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..


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.00 .01.

: 230000
: 230115

() : -
:

2011 .

. 1.
1.1. .
.
. mn, m- , n- ,
, .
.
, .
aij, i- , j- .
a11 a12 ... a1n

a 21 a 22 ... a 2 n
=
...
... ... ...

a
...
a
m3
mn
m1
.
, .
, .
. (m=n),
.
. :
1 0 ... 0

0 1 ... 0
... ... ... ... = E,

0 0 ... 1

.
. amn = anm , .
2 1 5

. 1 3 6 -
5 6 4

a11 0 ... 0

0 a 22 ... 0
.

... ... ... 0

0
...
a
nn

.

. ,
. ,
:
. () ,
() .
cij = aij bij
= + = + .
()
() .

a11

a
A 21
...

a
m1

a12
a 22
...
a m 2

... a1n

... a 2 n
...
...

... a mn

(+) =
() =
1 2 3
1 3 4

. = 2 1 4 ; B = 5 7 8 , 2 + .
3 2 3
1 2 4

2 4 6
3 7 10

2 = 4 2 8 ,
2 + = 9 9 16 .
6 4 6
7 6 10

.
: ,
:
AB = C;
n

ij aik bkj .
k 1

,
, .
.
1) , ..
. , = ,
.
,
.

.
= =
, :
AO = O; OA = O,
.
2) , ..
(), (), :
()=().
3) , ..
(+) (+), :
( + ) = +
( + ) = + .
4) , :
(AB) = (A)B = A(B).
5) ,
:
() = ,
.
. ,
,
.

11

a 21
=
...

a
m1

... a1n
a11 a 21 ... a m1

... a 2 n
a 22 ... a m 2
a12
;
= =
;
... ...
... ... ... ...

... a mn
a
...
a
2n
mn
1n
, bji = aij.
(5) , :
(ABC)T = CTBTAT,
, .
1 0 3
1
1



. = 2 4 1 , = 3 , = 2 = 2.
2
1
1 4 2

+.
1 2 1
1 2 1 1 11 2 3 1 2 9



AT = 0 4 4 ;
ATB = 0 4 4 3 = 0 1 4 3 4 2 = 4 ;
3 1 2
3 1 2 2 3 1 1 3 2 2 10



2
9 2 7


C = 4 ;
+ = 4 + 4 = 8 .
2
10 2 12


1

. = 4 = 2 4 1 .
3

1
1 2 1 4 11 2 4 1

= 4 2 4 1 = 4 2 4 4 4 1 8 16 4 .
3
3 2 3 4 3 1 6 12 3

1

= 2 4 1 4 = 21 + 44 + 13 = 2 + 16 + 3 = 21.
3

3 4

. = 1 2 , =
5 6
a12
a 22
...
am2

3 4
= 3 10 4 12 = 13 16 .
= 1 2
5 6
1.2.
.( ).

11

a 21
=
...

a
n1

... a1n

... a 2 n
.
... ...

... a nn
, :
n

det A =

(1)
k 1

k 1

a1k M 1k ,

a12
a 22
...
an2

1 , k
. ,
, .. , .


, :
n

det A =

(1)

k 1

k 1

a k1 M k1

,
, .. :
n

detA =

(1)
k 1

k i

aik M ik ,

i = 1,2,,n.

, .
1.
1
a1k. , ,
.
.
.
aij , i-
j- .

1. :
det A = det AT;
2.
det (AB) = detAdetB
3. -
( ), ,
.
4. ( )
.
: () ,
, , (
) .
6. ,
.
7. ,
. ( , ..
.)
8. ,
() () (),
- , .
9. -
: d = d1 d2 , e = e1 e2 , f = f1 f2 , :
a b c
a b c
a b c

d
k

e f d1
l m
k

e1
l

f1 d 2
m
k

e2
l

f2
m

1 2 1

. = 0 2 3
3 1 1

1 2 1
2 3
0 3
0 2
0 2 3 1
2
1
(2 1 1 3) 2(0 1 3 3) (0 1 3 2)
1 1
3 1
3 1
3 1 1
= -5 + 18 + 6 = 19.
1 2
5 2
, =
. det (AB).
:. =
3 4
1 3
1- : det A = 4 6 = -2;
det B = 15 2 = 13;
det (AB) = det A det B = -26.
1 5 2 1 1 2 2 3 7 8

,
2- : AB =
det (AB) = 718 - 819 = 126
3 5 4 1 3 2 4 3 19 18
152 = -26.
.
.
:
1) , ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) () ();
5) ;
, ,
.
-
( ).
.
.
, , ,
.
s , s.
, ,
.

, .
.
.
, (-1) ,
.
,
, , ,
, ,
.
. s i1, ,is,
,
.
.
, .
. ,
:
XA = AX = E,
- , ,
-1.
,
.

.
, :
n

AX = E aik x kj eij , i=(1,n), j=(1,n),


k 1

eij = 0,
i j,
eij = 1,
i=j.
, :
a11 x1 j a12 x2 j ...a1n xnj 0

................................................

a j1 x1 j a j 2 x2 j ...a jn xnj 1 ,

................................................
an1 x1 j an2 x2 j ...ann xnj 0

, .
1 2
-1
. =
, .
3 4

a11 a12 x11 x12 1 0



.
a21 a 22 x21 x22 0 1
a11 x11 a12 x 21 e11 1
x11 2 x 21 1
a x a x e 0
x 2x 0
11 12
12
12 22
12
22

a 21 x11 a 22 x 21 e21 0
3 x11 4 x 21 0
a 21 x12 a 22 x 22 e22 1
3 x12 4 x 22 1

x11 2

x12 1

x 21 3 / 2
x 22 1 / 2

1
2
, -1=
.
3 / 2 1 / 2
,
, :

xij

1i j M ji
det A

ji- ji .
1 2
-1
. =
, .
3 4
det A = 4 - 6 = -2.
M11=4;
M12= 3;
M21= 2;
M22=1
x11= -2;
x12= 1;
x21= 3/2;
x22= -1/2
1
2
, -1=
.
3 / 2 1 / 2
C .
1). (A-1)-1 = A;
2) (AB)-1 = B-1A-1
3) (AT)-1 = (A-1)T.
.
, s ,
, -
s s .

. mn r ,
, r+1 ,
, .. r m n.
, ,
.
,
.
.
Rg .
,
.
. , ,
.
, -
.
.
.
.. ,
.
. .
1 0 0 0 5

1 0 0 0 5 1 5
1 5

,
11 10 1 0 RgA = 2.
0 0 0 0 0
2
0
0
0
11
2
11
2
11

2 0 0 0 11

: .

3 5 7 4 8 12 1 2 3



1 2 3 1 2
,
3 2 1 0 Rg = 2.
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
1
3
5
1
3

1 3 5 1 3 5 1 3 5

. .
1 2 1 3 4

1 2 1 3 4 1 2
,
4 6 2 0. Rg = 2.
3 4 2 6 8
3
4
2
6
8
3 4
1 2 1 3 4

1.3.

. m n
:
a11 x1 a12 x 2 ... a1n x n b1
a x a x ... a x b
21 1
22 2
2n n
2
,

.......... .......... .......... .......... .......


a m1 x1 a m 2 x 2 ... a mn x n bm
aij , bi . n ,
.
. ,
. , .
. ,
, .
.

a11

a 21
=
...

a
m1

... a1n

... a 2 n
,
... ...

... a mn
a11 a12 ... a1n b1

a 22 ... a 2 n b2
* a 21
=

...
... ... ... ...

m1 a m 2 ... a mn bm
. b1, b2, ,bm = 0, .
, .. .
.
:
1) ,
, .
2) .
3) , .
.
.
,
.
.
.
:
a11 x1 a12 x 2 ... a1n x n b1
a x a x ... a x b
21 1
22 2
2n n
2

.......... .......... .......... .......... .......


a n1 x1 a n 2 x 2 ... a nn x n bn
a11 a12 ... a1n
b1
x1



a 21 a 22 ... a 2 n
b2
x2
: A =
;
B
=
;
X
=
...
... .
... ... ... ...

b
x
n1 a n 2 ... a nn
n
n
a12
a 22
...
am2

:
AX = B.
: A AX = A-1B,
.. -1 = , = -1
= -1
,

.
. :
5 x y z 0

x 2 y 3z 14
4 x 3 y 2 z 16

x
0
5 1 1

3
= y , B = 14 , A = 1 2
z
16
4 3 2

-1
.
-1

5 1 1
= det A = 1 2
3 5(4-9) + 1(2 12) 1(3 8) = -25 10 +5 = -30.
4 3 2
M11 =

2 3
= -5;
3 2

M21 =

1 1
= 1;
3 2

M31 =

1 1
2 3

M12 =

1 3
10;
4 2

M22 =

5 1
14;
4 2

M32 =

5 1
16;
1 3

M13 =

1 2
5;
4 3

M23 =

5 1
19;
4 3

M33 =

5 1
11;
1 2

= -1;

5
1
1
1
1
1
;
a121 ;
a131 ;

30
30
30
30
30
6
1
7
8
10
14
16
1
1
1

A-1 =
;
a 21
;
a 22
;
a 23
;
3
15 15
30
30
30
1
19
11
5
19
11
1
1
1

a31
;
a32
;
a33
;
30
30
6
30
30
30
C :
1
1
5

30
30
5 1 1 30
25 10 5 5 14 19 5 16 11

10

14 16 1
-1

5 20 15 1 28 57 1 32 33 =E.
AA = 1 2 3

30 30 30
4 3 2 30

19
11

5
20 30 10 4 42 38 4 48 22

30
30
30
.
1
1
14 16
1
1

30
30 0 6
30 30 1
x
6

1
7
8 1
98 128

2 .
= y = -1 =
14 = 0
3
15 15 3
15 15
z
1
19
11 16 1
266 176 3

30
30
30
30
6
6
: x =1; y = 2; z = 3.
.
( (1704-1752) )
,
. ,
. ,
, .. .
, 0.
det A 0;
, -
, - ,
- ,
. .
. ( ):
. n n
a11 x1 a12 x 2 ... a1n x n b1
a x a x ... a x b
21 1
22 2
2n n
2

..........
..........
..........
..........
.......

a n1 x1 a n 2 x 2 ... a nn x n bn
a111

, ,
:
xi = i/,
= det A, i ,
i bi.
a11 ...a1i 1 b1 a1i 1 ...a1n
a ...a
b a 2i 1 ...a 2 n
i = 21 2i i 2
...
...
...
a n1 ...a ni 1 bn a ni 1 ...a nn
.

a11

A = a 21
a
31

a12
a 22
a32

a13
b1

a 23 ; 1= b2
a33
b3

a11 x1 a12 x 2 a13 x3 b1

a 21 x1 a 22 x2 a 23 x3 b2
a x a x a x b
32 2
33 3
3
31 1
a12 a13
a11 b1 a13
a11
a 22 a 23 ; 2= a 21 b2 a 23 ; 3= a 21
a32 a33
a31 b3 a33
a31

a12
a 22
a32

b1
b2 ;
b3

x1 = 1/detA;
x2 = 2/detA;
x3 = 3/detA;
. :
5 x y z 0

x 2 y 3z 14
4 x 3 y 2 z 16

5 1 1
=1

2
3

3 = 5(4 9) + (2 12) (3 8) = -25 10 + 5 = -30;


2
0 1 1
1 = 14 2
3 = (28 48) (42 32) = -20 10 = -30.
16 3 2

x1 = 1/ = 1;

5 0 1
2 = 1 14 3 = 5(28 48) (16 56) = -100 + 40 = -60.
4 16 2
x2 = 2/ = 2;

5 1 0
3 = 1 2 14 = 5( 32 42) + (16 56) = -50 40 = -90.
4 3 16
x3 = 3/ = 3.
, ,
.
, .. bi = 0, 0
x1 = x2 = = xn = 0.
= 0 .
.
( )
( (1823-1891) )

: ( )
, .
RgA = RgA*.
, (1) :
a12
a1n b1
a11

a
a
a

b
22
2n
2
x1 21 + x2
+ + xn

...
...
...
...

a
a b
a
m2
mn m
m1

.
1) ,
, , ..
* .
2) RgA = RgA*, ,
. ,
, .
. :
x1 3x 2 5 x3 7 x 4 9 x5 1

x1 2 x 2 3x3 4 x 4 5 x5 2
2 x 11x 12x 25x 22x 4
2
3
4
5
1

9 1 3 5 7 9 1 3 5 7 9
1 3 5 7

A = 1 2 3 4 5 ~ 3 9 15 21 27 ~ 1 3 5 7 9 ~
2 11 12 25 22 2 11 12 25 22 2 11 12 25 22

1 3
1 3 5 7 9
.
1 6 5 0 RgA = 2.
~
2 11
2 11 12 25 22
9 1 1 3 5 7 9 1
1 3 5 7

A* = 1 2 3 4 5 2 ~ 0 0 0 0 0 1
RgA* = 3.
2 11 12 25 22 4 2 11 12 25 22 4

.
. (2 .)
( (1777-1855) )
,

. .
:
a11 x1 a12 x 2 ... a1n x n b1
a x a x ... a x b
21 1
22 2
2n n
2

.......... .......... .......... .......... .......


a m1 x1 a m 2 x 2 ... a mn x n bm
1 a11 0, :
1) 21
2) 31
..
:

x1 d12 x 2 ... d1n x n d1


d x d x ... d x d
22 2
23 3
2n n
2
, d1j = a1j/a11, j = 2, 3, , n+1.

