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MULTIWALLMULTIWALL VESSELSVESSELS Heavy Engineering Division LARSENLARSEN && TOUBROTOUBRO LIMITED,LIMITED,

MULTIWALLMULTIWALL VESSELSVESSELS

MULTIWALLMULTIWALL VESSELSVESSELS Heavy Engineering Division LARSENLARSEN && TOUBROTOUBRO LIMITED,LIMITED,

Heavy Engineering Division LARSENLARSEN && TOUBROTOUBRO LIMITED,LIMITED, INDIAINDIA

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

AGENDAAGENDA Various layered construction Multiwall shells • Applications • Materials of construction • Connection

AGENDAAGENDA

AGENDAAGENDA Various layered construction Multiwall shells • Applications • Materials of construction • Connection

Various layered construction Multiwall shells

AGENDAAGENDA Various layered construction Multiwall shells • Applications • Materials of construction • Connection

• Applications

• Materials of construction

• Connection of multiwall shell to head / flange

• Design methodology

Proof testing by L&T

• Manufacturing sequence

• Advantages

• In-service monitoring

Reference list
Reference list
Conclusions
Conclusions

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

LARSENLARSEN && TOUBROTOUBRO OPERATINGOPERATING DIVISIONSDIVISIONS MIPD Year Established : 1938 Sales : US $ 8.5

LARSENLARSEN && TOUBROTOUBRO OPERATINGOPERATING DIVISIONSDIVISIONS

TOUBROTOUBRO OPERATINGOPERATING DIVISIONSDIVISIONS MIPD Year Established : 1938 Sales : US $ 8.5 Billion No. of

MIPD

TOUBROTOUBRO OPERATINGOPERATING DIVISIONSDIVISIONS MIPD Year Established : 1938 Sales : US $ 8.5 Billion No. of

Year Established : 1938

Sales

: US $ 8.5 Billion

No. of employees : > 30,000

Sales : US $ 8.5 Billion No. of employees : > 30,000 HED ECC EBG E&C

HED

Sales : US $ 8.5 Billion No. of employees : > 30,000 HED ECC EBG E&C

ECC

: US $ 8.5 Billion No. of employees : > 30,000 HED ECC EBG E&C ©

EBG

E&C

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

CRITICAL EQUIPMENT FOR PROCESS INDUSTRIES 710 MT W or ld’ s arges l t 1500

CRITICAL EQUIPMENT FOR PROCESS INDUSTRIES

710 MT W or ld’ s arges l t 1500 MT World s largest ’
710 MT
W
or
ld’
s arges
l
t
1500 MT
World s largest
AMMONIA CONVERTER
E.O. REACTOR
VERY LARGE SIZE
EQUIPMENT
1200
MT
108 M Long World’s tallest PRODUCT SPLITTER
108 M Long
World’s tallest
PRODUCT SPLITTER
World’s largest FCC REGENERATOR
World’s largest
FCC REGENERATOR

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

CRITICAL EQUIPMENT FOR PROCESS INDUSTRIES DHDT REACTOR HYDROCRACKER REACTOR METHANOL CONVERTER UREA REACTOR © Larsen

CRITICAL EQUIPMENT FOR PROCESS INDUSTRIES

DHDT REACTOR
DHDT REACTOR
HYDROCRACKER REACTOR
HYDROCRACKER REACTOR
METHANOL CONVERTER
METHANOL CONVERTER
UREA REACTOR
UREA REACTOR

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

NEED FOR MULTIWALL CONSTRUCTION

New developments in process technology required equipment to operate at higher pressures & temperatures.

Equipment required to handle lethal fluids containing Hydrogen, Hydrogen Sulfide, Ammonia etc.

Exponential increase in plant capacities.

Consequently, equipment sizes increased and required higher cross-section thickness.

Multiwall / Multilayer technology developed as a cost- effective alternative to monowall shells.

ASME also recognizes the need & incorporates certain details for such alternate constructions.

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

VARIOUS LAYERED CONSTRUCTION Concentric Wrapped Coil Wound Multiwall Spiral Wrapped Incorporated in ASME Codes:

VARIOUS LAYERED CONSTRUCTION

Concentric Wrapped Coil Wound Multiwall Spiral Wrapped
Concentric
Wrapped
Coil Wound
Multiwall
Spiral Wrapped

Incorporated in ASME Codes:

Fig. ULW-2.1 of ASME

Sec.VIII,Div.1

&

Fi

Sec.VIII,Div.2

4 13 1 of ASME

.

.

g.

Notes:

(1) Inner shell (2) Dummy layer, if used

(3) La ers

y

(4) Shell layer (tapered) (5) Balance of layers

(6) Gaps

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

WHAT IS MULTIWALL SHELL ? Fabricated Fabricated by by consecutivelyconsecutively shrink shrink fittingfitting

WHAT IS MULTIWALL SHELL ?

