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1

HV AC CIRCUIT BREAKERS
IEC 62271-100, 2001
Oct. 3rd, 2001 IEEE / PES - HVCB Subcommittee
E. Figini
2

The major changes introduced
in the 2001 issue of:
IEC 62271-100

I. Bonfanti, member of
IEC SC17A WG21
G. AIdrovandi, member of
IEC SC17A MT28
E. Figini, chairman STL TC
HV AC Circuit-breakers
HV AC Circuit-breakers
3

Scope and appIicabiIity
o V>1000 V
o 50 & 60 Hz onIy (no 16 2/3 Hz)
o 3- and 1-phase breakers (no 2-phase CBs)
o no traction breakers (IEC77)
o o
no generator breakers (IEEE C37.013)
no generator breakers (IEEE C37.013)
4

New definitions
o 3.1.126 NSDD
o 3.1.127 restrike performance
(restrike free CBs no Ionger exist!)
o o
3.4.112-117 CBs type E1-E2 for
3.4.112-117 CBs type E1-E2 for
eIectricaI endurance,M1-M2 for
eIectricaI endurance,M1-M2 for
mechanicaI endurance and C1-C2 for
mechanicaI endurance and C1-C2 for
capacitive switching performance
capacitive switching performance
5

New definitions (continued)
o pressure vaIues:
3.7.157 minimum functionaI
pressure for operation (aIso
interIocking pressure)
3.7.158 minimum functionaI
pressure for interruption and
insuIation
6

4-ratings
o 50 & 60 Hz
o o
pressure vaIues for operation, interruption
pressure vaIues for operation, interruption
and insuIation (when reIevant) are a rating
and insuIation (when reIevant) are a rating
o additionaI mandatory rating :
52 kV rating of cabIe charging
72.5kV rating of Iine charging
o higher p.f. withstand voItage vaIue across
the open switching device may be appIied if
voItage factor of 1.4 is appIied for 1-phase
capacitive test
7

4.101.2 DC component of short-circuit
current
o 45 ms standard vaIue
o speciaI case time constants are:
120 ms for MV up to 52 kV incIuded
60 ms up to 420 kV incIuded
75 ms for V>420 kV
8

4.103 making current - peak/rms ratio
o 2.5 for 50 Hz @ 45 ms
o 2.6 for 60 Hz @ 45 ms
o o
2.7 for time constants other than 45 ms,
2.7 for time constants other than 45 ms,
both 50 and 60 Hz
both 50 and 60 Hz
9

4.107 capacitive current ratings
o tabIe 5 provides "preferred" not
mandatory vaIues
o vaIues are given aIso for singIe and back-
to- back current switching
o back-to-back covers singIe capacitor
bank
o vaIues of back-to-back capacitor bank
inrush making current and frequency
equaI for aII the rated voItage vaIues
10

4.110 mechanicaI endurance
o Standard circuit-breaker (normaI
mechanicaI endurance)
cIass M1: 2,000 operating sequences
o o
Circuit-breaker for speciaI service
Circuit-breaker for speciaI service
requirements (extended mechanicaI
requirements (extended mechanicaI
endurance)
endurance)
cIass M2: 10,000 operating sequences
cIass M2: 10,000 operating sequences
11

4.111 eIectricaI endurance
o for the time being, for MV CBs onIy, up to
and incIuding 52 kV (in progress for HV)
o cIass E2, for CBs intended for autorecIosing
duty, as for overhead Iine systems; they
perform additionaI tests as per TabIe 21
o cIass E2, for CBs without autorecIosing
duty, as for cabIe-connected systems; they
perform the basic short-circuit test-duties
(cIause 6.106) without intermediate
maintenance
o cIass E1, not requiring eIectricaI endurance
12

New naming for tests
o Basic short-circuit:
T10, T30, T60, T100s, T100a
o Short-Iine fauIt: ..., (L60)
o out of phase: (OP1), OP2
o o
capacitive current switching:
capacitive current switching:
Iines: LC1, LC2
cabIes: CC1, CC2
capacitor banks (singIe & back-to-
back): BC1, BC2
13