..........
..........
..........
..........
......

d m 2 x 2 d m3 ... d mn x n d m
dij = aij ai1d1j
i = 2, 3, , n;
j = 2, 3, , n+1.
,
..
. .
2 x1 x 2 x3 5

x1 2 x 2 3x3 3
7 x x x 10
2
3
1
.
3
3 1 2 3 3
2 1 1 5 1 2 3 3 1 2

* = 1 2 3 3 ~ 2 1 1 5 ~ 0 5
7 11 ~ 0 5 7 11
7 1 1 10 7 1 1 10 0 15 22 31 0 0 1 2

, :
x1 2 x 2 3x3 3

, : x3 = 2; x2 = 5; x1 = 1.
5 x 2 7 x3 11
x 2
3
II.
2.1. .
. (
). ,
.
. ()
.


. ,
. .
. , ,
.
,
.
. , ,
.
, .. ,
.
, , .
.
.

- c a b

- b a; b a , a b .

a b ( a b ), > 0.

a b ( a b ), < 0.
.

1) a + b = b + a - .

2) a + ( b + ) = ( a + b )+

3) a + 0 = a

4) a +(-1) a = 0

5) () a = ( a )

6) (+) a = a + a -

7) ( a + b ) = a + b

8) 1 a = a
.
1) 3 ,
.
2) 2 ,
.
3) .
. e1 , e2 , e3 - a e1 e2 e3 ,

, - a .
:
- ,
- ,
a ( e1 e2 e3 ) = ( )e1 ( ) e2 ( ) e3 .
- .
a 1 e1 2 e2 3 e3 ;
b 1 e1 2 e2 3 e3 ;

a + b = (1 1 )e1 ( 2 2 )e2 ( 3 3 )e3 .
.
. a1 ,..., a n
,
1 a1 2 a2 ... n an 0 ,
i , .. 12 22 ... n2 0 .
i = 0 1 a1 2 a2 ... n an 0 ,
.
1. a i ,
.
2.
, .
3. ,
.
4. 2 , ,
2 .
5. 3 , ,
3 .
6. 4 .
.

. -
.
( ) .
,
. ,
.
.
.
.

- .
, .
.
. . ,
.
1-
2-
3-

.
(x1, y1, z1), B(x2, y2, z2), = (x2 x1, y2 y1, z2 z1).
. ,
.
. ,
.

. a (1; 2; 3), b (-1; 0; 3), (2; 1; -1) d (3; 2; 2)


. , a , b d
.
, , ,
, :
2 0

.
2 0 0
3 3 0

d a b c .
, .
1 1 2

2
3

0
3

1 0
1

1 1 2
0 1
2 1
2 0

2
3 (2 3) 12 4 0
2 0 1
1 1 3 1
3 3
3 3 1
a1 b1 c1 d1

a 2 b2 c2 d 2
a b c d
3
3
3
3
d1
1 = d 2
d3

b1
b2
b3

c1 3 1 2
0 1
2 1
2 0
c2 2 0 1 3

2
3(3) (2 2) 12 1.
3 1 2 1
2 3
c3 2 3 1

1
1 / 4 ;

a1 d1 c1 1 3 2
2 = a 2 d 2 c 2 2 2 1 (2 2) 3(2 3) 2(4 6) 4 15 4 7;
a 3 d 3 c3 3 2 1

2
7 / 4;

a1
a2
3 =
a3

b1
b2
b3

d1 1 1 3
d 2 2 0 2 6 (4 6) 18 10;
d3 3 3 2

3
5 / 2;


, d a , b , : d { -1/4, 7/4, 5/2}.

. ( 1, y1, z1), B(x2,
y2, z2), AB ( x2 x1 ) 2 ( y 2 y1 ) 2 ( z 2 z1 ) 2 .
(, , z) /, ,
:
x x 2
y y 2
z z 2
x 1
; y 1
; z 1
.

:
x = (x1 + x2)/2;
y = (y1 + y2)/2;
z = (z1 + z2)/2.
.

a ( x A , y A , z A ); b( x B , y B , z B ), :

a b c( x A x B ; y A y B ; z A z B ); a (x A ;y A ;z A )

2.2.

. a b ,
.



a b = a b cos
:

1) a a = a 2;

2) a b = 0, a b a = 0 b = 0.


3) a b = b a ;


4) a ( b + c ) = a b + a c ;


5) (m a ) b = a (m b ) = m( a b ); m=const

a( xa , y a , z a ); b( xb , yb , zb )


a b = xa xb + ya yb + za zb;
,
:
cos

x a xb y a y b z a z b
;

ab


. (5 a + 3 b )(2 a - b ), a 2, b 3, ab .
2

2


10 a a - 5 a b + 6 a b - 3 b b = 10 a 3 b 40 27 13 ,

2
2

.. a a a 4, b b b 9, a b 0 .



. a b , a i 2 j 3k ,

b 6i 4 j 2k .

.. a = (1, 2, 3), b = (6, 4, -2)



a b = 6 + 8 6 = 8:

a 1 4 9 14;
b 36 16 4 56 .

cos =

4 2
;
14 7

2
7

arccos .

14 56 2 14 14

.
(3 a - 2 b )(5 a - 6 b ),


a 4, b 6, ^ b / 3.

2
2



1
15 a a - 18 a b - 10 a b + 12 b b = 15 a 28 a b cos 12 b 15 16 28 4 6
3
2
+ 1236 = 240 336 + 432 = 672 336 = 336.
3. . 3.2..

.
,
- .
.
. y = f(x)
, .
, ,

t.
.
.
.
.

+ + = 0,
, , .. 2 + 2 0.
.
,
:
- C = 0, 0, 0
- = 0, 0, 0 { By + C = 0}-
- = 0, 0, 0 { Ax + C = 0}
- = = 0, 0
- = = 0, 0

.
.
.
(, ) , + + = 0.
.

n (3, -1).

(1,

2)

= 3 = -1 : 3 + = 0.
.
: 3 2 + C = 0, = -1.
: : 3 1 = 0.
, .
M1(x1, y1, z1) M2(x2, y2, z2),
, :
x x1
y y1
z z1

x2 x1 y 2 y1 z 2 z1
- ,
.
:
y y1
y y1 2
( x x1 )
x2 x1
1 2 = 1, 1 = 2.
y y1
2
= k .
x 2 x1
. , (1, 2) (3, 4).
, :
42
y2
( x 1)
3 1
y 2 x 1
x y 1 0
.
+ + = 0 :

A
C
x
B
B

A
C
k ; b; .. y kx b ,
B
B
k.
.
,
.

. (1, 2),
1 + 2 = 0
+ + = 0.

. (1, -1)
(1, 2).
: Ax + By + C = 0.
, :
1A + (-1)B = 0, .. = .
: Ax + Ay + C = 0, x + y + C/A = 0.
= 1, = 2 /A = -3, .. :
+-3=0
.
+ + = 0 0, , ,

: 1

x y
1 ,
a b
C
C
a ; b
A
B
,
, b
.
. + 1 = 0.
.

= 1, 1 ,
= -1, b = 1.
1 1
.
1
+ + = 0
,
A2 B 2
,
xcos + ysin - p = 0
.
, < 0.
, , - ,
.
. 12 5 65 = 0.
.
12
5

1
65
65
:

1
(65 / 12) (13)
: ( 5)
12
65 12
y x
x 13.
5
5
5
:

1
13

12
5
5 0;
13
13

cos = 12/13; sin = -5/13; p = 5.


12 (5)
C ,
, , , .
. .
, ,
8 2.
x y
: 1 ,
a = b = 1; ab/2 = 8;
a = 4; -4.
a b
a = -4 .
x y
: 1 + 4 = 0.
4 4
. , (-2, -3)
.
x x1
y y1
:
, 1 = 1 = 0; x2 = -2; y2 = -3.

x2 x1 y 2 y1
x0
y0
x
y

;
3x 2 y 0.
20 30
2 3
2

.
. y = k1x + b1, y = k2x + b2,

tg

k 2 k1
.
1 k1 k 2

, k1 = k2.
, k1 = -1/k2.
. + + = 0 1 + 1 + 1 = 0 ,
1 = , 1 = . 1 = ,
.

.
,
.
. , 1(1, 1)
= kx + b :

1
y y1 ( x x1 )
k
.
. (0, 0), + + =0

Ax 0 By 0 C
d
.
A2 B 2
. 1(1, 1) ,
. 1:
(1)
d ( x1 x0 ) 2 ( y1 y0 ) 2
x1 1 :
Ax By 0

A( y y 0 ) B( x x0 ) 0
, 0
.
:
A(x x0) + B(y y0) + Ax0 + By0 + C = 0,
, , :
A
x x0 2
( Ax 0 By 0 C ),
A B2
B
y y0 2
( Ax 0 By 0 C )
A B2
(1), :
Ax 0 By 0 C
d
. .
A2 B 2
. : y = -3x + 7; y = 2x + 1.
k1 = -3; k2 = 2

tg =

2 (3)
1 ; = /4.
1 (3)2

. , 3 5 + 7 = 0 10 + 6 3 = 0 .
: k1 = 3/5, k2 = -5/3, k1k2 = -1, , .
. (0; 1), B(6; 5), C(12; -1).
, .
x 0 y 1 x y 1

:
; 4x = 6y 6;
6 0 5 1 6
4
2
2x 3y + 3 = 0; y x 1.
3
: Ax + By + C = 0 y = kx + b.
3
3
k = . y = x b . .. ,
2
2
3
3
: 1 12 b, b = 17. : y x 17 .
2
2
: 3x + 2y 34 = 0.
3.3.. .

2 + 2 + 2 + 2Dx + 2Ey + F = 0.
( ),
,
.
x2 y2
1)

1 - .
a2 b2
x2 y2

1 - .
2)
a2 b2
x2 y2

1 - .
3)
a2 b2
4) a2x2 c2y2 = 0 .
5) y2 = 2px .
6) y2 a2 = 0 .
7) y2 + a2 = 0 .
8) y2 = 0 .
9) (x a)2 + (y b)2 = R2 .
.

(x a)2 + (y b)2 = R2

(a; b).

. ,
:
2x2 + 2y2 8x + 5y 4 = 0.

, .9.
:
x2 + y2 4x + 2,5y 2 = 0
2
x 4x + 4 4 + y2 + 2,5y + 25/16 25/16 2 = 0
(x 2)2 + (y + 5/4)2 25/16 6 = 0
(x 2)2 + (y + 5/4)2 = 121/16
(2; -5/4); R = 11/4.

.
. ,

x2 y2

1.
a2 b2

. ,
.

r1
F1

r2
F2

F1, F2 . F1 = (c; 0); F2(-c; 0)


;
a ;
b .
. :
a2 = b2 + c2.
: ,
, r1 + r2 = 2 b 2 c 2 ( ). ,
, r1 + r2 = a c + a + c. ..
r1 + r2 , , , :
a2 = b2 + c2
r1 + r2 = 2a.
. ,
.
= /a.
.. < a, < 1.
. k = b/a ,
1 k = (a b)/a .
: k2 = 1 e2.
a = b (c = 0, e = 0, ), .
x2 y2
(1, 1) : 12 12 1 ,
a
b
2
2
x
y
, 12 12 1 , .
a
b
. (, ),
:
r1 = a ex, r2 = a + ex.
. , r1 + r2 = 2a. ,
:

r1 ( x c) 2 y 2
r2 ( x c) 2 y 2
( x c ) 2 y 2 ( x c ) 2 y 2 2a
:
( x c ) 2 y 2 4a 2 4a ( x c ) 2 y 2 ( x c ) 2 y 2
c
4cx 4a 2 4a ( x c) 2 y 2
( x c) 2 y a x a ex.
a
, r2 = a + ex. .
, . :
x = a/e; x = -a/e.

. , , ,

.
. ,
x2 y2
, :

1.
25 16
1) : x = 0; y2 = 16; y = -4.
2) : c2 = a2 b2 = 25 16 = 9; c = 3; F2(-3; 0).
3) , :
x0
y4
x
y4

;
4 x 3 y 12;
4 x 3 y 12 0
30 0 4
3
4
. , F1(0; 0), F2(1; 1),
2.
x2 y2
: 2 2 1 . :
a
b
2c =

(1 0) 2 (1 0) 2 2 , , a2 b2 = c2 =

2 = 2, = 1, b = a 2 c 2 1 1 / 2 2 / 2.
x2
y2
1.
: 2
1/ 2
1
.
. ,
,
, .
y
M(x, y)
b
r1
r2
x
F1

F2

r1 r2= 2a. F1, F2 . F1F2 = 2c.