FabricatedFabricated byby consecutivelyconsecutively shrinkshrink fittingfitting multiplemultiple ccyylindricallindrical shellsshells overover eacheach otherother

InterferenceInterference fitfit betweenbetween consecutiveconsecutive shellshell layerslayers

ThicknessThickness ofof individualindividual shellshell == 1515--100100 mmmm

ComplyComply withwith ASMEASME SectionSection VIII,VIII, Div.Div.11 && Div.Div.22

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

APPLICATIONS OF MULTIWALL VESSELS FERTILIZER INDUSTRY (Ammonia Converters, Urea Reactors etc ) PETRO- PETROLEUM

APPLICATIONS OF MULTIWALL VESSELS

FERTILIZER INDUSTRY (Ammonia Converters, Urea Reactors etc ) PETRO- PETROLEUM CHEMICAL PLANTS (Solution
FERTILIZER
INDUSTRY
(Ammonia
Converters,
Urea Reactors
etc )
PETRO-
PETROLEUM
CHEMICAL
PLANTS
(Solution
Adsorbers etc )
REFINERIES
(Hydrocracker
Reactors,
Separators)
etc ) REFINERIES (Hydrocracker Reactors, Separators) CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES (H P Heat Exchangers ) OTHER
CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES (H P Heat Exchangers )
CHEMICAL
INDUSTRIES
(H P Heat
Exchangers
)
OTHER INDUSTRIES (H P Storage )
OTHER
INDUSTRIES
(H P
Storage )

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

MATERIALS FOR MULTIWALL VESSEL Based on application, multiwall vessels are manufactured from any of the

MATERIALS FOR MULTIWALL VESSEL

Based on application, multiwall vessels are manufactured from any of the following materials :
Based on application, multiwall vessels are
manufactured from any of the following
materials :

• Carbon & low alloy steel

• High strength quench & tempered steels

For units requiring an alloy interior, two types of construction are possible:
For units requiring an alloy interior, two types
of construction are possible:

Alloy cladding or weld overlay on the innermost layer

Solid alloy liner backed by Multiwall shell (e.g. Urea Reactor)

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

CONFIGURATIONS OF MULTIWALL SHELLS TO HEAD/ FLA NG E CONN ECTI ON RefRef :: ASMEASME

CONFIGURATIONS OF MULTIWALL SHELLS TO HEAD/FLANGE CONNECTION

OF MULTIWALL SHELLS TO HEAD/ FLA NG E CONN ECTI ON RefRef :: ASMEASME BoilerBoiler &&
OF MULTIWALL SHELLS TO HEAD/ FLA NG E CONN ECTI ON RefRef :: ASMEASME BoilerBoiler &&

RefRef :: ASMEASME BoilerBoiler && PressurePressure VesselVessel CodeCode

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

DESIGN METHODOLOGY FOR MULTIWALL VESSEL Multiwall shells are designed as per the code rules given

DESIGN METHODOLOGY FOR MULTIWALL VESSEL

Multiwall shells are designed as per the code rules given in Part ULW of ASME sec VIII div.1 or Part 4.13 of ASME sec VIII div.2 for the applicable loading

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

CONTACT REQUIREMENT BETWEEN LAYER S –AS ME Code RefRef :: ASMEASME BoilerBoiler && PressurePressure

CONTACT REQUIREMENT BETWEEN LAYERS –ASME Code

RefRef :: ASMEASME BoilerBoiler && PressurePressure VesselVessel CodeCode

&& PressurePressure VesselVessel CodeCode AgAg << ThicknessThickness expressedexpressed inin

AgAg << ThicknessThickness expressedexpressed inin ‘in‘in 22 ’,’, GapGap LengthLength << Diameter,Diameter, inin

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

DESIGN METHODOLOGY : STRESS PROFILE S H R I N K S T R E

DESIGN METHODOLOGY : STRESS PROFILE

DESIGN METHODOLOGY : STRESS PROFILE S H R I N K S T R E S

SHRINK STRESS

: STRESS PROFILE S H R I N K S T R E S S PRESSURE
: STRESS PROFILE S H R I N K S T R E S S PRESSURE
: STRESS PROFILE S H R I N K S T R E S S PRESSURE
: STRESS PROFILE S H R I N K S T R E S S PRESSURE

PRESSURE STRESS

PROFILE S H R I N K S T R E S S PRESSURE STRESS SHRINK
PROFILE S H R I N K S T R E S S PRESSURE STRESS SHRINK

SHRINK STRESS AFTER STRESS RELIEVING

S S PRESSURE STRESS SHRINK STRESS AFTER STRESS RELIEVING RESULTANT STRESS © Larsen & Toubro Limited:

RESULTANT STRESS

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

FEM ANALYSIS : STRESS PROFILE Inside radius Pa Inside radius Pa MONOWALL VESSEL MULTIWALL VESSEL