6.2 dieIectric tests
o 6.2.4 criteria to pass the tests
no disruptive discharges on non-seIf
restoring insuIation shaII occur
up to 2 discharges admitted (out of 15
impuIses) if seIf-restoring insuIation is
concerned
in case of discharge, each discharge shaII
be foIIowed by at Ieast 5 impuIses without
any discharge
if discrimination (internaI/externaI) is
impossibIe, then inspection
14

6.2.11 voItage test as a condition check
for V 72.5 kV, power frequency test at
80% of the rated p.f. withstand vaIue
72.5 < V 245 kV: T10 TRV with peak equaI
to 60% of the rated Iightning impuIse; No. 5
impuIses per poIarity
245< V 420 kV: T10 TRV with peak equaI
to 80% of the rated switching impuIse; No.
5 impuIses per poIarity
420< V 800 kV: T10 TRV with peak equaI
to 90% of the rated switching impuIse; No.
5 impuIses per poIarity
Standard "LI" or "SI" required but
impracticaI
15

6.101.1.1 reference mechanicaI traveI
characteristic
o the mechanicaI traveI characteristic is of
pecuIiar interest both for cIosing and opening
operations
o reference no Ioad test (contractuaI item)
against which comparing (max deviation is
10%) any additionaI specimen or after
maintenance
16

6.102 misceIIaneous for making breaking
and switching
o before commencing the tests the
manufacturer shaII decIare
the minimum conditions for the
command guaranteeing the rated
operating sequence (e.g. minimum
functionaI pressure for operation,
see definitions)
the minimum conditions for the
interruption guaranteeing the rated
operating sequence (e.g. minimum
functionaI pressure for interruption,
see definitions)
17

6.102.2 max # of specimens for making &
breaking & switching tests
o preferabIy 1 singIe specimen +
maintenance
o max 2 specimens for
basic short-circuit
short-time current
short-Iine fauIt
out of phase
capacitive current switching
18

6.102.2 max # of specimens for making &
breaking & switching tests (continued)
o the 2 specimens must be "equaI" (same
traveI curve and times as per 6.101.1.1) and
shaII be identified as per 6.1.2 IEC 60694
o maintenance is aIIowed
o o
for the onIy case of CBs having
for the onIy case of CBs having
independent mechanism per poIe, 1-phase
independent mechanism per poIe, 1-phase
and fuII-poIe tested, 2 specimens pIus
and fuII-poIe tested, 2 specimens pIus
interrupting unit of up to 2 poIes
interrupting unit of up to 2 poIes
o visuaI inspection to verify the abiIity of the
non renewabIe parts to withstand aII type
tests
19

6.102.3.1 arrangement of circuit-breaker for
tests; generaI
o for T100a, capacitive and 1-phase test
(6.108), reIease voItages at their
maximum vaIues
o pressure for interruption (SF
6
) at its
minimum functionaI vaIue (3.7.158)
o o
pressure for operation at
pressure for operation at
commencement of the rated operating
commencement of the rated operating
sequence, is set at its minimum
sequence, is set at its minimum
functionaI vaIue (3.7.157)
functionaI vaIue (3.7.157)
20

6.102.3.1 arrangement of circuit-breaker for tests;
generaI (continued)
o if, for any reason, the singIe test duty consists of
separate O, CO and O-CO:
at no Ioad the pressure vaIues during the rated
operating sequence shaII be measured
vaIues are compared with the ones decIared by
the manufacturer
the singIe operations (O, CO, O-CO) shaII be
performed at the minimum pressure resuIting
from the comparison whatever is the Iower, for
the corresponding operation in the test duty; the
used vaIues shaII be incIuded in the Test Report
interIocks made inoperative
21

6.102.4.1 singIe-phase testing of a singIe poIe of
a three-phase circuit-breaker
p checking of the operating mechanism aIso in
the making operation
p two three-phase tests for making (T100s): one
with the fuII symmetricaI current and the max.
pre-arcing time in one poIe and one with the
maximum asymmetricaI current in one poIe
22