(, ). :

r1 ( x c) 2 y 2
r2 ( x c) 2 y 2
( x c ) 2 y 2 ( x c ) 2 y 2 2a
( x c ) 2 y 2 4a 2 4a ( x c ) 2 y 2 ( x c ) 2 y 2

4a ( x c) 2 y 2 4a 2 4 xc

a 2 ( x c) 2 a 2 y 2 a 4 2a 2 xc x 2 c 2
a 2 x 2 2a 2 xc a 2 c 2 a 2 y 2 a 4 2a 2 xc x 2 c 2
a 2 x 2 a 2c 2 a 2 y 2 a 4 x 2c 2 0
x 2 (c 2 a 2 ) a 2 (c 2 a 2 ) a 2 y 2 0
x 2 (c 2 a 2 ) a 2 y 2 a 2 (c 2 a 2 )
2 2 = b2 ( )
a 2b 2 b 2 x 2 a 2 y 2
x2 y2

1
a2 b2
.
,
.
2 .
2b .
b
, y x.
a
c
. e 1 ,
a
, .
, 2 2 = b2:
c2 a2 b2 b2
b
e2 1
e2 2
2
2
a
a
a
a
= b, e = 2 , ().
. ,
a/e ,
a
. : x .
e
. r -
, d
, r/d , .
. .

y
a/e

d
M(x, y)
r1

F1

OF1 = c
:
a/e + d = x, d = x a/e.
(x c)2 + y2 = r2
x 2b 2
2
: y 2 b 2 , b2 = c2 a2:
a
x 2b 2
r 2 x 2 2 xc c 2 2 b 2
a
2
2 2
c x
c

2
2
2
2
2
x 2 xc c 2 x c a x a
a
a

c
r xa
a
r ex a
e.
.. /a = e, r = ex a.
:
a
d
x
e
. .
. ,
x2 y2

1.
8
5
: c2 = a2 b2.
: c2 = a2 + b2.
3

3
8
2

8
2

x
y

1.
3
5
. , 2,
x2 y2

1.

25 9
c2 = 25 9 = 16.
: c2 = a2 + b2 = 16,
e = c/a = 2;
c = 2a;
c2 = 4a2;
a2 = 4;
2
b = 16 4 = 12.
x2 y2

1 - .
:
4 12
.
. ,
, ,
, .
.
:

(, )

p/2

p/2

( )
. .
: AM = MF; AM = x + p/2;
MF2 = y2 + (x p/2)2
(x + p/2)2 = y2 + (x p/2)2
2
x +xp + p2/4 = y2 + x2 xp + p2/4
y2 = 2px
: x = -p/2.
. 2 = 8 ,
4.
, = 4.
r = x + p/2 = 4; :
x = 2; y2 = 16; y = 4. : M1(2; 4), M2(2; -4).
4. .
4.3.
.
. n
n, ,
x1, 2, , n = {xn}
n.
xn = f(n)

.
,
.
. {xn} = {(-1)n} {xn} = -1; 1; -1; 1;
{xn} = {sinn/2} {xn} = 1; 0; 1; 0;
:
1) m: m{xn} = {mxn}, .. mx1, mx2,
2) () : {xn} {yn} = {xn yn}.
3) : {xn}{yn} = {xnyn}.
x x
4) : n n {yn} 0.
y n y n
.

. {xn}
,
>0, n : x n M
.. (-; M).
. {xn} ,
n , xn M.
. {xn} ,
n , xn M
. {xn} = n {1, 2, 3, }.
. {xn},
>0 N, n > N
a xn .
:
: lim xn = a.
, {xn} n.
: - ,
, ,
.
(1) n
. , lim
0.
n

(1) n
1
1
, ..
. n , ,
n > N 0
n
n

1
N , , , .

1 1 1
1
. , n 3, 2 , 2 , 2 ,..., 2
2 3 4
n
2.
: {xn}= 2 + 1/n; 1/n = xn 2
1
, n, x n 2 , .. lim {xn} = 2.
n
. .
. , {xn} a
b, .
xn a; xn b; a b.
>0,
a xn
b xn

: a b (a xn ) ( x n b) a xn xn b

.. - , a b 0 , .. a = b. .
. xn a, x n a .
. xn a , x n a . :
x n a x n a , ..

x n a , .. x n a . .

. xn a, {xn} .
, , ..
.

1
1 n , n
, x n
,
1
2 , n

n
x n 2.
.
. 1) xn+1 > xn n, .
2) xn+1 xn n, .
3) xn+1 < xn n, .
4) xn+1 xn n,
.
.
. {xn} = 1/n
{xn} = n .

n
.
2n 1
n 1
n 1

{xn+1}=
2n 2 1 2n 3
n
n 1 2n 2 3n 2n 2 2n n 1
: {xn}-{xn+1}=

2 n 1 2n 3
(2n 1)(2n 3)
1

0 , .. nN, n.
(2n 1)(2n 3)
, xn+1 > xn. , .
.
n
{xn} = n .
5
n 1
n 1 n n 1 5n

x n 1 n 1 . x n 1 x n
5
5 5n 5n
5 5n
1 4n

, .. nN, 1 4n <0, .. n+1 < xn. .


5 5n
. , {xn}=

,
.
. .
.
1 2 3 n xn+1
: xn M, .
.. , ,
, >0 N, xN > a - ,
.
.. {xn}- , N > n - < xN xn,
xn > a - .
a - < xn < a +
- < xn a < xn - a< , .. lim xn = a.
.
.
.

1
{xn} = 1 .
n
{xn} , .
:
n

n 1 n(n 1) 1
n(n 1)(n 2) 1
n(n 1)(n 2)...[ n (n 1)] 1
1

1 1
...

1 n
1 2 n
1 2 3
1 2 3 n
n
n
n
,
1 1
1 1 2 k 1
1 1 2 n 1
x n 1 1 1 ... 1 1 ...1
... 1 1 ...1

2! n
k! n n
n
n! n n
n
, {xn} . ,
xn+1 xn:
1
1
1
1
2 k 1
1
1
2
xn 1 1 1 1
... 1
1
...1
... 1
1
...
2! n 1
k! n 1 n 1 n 1
n! n 1 n 1
1
1
n
n 1
...1

1
...1
.
n 1 (n 1)! n 1 n 1
xn+1 xn, ,
, xn+1 . ,
{xn} .
, n : xn < 3.
1
1 n
1 1
1
1 1
1
2 1 1 3
x n 1 1 ... 1 1 2 ... n 1 1
1
1
2! 3!
n!
2 2
2
1
1
2
2
.

1 n
, 1 - ,
n
.. . .
n

1
lim1 e
n
n
n

1
1 3 , 3. {xn} ,
n
, :
n

1 1
1
1 2 1
2 n
n
,

1
2,5
2
, 2,5 3.
, .
, 2,71828
e 2

.
loge x ln x y, .. e y x.

-8
-6
-4
-2
2

10

2
Gr

aphi cs

y = lnx.
4.4. .
y

f(x)

A+
A
A-

a- a a+

f(x) = (..
= )
. f(x) ,
>0 >0, ,
0 < x - a <

f(x) - A< .
:
- < x < a + , x a, - < f(x) < A + .
: lim f ( x) A
x a

. f(x) A1 x < a, lim f ( x) A1 x a 0

f(x) = , f(x) A2
x > a, lim f ( x) A2 f(x) = .
xa 0

f(x)
2
1

, f(x)
= ,
.
1 2 f(x)
= . , f(x).
.
. f(x) ,
>0 >0, , >M
A f (x)

, f(x)
.
: lim f ( x) A.
x

:
y

0
x

0
x

lim f ( x) A >M
x

lim f ( x) A <M.

.
1. lim C C , = const.
x a

, f(x) g(x)
.
2. lim( f ( x) g ( x)) lim f ( x) lim g ( x)
x a

x a

x a

3. lim[ f ( x) g ( x)] lim f ( x) lim g ( x)


xa

x a

x a

. lim C f ( x) C lim f ( x)
xa

4. lim
xa

xa

f ( x)
f ( x) lim
x a
g ( x) lim g ( x)
xa

lim g ( x) 0
xa

5. f(x)>0 = lim f ( x) A , >0.


x a

f(x) < 0, f(x) 0, f(x) 0.


6. g(x) f(x) u(x) = lim g ( x) lim u ( x) A ,
x a

xa

lim A .
xa

. f(x) = ,
>0, f(x)<M = .
7. f(x) ,
= .
.
. f(x) ,
, + -, lim f ( x) 0 .
x a


.
.
. f(x) = xn 0
1, .. lim f ( x) 1 .
x 1

. , f(x) , ,
, =
f(x) = A + (x),
() (()0 ).
:
1)
.
2)
.
3) ,
= .
4) ,
.

.
. f(x) , - , ,
>0 >0,
f(x)>M
,
0 < x - a <
lim f ( x) .
xa

, f(x)>M
f(x)>M, : lim f ( x) ,
x a

f(x)<M, :

lim f ( x) .
xa

. ,
, + -, lim f ( x) A , , +
x a

-.

.
. f(x)0 ( ) ,
1
y

f ( x)
.
.

sin x
1
x 0
x

lim

1
lim1 e
x
x


,
.
, ,
:

ln(1 x)
1;
x 0
x

lim

a x 1
ln a;
x 0
x

lim

(1 x) m 1
m.
x 0
x

lim

. .

tgmx
mx m
lim

x 0 sin nx
x 0 nx
n

lim
. .

x 3
lim

x x 1

x 3

x 1 4
lim

x
x 1

1
z lim1
4 z z

4z

x 3

y x 1
y4
y
4
y 4
4
4

lim1 lim1
x lim
y
y
y y
y
y

1 z
lim1 e 4
z z

4.5.
.
. f(x), 0,
0,
, ..
lim f ( x) f ( x0 )
x x0

: lim f ( x) f ( lim x)
x x0

x x0

. f(x) 0,
0, ,
0 .
:
y
f(x0)+
f(x0)
f(x0)-
0

x0- x0 x0+

:
y
f(x0)+
f(x0)
f(x0)-
x0

. f(x) 0,
>0 >0, ,

x x0

f ( x) f ( x0 ) .

. f(x) = 0,
0 .
f(x) = f(x0) + (x)
() 0.
.
1) , 0
, 0.
f ( x)
2)

g ( x)
, g(x) 0.
3) .
:
u = f(x), v = g(x) = 0, v = g(f(x))
.
,
.

.
1) f(x) = C, C = const
.
a x n a1 x n 1 ... a n
2) f ( x) 0 m

b0 x b1 x m 1 ... bm
, , . ,
.
3) sin cos
.
.
f(x), 0,
.
, = 0 , ,
.
, .
.
(. ) lim f ( x) f ( x0 ) ,
x x 0

0
(. ) lim f ( x) f ( x0 ) ,
x x 0

. 0 f(x), f(x)
0 .
. 0 1- ,
f(x) , .
lim f ( x) lim f ( x)
x x0 0

x x0 0

,
= 0, , .
, 1
. 1
,
.
. 0 2 ,
f(x)
.

. ( (1805-1859)
, - 1837)
1, x
f ( x)
0, x
0.
1
. f(x) = 0 = 0 2 , ..

lim f ( x) ; lim f ( x) .
x 0 0

x 0 0

7.5
5
2.5
-10

-5

-2.5

10

-5
-7.5
Gr

aphi cs

sin x
x
= 0, lim f ( x) 1 , ..
. f(x) =

x 0

= 0 1 . , ..
:
sin x
, x 0

f ( x) x
1, x 0
:
1
0. 8
0. 6
0. 4
0. 2

- 20

- 10

10
- 0. 2

. f(x) =

x 1, x 0
=
x 1, x 0
y
1

20

-1
sign(x) . = 0
. .. , 1
. = 0, f(0) = 1,
, f(0) = -1, ,
f(x) - , 1 1,
, , =
0 1 . 1 .
, , 1 ,
, ,
.
.
. f(x) (),
().
,
.
, .
1: ( ( (1815-1897) )). , , , ..
[a, b] M f(x) M.
2: , [a, b],
.
.. 1 2, f(x1) = m, f(x2) = M,
m f(x) M

( f(x) = sinx).

.
3: ( ). ,
[a, b], .
4: f(x) = 0,
0, .
5: ( (1781-1848) ). f(x) [a, b]
, , f(x) = 0.
. f(x) [a,
b], >0 >0 , 1[a,b] x2[a,b]
,
2 1<

f(x2) f(x1) <
,
, , .
6: ( (1845-1918)- ).
, , .
( , .)
1
. y sin
x

0. 5

- 3

- 2

- 1

- 0. 5

- 1

1
y sin
(0, ),
x
, .. >0 ,
1 2 , f(x1) f(x2)>, - , 1 2
.
7: f(x) ,
, = g(y) ,
.
. ,
.
x 4, x 1

f ( x) x 2 2, 1 x 1
2 x,
x 1

lim f ( x) 3

lim f ( x) 3

x 10

x 1 0

lim f ( x) 3

lim f ( x) 2

x 1 0

x 1 0

= -1

= 1 1

3
2

-4

-1

. ,
.

cos x, x 0

f ( x) x 2 1, 0 x 1
x,
x 1

lim f ( x) 1

x 00

lim f ( x) 1

x 0 0

lim f ( x) 2

x 10

lim f ( x) 1

x 1 0

= 0

= 1 1

2
1
-

-/2

5.

5.1.
, .
. f(x) = 0
,
.
f ( x x) f ( x)
f ( x) lim
x 0
x

f(x)

f(x0 +x)

f(x0)

x
x0

x0 + x

f(x) (a, b). tg

f

x

lim tg lim

x 0

x 0

f
f ( x0 ) tg ,
x

- f(x) (x0, f(x0)).