FEM ANALYSIS : STRESS PROFILE

Inside radius Pa
Inside
radius
Pa
Inside radius Pa
Inside
radius
Pa

MONOWALL VESSEL

MULTIWALL VESSEL

Circumferential stress Load case: Design pressure + Shrink-fit stress + Operating temperature
Circumferential stress
Load case: Design pressure + Shrink-fit stress +
Operating temperature

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

FEM ANALYSIS : STRESS PROFILE Circumferential stress in the inner layer of multiwall vessel (which

FEM ANALYSIS : STRESS PROFILE

Circumferential stress in the inner layer of multiwall vessel (which is exposed to Hydrogen containing
Circumferential stress in the inner layer of multiwall vessel
(which is exposed to Hydrogen containing fluid) is much
lower than that of monowall vessel.
Pa
Pa

MONOWALL VESSEL

Pa
Pa

MULTIWALL VESSEL

Circumferential stress Load case: Design pressure + Shrink-fit stress + Operating temperature
Circumferential stress
Load case: Design pressure + Shrink-fit stress +
Operating temperature

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

FEM ANALYSIS OF AMMONIA CONVERTER Vessel ID (mm) 3600 No. of la y ers 4

FEM ANALYSIS OF AMMONIA CONVERTER

Vessel ID (mm)

3600

No. of layers

4

Layer thickness (mm)

46

Total vessel thickness (mm)

184

 

Start-up

Shut-down

cycle

cycle

D

i

(MP )

22 065

22 065

es gn pressure

a

.

.

Syngas temperature ( O C)

21 to 440

440 to 21

Rate of temp. variation ( O C/hr)

50

50

Total cycle time (hrs)

8.38

8.38

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

FEM ANALYSIS FOR START-UP CYCLE Inside radius O C Temperature distribution at end of start-up

FEM ANALYSIS FOR START-UP CYCLE

Inside radius O C
Inside radius
O C
Temperature distribution at end of start-up cycle
Temperature distribution at end of start-up cycle

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

FEM ANALYSIS FOR START-UP CYCLE Com p arison between Monowall & Multiwall Inside radius O

FEM ANALYSIS FOR START-UP CYCLE

Comparison between Monowall & Multiwall

Inside radius O C
Inside
radius
O C
Inside radius O C
Inside
radius
O C
Monowall vessel O C
Monowall vessel
O C
Multiwall vessel O C
Multiwall vessel
O C
Temperature distribution at end of start-up cycle
Temperature distribution at end of start-up cycle

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

FEM ANALYSIS : STRESS PROFILE Pa Monowall vessel Pa Multiwall vessel Tangential stress during Start-up

FEM ANALYSIS : STRESS PROFILE

Pa
Pa

Monowall vessel

Pa
Pa

Multiwall vessel

Tangential stress during Start-up + Operating + Shutdown cycle
Tangential stress during Start-up + Operating +
Shutdown cycle

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

FEM ANALYSIS : STRESS PROFILE Max. stress occurs at the multiwall shell to head weld

FEM ANALYSIS : STRESS PROFILE

Max. stress occurs at the multiwall shell to head weld joint during shutdown cycle. From
Max. stress occurs at the multiwall shell to head weld
joint during shutdown cycle. From fatigue assessment,
the fatigue life is approx. 10,200 cycles.
Pa
Pa
Equivalent stress in welds during Start-up + Operating + Shutdown cycle © Larsen & Toubro
Equivalent stress in welds during Start-up +
Operating + Shutdown cycle
© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved
FEM ANALYSIS FOR START-UP CYCLE Inside radius MPa Stress intensity near shell-to-head junction at end

FEM ANALYSIS FOR START-UP CYCLE

Inside radius MPa
Inside radius
MPa
Stress intensity near shell-to-head junction at end of start-up
Stress intensity near shell-to-head junction at end of start-up

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

FEM ANALYSIS FOR START-UP CYCLE Inside radius MPa Stress intensity at circ. seam at end

FEM ANALYSIS FOR START-UP CYCLE

Inside radius MPa
Inside radius
MPa
Stress intensity at circ. seam at end of start-up cycle
Stress intensity at circ. seam at end of start-up cycle

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

FEM ANALYSIS FOR START-UP CYCLE Inside radius MPa Stress intensity between two circ. seams at

FEM ANALYSIS FOR START-UP CYCLE

Inside radius MPa
Inside radius
MPa
Stress intensity between two circ. seams at end of start-up cycle
Stress intensity between two circ. seams at end of start-up cycle

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

FEM ANALYSIS FOR SHUT DOWN CYCLE Inside radius MPa Stress intensity near shell-to-head junction at
FEM ANALYSIS FOR SHUT DOWN CYCLE
Inside radius
MPa
Stress intensity near shell-to-head junction at end of shut-down cycle
© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved
FEM ANALYSIS FOR SHUT DOWN CYCLE Inside radius MPa Stress intensity at circ. seam at