6.102.7 aIternative mechanism
o o
if 2 different mechanisms, (same
if 2 different mechanisms, (same
interrupting unit) giving "same" speed
interrupting unit) giving "same" speed
and times, in a no-Ioad operation and in
and times, in a no-Ioad operation and in
the test of T100s with the Iongest arcing
the test of T100s with the Iongest arcing
time, vaIidity of short circuit tests can be
time, vaIidity of short circuit tests can be
extended to the second mechanism
extended to the second mechanism
o T100s shaII however be repeated
o
mechanicaI, environmentaI tests,.... to
mechanicaI, environmentaI tests,.... to
be carried out twice in any case
be carried out twice in any case
23

6.102.9. Condition of circuit-breaker after
tests
clause 6.2.11 (voltage test as a condition
check) mandatory after
o L90 or, if not performed, after T100s
o capacitive test-duties if 1 restrike
occurs, before visuaI inspection
o capacitive test-duties on seaIed for Iife
circuit-breaker (even in the case of no
restrike)
24

6.102.10.2.1.1& 6.102.10.2.2.1 demonstration of arcing times
(singIe-phase) T10, T30, T60, T100s, OP1,OP2 L90, L75, L60
o fixed sequence for arcing times :
minimum, maximum and medium
o medium : (t
max
+ t
min
) / 2
o
o
arcing times specified aIso for out-of-
arcing times specified aIso for out-of-
phase
phase
25

6.102.10.2.1.2& 6.102.10.2.2.2emonstration of arcing
times (singIe-phase) T100a
o required vaIues of current peak and Ioop
duration of the Iast Ioop prior to the
interruption; due to this, in principIe, there is
no possibiIity to cover the different "To" with
reduced number of tests
o fixed sequence for arcing times:
minimum, maximum and medium
o o
medium : (t
medium : (t
max max
+ t
+ t
min min
) / 2
) / 2
o open point about test procedures in case of
time constants of the test circuit different from
the rated one (in progress,see IEC 62215 to be
pubIished)
26

6.102.10.2.5 spIitting of test duties in test series taking
into account the associated TRV for each poIe-to-cIear
o brand new test procedure
o each test-duty (more IikeIy T100s and
T100a) spIit into two or three separate test
series, each one demonstrating the
minimum, medium and maximum arcing
time
o
o
increased number of tests to be performed
increased number of tests to be performed
27

6.105.5 invaIid test
o simpIe "common good sense" appIied
o the advantage is that it is stated and
ruIed, so guidance is given how to
continue the tests
28

6.106.4 test-duty T100s
o brand new, accounting for the new time
constants
o test methods are given to consider that the
test circuit may have a time constant
different than the standard one
o o
one making operation at fuII voItage is
one making operation at fuII voItage is
mandatory
mandatory
29

6.107 criticaI current tests
o the appIicabiIity is defined :
the minimum arcing time in any of the
test duties T10,T30 or T60 is 1/2 cycIe or
Ionger than the minimum arcing times in
the adjacent test duties
o current vaIues are defined
o o
test duty is defined
test duty is defined
30

6.108 singIe phase and doubIe earth fauIt
tests
o brand new cIause for isoIated neutraI
systems in case of doubIe fauIt to
ground open by a singIe poIe onIy
o confirmed appIicabiIity for earthed
neutraI systems (singIe-phase to ground
fauIt)
o o
one singIe operation (for each of the two
one singIe operation (for each of the two
fauIt cases) at specified arcing time
fauIt cases) at specified arcing time
31

Fig. 45- Necessity of additionaI singIe-phase tests
and requirements for testing
Circuit-breaker with three-poIe Circuit-breaker with three-poIe
common operating mechanism common operating mechanism
intended to be used in soIidIy earthed neutraI intended to be used in soIidIy earthed neutraI
system system
(K =1.0..1.3) (K =1.0..1.3)
Test-duty T 100s is
performed singIe-phase
Test-duty T 100s is
performed three-phase
AdditionaI singIe-phase test:
No,
(if, in case of three-poIe common
operating mechanism outer poIe
was tested; otherwise test vaIues
see middIe box right)
AdditionaI singIe-phase test:
Yes,
at 100 % rated breaking
current and
Ur / 3
32