,
- .
: y y0 f ( x0 )(x x0 )

1
( x x0 ) .
f ( x0 )

, .
f(t), t- , f(t)-
( ) .
, - , ..
.
.
. () f(x) = 0
f
()
,
x
.
f
f
f ( x0 ) lim
f ( x0 ) lim
x 0 x
x 0 x
f(x) = 0,
. , . -
0, - ,
0, .
: f(x) = x- = 0 ,
, , .
. ( ) f(x)
0, .
, .
.
f(x) = u, g(x) = v- , .

: y y 0

1) (u v) = u v
2) (uv) = uv + uv

u u v v u
3)
, v 0
v2
v
.

1) = 0;
9) sin x cos x

2)(xm) = mxm-1;
10) cos x sin x

1
1

3) x
11) tgx
cos2 x
2 x

1
1
1

4) 2
12) ctgx 2
sin x
x
x

5) e x e x
13) arcsin x
1 x2

6) a x a x ln a
14) arccos x
1 x2
1
1

7) ln x
15) arctgx
x
1 x2
1
1

8) log a x
16) arcctgx
x ln a
1 x2

5.2.

y = f(x) :
y
lim
f ( x)
x 0 x
y
f (x) , 0, 0.
:
x
: y f ( x) x x .
x- , f(x)x, .. f(x)x-
.
. f(x)
.
dy df(x).
, dy = f(x)x dy = f(x)dx.
dy
: f ( x)
dx
.
y
f(x)
K
dy
y

M
L

x + x

MKL: KL = dy = tgx = yx
, f(x)
.
.
u = f(x) v = g(x)- , ,
:
1) d(u v) = (u v)dx = udx vdx = du dv
2) d(uv) = (uv)dx = (uv + vu)dx = vdu + udv
3) d(Cu) = Cdu
u vdu udv
4) d
v2
v

. y = f(x); u = g(x), u
f.

y f (u) u

y y u

x u x
y
y
u
lim
lim
lim
x 0 x
u 0 u x 0 x

( , x0, u0, .. u = g(x) )


dy dy du

dx du dx
.
ln x, x 0
y ln x
.
ln( x), x 0
1
( x) 1
1
.
(lnx)= , .. ln x ; (ln( x))

x
x
x
f ( x)
, ln f ( x)
.
f ( x)
f ( x)

f(x).
f ( x)
,
,

f ( x) (ln f ( x) ) f ( x)


, - ,

.
- .
,
, , .
,
.
u = f(x) v = g(x) , , f(x)>0.
y = uv. , :
lny = vlnu
y
u
v ln u v
y
u
u

y u v v v ln u
u

u vu
v

u u v v ln u

v 1

. f ( x) ( x 2 3x) x cos x .

: u x 2 3x;
v x cos x;

: u 2x 3; v cos x x sin x;
:
f ( x) x cos x ( x 2 3x) x cos x1 (2x 3) ( x 2 3x) x cos x (cos x x sin x) ln( x 2 3x)
.
= f(x) ,
x = g(y) , .
x = g(y) :
1 g ( y) y
1
.. g(y) 0
y
g ( y )

dy
1

dx dx
dy
.. .
. arctg.
arctg , tg, ..
:
y tgx;
x arctgy;
1
;
, y (tgx)
cos2 x
:
1
d (arctgy)
1
y
;

d (arctgy) / dx
dy
1 / cos2 x
..

1
1 tg 2 x 1 y 2 ;
2
cos x

1
;
1 y2
,
, .
.
f(x)- . ,
,
df ( x)
y f ( x)
dx
f(x),
f(x).
d 2 f ( x)
y f ( x)
dx 2
d 2 y d dy
.. y = (y)
.
dx 2 dx dx

(arctgy)

, n.
d n y d d n 1 y
.

dx n dx dx n 1

.
u = f(x) v = g(x) ,
1) (u)(n) = Cu(n);
2) (u v)(n) = u(n) v(n);
3) (u v) ( n ) vu ( n ) nu ( n 1) v

n(n 1) ( n 2)
n(n 1)...[ n (k 1)] ( n k ) ( k )
u
v ...
u
v ...
2!
k!

... uv( n) .
.
dny = f(n)(x)dxn n- .
5.3.
.
.
( (1661-1704) )
:
0
; ; 0; 0 ; 1 ;
0
( ). f(x) g(x)
, , g(x) f(a) = g(a) = 0,
,
( ) .
f ( x)
f ( x)
lim
lim
x a g ( x)
x a g ( x)
. , :
f ( x) f (a) f ( )

g ( x) g (a) g ( )
- , . , f(a) = g(a) = 0:
f ( x) f ( )

g ( x) g ( )
f ( x)

. ..
g ( x)
, ,
f ( )
. , :
g ( )
f ( x)
f ( x)
.
.
lim
lim
x a g ( x)
x a g ( x)

x 2 1 ln x
.
x 1
ex e
,
0

. ,
0
.
1
f(x) = 2x + ;
g(x) = ex;

1
2x
f ( x)
x 2 1 3 ;
lim

x
x 1 g ( x )
e
e
e
: lim

: lim

2arctgx
3
x

e 1
3
3
2
g ( x) e x 2 ;
f ( x)
;
2
x
1 x

2x 2
2
2

lim
.
3
(0 1) 1 (3) 3
x
(1 x 2 )e x (3)

,
, .. . ,
,
.
x
2

xe
.
x ex
x
1
f ( x) e 2 (1 x) ;
g ( x) 1 e x ;
2
x
x
x
x
1 2 1 2 x 2 1 2
f ( x) e e e e (4 x) ;
g ( x) e x ;
2
2
4
4
x
1 2
1
e (4 x)
(4 x)
4
4
lim
lim
x
x
x
ex
e2
x
1
1
1
g ( x) e 2 ;
f ( x) ;
lim x 0;
x

2
4
2e 2
,
.
( , .).
. (2 .)
.
. 1) f(x) [a, b]
, , .. f(x) 0.
2) f(x) [a, b]
(, b), f(x) > 0 a < x < b,
[a, b].
.
1) f(x) , f(x + x) > f(x) x>0 f(x + x) < f(x) <0,
:
f ( x x) f ( x)
f ( x x) f ( x)
0,
lim
0.
x 0
x
x
2) f(x)>0 1 2, [a, b], x1<x2.
: f(x2) f(x1) = f()(x2 x1), x1 < < x2
f()>0, , f(x2) f(x1) >0, .. f(x) .
.
, f(x)
[a, b], f(x)0 . f(x)<0 (a, b), f(x)
[a, b].
, , f(x)
[a, b] (a, b).

: lim
x

:
y

.
. f(x) 1 ,
, 1.
f(x) 2 , f(x2 +x) > f(x2) (
).
, ,
, .

.
.
.
. ( ) f(x)
= 1 1 ,
.
. , f(x) = 1 .
>0 :
f ( x1 x) f ( x1 ) , ..
f ( x1 x) f ( x1 ) 0

f ( x1 x) f ( x1 )
0
0
x
f ( x1 x) f ( x1 )
0
0
x
:
f ( x1 x) f ( x1 )
lim
f ( x1 )
x 0
x
.. 0, <0, f(x1) 0, 0, >0, f(x1) 0.
, 0 f(x1) = 0.
, f(x) 2
. .
. .
, ,
. = 3,
= 0 , ,
.
. ,
.

, .

: f(x) = x

: f(x) =

x
= 0 ,
.

= 0
, , .
, f(x) ,
.
. ( )
f(x) (a, b),
1, (,
, 1).
1 f(x)
+ -, = 1 f(x) ,
- +- .
.

f ( x) 0 x x1

f ( x) 0 x x1
:
f(x) f(x1) = f()(x x1), x < < x1.
: 1) < x1, < x1;
f()>0; f()(x x1)<0,
f(x) f(x1)<0 f(x) < f(x1).
2) > x1, > x1 f()<0; f()(x x1)<0,
f(x) f(x1)<0 f(x) < f(x1).
. . , , f(x) < f(x1) 1, .. 1
.
.
.

:
1) .
2) .
3) .
4) .
22. 3.2.6. . . . (2 .)
.
.
. (, b),
. ,
, , ,
.

x
.
1. (a, b) f(x)
, y = f(x) ().
. 0 (a, b). .
: y = f(x);
: y f ( x0 ) f ( x0 )(x x0 ).
, y y f ( x) f ( x0 ) f ( x0 )(x x0 ) .
f(x) f(x0):
y y f (c)(x x0 ) f ( x0 )(x x0 ) , x0 < c < x.
y y ( x x0 )[ f (c) f ( x0 )]
f (c) f ( x0 ) : y y f (c1 )(c x0 )(x x0 ),
x0 c1 c
> x0 x0 < c1 < c < x. .. x x0 > 0 c x0 > 0,
f (c1 ) 0 , , y y 0 .
x < x0 x < c < c1 < x0 x x0 < 0, c x0 < 0, .. f (c1 ) 0,
y y 0.
, f(x) > 0 (a, b), y=f(x)
(a, b). .
. , ,
.
, .
2. y = f(x).
f(a) = 0 f(a) = f(x)
, = .
. 1) f(x) < 0 < a f(x) > 0 x > a.
x < a , x > a , .. = .
2) f(x) > 0 x < b f(x) < 0 x < b. x < b
, x > b . x = b .
.
.
,
.
. ,

.
, .
.

.

, , ,
, ,
y x e

x
3

sin x . = .
10
5

- 10

-5

10

-5
- 10
- 15
- 20

.
.
, lim f ( x) lim f ( x)
x a 0

x a 0

lim f ( x) , = y = f(x).
xa

f ( x)

2
= 5
x5

.
.
, y = f(x) y = kx + b.
15
12. 5
10
7. 5
5
2. 5

Q
,
.
. Q N.
MQ = y , NQ = y - N .
MP
: lim MP 0 , NMP = , NM
.
x
cos
- 900,

lim MP lim NM cos lim NM 0


x

NM MQ QN y y f ( x) (kx b)

lim[ f ( x) (kx b)] 0 .


x

, y = kx + b .
k b.
:
b
f ( x)
lim x
k 0
x
x
x
b
b
f ( x)
k 0 , .. b = const, lim 0; lim k k .
.. , lim
x
x x
x
x
x
f ( x)
k 0 0 , ,
lim
x
x

k lim
x

f ( x)
.
x

.. lim f ( x) (kx b) 0 , lim f ( x) kx lim b 0 , ,


x

b lim f ( x) kx
x

,
k =0.
x 2 2x 1
. y
.
x
1) : y+ x0-0:
y-
x0+0, , = 0 .
2) :
x 2 2x 1
2 1
k lim
lim1 2 1
2
x
x

x
x x
2
2
x 2x 1

x 2x 1 x 2
1
2x 1

lim
b lim( f ( x) x) lim
x lim
lim
2 2
x
x
x

x
x
x
x

, = + 2 .
:
6

-3

-2

-1

-2

. y

9x
.
9 x2

= 3 = -3 .
9
: k lim
0
x 9 x 2
9
9x
b lim
lim x 0
x 9 x 2
x 9
1
x2
y = 0 .
6
4
2

- 7. 5

-5

- 2. 5

2. 5

7. 5

-2
-4
-6

. y

x 2 2x 3
.
x2

= -2 .
.

k lim
x

x 2x 3
x 2x 3
lim 2
lim
x

x
x( x 2)
x 2x
2

2 3

x x 2 1.
2
1
x

3
4
x 2 2x 3

x 2 2x 3 x 2 2x
4x 3
x 4
lim
b lim
x lim
lim
x
x

2
x2
x2
x2

1
x
, = 4 .
20
15
10
5
- 10

-5

10

-5
- 10
- 15
- 20



.

:
1) .
.
2) . ( ).

3) .
4) .
5) .
6) .
7) .( ).
8) .( ).
9) .
.
x3
. y 2
.
x 1
. ,
(-; -1) (-1; 1) (1; ).
, , = 1, = -1
.
(-; ).
= 1, = -1.
.

3x 2 ( x 2 1) 2 x x 3 3x 4 3x 2 2 x 4 x 4 3x 2
y

2
( x 2 1) 2
( x 2 1) 2
( x 1) 2
: x = 0; x = - 3 ; x = 3 ; x = -1; x = 1.

(4 x 3 6 x)( x 2 1) 2 ( x 4 3x 2 )4 x( x 2 1)
y

( x 2 1) 4

(4 x 3 6 x)( x 4 2 x 2 1) ( x 4 3x 2 )(4 x 3 4 x)

( x 2 1) 4

4 x 7 8 x 5 4 x 3 6 x 5 12x 3 6 x 4 x 7 4 x 5 12x 5 12x 3

( x 2 1) 4

2 x 5 4 x 3 6 x 2 x( x 4 2 x 2 3) 2 x( x 2 3)( x 2 1) 2 x( x 2 3)

.
( x 2 1) 4
( x 2 1) 4
( x 2 1) 4
( x 2 1) 3
.
- < x < - 3 ,
y < 0,

- 3 < x < -1,


y < 0,
-1 < x < 0,
y > 0,
0 < x < 1,
y < 0,
1 < x < 3,
y > 0,
y > 0,
3 < x < ,
.
.
- < x < - 3 ,
y > 0,
- 3 < x < -1,
y < 0,
-1 < x < 0,
y < 0,
0 < x < 1,
y < 0,
1 < x < 3,
y < 0,
y > 0,
3 < x < ,

, = - 3 , = 3
. -3 3 /2
3 3 /2.
.
.
x2
1
k lim 2
lim
1;
x x 1
x
1
1 2
x
1
x3

x3 x3 x
x
lim 2
b lim 2
x lim
lim x 0
2
x x 1
x
x

x 1 x 1 1

x 1
x2
, y = x.
:
4

-2

-1

-1

-2

-3

-4

6. 6.1.