FEM ANALYSIS FOR SHUT DOWN CYCLE

Inside radius MPa
Inside radius
MPa
Stress intensity at circ. seam at end of shut-down cycle
Stress intensity at circ. seam at end of shut-down cycle

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

PROOF TEST OF MULTIWALL VESSELS (at L&T) MultiMulti wallwall vesselvessel beingbeing preparedprepared forfor

PROOF TEST OF MULTIWALL VESSELS (at L&T)

PROOF TEST OF MULTIWALL VESSELS (at L&T) MultiMulti wallwall vesselvessel beingbeing preparedprepared forfor

MultiMulti wallwall vesselvessel beingbeing preparedprepared forfor destructivedestructive teststests

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

MANUFACTURING SEQUENCE • Measurement of actual plate thickness. • Rolling, welding & RT or TOFD

MANUFACTURING SEQUENCE

• Measurement of actual plate thickness. • Rolling, welding & RT or TOFD UT of
• Measurement of actual plate thickness.
• Rolling, welding & RT or TOFD UT of shell courses for first layer.
1 st layer
• Measurement of actual circumferences.
• Manufacture shell courses for second layer to the dimensions required to achieve predetermined interference
• Manufacture shell courses for second layer to the dimensions
required to achieve predetermined interference (based on actual
dimensions of first layer)
2 nd layer
• Clear RT or TOFD UT of long seams for each course.
• Shrink fitting of second layer (thermally expanded) on first layer.
• Repeat above steps till required number of layers are achieved.
Subsequent
• Make weld bevels at the ends and drill vent holes in multiwall
la
y ers
shell courses.
• Continue subsequent operation as in solid wall construction.
© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved
NDT of c rc. i seams before PWHT NDT after PWHT NDT after Hydrotest
NDT of
c rc.
i
seams
before
PWHT
NDT after
PWHT
NDT after
Hydrotest

MANUFACTURING SEQUENCE

• RT • Conventional UT • PT / MT
• RT
• Conventional UT
• PT / MT
• Conventional UT of all accessible welds.
• Conventional UT of all accessible welds.
• PT / MT of all accessible welds.
• PT / MT of all accessible welds.

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

MANUFACTURING SEQUENCE © Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

MANUFACTURING SEQUENCE

MANUFACTURING SEQUENCE © Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

MANUFACTURING SEQUENCE © Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

MANUFACTURING SEQUENCE

MANUFACTURING SEQUENCE © Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

SEQUENCE OF SHRINK FITTING (1) (1) (2) (2) (3)(3) © Larsen & Toubro Limited: April

SEQUENCE OF SHRINK FITTING

SEQUENCE OF SHRINK FITTING (1) (1) (2) (2) (3)(3) © Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010.
SEQUENCE OF SHRINK FITTING (1) (1) (2) (2) (3)(3) © Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010.
SEQUENCE OF SHRINK FITTING (1) (1) (2) (2) (3)(3) © Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010.

(1)(1)

(2)(2)

(3)(3)

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

MULTIWALL CIRC. SEAM • After welding of Circ. seams for Multiwall, interpretation of RT can

MULTIWALL CIRC. SEAM

MULTIWALL CIRC. SEAM • After welding of Circ. seams for Multiwall, interpretation of RT can be
• After welding of Circ. seams for Multiwall, interpretation of RT can be difficult. However,
• After
welding
of
Circ. seams for Multiwall,
interpretation of RT can be difficult. However,
welding techniques and RT techniques have
improved, thereby eliminating the need for
inter-layer welding.
• No special steps (such as sealing of gaps by
welding or buttering of the surface) are needed
before circ. seam welding.
• No defects encountered in circumferential seams
at the plate interfaces.

Photograph of circ. seam PTC.

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

MULTIWALL CIRC. SEAM Multiwall to Multiwall Photograph of Circ Seam PTC. Multiwall to Monowall ©

MULTIWALL CIRC. SEAM

MULTIWALL CIRC. SEAM Multiwall to Multiwall Photograph of Circ Seam PTC. Multiwall to Monowall © Larsen
MULTIWALL CIRC. SEAM Multiwall to Multiwall Photograph of Circ Seam PTC. Multiwall to Monowall © Larsen
MULTIWALL CIRC. SEAM Multiwall to Multiwall Photograph of Circ Seam PTC. Multiwall to Monowall © Larsen
MULTIWALL CIRC. SEAM Multiwall to Multiwall Photograph of Circ Seam PTC. Multiwall to Monowall © Larsen
Multiwall to Multiwall
Multiwall to Multiwall

Photograph of Circ Seam PTC.