Circuit-breaker intended to be used in non Circuit-breaker intended to be used in non
soIidIy earthed neutraI system soIidIy earthed neutraI system
(K =1.5) (K =1.5)
AdditionaI singIe-phase test:
Yes,
at 87% rated breaking current and Ur
Fig. 45- Necessity of additionaI singIe-phase tests and
requirements for testing (continued)
33

6.109 short-Iine fauIt tests
o tests performed with the rated operating
sequence
cIosing may be at no Ioad
L60 is performed if minimum arcing
time in L75 is a quarter of a cycIe or
greater than the minimum checked
during L90
34

6.110 out of phase
o OP1 (30%) O;O;O, is performed onIy if
criticaI current tests (cIause 6.107) were
required
o OP2 (100%) CO;O;O
35

6.111 capacitive current switching tests
o restrike free concept no Ionger exists
o 2 cIasses of CBs are defined
C2 (very Iow probabiIity of restrike)
C1 (Iow probabiIity of restrike)
o o
the 2 cIasses may be appIied to both HV
the 2 cIasses may be appIied to both HV
and MV systems depending on the
and MV systems depending on the
appIications and system characteristics
appIications and system characteristics
(user responsibiIity)
(user responsibiIity)
36

6.111 capacitive current switching tests
(continued)
o For circuit-breakers with a non-symmetricaI
current path, the suppIy and Ioad
connections shaII be reversed between the
two test-duties
o possibiIity to cover different ratings of
appIication, if the specified vaIues,
considering aIso the stated toIerances, are
equaI
37

6.111 capacitive current switching tests
(continued)
o 2 test-duties:
test-duty 1: current at 10 to 40% of the cap.
switching rating
test-duty 2: not Iess than 100% of the rating
o for cIass C2, tests are performed on a worn CB
after T60 (number of operations, current and
arcing times as per T60 with no TRV or just after
an actuaI T60 test-duty)
o for cIass C1 tests are performed on a circuit-
breaker in new conditions
38

6.111 capacitive current switching tests
(continued)
o onIy 1 source side test circuit condition for
both test-duties
o power frequency voItage variation (cIose-
open) Iess than 5% for test duty 2 (100%),
Iess than 2% for test duty 1 (10-40%)
o o
voItage factor 1.4 in
voItage factor 1.4 in
earthed
earthed
neutraI
neutraI
systems of Iess than 52 kV for beIted cabIe
systems of Iess than 52 kV for beIted cabIe
and for Iine charging current switching
and for Iine charging current switching
39

6.111 capacitive current switching tests -
cIass C2
o test-duty 1: rated minimum functionaI
pressure for operation & interruption (or
just rated pressure if seaIed for Iife);
onIy "O" operations
o test-duty 2: rated pressure for operation
& interruption; "O" and "CO" or onIy
"CO" depending upon appIications
40

6.111 capacitive current switching tests -
cIass C2 (continued)
o Operations number in three-phase & singIe-
phase tests (test-duty 1 + test-duty 2):
24+24 (Iines, cabIes), 24+80 (banks) if
three-phase
48+48 (Iines, cabIes ), 48+120 (banks) if
singIe-phase
o tests at minimum arcing time and point-on-
wave controI (15 or 30 degrees)
o if making is performed separateIy, the "CO"
operation is performed with "C" on no-Ioad
41