.
: F(x) f(x)
[a, b], :
F(x) = f(x).
,
. .
F1(x) = F2(x) + C.
.
: f(x)
, :
F(x) + C.
: f ( x)dx F ( x) C ;


.
:

1. f ( x)dx ( F ( x) C ) f ( x);

2. d

f ( x)dx f ( x)dx;

3. dF ( x) F ( x) C;
4. (u v w)dx udx vdx wdx; u, v, w .

C f ( x)dx C f ( x)dx;

1.

1 3
x 2 cos x x C;
3

.
.
, , ,
.

,
.
.
, ,

.

x
1
9
ex + C
-lncosx+C
tgxdx
e dx
: ( x 2 2 sin x 1)dx x 2 dx 2 sin xdx dx

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

ctgxdx
a dx
x

dx
x2
dx
x2 a2
dx

x2 a2

x dx

dx
x

lnsinx+ C

10

ax
C
ln a
1
x
arctg C
a
a
1
xa
ln
C
2a x a

11

ln x x 2 a 2 C

14

x 1
C , 1
1

15

ln x C

12
13

16

cos xdx
sin xdx
1

cos

sin

x
dx

-cosx + C

dx

tgx + C

dx

-ctgx + C

a2 x2
1
cos x dx
1

sinx + C

sin x dx

arcsin

x
+C
a

x
ln tg C
2 4
x
ln tg C
2

6.2.
.
.


. , ,
.
:

ln x 1

dx
.
x

. ,
ln x C ,
1
1

ln( x) (1) . , :
x
x
dx
x ln x C
, ,
, ,
, .
, , ,
, , ,

.
,
. ,
.
, .
( ).
: f ( x)dx ,
, x = (t) dx = (t)dt :
f ( x)dx f ((t ))(t )dt
: :
d f ( x)dx d f [(t )](t )dt

2 :
f(x)dx = f[(t)] (t)dt
.
.
. sin x cos xdx .
t = sinx, dt = cosxdt.
2 3/ 2
2 3/ 2
1/ 2
t dt t dt 3 t C 3 sin x C.
. x( x 2 1) 3 / 2 dx.

dt
; :
2x
1 3/ 2
1 2 5/ 2
t 5/ 2
( x 2 1) 5 / 2
3 / 2 dt
t

t
dt

C;
2 2
2 5
5
5
.
:
(uv) = uv + vu
u v .
: d(uv) = udv + vdu
, : d (uv) udv vdu ,
t x 2 1; dt 2 xdx; dx

:
uv udv vdu

udv uv vdu ;

,
.
u x 2 ; dv sin xdx;
2
2
. x sin xdx
x cos x cos x 2 xdx
du 2 xdx; v cos x

u x; dv cos xdx;
2
2

x cos x 2 x sin x sin xdx x cos x 2 x sin x 2 cos x C.


du

dx
;
v

sin
x

,
.
u e 2 x ; du 2e 2 x dx;
2x
2x
. e 2 x cos xdx
e sin x sin x 2e dx
dv cos xdx; v sin x

u e 2 x ; du 2e 2 x dx;
2x
2x
2x
2x

e sin x 2 e cos x cos x 2e dx e sin x


dv

sin
xdx
;
v

cos
x
;

2e 2 x cos x 4 cos xe 2 x dx
,
. ,
. .
5 e 2 x cos xdx e 2 x (sin x 2 cos x)

e2x
(sin x 2 cos x) C.
5
, .

.
.
,
.
Q( x)
: R( x)
- , P(x)
P( x)

(,
: P(x) = (x - a)(x - b)(x2 + px + q)(x2 + rx + s) ),
:
B
A
A
A2
B1
B2
M x N1
Q( x)
1
...
...

...
21

P( x) x a ( x a )
( x b) ( x b)
( x a)
( x b)
x px q
R x S
M x N
M x N2
R1 x S1
R2 x S 2
2 2

...

...

...

( x px q) 2
( x 2 px q)
x 2 rx s ( x 2 rx s) 2
( x 2 rx s)
Ai, Bi, Mi, Ni, Ri, Si .

. Ai, Bi, Mi, Ni, Ri, Si
, ,
, , ,
.
.
.
3
9 x 30 x 2 28x 88
( x 2 6 x 8)( x 2 4) dx
2x
e cos xdx

.. ( x 2 6x 8)(x 2 4) ( x 2)(x 4)(x 2 4) ,

9 x 3 30x 2 28x 88
A
B
Cx D

2
2
( x 2)( x 4)( x 4) x 2 x 4 x 4
, :
A( x 4)(x 2 4) B( x 2)(x 2 4) (Cx D)(x 2 6x 8) 9x 3 30x 2 28x 88
( A B C ) x 3 (4 A 2 B 6C D) x 2 (4 A 4 B 8C 6 D) x (16 A 8B 8D)
9 x 3 30x 2 28x 88.
A B C 9
C 9 A B
4 A 2 B 6C D 30
D 30 4 A 2 B 54 6 A 6 B

4 A 4 B 8C 6 D 28
2 A 2 B 4C 3D 14
16 A 8B 8D 88
2 A B D 11
C 9 A B
C 9 A B
D 24 2 A 4 B
D 24 2 A 4 B

2 A 2 B 36 4 A 4 B 72 6 A 12B 14
4 A 10B 50
2 A B 24 2 A 4 B 11
4 A 5B 35
C 9 A B
C 9 A B
A 5
D 24 2 A 4 B
D 24 2 A 4 B
B 3

4 A 10B 50
4 A 10B 50
C 1
50 10B 5B 35
B 3
D 2
:
5
3
x2
x
2
x 2 dx x 4 dx x 2 4 dx 5 ln x 2 3 ln x 4 x 2 4 dx x 2 4 dx
1
x
5 ln x 2 3 ln x 4 ln( x 2 4) arctg C.
2
2
.
,
.
,
, .

.

ax b
dx n- .
R x, n

cx

ax b
t .
cx d

tn b
ax b
tn b
n
dt;
t ;
x
;
dx
n
cx d
a ct n
a ct

t n b t n b
ax

b
dx R
R x, n
a ct n , t a ct n dt r (t )dt.
cx d

dx
2dx
dx
2t 3 dt
t 2 dt
4

2
x

t
;
dt

2
3
3
1 2 x 4 1 2 x
t2 t
t 1
4
2
t

4
1

2
x

t
t
1

2
2 t
dt t 2 2 1
dt 2 tdt 2
dt t 2t 2 ln t 1 C
t 1
t 1
t 1
1 2 x 24 1 2 x 2 ln 4 1 2 x 1 C.
,
,
, .
.
.
3
12 x 1 t ; x 1 t 12 ;
x 1 4 x 1
(t 4 t 3 )12t 11 dt
t3 t2
dx

12


( x 1) 1 6 x 1
t 2 1 dt
t 12 (1 t 2 )
dx 12t 11 dt;

t3


t2
t
1
tdt

12 2
dt 2
dt 12 t 2
12 dt
dt 1 2
dt 12 tdt 12 2
t 1
t 1
t 1
t 1
t 1

dt
6t 2 12t 6 ln(t 2 1) 12arctgt C 66 x 1 1212 x 1 6 ln(6 x 1 1)
2
1 t
12arctg12 x 1 C.

.
,
,
.
R(sin x, cos x)dx .
12

R sinx
cosx.

x
.
2
.
x
x
2tg
1 tg 2
2t
1 t 2
2
2
,
sin x

cos x

;
2
2
1

t
1

t
2 x
2 x
1 tg
1 tg
2
2
2dt
dx
;
x 2arctgt;
1 t2
2t 1 t 2 2

,
dt r (t )dt.
: R(sin x, cos x)dx R
2
2
2
1

t
1

1 t

.
.
2dt
dx
dt
dt
1 t 2

2
2 2

2
2
2
4 sin x 3 cos x 5 2t
1 t
8t 3 3t 5 5t
2t 8t 8
4
3
5
1 t2
1 t 2
dt
dt
1
1
2

C
C.
2
x
t2
t 4t 4
(t 2)
tg 2
2
,

. ,
t tg

,
.

.
.
dx
2dt
dt
dt
9 8 cos x sin x 2 8(1 t 2 ) 2t 2 t 2 2t 17 2 (t 1) 2 16
(1 t ) 9

1 t2
1 t 2

x
tg 1
1
t 1
1
arctg
C arctg 2
C.
2
4
2
4
R(sin x, cos x)dx
R cosx.

, t = sinx.
R(sin x, cos x)
R(sin x, cos x)dx cos x cos xdx
R(sin x, cos x)

cosx , ,
cos x
sinx.
R(sin x, cos x)dx r (sin x) cos xdx r (t )dt.
.
sin x t

cos7 xdx
(1 t 2 ) 3
1 3t 2 3t 4 t 6
dt
dt

dt

cos
xdx

dt

dt 4 3 2

4
4
sin 4 x

t
t
t
t
cos2 x 1 sin 2 x

1 3
1
1
3
sin 3 x
3 dt t 2 dt 3 3t t 3

3
sin
x

C.
t
3
3
3t
3 sin 3 x sin x
,
, ,
, , .
R(sin x, cos x)dx
R sinx.
t = cosx.
R(sin x, cos x)dx r (cos x) sin xdx r (t )dt.
.

(t 2) 2 4t 5
cos x t

sin 3 x
1 t2
t 2 4t 4 4t 5
dt
dt
2 cos x dx dt sin xdx 2 t dt
t2
t2

4t
5
tdt
dt
t2
t

t 2

dt

tdt

2
dt

2t 5 ln t 2 4
dt

t 2 t 2
t2
t2 2
t2

A
t

t 2 t 2 B

dt
t2
A Bt 2 t t 2

2
t

5
ln
t

4
dt

2t 5 ln t 2 8 ln t 2 4t

t2
B

1
,
A

2
2
2

t 2 t 2

2
t
cos2 x
2t 3 ln t 2 C
2 cos x 3 ln(cos x 2) C.
2
2
R(sin x, cos x)dx
R sinx cosx.
R
t = tgx.
R(sin x, cos x)dx r (t )dt
.

1
tgx t ;

2
dx

cos
x
sin 2 x 6 sin x cos x 16 cos2 x tg 2 x 6tgx 16 dx 1 dx d (tgx) dt
cos2 x

dt
dt
1 tgx 3 5
1 tgx 2

ln
C ln
C.
2
10 tgx 8
t 6t 16
(t 3) 25 10 tgx 3 5
2

6. 3.
[a, b] f(x).
y
M

xi

m M [a, b]
[a, b] ( ) n .
x0 < x1 < x2 < < xn
x1 x0 = x1, x2 x1 = x2, ,xn xn-1 = xn;
.
[x0, x1] m1, M1; [x1, x2] m2, M2; [xn-1, xn] mn, Mn.

:
n

m x

S n = m1x1 + m2x2 + +mnxn =

i 1

M x

S n = M1x1 + M2x2 + + Mnxn =

i 1

S , S
.
.. mi Mi, S n S n, m(b a) S n S n M(b a)
.
x0 < 1 < x1, x1 < < x2, , xn-1 < < xn.
,
f(x) [a, b].
Sn = f(1)x1 + f(2)x2 + + f(n)xn =

f ( ) x
i 1

: mixi f(i)xi Mixi


,

i 1

i 1

i 1

mi xi f ( i )xi M i xi
Sn Sn Sn

: f(x)
, .
maxxi , minxi .
maxxi 0, [a, b] .
n

S n f ( i )xi ,
i 1

lim

max xi 0

f ( )x
i

i 1

S.

: [a, b] , maxxi 0
n

i S n f ( i )xi
i 1

S, f(x) [a, b].


b

f ( x)dx.

, b , , [a, b]
.
:

f(x)

lim

max xi 0

f ( )x f ( x)dx, [a, b].


i 1

lim

max xi 0

lim

max xi 0

i 1

mi xi f ( x)dx

M x f ( x)dx
i 1

: f(x) [a, b],


.
.
1)

Af ( x)dx A f ( x)dx;

2)

( f ( x) f
1

( x))dx f1 ( x)dx f 2 ( x)dx

3)

f ( x)dx 0
a

4) f(x) (x) [a, b] a < b, f ( x)dx ( x)dx


5) m M f(x)
[a, b], :
b

m(b a) f ( x)dx M (b a)
a

6) . f(x) [a, b],


,
b

f ( x)dx (b a) f ()
a

1
f ( x)dx M
b a a
.. f(x) [a, b],
m . , [a, b],
b
b
1
f ( x)dx = f(), a b, f ( x)dx (b a) f () . .
b a a
a
: 5: m

7) a, b, c : f ( x)dx f ( x)dx f ( x)dx


, ,
.
8)

f ( x)dx f ( x)dx

. f(x) (x)
[a, b], () , ,
,
b

f ( x)( x)dx f () ( x)dx


a

6.4.
b

f ( x)dx

= const, b

. , ,
.
x

f (t )dt

= (). ()

.
x

d
f (t )dt f ( x)
dx a
.