SEAM Multiwall to Multiwall Photograph of Circ Seam PTC. Multiwall to Monowall © Larsen & Toubro
SEAM Multiwall to Multiwall Photograph of Circ Seam PTC. Multiwall to Monowall © Larsen & Toubro
Multiwall to Monowall
Multiwall to
Monowall

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

ADVANTAGES OF MULTIWALL Theoretically no limitation for achieving any thickness of cross section. Plates in

ADVANTAGES OF MULTIWALL

Theoretically no limitation for achieving any thickness of cross section. Plates in standard thickness range
Theoretically no limitation for achieving any thickness of cross
section.
Plates in standard thickness range can be used. (Gives higher
flexibility in sourcing/ availability of plates.)
Thinner plates permit better metallurgical control & superior structural homogeneity during manufacturing at mills.
Thinner plates permit better metallurgical control & superior
structural homogeneity during manufacturing at mills.
Consequently the same advantages get translated for much
thicker sections by utilizing multiwall construction.
Materials of different properties can be used for inner layers & subsequent layers, if desired.
Materials of different properties can be used for inner layers &
subsequent layers, if desired.

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

ADVANTAGES OF MULTIWALL Shrink fitting of multiwall induces compression in the inner layers, which counters

ADVANTAGES OF MULTIWALL

Shrink fitting of multiwall induces compression in the inner layers, which counters the pressure stresses
Shrink fitting of multiwall induces compression in the inner
layers, which counters the pressure stresses and thus creating
additional reserve strength.
In-built safety exists against brittle fracture. Fracture, if initiated in long seams, would be confined
In-built safety exists against brittle fracture.
Fracture, if initiated in long seams, would be confined
to one layer and would not propagate through the total
thickness.
Fracture is not expected in circumferential seams as
these are half-stressed joints. (In any case, the risk of
brittle fracture in circumferential seams is same as that
of monowall construction).
Normal stresses due to temperature gradient are lower
compared to monowall due to lower discontinuity stresses for
multiwall construction.

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

ADVANTAGES OF MULTIWALL Venting system provides early warning for any problem initiated from the inside

ADVANTAGES OF MULTIWALL

Venting system provides early warning for any problem initiated from the inside surface of the
Venting system provides early warning for any problem
initiated from the inside surface of the vessel.
problem initiated from the inside surface of the vessel. In-service monitoring system for Multiwall © Larsen
problem initiated from the inside surface of the vessel. In-service monitoring system for Multiwall © Larsen

In-service monitoring system for Multiwall

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

IN-SERVICE MONITORING SYSTEM Inherent features of multiwall construction gives much superior operational reliability to

IN-SERVICE MONITORING SYSTEM

Inherent features of multiwall construction gives much superior operational reliability to the multiwall vessels.
Inherent features of multiwall construction gives
much superior operational reliability to the
multiwall vessels.
Provision for a continuous monitoring system
using the venting arrangement eliminates the
need for carrying out “In-service” NDT during
shutdown to detect defects
The intents of stipulations in Clause 4.3 b of API-
934-A & C: May 2008) are met with.

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

REFERENCE LIST L & T has manufactured and supplied 50 + Multiwall vessels for Ammonia,

REFERENCE LIST

L & T has manufactured and supplied 50 + Multiwall vessels for Ammonia, Urea &
L & T has manufactured and supplied 50 + Multiwall
vessels for Ammonia, Urea & other Petrochemical
services operating for periods up to 20+ years.
Many of such vessels are used for Hydrogen service viz. Ammonia Converter, operating with 50
Many of such vessels are used for Hydrogen service
viz. Ammonia Converter, operating with 50 to 55
mole% Hydrogen at 100 – 140 bar partial pressure
and temperature of 350 to 450 deg C.
Another reputed manufacturer (M/s Struthers Wells)
has supplied multiwall vessels like Hydrocracker
Reactor, H.P. Separator etc for refineries in the past.

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

REFERENCE LIST FOR AMMONIA CONVERTERS Sr. No Customer / Location Process Licensor Design Press. Design

REFERENCE LIST FOR AMMONIA CONVERTERS

Sr.

No

Customer / Location

Process

Licensor

Design

Press.

Design

Temp.

Design

Code

Dimensions (ID X L)

Thk

mm

Material Of Construction

(Multi-Wall)

Year Of

Supply

H2

Partial

Press.K

K

g

/C

m

2

°C

mm

2

g/cm

1

Kribhco - Hazira

Haldor

 

245

 

360

ADM

1971

x

   

1988-89

179

Topsoe

 

16995

110

SA 204 GR. B +

(40+35x2)

SA 533 GR. B CL 2

2

Zuari Agro – Goa (2 Nos)

Haldor

 

165

 

260

ADM

1964

x

72

SA 204 GR B +

1989-90

100

   

.