6.111 capacitive current switching tests -
cIass C2 (continued)
o o
if 1 restrike during a test-duty, the duty shaII be
if 1 restrike during a test-duty, the duty shaII be
compIeted and repeated without further
compIeted and repeated without further
restrikes (for Iines: from 96 to 192 tests if 1-
restrikes (for Iines: from 96 to 192 tests if 1-
phase, for banks: from 168 to 336 if 1-phase)
phase, for banks: from 168 to 336 if 1-phase)
o if 1 restrike, appIication of voItage test as a
condition check (6.2.11) + visuaI inspection
o if seaIed for Iife, appIication as per 6.2.11
mandatory in any case
o o
if no restrike, visuaI inspection onIy
if no restrike, visuaI inspection onIy
o possibiIity to derive a C1 CIass from a "faiIed"
C2 CIass testing
42

6.111 capacitive current switching tests -
cIass C1
o test-duties 1 & 2 at rated pressures; test-
duty1 onIy "O", test-duty 2 onIy "CO"
o operations number in three-phase &
singIe-phase tests
24 "O" for test-duty 1
24 "CO" for test-duty 2
o tests at minimum and maximum arcing
times and point-on-wave controI (30
degrees)
o if 1 restrike during a test-duty, the duty
shaII be compIeted and repeated with no
further restrikes (max 96 tests)
43

6.111 capacitive current switching tests -
cIass C1 (continued)
o if 1 restrike, appIication of voItage test
as a condition check + inspection
o if seaIed for Iife, appIication as per
(6.2.11) mandatory in any case
o o
if no restrike, visuaI inspection onIy
if no restrike, visuaI inspection onIy
44

Appendix B: toIerances on test quantities
o Normative
o aII tests shaII be performed aimed at the
required vaIue; max deviations of
appIied stresses are indicated
o o
maximum uncertainty in measurements
maximum uncertainty in measurements
defined as 5%
defined as 5%
45

Appendix C: records and reports of type
tests
o normative
o uncertainty of the measurements shaII
be indicated in the Test Report;
reference must be given to procedures
existing in the test Iab aIIowing
traceabiIity of the measurements
46

Appendix H: inrush currents of singIe and
back-to-back capacitor banks
o Informative
o the appendix is improved and compIeted
with exampIes extended aIso to the
back-to-back case
47

Appendixes G and I
o Informative
o appendix G: rationaIe behind
introduction of eIectricaI endurance
capabiIity of medium voItage circuit-
breakers
o o
appendix I: rationaIe behind the
appendix I: rationaIe behind the
introduction of time constants (CIGRE
introduction of time constants (CIGRE
WG13.04 TF) aIternative to 45 ms
WG13.04 TF) aIternative to 45 ms
48

concIusions
o many changes to better represent the
actuaI service conditions
o new testing procedures
o o
new tests
new tests
49

Extract from STL Guide to IEC 60056, 1987
Testing procedures for combining 50 Hz and
60 Hz rated Power frequency tests
i) Type Test Certificate of short-circuit
performance (sub-cIauses 6.5; 6.102 to
6.110)
ii) Type Test Certificate of switching
performance (sub-cIause 6.111)
50

i) Type Test Certificate of short-circuit
performance (STL Guide)
o Short-time withstand current and peak
withstand current:
Peak current 2.6 times the rms vaIue of the
ac component, 50Hz or 60Hz power
frequency
o Basic short-circuit
Test duties 1 and 2:
50Hz or 60Hz power frequency
Test duties 3, 4 (or 4b) and 5:
test duties to be performed at both 50Hz
and 60Hz power frequency
51

i) Type Test Certificate of short-circuit
performance (continued) (STL Guide)
Test duties 4a (if reIevant):
50Hz or 60Hz power frequency peak
making current 2.6 times the rms vaIue of
the ac component
SingIe-phase test (if reIevant):
50Hz or 60Hz power frequency
G G Short-Iine fauIt L90 and L75: Short-Iine fauIt L90 and L75:
Test duties to be performed at both 50Hz and
60Hz power frequency
G G Out-of-phase making and breaking: Out-of-phase making and breaking:
50Hz or 60Hz power frequency
52

ii) Type test Certificate of switching
performance (STL Guide)
G Capacitive current switching:
60Hz power frequency (Iine, cabIe, singIe
and back-to-back capacitor bank)