: f(x), [a, b],


, , .
: ( )
F(x) - f(x),
b

f ( x)dx F (b) F (a)


a

.
: F(x) f(x).
x

f (t )dt

- f(x). ..

,
,
x

f (t )dt F ( x) C
a

, .. = :
a

f (t )dt F (a) C
a

0 F (a) C
C F (a)

f (t )dt F ( x) F (a) . = b: f (t )dt F (b) F (a)

t , :
b

f ( x)dx F (b) F (a) .


a

F(b) F(a) = F(x) .


a


.
,
,
.
( ),
,
, .
,
,
. ,
.
.
b

f ( x)dx , f(x) [a, b].


a

x = (t).

1) () = , () = b
2) (t) (t) [, ]
3) f((t)) [, ],

f ( x)dx f [(t )](t )dt

f [(t )](t )dt F[(t )]

F [()] F [()] F (b) F (a)

.
/2
/2
x sin t;
/2
1
2
2
2
1

x
dx

sin
t
cos
tdt

cos
tdt

(1 cos 2t )dt

0
;

/
2
2

0
0
0
/2
1 1
1

t sin 2t sin .
2 2
4 4
4
0
,
( sin)
.
.
.
u = (x) v = (x) [a, b],
, :
1

udv uv vdu.

, ,
.

.
.

+
0

+
-

,
, f(x).
, .. f(x) < 0, -,
, .. f(x) > 0, +.
b

f ( x)dx .
a

,
, .
. , y = x, y = x2, x = 2.

-1

-1

( ) :
2
x3 x2 2 8 4 1 1 5
S x 2 dx xdx (2)
21 3 2 3 2 6
3
1
1
.
2

y = f(x)
Si yi
xi

x
n

, , S n S i .
i 1

lim

max S i 0

S
i 1

xi

yi

y
1 i
xi

xi

yi
f ( xi ) f ( xi 1 )

xi
xi

, S
b

.
2

: S i

lim

max xi 0

S
i 1

dy
1 dx
dx

.. S 1 f ( x) dx
2

: , x2 + y2 = r2.
.
x
y
r 2 x2

y r 2 x2

1
x2
r
xr

S 1 2
dx

dx

arcsin
r
2

4
r 0
2
r x
r 2 x2
0
0
S = 2r. .
.
.
, y = f(x). ,
f(x) [a, b].
b , .
y = f(x)

.. x = const
R f (x) ,
b

V f 2 ( x)dx
a

.
i

xi

:
, ,
,
.
n M0, M1, M2, , Mn.
xi yi.
, ,
Pi. :
y yi
Pi 2 i 1
S i
2
Si .

y
S i x y 1 i
xi
2
i

2
i

xi

yi
f ( xi ) f ( xi 1 )

f ( i ),
xi
xi xi 1

y i
.
x i
xi 1 xi

S i 1 f 2 ( i )xi

yi 1 yi
1 f 2 ( i )xi
2
, :
Pi 2

Pn f ( xi 1 ) f ( xi ) 1 f 2 ( i ) xi
i 1

, ,
P

lim f ( xi 1 ) f ( xi ) 1 f 2 ( i )xi

max xi 0

i 1

lim 2 f ( i ) 1 f 2 ( i )xi

max xi 0

i 1

P 2 f ( x) 1 f 2 ( x)dx -
a

.
7. .
7.1.

,
, ,
,
.

.
,
at 2
: S V0 t
2
a t V,
t S. ..
dS
dV d 2 S
V
;
a
2 ;
dt
dt
dt
f (t ) t
: S f (t ) V0 t
- f(t)
2
t f(t).
. ,
, ( )
.
.
, ,
,
.
. , ,
.
.
3
x y 8 y x 5 0 - 1 .
F ( x, y, y ) 0 .

d2y
dy
x 2 xy x 2 y - 2 .
dx
dx
F ( x, y, y, y) 0
z
z
y2
xy 0 -
x
y
.
.
y = (x, C),
.
.
1) .. ,
.
2) - = 0, (0) = 0
= 0, = (,
0).
. = (, 0)
.
. ( (1789-1857)-
)
= (, 0), (0) = 0.
. (
1- )
f(x, y) D XOY
y f ( x, y) ,
(0, 0) D, y (x)
y f ( x, y) , , 0,
= 0 (0) = 0, ..
.
.
, ,
.
. xy y 0 .

,
:
dy
x y0
dx
xdy ydx
dy
dx

y
x
dy
dx
:
y x
ln y ln x C0 ln y ln x C0

ln xy C0

xy e C0 C
C
y
-
x

.
, : x0 = 1; y0 = 2,


; C 2;
1

( ).
2
y
x
. y = (x)
Y.
2

.
, (.
. ) , .. (, )
.
.

.
, ,
.
, .
. : y y 0.
, .
dy
dy
dy
y
dx
dx
dx
y
y
ln y x C y e x e C
y C1 e x
= 0.
,
. , y = 0
1 = 0 , C1 = eC 0.
.
, ,
, .. :
F ( x, y, y ) 0
y f ( x, y)
,
.
:
dy
f ( x, y ); dy f ( x, y )dx; f ( x, y )dx dy 0;
dx
P ( x, y )
f(x,y) : f ( x, y )
, Q( x, y ) 0;
Q ( x, y )
: P( x, y)dx Q( x, y)dy 0
- .

.
y = f(x).
f(x)
a < x < b.
y f ( x)dx C . 0 0,
.

. y f ( x, y)
,
y ( x)( y) .
:
dy
y ( x)( y) 0; dy ( x)( y )dx 0;
( x)dx 0 ( y ) 0;
( y )
1
( x) X ( x);
Y ( y);
( y)
:
X ( x)dx Y ( y)dy 0;

X ( x)dx Y ( y)dy C

.
,
, , , .
2x
. : yy
cos y
dy
y cos y
2 x y cos ydy 2 xdx y cos ydy 2 xdx
dx
, , :
u y; dv cos ydy;
y cos ydy du dy; v sin y y sin y sin ydy y sin y cos y

y sin y cos y x 2 C
y sin y cos y x 2 C 0
- , ..
.
() () .

.
2x
-
yy
y sin y yy cos y y sin y 2x 0
cos y
y
.
ln y (2)
y
= 1.
ydx
ln ydy
ln ydy
ln y dx
dx

dy
y
y
2
ln y
x C ln yd (ln y )
xC
2
2
ln 1
; 2 C 0; C 2;
(2) = 1 2 C
2
: 2( x 2) ln 2 y; y e 2 x 4 - ;
2
: y e 2 x 4
,
2 2x 4

y e

2 x4

( 2 x 4)

2 x 4

2 x 4 ln y - .

. y x( y 2 1).

x2

x2
dy
dy
C ;

dx
;

dx
;
arctgy

C
;
y

tg
2
2

2
y 1
y 1
2

.
. f(x, y) n
, t ( )
: f (tx, ty) t n f ( x, y).
. f ( x, y) x 3 3x 2 y ?

f (tx, ty) (tx) 3 3(tx) 2 ty t 3 x 3 3t 3 x 2 y t 3 ( x 3 3x 2 y) t 3 f ( x, y)


, f(x, y) 3- .
.
y f ( x, y)
, f(x, y)
.
P( x, y)dx Q( x, y)dy 0 ,
P(x, y) Q(x, y) .

.
y f ( x, y).
.. f(x, y) , :
f (tx, ty) f ( x, y).
1
.. t , , t . :
x
y
f ( x, y ) f 1,
x

y
y
u , .. f ( x, y ) (u );
x
x
:
y (u)
y = ux, y ux ux .
(u ) u
u x ux (u ); u x u (u ); u
;
x
,
u.
du
dx
du
dx
;
C;
(u ) u
x
(u ) u
x
, u
, .
y y
. y ln 1 .
x x
u.
y
u ; y ux; y u x u .
x
, u , ..
y
, ln u ln .
x
:
u x u u(ln u 1); u x u u ln u u; ux u ln u;

du
dx
du
dx
;
;
u ln u
x
u ln u
x
, : ln ln u ln x C ; ln u Cx; u e Cx ;
:

, :
y xeCx .
, .
, , ,
.
ax by c
.
y f
a1 x b1 y c1

a b
0,
a1 b1
x u ;
y v ;
ax by c 0
-
a1 x b1 y c1 0

. ( x 2 y 3)dy (2x y 1)dx 0.


dy
dy 2 x y 1
( x 2 y 3)
2 x y 1;

;
dx
dx
x 2y 3
2 1
4 1 5 0.

1 2
2 x y 1 0 y 1 2 x
x 1 / 5
;
;
;

x 2 y 3 0
x 2 4x 3 0 y 7 / 5

x u 1/ 5; y v 7 / 5; :
(u 1/ 5 2v 14 / 5 3)dv (2u 2 / 5 v 7 / 5 1)du 0;
(u 2v)dv (2u v)du 0;
dv 2u v 2 v / u

;
du 2v u 2v / u 1
v
t ; v ut; v t u t ; ,

u
2t
, : t u t
2t 1
dt
2t
2 t 2t 2 t 2(1 t t 2 )
u
t

;
:
du
2t 1
2t 1
2t 1

du
1 1 2t

dt;
u
2 1 t t2

du
1 (1 2t )dt

;
u
2 1 t t 2

1
ln 1 t t 2 ln u ln C1
2
ln 1 t t 2 2 ln C1u
C2
C
; 1 t t 2 22 ;
2
u
u
.
ln 1 t t 2 ln

v y 7 / 5 5y 7

; u x 1 / 5;
u x 1 / 5 5x 1
2
25C 2
5y 7 5y 7
1

;

5x 1 5x 1
(5 x 1) 2

(5x 1) 2 (5 y 7)(5x 1) (5 y 7) 2 25C2


25x 2 10x 1 25xy 5 y 35x 7 25y 2 70 y 49 25C2
25x 2 25x 25xy 75 y 25 y 2 25C2 49 1 7
55
x 2 x xy 3 y y 2 C 2
C;
25
, x 2 x xy 3 y y 2 C
.
ax by c

y f
a1 x b1 y c1
a b
0,
a1 b1
ax by t.
.
.
, :
y P( x) y Q( x),
, Q(x) ,
, Q(x) ,
.
P(x) Q(x)- a < x < b.
.


y P( x) y 0 .

.
dy
ln y P( x)dx ln C ;
P( x)dx
y
P ( x ) dx
y
ln P ( x)dx; :
y Ce
C
.
(Q(x)0)
: .
.
( (1654-1705) .)
,
y uv .
dv
du
, y u v
- .
dx
dx
, :

dv
du
v
P( x)uv Q( x)
dx
dx
dv du

u v
P( x)u Q( x)
dx dx

..
, , ,
, .
, y 2x 2 y 1 2 x 2 ; y 2 x 2 ;
y 2 x x; ..
, ,
du
P( x)u 0 .

dx
, u, ,
:
du
du
P( x)dx;
P( x)dx;
ln u P( x)dx;

u
u
P ( x ) dx
ln C ln u P( x)dx;
u Ce
; C 1/ C ;
u

v
dv du

P( x)u Q( x) ,
u u v
dx dx

, , .
P ( x ) dx dv
P ( x ) dx
e
Q( x);
Cdv Q( x)e
dx;
dx
, v:
P ( x ) dx
P ( x ) dx
1
v Q ( x )e
dx C 2 ;
Cv Q( x)e
dx C1 ;
C
.. y uv ,
.
, :

P ( x ) dx 1
P ( x ) dx
y uv Ce
Q( x)e
dx C2
C

:
P ( x ) dx
P ( x ) dx
ye
Q( x)e
dx C2 , 2 - .

.
.
( (1736-1813) - , . ,
. . . (1776)).


.
:
y P( x) y Q( x)

.
y P( x) y 0

:

.
y C1e

, 1 .
:
P ( x ) dx
dy dC1 ( x) P ( x ) dx
y

e
C1 ( x)e
( P( x));
dx
dx

P ( x ) dx
P ( x ) dx
dC1 ( x) P ( x ) dx
e
C1 ( x) P( x)e
P( x)C1 ( x)e
Q( x)
dx
dC1 ( x) P ( x ) dx
e
Q( x);
dx
1():
P ( x ) dx
dC ( x) Q( x)e
dx;
P ( x ) dx

, :

C1 Q( x)e

P ( x ) dx

dx C;

, :
P ( x ) dx
P ( x ) dx dx C .
ye
Q( x)e

, ,
.

,
.
1

. x 2 y y ax 2 e x .
: y

1
y ae x .
2
x

1
: P 2 ; Q ae x ;
x
1
1
1
2 dx
dx

x
x x2

ye
ae
e
dx

1
1
1
1

y e x ae x e x dx C e x adx C

1
x

y e (ax C ).
7.2.