Topsoe

20000

 

(20+25x2)

SA 533 GR. B CL 2

3

Chambal Fertliser, Gadepan

Haldor

 

245

 

370

ADM

3005

x

155

SA 387 GR.11 CL 2 +

1992

158

Topsoe

 

21455

SA 533 GR. B CL.2

 

(35+40x3)

4

Tata Chemicals

Haldor

 

155

 

370

ADM

2805

x

98

SA 387 GR.11 CL 2 +

1993

102

Babrala

Topsoe

 

23436

(30+34x2)

SA 533 GR. B CL.2

5

Tata Chemicals

Haldor

 

155

 

450

DIV.2

2705

x

145

SA 387 GR. 22 CL.2

1993

 

Babrala

Topsoe

 

21274

(48.5x3)

6

IFFCO – Aonla

Haldor

 

245

 

370

ADM

3000

x

155

SA 387 GR.11 CL 2 +

1996

157

Topsoe

 

22425

(32+41x3)

SA 533 GR. B CL.2

7

NFL – Vijaipur

Haldor

 

245

 

370

ADM

3000

x

155

SA 387 GR.11 CL 2 +

1996

157

Topsoe

 

22425

 

(32+41x3)

SA 533 GR. B CL.2

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

REFERENCE LIST FOR AMMONIA CONVERTERS             Dimension      

REFERENCE LIST FOR AMMONIA CONVERTERS

           

Dimension

     

H2

Sr.

No

Customer / Location

Process

Licensor

Design

Press.

Kg/Cm 2

Design

Temp.

°C

Design

Code

s

(ID X L)

mm

Thk

mm

Material Of Construction

(Multi-Wall)

Year Of

Supply

Partial

Press.

Kg/cm 2

8

FACT -

Haldor

158

370

ADM

2700

x

94

SA 387 GR.11 CL 2 +

1996

105

Udyogmandal

Topsoe

20940

(30+32x2)

SA 533 GR. B CL.2

9

IFFCO - Phulpur

Haldor

245

370

ADM

3000

x

155

SA 387 GR.11 CL 2 +

1997

157

Topsoe

22425

(32+41x3)

SA 533 GR. B CL.2

10

RCF, Trombay -I

Haldor

120

370

ADM

2000

x

56

SA 387 GR.11 CL 2 +

1998

82

Topsoe

16300

(24+32)

SA 533 GR. B CL.2

11

Indo Gulf

Haldor

245

370

ADM

3000

X

148

SA 387 GR.11 CL 2 +

1998

157

Topsoe

22425

(25+41x3)

SA 533 GR. B CL.2

12

Chambal Fertiliser Gadepan

MW

188

290

ADM

2800

x

107+ 6

SA 302 GR. A +

1998

116.2

Kellogg

29650

 

(27+40x2)

SA 533 GR. B CL.2

13

MHI/P.T Kaltim

Haldor

155

370

ADM

3300

x

110

SA 387 GR.11 CL 2 +

1998

103

Pasifik Amoniak,

Topsoe

22980

Indonesia

(32+39x2)

SA 533 GR. B CL.2

14

Petronas Ammonia Syngas Project

Haldor

155

370

ADM

2700

x

111

SA 387 GR.11 CL 2 +

1999

111

Topsoe

20600

 

(25+43x2)

SA 533 GR. B CL.2

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

REFERENCE LIST FOR AMMONIA CONVERTERS Sr. No Customer / Location Process Licensor Design Press. Design

REFERENCE LIST FOR AMMONIA CONVERTERS

Sr.

No

Customer / Location

Process

Licensor

Design

Press.

Design

Temp.

Design

Code

Dimensions (ID X L)

Thk

mm

Material Of Construction

(Multi-Wall)

Year Of

Supply

H2

Partial

Press.

Kg/Cm 2

°C

mm

Kg/cm 2

15

NFCL, Kakinanda Plant –

Haldor

155

370

 

2700

x

   

2001

102

1

Topsoe

ADM

30400

 

94

SA 387 GR.11 CL 2 +

(30+32x2)

SA 533 GR. B CL.2

16

Uhde Gmbh, Germany /

Uhde

230

300

DIV.2

3010

X

192

SA 387 GR.11 CL 2 +

2003

129.5

QAFCO-4

11550

(48x4)

SA 533 GR. B CL.2

17

Uhde Gmbh, Germany /

Uhde

230

300

DIV.2

2855

X

182

SA 387 GR.11 CL 2 +

2003

105

QAFCO-4

10200

(44+46x3)

SA 533 GR. B CL.2

18

Snamprogetti, Italy / OMIFCO,Oman-2 nos.

