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PCM: It is defined as : In this modulation technique a message signal (which is analog ) is represented by a sequence of coded pulses , which is accomplished

by representing the signal in discrete form in both time & amplitude The basic concept behind this type of modulation is use of sampling theorem more efficiently. In its transmission firstly analog signal is converted into PAM (Pulse Amplitude Modulation) and then with the help of analog to digital converter it is converted to PCM. To obtain PCM from an analog waveform at the transmitter end, the analog signal amplitude is sampled at regular time intervals. The sampling rate is several times the maximum frequency of the analog waveform. The instantaneous amplitude of the analog signal at each sampling is rounded off to the nearest of specific, predetermined levels. This process is called quantization. Its block diagram is given as below : TRANSMITTER FOR PCM For receiver circuit there is reversel of this circuit i.e : RECEIVER FOR PCM