,

y// = f(x,y,y/).
y = (x,C1,C2), 1,2 ,

. 0(0,0)
. ,
.
:
= 0
y/( = 0) = /0
tg0 = /0

1 2, , =(x).
.
.
1) // = f(x)

f(x)dx C
dx f(x) dx C1 x C2 .
=
/ =

2) // = f()
/ = p. , ,

dy dp dy
dp
p .
dy
// = dx dy dx

dp
dy = f().

pdp f(y)dy
C
p2
f(y)dy 1
2 f(y)dy C1
2
2 =
dy
2 f(y)dy C1
dx

dy
2 f(y)dy C1

= +- ( + 2).
.
.
3) // = f(/).

dp
/ = p , // = dx .
:

dp
dp
dx = f() f(p) = d,
dp
f(p)
= + 1 .
dy
= dx , .
.
2/// = 1,
:

dp
/ = , // = dx , , 2dp = dx 2 = + 1.
1, .
p = y/, , 1 = 1 + 1;
1 = 0 2 = , , =
,
=

xdx

d
.
dx

2 3
x C2 .
3

2
.
: = 0 = 1, , 2 = 3
2
x3 1 .
= 3


// = f(x,y,y/).
1. , // = f(y,y/).
/ = ,

dp dp dy dp

p.
//
dx
dy
dx
dy
=
,

dp
dy = f(, ).

2. , // = f(,y/).

dp
dp
/ = , // = dx , dx = f(,
).
1.
Xy// = 2x y/.
:

dp
/ = , // = dx .
dp

dx = 2 .
dp
p
2
x .
(*) dx
dp
du
p
x u.
dx
x = u, p = xu dx
(*):

du
u
dx
= 2 u,
du 2 2 u
du
2dx

.
dx
x
x
, u 1

ln(u 1) = 2lnx + lnC1.

C1
C1
p

2
x2 .
u 1 = x x
C1
=+ x .
1 :

dy
/ = / = 1 = 1, , 1 = 0, , = dx = .
x2
dy = xdx = 2 + 2.
y = 0,5; , = 1 2 = 0.

x2
, = 2 .
2.

(y) 2
// = y .

dp
.
/
//
dy
= =
,
2
dp dy
dp p
.
p
,
dy y ,
y
p

:
1) = 0, =

dp
dy
dy
C1 ,
y
2) p
, = dx = 1.

dy
C1dx

y
, ln = 1 + ln2 = 2 .
1




y// + py/ + qy = 0, p, q
= kx,
k = Const .
y/ = kekx y// = kekx. ,
k2ekx + pkekx + qekx = 0,
kx,
k2 + pk + q = 0 .

, k.
k2 + pk + q = 0,

2

q.
4
k1,2 = 2
3 :

2
1. 4 q > 0, , k1 k2. ,

:
k1

k 2

1 = 1= ; k1 k2, .
. 1 2 ,
1 2, , ,
, 11 + 22 = 0.
( ) 1 2
.

= 1

k1

+ 2

k 2

2. 4 q = 0, , k1 = k2 = 2 .
2

, :
1 =

.
1, 2,

2 = 2z(x),
z(x) , .
2 =

z.

p
x
p
p

y2 e z e z e 2 z z .
2
2

p
x
p p p2 x
p p2 x
p2
2

y 2 e z z e z z e z p z z .
2 2
2
4

p
x
2

p
x
2

2
2
z// pz/ + 4 z + pz/ 2 z + qz = 0

p2

z
4

0
z// +
= 0.
//
, z = 0.

z/ = a z = ax + b, a b . , ,

2 = ( + b) .
, = 1, b = 0 =

2
= (1 + 2).
2
3. 4 q < 0,
p2

q .

4
k1 = + i k2 = i, = 2 =
( i)
( i)
, = 1
+ 2
.

.
// 6/ + 9 = 0.

k2 6k + 9 = 0.
,
k1,2 = 3 +-

9 9 = 3, , = 3 (1 + 2).

.
// + / + qy = 0.

1. k 1, k2 , k1
k2,
k1

k 2

= 1
+ 2 .
2. k=k 1=k2,

k

= (1 + 2
k1,2 =
- i,
0),
3. k1,2 =

- i,

0), = (1cos + 2sin).



.
8.
8.1.

, ..
.
: (, )
-
z, z
.
z = f(x, y)
: (, ) z,
, , .
: z (,
), z .
: 0(0, 0) r
(, ), x x0 y y 0 r .
: f(x, y)
(, ) 0(0, 0), > 0 r >0,
(, ),
MM 0 r
2

f ( x, y ) A .
: lim f ( x, y) A
x x0
y y0

: 0(0, 0)
f(x, y). z = f(x, y) 0(0, 0),
(1)
lim f ( x, y) f ( x0 , y0 )
x x0
y y0

(, ) 0(0, 0) .
(1) ,
f(x, y). :
1) z = f(x, y) 0(0, 0).
2) lim f ( x, y ) .
x x0
y y0

3) , f( x0, y0).
. f(x, y, )
D,
N(x0, y0, ), ,
f(x0, y0, ) f(x, y, )

N1(x01, y01, ), ,
f(x01, y01, ) f(x, y, )
f(x0, y0, ) = M , f(x01, y01, ) = m
f(x, y, ) D.
D
.
. f(x, y, )
D, M m
, [m, M]
N0(x0, y0, ) , f(x0, y0, ) = .
, D
M m. ,
M m , D
.
. f(x, y, ), D,
, ,
f ( x, y,...) K .
. f(x, y, )
D, , ..
> 0, (1, y1)
(2, 2) , , ,
f ( x1 , y1 ) f ( x 2 , y 2 )
,
.
8.2. .
. z = f(x, y).
(, ) .
xz = f( x + x, y) f(x, y) .

x z f ( x x, y) f ( x, y)
.

x
x

xz
z = f(x, y) .
x 0 x
z
f ( x, y )
; z x ;
; f x ( x, y ).
:
x
x
.
z
f ( x, y y) f ( x, y)
lim
y y 0
y
z
(
)
x
, N0(x0, y0, z0)
= 0.
.
f(x, y) D,
f x( x, y) f y ( x, y ) .
.
.
2z
2z

f
(
x
,
y
);
f yy ( x, y );
xx
x 2
y 2
lim

2z
2z

f xy ( x, y);
f yx ( x, y);
xy
yx
,
.
2z 2z
3 z
3 z
.
..
;
;
;
xy yx xyx xyy
.
f x, f y , f xy , f yx
. f(x, y)
(, ) , :
2 f
2 f
.

xy yx
..
.
.
. f(x, y) z = f( x + x, y + y) f(x, y)
.
f(x, y) ,
z f ( x x, y y ) f ( x, y ) f ( x, y y ) f ( x, y y ) f ( x x, y y ) f ( x, y y )
f ( x, y y ) f ( x, y )
, .
f ( x, y )
f ( x, y y ) f ( x, y ) y
y
f ( x , y y )
f ( x x, y y ) f ( x, y y ) x
x
y ( y, y y);
x ( x, x x)

f ( x , y y )
f ( x, y )
z x
y
x
y
.. , :
f ( x , y y) f ( x, y)
lim

x 0
x
x
y 0

f ( x, y ) f ( x, y)

x 0

y
y
y 0
lim

f ( x, y )
f ( x, y)
x
y 1 x 2 y
x
y
f(x, y) (, ), 1 2
0 0 .
: z = f(x, y)
z (, ).
dz f x( x, y)dx f y ( x, y)dy
:
f
f
f
df ( x, y, z,..., t )
dx dy ... dt
x
y
t
. z

. u x y z .
u
u
u
du
dx
dy
dz
x
y
z

2
2
2
u
u
u
y 2 zx y z 1 ;
x y z ln x 2 yz;
x y z ln x y 2 ;
x
y
z

du y 2 zx y

z 1

dx 2 x y z yz ln xdy y 2 x y z ln xdz
y
.
. z 2
x y2
z
2 yx
2
x ( x y 2 ) 2

z y ( x 2 y 2 ) y (2 y ) x 2 y 2 2 y 2
x2 y2

y
(x2 y 2 )2
(x2 y 2 )2
(x 2 y 2 )2
2 xy
x2 y2
dx

dy
(x2 y 2 )
(x 2 y 2 )2
.
.
dz

N0


N N0 . NN0. ,
N0, ,
NN0 ,
NN0.
. N0 ,
N0 .
, ,
.
z = f(x, y), f(x, y) ,
0(0, 0), N0(x0,y0,(x0,y0))
:
z f ( x0 , y 0 ) f x( x0 , y0 )( x x0 ) f y ( x0 , y0 )( y y0 ) .
:
x x0
y y0
z z0

f x ( x0 y 0 ) f y ( x0 , y 0 )
1

f(x, y) (0, 0) ( z)
(0, 0) (0+, 0+).

.
.
z x 2 2xy y 2 x 2 y
(1, 1, 1).
z
z
z
z
2 x 2 y 1;
2 x 2 y 2
1;
2;
x
y
x M
y M
:
z 1 ( x 1) 2( y 1);
x 2 y z 0;
:

x 1 y 1 z 1

;
1
2
1

.
dz f x( x, y)dx f y ( x, y)

d 2 z d f x ( x, y )dx f y ( x, y )dy f x2 ( x, y )(dx) 2 2 f xy ( x, y )dxdy f y2 ( x, y )(dy) 2


d 3 z f x3 ( x, y )(dx) 3 3 f x2y ( x, y )(dx) 2 dy 3 f xy2 ( x, y )dx(dy) 2 f y3 ( x, y )(dy) 3


d z dx dy f ( x, y)
y
x
n ,
.
n

9.
9.1.
. u1 , u 2 ,..., u n ,...
.

u1 u2 ... un ... un
n 1

u1 , u 2 ,... , un .
n

. S n u1 u 2 ... u n u k ,

n = 1, 2,

k 1

() .
,
S1, S2, ,Sn,

u1 u2 ... un ... un

n 1

.
.
lim S n S ,

S un .
n 1

. , ..
, ,
.
.
1) ,
.

2)
.

Cu

, .

S,

, S. (C 0)
3) u n

Cu

(u n v n ) , ()
.
. u n v n S

(u

v n ) S + .

(u

vn ) u n vn S

.
.
.
:
.
.
( )
, a1 , a2 ,..., an ,... ,
, 0 N, n > N
p > 0, , :
an p an .
. ()
a n a , 0 N ,

a an
n>N. n>N p>0
2

a a n p . , :
2

a n p a n (a n p a) (a a n ) a n p a a a n
2 2
. .
.

, u1 u2 ... un ... un
n 1

, 0 N , n>N
p>0
u n 1 u n 2 ... u n p .
,
. :
1) u n , , un .
, . ,
, . ,

1
,
n 1 n
.
1 2 3
n
...
. ...
2 5 8
3n 1

n
1
1
lim
0 - ,
n 3n 1
n
1 3
3
n
.
2) , .
, .
, 1-1+1-1+1-1+ +(-1)n+1+ , ..
,
0, n
Sn
1, n
lim

, , .. S n 2
n.
9.2.
.

, .. 1
.
. u n
, .
.
u n v n un, vn 0.
. un vn n,

v .
v . ..

. Sn n

, , .. n

n M, . .. un vn, Sn n
u n , .
.
..

1
1
,
ln n n

1
1
1

...
...
ln 2 ln 3
ln n

n2
n 1

ln n .

1
1
1
n , n ( ),
n
n2
2
2

1
.

n
n 1 n 2
:
u
. u n 0, vn 0 lim n h , h ,
n v
n

..

v n .
.
( (1717 1783) )

u n q<1,
n

u
u

u n1
q,
un
n

, n

u n 1
1,
un
n

.

.
u
lim n1 , < 1 , > 1
n u
n
. = 1, .

2
n 1

1
1
n
u
n
n 1
(n 1)2
n 1
n 1 1
u n n ; u n1 n1 ;
lim n1 lim n1

un
2n
2
2
2
2
2 n
: .
1 1
1
. 1 ... ...
1! 2!
n!
u n1
1
1
n!
1
u n ; u n1
; lim
lim
lim
0 1
n (n 1)!
n n 1
n!
(n 1)! n u n
: .
. ( )
u n q<1,
n
n u q,
n
u n , n

n u 1,
n

. lim n u n , <1 ,
n

>1 .
n

2n 2 1
.
. 2
n 1 3n 5
1
2 2
2
2n 1
n 2 1
lim n u n lim 2
lim
: .
n
n 3n 5
n
5
3
3 2
n

1
1 .

n
n 1

1
lim n u n lim1 1.
n
n
n
.. .
. , ,
.
n

1
lim u n lim1 e 0 ,
n
n
n
, , , .
.
() ,
[1;), (1) + (2) + + (n) + =

n 1

(n)

( x)dx

1
1
1
... ... >1 1 ..

2
3
n

dx
>1 1.
1 x

1
.

n 1 n
. f(x) () (a, b]
b
b
f ( x)
lim
h, h 0, f ( x)dx ( x)dx
x a 0 ( x )
a
a
.
. 1

9.3. .
:
u1 u 2 u3 u 4 ... (1) n1 u n ...
un 0, n 1,2,3,...
.
u1 u 2 u3 u 4 ... (1) n1 u n ...
ui u1 u 2 u3 ... un 0 ,
.
.
( ).

u1 u 2 ... u n ... u n

(1)

n 1

, (1):

u1 u 2 ... u n ... u n

(2)

n 1

. (2) (1).
. (2) .
(2) , >0 N, ,
n>N p>0 :
u n 1 u n 2 ... u n p
:

u n 1 u n 2 ... u n p u n 1 u n 2 ... u n p
u n 1 u n 2 ... u n p

(2) (1).
.

.
,
.
. u n , ,
.
.
u n - .

u n 1
, <1
n u
n

. lim

, >1 . =1
.
. lim n u n , <1 u n
n

, >1 . =1
.
.
1) . u n ,

.
.
.
2) , ,
.
3) , ,
, .

