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INTRODUCTION TO DWDM

Friday, May 10, 2013

ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay

(D)WDM : CONTENTS
THE NEED FOR DWDM : FIBRE EXHAUST- ALTERNATIVES THE CHALLENGE: TAPPING THE UNLIMITED FIBRE BANDWIDTH ACHIEVING THE NETWORKING FUNCTIONS IN THE OPTICAL DOMAIN WDM APPROACH TO FIBRE EXHAUST WDM FUNCTIONAL BLOCK SCHEMATIC DIFFERENCES FROM CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM: THE AMPLIFIER FEATURES : AD(DISAD)VANTAGES DWDM SYSTEMS AT PRESENT OPTICAL AMPLITIERS DWDM COMPONENTS NMS OPTICAL BANDS STANDARD WAVELENGTHS: ITU GRID DWDM APPLICATIONS :
BENEFIT TO OPERATORS NEW ISSUES BEFOR PLANNERS ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay 2

Friday, May 10, 2013

FIBRE EXHAUST

2.5- Gbit/s 2.5- Gbit/s 2.5- Gbit/s 2.5- Gbit/s transmitter

2.5-Gbit/s 2.5 Gbit/s

2.5 Gbit/s reciever

LAY NEW FIBRE AND PUT NEW SYSTEMS

Friday, May 10, 2013

ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay

FIBRE EXHAUST
2.5- Gbit/s 2.5- Gbit/s 2.5- Gbit/s 2.5- Gbit/s transmitter

2.5-Gbit/s 2.5 Gbit/s 2.5 Gbit/s reciever

10-Gbit/s transmitter

10-Gbit/s regenerator

10-Gbit/s reciever

Friday, May 10, 2013

INSTAL HIGHER BITRATE TDM EXPENSIVE, NEW FIBRE NEEDED


ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay

FIBRE EXHAUST
10-Gbit/s transmitter 2.5- Gbit/s 2.5- Gbit/s 2.5- Gbit/s 2.5- Gbit/s transmitter 10-Gbit/s regenerator 10-Gbit/s reciever 2.5-Gbit/s 2.5Gbit/s 2.5 Gbit/s 2.5 Gbit/s reciever

2.5-Gbitt/s transmitter 2.5-Gbitt/s transmitter 2.5-Gbitt/s transmitter 2.5-Gbitt/s transmitter

1
2 3 4

M U X

D E M U X

2 3 4

2.5- Gbit/s reciever 2.5- Gbit/s reciever 2.5- Gbit/s reciever 2.5- Gbit/s reciever

DEPLOY DWDM
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EVOLUTION OF DWDM
Late 1990s Mid 1990s 64-160 channels 25-50 GHZ spacing 16-40 channels 100-200 GHz spacing Dense WDM, integrated systems with Network Management, add-drop functions. 2-8 channels passive WDM 200-400 GHz spacing WDM components/parts 2 channels Wideband WDM 1310 nm, 1550 nm

Early 1990s Late 1980s

Friday, May 10, 2013

ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay

ACHIEVING HIGHER BANDWIDTH


THREE POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

INSTAL NEW FIBRE


INVEST IN NEW TDM TECHNOLOGIES TO ACHIEVE HIGHER BANDWIDTH. DEPLOY DWDM
Friday, May 10, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay

EXPENSIVE
VERY EXPENSIVE REQUIRE NEW TYPE FIBRE

ECONOMICA L
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THE CHALLENGE:Continuous growth in traffic


CALLS FOR TAPPING THE UNUTILIZED BANDWIDTH OF THE MEDIA ACHIEVE NETWORKING FUNCTIONS (ROUTING etc) IN OPTICAL DOMAIN

JUST LIKE WIDENING OF ROAD USING AVAILAB.E LAND TO MEET INCREASED TRAFFIC
Friday, May 10, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay 8

DWDM BASICS

SINGLE FIBRE

SDH OPTICAL SIGNALS

NEW REQUIREMENTS:
Friday, May 10, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay 9

BLOCK SCHEMATIC
OPTICAL SIGNALS. STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 ATM IP

Tx

1 2
. . . .