Haldor

230

370

ADM

2800

x

142

SA 387 GR.11 Cl.2 +

2004

158.02

Topsoe

21540

 

(25+39x3)

 

SA 533 Gr.B Cl.2

19

Burrup Fertilizers Pty Ltd, Australia

KBR, USA

16.65

270

DIV.2

3250

x

174

SA 387 GR.11 CL.2

2004

111.5

(MPA)

31000

(4x43.5)

20

IFFCO-Kalol & Phulpur-I:

Haldor

155

380

ADM

2800

X

 

96

SA 387 GR 11 Cl 2 +SA

2005

87

2 Nos.

Topsoe

20,000

(24+36x2)

 

533 Gr

B Cl 2

21

IFFCO-Aonla I & II

Haldor

225

430

ADM

3000

X

169 (42x3+43)

13

Cr Mo V910 as per EN 10028-2

2006

117

Topsoe

20,300

Phulpur-II: 3 Nos.

 

22

RCF-Trombay

Haldor

225

430

ADM

2400

x

120

(40x3)

13

Cr Mo V910 as per EN 10028-2

2006

117

Topsoe

16,210

 

23

KBR-EBIC-Egypt

KBR

103

413

DIV.2 /

3810/3313 x

135

SA 387 Gr. 11 CL2

2007

55.53

U2

23470

24

KBR CFCL1 –India

KBR

225

398

ADM

3600

x

184

(47x4)

 

13CrMov9-10

2008

93.9

17540

   

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

REFERENCE LIST FOR AMMONIA CONVERTERS Sr. No Customer / Location Process Licensor Design Press. Design

REFERENCE LIST FOR AMMONIA CONVERTERS

Sr.

No

Customer / Location

Process

Licensor

Design

Press.

Design

Temp.

Design

Code

Dimensions (ID X L)

Thk

mm

Material Of Construction

(Multi-Wall)

Year Of

Supply

H2 Partial

Press.

Kg/Cm 2

°C

 

mm

Kg/cm 2

25

KBR CFCL2 India

KBR

188

398

ADM

3600

x 17540

153 (51x3)

13CrMov9-10

2008

93 9

.

26

Petrochina Tarim - China

Haldor

218

325

DIV.2

2600

x 22545

188

SA 387 Gr. 11 Cl. 2

2008

144.8

Topsoe

 

(47 x 4)

27

Uhde GmbH, Sorfert Algeria

Uhde

234.5

300

DIV.2

3010

x 16730

247.5

SA 387 Gr. 11 Cl. 2

2009

132.5

 

(49.5 x 5)

29

Uhde GmbH, Sorfert Algeria

Uhde

234.5

300

DIV.2

2855

x 14725

235

SA 387 Gr. 11 Cl. 2

2009

106.5

 

(47 x 5)

30

Jianfeng Chemicals & Co Ltd, China.

KBR

166.29

285

DIV.2

3000

x 26700

158

SA 387 Gr. 11 Cl. 2

2009

110.2

 

(40x3+38)

31

PIDEC, Iran

Ammonia

183.54

300

DIV.2

3100

x 29300

184

SA 387 Gr. 11 Cl. 2

Under

108.1

Casale

 

(46 x 4)

Exec

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

REFERENCE LIST FOR AMMONIA SEPARATORS Sr. No Customer / Location Process Licensor Design Press. Design

REFERENCE LIST FOR AMMONIA SEPARATORS

Sr.

No

Customer / Location

Process

Licensor

Design

Press.

Design

Temp.

Design

Code

Dimensions (ID X L)

 

Thk

mm

Material Of

Construction

Year Of

Supply

H2

Partial

Press.

Kg/Cm 2

°C

 

mm

 

(Multi-Wall)

Kg/cm 2

1

HFCL Namrup (2 nos)

Haldor

270

-20

DIV.2

1400

x 4220

 

130

 

1983

-

Topsoe

 

40

+ 2 x 45

SA 516 Gr 70

2

IFFCO Aonla

Haldor

245

50

ADM

2260

x 5460

 

100

SA 537 Cl 1 +

1995

-

Expansion

Topsoe

 

30

+ 2 x 35

SA 533 GR. B CL 2

3

NFL Vijaypur Expansion

Haldor

245

50

ADM

2260

x 5460

 

100

SA 537 Cl 1 +

1995

-

Topsoe

 

30

+ 2 x 35

SA 533 GR. B CL 2

4

IFFCO Phulpur

Haldor

245

50

ADM

2260

x 5460

 

100

SA 537 Cl 1 +

1996

-

 

Expansion

Topsoe

       

30

+ 2 x 35

SA 533 GR. B CL 2

   

5

QAFCO 4, Qatar

Uhde

225

50

DIV.2

2170

x 9725

 

172

 

2003

-

 

43 x 4

SA 516 Gr. 70

6

Sriram Fertilizer, Kota

 

345

70

DIV.2

1130

x 6000

 

136

   

1999

-

 

36 + 2x32 + 36

SA 516 G

r.

70

   

7

Snam-Technip JV / Oman India Fertilizer Co., Oman (2 nos.)