, , .
4) . (
,
, ) ,
.
5)

un
n 1

v
n 1

S , , ui vk , i, k 1,2,...
, S -
.
,
.
9.4.
.
. , ,
.


.
, .
,
.
.
, ,
,
:
f ( x) lim f n ( x)
n

. {fn(x)} f(x) [a,b],


>0
N = N(, x), ,
f ( x) f n ( x)
n>N.
>0 [a,b]
, , , [a,b],
. ,
[a,b], .. .
. {fn(x)} f(x)
[a,b], >0 N = N(), ,

f ( x) f n ( x)
n>N [a,b].

sin x sin 2 x
sin nx
,
,...,
,...
1
2
n
f(x)=0, ..
sin nx
lim
0, x
n 0
n
:
.

sin 5 x
5

sinx

0. 5

-4

-2

- 0. 5

sin 2 x
2
, n
.
.
-1

. ()

u
n 1

( x)

S n ( x) u k ( x), n 1,2,...
k 1

u
n 1

( x)

(=0), .
{S n ( x0 )}

u
n 1

( x) 0.

. ,

u
n 1

( x) .

u
n 1

( x) [a,b],

.
. ( )

u
n 1

( x) ,

>0 N(), n>N p>0

u n 1 ( x) u n 2 ( x) ... u n p ( x)
[a,b].
. ( )
( (1815 1897) )

u
n 1

( x) [a,b],


:
M 1 M 2 ... M n ...
.. :

u n ( x) M n .

u
n 1

( x)

n 1

cos nx
.
n3
n 1
cos nx
1
3 .
cos nx 1 , ,
3
n
n

n
n 1

=3>1 ,

xn
. 3 .
n 1 n

[-1,1]

xn
1
3 ..
3
n
n

, (-, -1) (1, ) .


.
1) .

u
n 1

( x) - [a,b]

, S(x) [a,b].
2) .
[a,b]
, .. ,
[a,b] , .

u
n 1

( x)dx u n ( x)dx; , [a, b]


n 1

3) .

u
n 1

( x) [a,b]

, , ,

u ( x) ,
n 1

dun ( x)
d
u
(
x
)

n
dx n 1
dx
n 1
,
,
( ), ,
.
.
9.5.
.

a 0 a1 x a 2 x 2 ... a n x n ... a n x n .
n 0


.
x2 x3
xn

...
...
. x
2
3
n
:
x n 1
u
xn
x
lim n 1 lim n n 1 lim
lim
x.
n u
n x
n n 1
n
1
n
1
n
n
, x 1 x 1 .
1 1.
1 1 1
= -1: 1 ... = 1:
2 3 4
1 1
1
1 ... ... ( ).
2 3
n

.
( (1802 1829) )

. a 0 a1 x a 2 x 2 ... a n x n ... a n x n
n 0

x = x1 , x x1 .
. , ,
a n x1n k ,
k- . :
n

x
x
an x a x
k
x1
x1
, x<x1
( )
, .
x

, ,
x1
.
, a n x n
n

n
n 1

x n .

x n 1,

2 1 = 0.
. = 1 , x x1 .
,
R, , x R , x R
. R . (-R, R)
.
, ,
.
:
a
R lim n 1
n a
n
. x

x2 x3
xn

...
...
2! 3!
n!

1
a
n!
(n 1)!
R lim n 1 lim
lim
lim n .
n a
n
n ( n 1)!
n
1
n
n!
, .
xn
0.
. lim
n n!
. a n x n =1
, ( x1 ; x1 ) .
.
1) .

f(x) : f ( x) a n x n ,
n 0

n 0

n 0

a n n 1
x C
n 0 n 1

f ( x)dx a n x n dx a n x n dx

2) .
, , :
f ( x)

d
d
n
n
a
x

a
x

nan x n 1
n

n
dx n 0
dx
n 0
n 0

3) , , .

:

a
n 0

n 0

n 0

x n bn x n (a n bn ) x n

4) :

a
n 0

n 0

n 0

x n bn x n n x n

i :
cn a0bn a1bn1 ... an1b1 an b0
5) :

a
n 0

xn

b x
n 0

q
n 0

n 0

n 0

qn x n
n 0

qn

x n bn x n a n x n ,

a0 q0 b0
a q b q b
0 1
1 0
1
a 2 q0 b2 q1b1 q 2 b0
.......... .......... .......... ......

a n q0 bn q1bn 1 ... q n b0
9.6. .

, , ,
, ,
.
.
.

(1685-1731)
. 1) f(x) =
(n+1) .{ ..
n
}.
2) - , .
, :

f ( x) f ( a)
-

f (a)
f (a)
f ( n ) (a)
f ( n1) ( )
( x a)
( x a) 2 ...
( x a) n
( x a) n1
1!
2!
n!
(n 1)!

, :

f ( n1) ( )
( x a) n1 Rn1 ( x)
(n 1)!
.
.
(1698-1746) .
= 0:

f (0)
f (0) 2
f ( n ) (0) n
x
x ...
x Rn ( x)
1!
2!
n!
f ( n1) (x) n1
Rn ( x)
x ;
0 1
(n 1)!

f ( x) f (0)


.
,
, , ..
, - ,
, , .
, . ,
,
, , ,
,
.
, .
.. ( )
.
, , Rn+1(x)
, , ( )m, ..
Rn1 ( x) ([ x a]n ) .
, .

.


.

.


.
f(x) = ex.
f(x) = ex, f(0) = 1
f(x) = ex, f(0) = 1

(n)
f (x) = ex, f(n)(0) = 1

: e x 1

x x2 x3
xn
x n1 x

...

e ,
1 2! 3!
n! (n 1)!

0 1

f(x) = sinx.
f(x) = sinx; f(0) = 0
f(x) = cosx = sin( x + /2); f(0) = 1;
f(x) = -sinx = sin(x + 2/2); f(0) = 0;
f(x) = -cosx = sin(x + 3/2); f(0)=-1;

f(n)(x) = sin(x + n/2);


f(n)(0) = sin(n/2);
f(n+1)(x) = sin(x + (n + 1)/2);
f(n+1)() = sin( + (n + 1)/2);

x3 x5
x 2 n1
n 1
sin x x

... (1)
R2 n ( x )
3! 5!
(2n 1)!
f ( 2 n 1) ( ) 2 n 1
cos
R2 n ( x )
x

x 2 n1
(2n 1)!
(2n 1)!
f(x) = cosx.
cosx, , :

cos x 1

x2 x4
x 2n

... (1) n
R2 n1 ( x)
2! 4!
(2n)!

R2 n 1 ( x)

f ( 2 n 2) ( ) 2 n 2
cos
x

x 2n 2
(2n 2)!
(2n 2)!

f(x) = (1 + x).
( - )
f ( x) (1 x) 1 ; f (0) ;
f ( x) ( 1)(1 x) 2 ; f (0) ( 1);
..
( n)
f ( x) ( 1)( 2)...( (n 1))(1 x) n ; f ( n) (0) ( 1)( 2)...( n 1)
:

(1 x) 1

( 1)
2 1

x 2 ...

( 1)...( n 1)
n!

x n Rn 1 ( x)

( 1)...( n)

(1 x) ( n 1) ;
0 1
(n 1)!
= n, n- f(n+1)(x)=0,
Rn+1 = 0,
Rn 1 ( x)

(1 x) n 1

n
n(n 1) 2
x
x ... x n
1!
2!

, .
f(x) = ln(1 + x).
:
f(x) = ln(1 + x);
f(0) = 0;
1
f(x) =
;
f (0) 1;
1 x
1
f ( x)
;
f (0) 1;
(1 x) 2
1 (2)
f ( x)
;
f (0) 2;
(1 x) 3

(n 1)!
f ( n ) ( x) (1) n 1
;
f ( n) ( x) (1) n1 (n 1)!;
n
(1 x)

1 2 1 2 3
(1) n1 (n 1)! n
: ln(1 x) x x
x ...
x Rn1 ( x);
2
3!
n!
ln(1 x) x

x2 x3
(1) n1 n

...
x Rn1 ( x)
2
3
n

(1) n n! x
Rn1 ( x)

(n 1)! 1

n 1


. , ,
.
1
.
.
1 x

:
1
1-x
1x
1 + x + x2 + x3 +
x
x x2
x2
x2 x3
x3
.

f (0)
f (0) 2
f ( n ) (0) n
f ( x) f (0)
x
x ...
x Rn ( x) ,
1!
2!
n!
1
; f (0) 1;
: f ( x)
(1 x) 2

2
; f (0) 2;
(1 x) 3
23
f ( x)
; f (0) 3!;
(1 x) 4
.
n!
f ( n ) ( x)
; f ( n ) (0) n!;
n 1
(1 x)
f ( x)

, : f ( x) 1 x x 2 ... x n ...
9.7. .
( (1768 1830) )
.
. :
a0
(a1 cos x b1 sin x) (a2 cos 2 x b2 sin 2 x) ... (an cos nx bn sin nx) ...
2

a
, , 0 (a n cos nx bn sin nx).
2 n 1
ai, bi
.
,
2, .. sinnx cosnx
2.
[-; ],
, , f(x).
.
:

0, m n, m 0,1,2,..
cos
mx
cos
nxdx

, m n, m, n 1,2,...

0, m n,
m n, m, n 1,2,...

sin mx sin nxdx ,

cos mx sin nxdx 0,

m 0,1,2,..., n 1,2,...

.. f(x) [-; ],


a0
(a n cos nx bn sin nx)dx a0
f ( x)dx 2 dx
n 1

(a

n 1

: a 0

cos nx bn sin nx)dx 0 .

f ( x)dx

cosnx
- .


a0
f
(
x
)
cos
nxdx

cos
nxdx

(a n cos2 nx bn cos nx sin nx)dx a n

2
n 1

: a n

1
f ( x) cos nxdx; n 1,2,...

sinnx
- .
: bn

f ( x) sin nxdx,

n 1,2,...

0
an.
, f(x) 2,
[-; ]
,

1
a n f ( x) cos nxdx; n 0,1,2,...

1
f ( x) sin nxdx, n 1,2,...

f(x).
bn

. f(x) ,
. f(x)
, , f(x)
.
10.
10.1.
. z z a ib , a b
, i , :
i 2 1;
i 1.
a z (a = Re z), b (b = Im z).
a =Re z =0, z , b = Im z = 0, z
.
. z a ib z a ib
.
. z1 a1 ib1 z 2 a 2 ib2
, :
a1 a 2 ;
b1 b2 ;
. ,
. a b 0.
.

.
, . , , , ,
, , .

, ,

.
, - .


A(a, b)

, , Y
.

.

, a r cos ; b r sin .
:

z a ib r cos ir sin r (cos i sin )



.
r , .
r z;
Arg z .
:

b
r a ib a 2 b 2 ; Arg z arctg ;
a
,
.
z z;
Arg z Arg z .
10.2. .

.
1) .
z z1 z 2 (a1 ib1 ) (a 2 ib2 ) (a1 a 2 ) i(b1 b2 )

z (a1 a2 ) 2 (b1 b2 ) 2
2) .
z z1 z 2 (a1 ib1 )(a2 ib2 ) a1a2 ia1b2 ib1a2 i 2b1b2
z z1 z 2 (a1a 2 b1b2 ) i(a1b2 b1a 2 )

:
z1 r1 (cos 1 i sin 1 ) , z 2 r2 (cos 2 i sin 2 ).

z z1 z 2 r1 r2 (cos(1 2 ) i sin(1 2 ))
:
2
2
zz (a ib)(a ib) a 2 b 2 z z .
3) .
z
a ib1
z 1 1
x iy
z 2 a 2 ib2
(a ib1 )(a 2 ib2 ) (a1a2 b1b2 ) i(a 2 b1 a1b2 )
z 1

(a 2 ib2 )(a 2 ib2 )


a 22 b22

a1a 2 b1b2
a b a b
i 2 21 12 2
2
2
a 2 b2
a2 b2

:
z
r
z 1 1 (cos(1 2 ) i sin(1 2 ))
z 2 r2
. (2 .).
4) .
,
z 2 zz r 2 (cos2 i sin 2)
:

z n r n (cos n i sin n) ,
n .
.
( (1667 1754) )

, .. .
. sin2 cos2.
z r (cos i sin ).
z 2 r 2 (cos2 2i cos sin sin 2 ) .
: z 2 r 2 (cos 2 i sin 2)
, cos 2 i sin 2 cos2 sin 2 2i cos sin
.. , ,
cos 2 cos2 sin 2
sin 2 2 sin cos
.
5) .
z n r (cos i sin ) (cos i sin )
, :
n (cos n i sin n) r (cos i sin )
n

: n r ;

n 2k ;
n

k Z.

2k
2k

z n r (cos i sin ) n r cos


i sin

n
n

, n n
.
.
w e z ;
z x iy.
, w :

w e xiy e x (cos y i sin y)


.
. (. ).
:
1) e z1 z2 e z1 e z2 ;

e z1
2) e
z2 ;
e
z m
3) (e ) e mz ; m .
z1 z 2

(=0),
:
e iy cos y i sin y
:
e iy cos y i sin y
:

e iy e iy
cos
y

iy
iy
sin y e e

2i



.
:
z r (cos i sin )
: e i cos i sin

z rei
.

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