MUX
W D M

DEMUX

Rx

OFA

16

W D M

TRANSPONDERS
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Wayside Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer


1 2 15 TM TM

WDM MUX
O A

WDM DEMU X O
A

16

1-4

5-8

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ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay

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Optical Add/Drop Multiplexing


Terminal Equipt In-Line Amplifier Terminal Equipt

fixed OADM: 2

1 2

2 2 1 1

2 1

Configurable OADM : 1 or 2

1 2
OADM : Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer

2 2
ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay

2 1
12

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OADM Connectivity
Omnibus
29 express ch 32 ch WDM

From terminal to OADM, or from OADM to OADM

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ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay

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DIFFERENCES FROM OLD SYSTEM


REGs FIBRES REQUIREMENT LASERS TYPES OF COMPONENTS CAPACITY FIBRE TRANSMISSION BEHAVIOUR

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ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay

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ADVANTAGES OF DWDM

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ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay

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Why Optical (DWDM) Networking?


Fibre Exhaust : Unlimited bandwidth on a fibre pair Bit Rate Transparency Format/Protocol Transparency : IP, ATM etc. Efficient use and rearrangement of embedded optical capacity as per demand. Minimal Capital Expenditure : Capacity Expansions Demand Simpler Operations : Embedded DCC ---> Limited Nes --> Alarm Storm
Friday, May 10, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay 16

Economics of WDM
Saving of regeneration costs: one optical amplifier for many channels regeneration cost per channel drastically reduced Saving of fibres/fibre shortage Cost effective compared to laying new fibres

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ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay

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DWDM Components
Transmit Receive Repeater Add Drop Distribution: Cross connects

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ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay

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OPTICAL NETWORK ELEMENTS

TP

OA

OADM

OXC

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ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay

ODEMUX
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TP

OMUX

OPTIONAL REGENERATOR

O/E

Electrical REGENERATION

E/O

TRANSPONDER / TRANSLATOR / WAVELENGTH CONVERTOR


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Optical Multiplexers & Filters


W\L FILTER
W\L MULTIPLEXER

W\L ROUTER
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OPTICAL ADD DROP MUX

COUPLER
CIRCULATOR

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ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay

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OPTICAL CROSSCONNECT T T T T T T T T

INPUT FIBRE LINKS

SWITCH MATRIX

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WAVELENGTH TRIBUTARY ADAPTATION ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM LINKS D N Sahay

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OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS

Isolator

Coupler

Coupler

Isolator

Pump laser

Erbium-doped Fiber-(10-50 m)

Pump laser

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ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay

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NMS FOR DWDM SYSTEMS


NMS IN CONVENTIONAL SDH SYSTEMS:
DCC: TIME SLOTS

DWDM NO TIME SLOTS


WAVELENGTH SLOTS ONE WAVELENGTH IS DEDICATED FOR N.M.S.
OPTICAL SUPERVISORY CHANNEL

OSC needs to be accessed at all points in the network

Friday, May 10, 2013

ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay

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Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC)


Line Terminal Equipment
1 2 3 4

In-line Amplifier

Line Terminal Equipment


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Tx 1 Tx 2 Tx 3 Tx 4

Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx

DATA IN

Tx 5
Tx 6 Tx 7 Tx 8

5
6 7 8 Tx sup

+ supervisory

Rx

Tx

Rx sup

System Control Processor

OSC

System Control Processor

Friday, May 10, 2013 Network Management ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay

Network Management

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OPTICAL BANDS
EXTENSIVE USE OF WAVELENGTHS
DIFFERENT VENDORS:INTEROPERABILITY ISSUES NEED FOR STANDARD WAVELENGTH VALUES

