimensions. The base is 25cm. in diameter upper surface 17cm. in diameter and height of the cone is 12cm. Theory- The flow table test or flow test is a method to determine the consistence of fresh concrete. Application When fresh concrete is delivered to a site by a truck mixer it is sometimes necessary to check its consistence before pouring it into formwork. If the consistence is not correct, the concrete will not have the desired qualities once it has set, particularly the desired strength. If the concrete is too pasty, it may result in cavities within the concrete which leads to corrosion of the rebar, eventually leading to the formation of cracks. Procedure1. The table top is cleaned of all gritty material and is wetted. The mould is kept on the center of the table, firmly held and is filled in two layers. 2. Each layer is rodded 25 times with a tamping rod 1.6cm in diameter and 61cm long rounded at the lower tamping end. 3. After the top layer is rodded evenly the excess of concrete which has overflowed the mould is removed. 4. The mould if lifted vertically upward and the concrete stands on its own without support. The table is then raised and dropped 12.5cm 15times in about 15 seconds. 5. The diameter of the spread concrete is measured in about 6 directions to the nearest 5mm and the average spread is noted. The flow of concrete is the

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

percentage increase in the average diameter of the spread concrete over the base diameter of the mould. 6. The value could range anything from 0 to 150 per cent. A close look at the pattern of spread of concrete can also give a good indication of the characteristics of concrete such as tendency for segregation.

Result-

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

EXP- 9 Compressive Strength Test Object- To determine the Compressive Strength of Concrete. Apparatus-Compression testing machine, Cubes of 15 cm size Mix. Theory- Out of many test applied to the concrete, this is the utmost important which gives an idea about all the characteristics of concrete. By this single test one judge that whether Concreting has been done properly or not. For cube test two types of specimens either cubes of 15 cm X 15 cm X 15 cm or 10cm X 10 cm x 10 cm depending upon the size of aggregate are used. For most of the works cubical moulds of size 15 cm x 15cm x 15 cm are commonly used. This concrete is poured in the mould and tempered properly so as not to have any voids. After 24 hours these moulds are removed and test specimens are put in water for curing. The top surface of this specimen should be made even and smooth. This is done by putting cement paste and spreading smoothly on whole area of specimen. These specimens are tested by compression testing machine after 7 days curing or 28 days curing. Load should be applied gradually at the rate of 140 kg/cm2 per minute till the Specimens fails. Load at the failure divided by area of specimen gives the compressive strength of concrete. Mixing- Mix the concrete either by hand or in a laboratory batch mixer A. Hand Mixing1. Mix the cement and fine aggregate on a water tight none-absorbent platform until the mixture is thoroughly blended and is of uniform color. 2. Add the coarse aggregate and mix with cement and fine aggregate until the coarse aggregate is uniformly distributed throughout the batch . 3. Add water and mix it until the concrete appears to be homogeneous and of the desired consistency B. Sampling1. Clean the mounds and apply oil. 2. Fill the concrete in the molds in layers approximately 5cm thick. 3. Compact each layer with not less than 35strokes per layer using a tamping rod (steel bar 16mm diameter and 60cm long, bullet pointed at lower end)

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

4. Level the top surface and smoothen it with a trowel. Curing- The test specimens are stored in moist air for 24 hours and after this period the specimens are marked and removed from the molds and kept submerged in clear fresh water until taken out prior to test. Procedure1. Remove the specimen from water after specified curing time and wipe out excess water from the surface. 2. Take the dimension of the specimen to the nearest 0.2m 3. Clean the bearing surface of the testing machine 4. Place the specimen in the machine in such a manner that the load shall be applied to the opposite sides of the cube cast. 5. Align the specimen centrally on the base plate of the machine. 6. Rotate the movable portion gently by hand so that it touches the top surface of the specimen. 7. Apply the load gradually without shock and continuously at the rate of 140kg/cm2/minute till the specimen fails 8. Record the maximum load and note any unusual features in the type of failure. .Calculationa. b. c. d. Size of the cube =15cm x15cm x15cm Area of the specimen (mean size of the specimen) =225cm2 Maximum load applied =.KN=.N Compressive strength = (Load in N/ Area in mm2) =N/mm2

RESULT Average compressive strength of the concrete cube = .N/ mm2 (at 7 days) Average compressive strength of the concrete cube =. N/mm2 (at 28 days)

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

Exp-10 Specific Gravity of Fine Aggregate Object- To determine the specific gravity of fine aggregate (sand) by Pycnometer Theory- The Pycnometer method can be used for determination of the specific gravity of solid particles of both fine grained and coarse grained soils. It is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a standard, usually water for a liquid or solid, and air for a gas. The specific gravity of fine aggregate (sand) is determined using the relation:

Where M1=mass of empty Pycnometer, M2= mass of the Pycnometer with dry soil M3= mass of the Pycnometer and soil and water, M4 = mass of Pycnometer filled with water only. G= Specific gravity of solids. Apparatus- Pycnometer, Weighing balance, Glass rod, Vacuum pump. Procedure: 1. Clean and dry the Pycnometer. Tightly screw its cap. Take its mass (M1) to the nearest of 0.1g. 2. Mark the cap and Pycnometer with a vertical line parallel to the axis of the Pycnometer to ensure that the cap is screwed to the same mark each time. 3. Unscrew the cap and place about 200g of oven dried soil in the Pycnometer. Screw the cap. Determine the mass (M2). 4. Unscrew the cap and add sufficient amount of de-aired water to the Pycnometer so as to cover the soil. Screw on the cap. 5. Shake well the contents. Connect the Pycnometer to a vacuum pump to remove the entrapped air, for about 20 minutes for fine-grained soils and about 10 minutes for coarse-grained soils. 6. Disconnect the vacuum pump. Fill the Pycnometer with water, about threefourths full. Reapply the vacuum for about 5min till air bubbles stop appearing on the surface of the water.

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

7. Fill the Pycnometer with water completely upto the mark. Dry it from outside. Take its mass (M3). 8. Record the temperature of contents. 9. Empty the Pycnometer. Clean tit and wipe it dry. 10. Fill the Pycnometer with water only. Screw on the cap upto the mark. Wipe it dry. Take its mass (M4). Observations and calculations: S. No. Observations an Calculations 1 Observation 1 Pycnometer No. 2 Mass of empty Pycnometer (M1) 3 Mass of Pycnometer and dry soil (M2) 4 Mass of Pycnometer, soil and water (M3) 5 Mass of Pycnometer and water (M4) Calculations 6 M2 M1 7 M3 M4 8 Specific Gravity Determination No. 2

RESULT: Specific gravity of fine aggregate = _____.

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

EXP-11 SOUNDNESS OF CEMENT OBJECT-To determine the Soundness of cement by Le-chatelier apparatus. THEORY- Soundness of cement is the property of hardened cement paste undergoing large change in volume after setting without delayed destructive expansion. This destructive expansion is caused by excessive amounts of free lime or magnesia. This change in volume may cause crack and disintegration of concrete. Soundness of cement can be checked by using Le-Chatliers apparatus. This will cause serious difficulties for the durability of structures when such cement is used. The unsoundness in cement is due to the presence of excess of lime than that could be combined with acidic oxide at the kiln. This is also due to inadequate burning of insufficiency in fineness of grinding or through mixing of raw materials. It is also likely that too high a proportion of magnesium content or calcium sulphate content may cause unsoundness in cement. For this reason the magnesia content allowed in cement is limited to 6%. APPARATUS- Le-Chatelier, Weighing Balance, Water bath. PROCEDURE1. Place the mould on a glass sheet and fill it with the cement paste formed by gauging cement with 0.78 times the water required to give a paste of standard consistency. 2. Cover the mould with another piece of glass sheet, place a small weight on this covering glass sheet and immediately submerge the whole assembly in water at a temperature of 27 2oC and keep it there for 24hrs. 3. Measure the distance separating the indicator points to the nearest 0.5mm ( dl ) 4. Submerge the mould again in water at the temperature prescribed above. Bring the water to boiling point in 25 to 30 minutes and keep it boiling for 3hrs. 5. Remove the mould from the water, allow it to cool and measure the distance between the indicator points (say d2 ). 6. (d2 dl) represents the expansion of cement. REPORTING OF RESULTS- Calculate the mean of the two values to the nearest 0.5mm to represent the expansion of cement.

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE- RAISAR BIKANER DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONCRETE LAB MANUAL BY- ABDUL WAHID

EXP-12 BULKING OF SAND OBJECT- To determine the bulking of fine aggregate and draw curve between water content and bulking. APPARATUES- 250 ml measuring cylinder, weighing balance etc. PROCEDURE1. Take 500gm (W1) of the aggregate. 2. Keep the sample in an oven in a tray at a temperature of 100C-110 C for 24 0.5 hours. 3. Cool the sand in an air tight container and weight it (W2) 4. Water content of the sample = (W1-W2)x 100/ W1 5. Take out about 250gm of sand and pour it into a pan. 6. Add 2% (by weight) of water and mix well. 7. Pour the sand sample into a 250 ml measuring cylinder and consolidate by shaking. 8. Level the surface and read the volume in ml (Yi). 9. Take out the whole quantity of sand and continue the experiment by adding 2% water more each time and note the corresponding volume of sand (Y2,Y3..) until the dump sand volume starts decreasing. 10. Beyond this point, add 4% more water each time until the sample become fully saturated. 11. To the standard sample in the measuring cylinder, add about 50 ml water ore and stir the sample well. 12. Note down the surface level of inundated sand (Y ml). CALCULATIONS % Bulking =(Y1-Y)x100/Y GRAPH A graph drawn with % water content along X-axis and % bulking along Y- axis.. RESULTS The bulking of fine aggregate =