Haldor

234.5

75

ADM

2350

x 3640

 

104

SA537 Cl1 +

2004

-

Topsoe

 

30

+ 2 x37

SA 533 GR. B CL 2

8

Burrup Fertilizers Pty Ltd, Australia

 

KBR

169

60

DIV.2

2400 x

 

136

 

2004

-

 

10740

4 x 34

SA 516 Gr. 70

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

REFERENCE LIST FOR UREA REACTORS                    

REFERENCE LIST FOR UREA REACTORS

                   

H2

Sr.

No

Customer / Location

Process

Licensor

Design

Press .

Design

Temp .

Design

Code

Dimensions (ID X L)

Thk

mm

Material Of

Construction

Year Of

Supply

Partial

Press.

Kg/Cm 2

°C

 

mm

(Multi-Wall)

Kg/cm 2

1

NFL Bhatinda

Mitsui

260

210

HPGC +

2100

x 29000

148

SA 533 Gr. B Cl 2

1996

-

Div 2

 

37

x 4

+ Ti Liner

2

Chambal Fertlisers, Gadepan (2 nos.)

TEC

184

220

ADM

2450

x 27300

 

SA 533 GR. B CL 2

1998

-

 

84

+ 7

SA 240 Gr. 316L

3

NFL Nangal

Urea Casale

240

220

ADM

1200

x 29000

 

SA 533 GR. B CL 2

2000

-

Expansion

 

57

+ 8

SS 25 - 22 - 2 Liner

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

REFERENCE LIST FOR SOLUTION ADSORBERS                    

REFERENCE LIST FOR SOLUTION ADSORBERS

                   

H2

Sr.

No

Customer / Location

Process

Licensor

Design

Press .

Design

Tem p.

Design

Code

Dimensions (ID X L)

Thk

mm

Material Of

Construction

Year Of

Supply

Partial

Press.

Kg/Cm 2

°C

 

mm

(Multi-Wall)

Kg/cm 2

1

RPL, Hazira

Nova

195

315

Div

2

2743

x 6463

225

SA 516 Gr. 70

1989

-

190

340

   

23+3, 50 x 4

Monel Clad

2

GAIL, Auriya

Nova

195

340

Div

1

2900

x 1610

259

SA 516 Gr. 70

1996

-

   

32+3, 56 x 4

Monel Clad

3

RPL, Hazira

Nova

195

340

Div

2

2900

x 1610

237

SA 516 Gr. 70

1996

-

   

22+3, 53 x 4

Monel Clad

4

IOCL, Panipat

Nova

190

340

Div

1

3800

x 2900

305

SA 516 Gr. 70

2009

-

   

45+3, 52 x 5

Monel Clad

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

REFERENCE LIST….Summary Ammonia Converters: 35 nos. Ammonia Separators: 10 nos. Urea Reactors: 4 nos .

REFERENCE LIST….Summary

Ammonia Converters: 35 nos.
Ammonia Converters: 35 nos.
Ammonia Separators: 10 nos.
Ammonia Separators: 10 nos.
Urea Reactors: 4 nos .
Urea Reactors: 4 nos .
Solution Adsorbers: 4 nos.
Solution Adsorbers: 4 nos.
Hydrogenation Reactors: 2 nos.; Towers: 2 nos.
Hydrogenation Reactors: 2 nos.; Towers: 2 nos.
Hydrocracker Reactors: 3 nos.; Secondary Reactor: 1 no. (supplied by Struthers Wells)
Hydrocracker Reactors: 3 nos.; Secondary Reactor: 1
no. (supplied by Struthers Wells)

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

TO CONCLUDE Multiwall construction is proven design and fabrication technology for high pressure vessels in

TO CONCLUDE

Multiwall construction is proven design and fabrication technology for high pressure vessels in varied process services including Ammonia Converters, Hydrocracker Reactors, Separators etc.

Design & manufacture of Multiwall equipment fully conforms to ASME Code.

Multiwall construction provides higher operational safety due efficient to venting of diffused gases, such as Hydrogen and inherent ability to provide an early warning in case of any failure originating from inside of vessel.

Multiwall construction facilitates use of thinner plate sections which have inherent ability to achieve better/superior metallurgical control /structure and thus, it is not only cost effective, but may be a better alternative for High Pressure Vessels / Reactors.

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

REQUESTS TO API 934A COMMITTEE

For the short-term, we request adding the following statement to API 934-A: "This standard addresses solid wall vessels; however, it is not meant to exclude the use of multiwall vessels. For multiwall vessels, the Purchaser should develop a specification similar in scope to API 934-A (in addition to following all ASME Code requirements)."

Request API committee to list out all concerns and test data that would be needed for API 934 members to accept the use of multiwall vessels in Hydro-processing Reactor service.

Assuming that the concerns can be addressed, at that time, multiwall should be added to API 934-A and maybe 934-C in the future, or be a stand-alone separate API 934 document.

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

THANK YOU © Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved

THANK YOU

© Larsen & Toubro Limited: April 2010. All rights reserved