ITU Classification of bands Standard values : ITU Grid


Center frequency: 193.10THz (1552.52 nm) Standard spacings of 200, 100, 50 GHz for different applications

Friday, May 10, 2013

ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay

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ITU-T BAND ALLOCATION


Optical Supervisory channel

C BAND
BLUE BAND RED BAND
1560

L BAND

1500

1520

1530

1542 1547

1620

C BAND PRODUCTS ARE COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE. ERBIUM DOPED FIBRE AMPLIFIERS SUITABLE FOR
C BAND. GAIN IN RED BAND FLATTEST FOR EDFA. SOME MANUFACTURERS PROVIDE 16 CHANNELS IN RED BAND ONLY. OTHERS USE BOTH RED & BLUE BANDS.
Friday, May 10, 2013 ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay

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ITU T G.692 Frequency Grid


Nominal Central (THz) 196.1 196.0 195.9 195.8 195.7 195.6 195.5 Central (nm) Nominal Central (THz) 194.7 194.6 194.5 194.4 194.3 194.2 194.1 Central (nm) Nominal Central (THz) 193.3 193.2 193.1 193.0 192.9 192.8 192.7 Central (nm)

1528.77 1529.55 1530.33 1531.12 1531.90 1532.68 1533.47

1539.77 1540.56 1541.35 1542.14 1542.92 1543.73 1544.53

1550.92 1551.72 1552.52 1553.33 1554.13 1554.94 1555.75

195.4
195.3 195.2 195.1

1534.25
1535.04 1535.82 1536.61

194.0
193.9 193.8 193.7

1545.32
1546.12 1546.92 1547.72

192.6
192.5 192.4 192.3

1556.55
1557.36 1558.17 1558.98

195.0
194.9

1537.40
1538.19

193.6
193.5

1548.51
1549.32
D N Sahay

192.2
192.1

1559.79
1560.61
29

194.8 1539.77 Friday, May 10, 2013

193.4 ALTTC / TX-1 1550.12 / WDM

LIMITATIONS
DWDM TRANSMISSION IS ANALOG.
THE IN LINE AMPLIFIERS ARE ALSO ANALOG. THIS IMPLIES THAT THE SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO WORSENS WITH DISTANCE. TO KEEP THE BER WITHIN LIMITS, THE SIGNALS ARE REQUIRED TO BE 3R PROCESSED IN ELECTRICAL DOMAIN. FIBRE DISPERSION IS ANOTHER LIMITATION.
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LIMITATIONS
THE MAXIMUM DISTANCE IS 640 Kms MADE OF 8 SPANS OF 80 Kms. THE ASSUMPTIONS ARE: * FIBRE ATT INCLUDING SPLICE LOSS IS 0.28 dB/km * SPAN LOSS OF 22 dB. * TOTAL DISPERSION IS LESS THAN 12800 ps/nm.
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New Applications with DWDM


Long Distance
Longer Regenerator spacing: Hundreds to Thousands of Kilometers Saving of Regenerators Very Low Bandwidth Cost Scalability Very Fast Commissioning of Optical Paths: Within a week as compared to several months/ year with old technologies Advanced Networking Capabilities
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New Applications with DWDM


Metropolitan Area Network
Unlimited Bandwidth, bit rate and format transparency Efficient Bandwidth use and Management

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ALTTC / TX-1 / WDM D N Sahay

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New Applications with DWDM


High speed parallel Data Transport
Certain Computer Applications Require that Computer Centres be interconnected with multiple high speed channels that have capacity and availability requirements, as well as interlink delay restrictions that can not be met by TDM Transport Systems. In General, DWDM Optical Transport Benefits all Delay Sensitive Applications
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New Applications with DWDM


Wavelength Leasing
Network Customers are beginning to demand high capacity Network Transport that affords high reliability and security, as well as segmentations from the providers Network A spare Wavelength (Leased ) is used to provide clear-channel transport to a customer The Customers Bandwidth requirements are cleanly separated from the providers core Network Needs.
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Thank You
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