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saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti


mSeneblobis proeqtirebis da eqspertizis
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samecniero-teqnikuri
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Tbilisi 2012

m S e n e b l o b a
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SCIENTIFIC-TECHNICAL JOURNAL BUILDING

#1(24), 2012

mTavari redaqtori _ malxaz wiqariSvili


mTavari redaqtoris
moadgileebi _ gela yifiani
damfuZnebeli
roin imedaZe
giorgi laRundariZe

samecniero-saredaqcio kolegiis wevrebi:


bacikaZe Tamazi, gedeniZe zurabi, danelia demuri, draSkoviCi ferdinandi
(slovakeTi),

kviciani

tarieli,

kodua

nodari,

klimiaSvili

levani,

kublaSvili murmani, maxvilaZe revazi, meZmariaSvili elguja, miaCenkovi


vladimeri (ruseTi), mSvenieraZe inguSa, nadiraZe anzori, raiCiki iaroslavi
(poloneTi), rekvava paata, ripi iani (holandia), soxaZe aguli, frangiSvili
arCili, Cernogolovi igori (ruseTi), CixlaZe vladimeri, Ciqovani arCili,
cixelaSvili zauri, cxvedaZe revazi, WoxoneliZe guga, xaxutaSvili gia,
xmeliZe Tamazi, javaxiSvili marina.

pasuxismgebeli mdivani: TinaTin maRraZe


sakontaqto tel. 65-93; 899-478422
E-mail:tinmag@mail ru
veb-gverdi: www.sheneba.ge

kompiuteruli da grafikuli uzrunvelyofa


lika laRundariZe

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#1(24), 2012

: ..
.
: .. ;
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:
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- :
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; .. ; .. ; .. ; . ; ..
; .. ; .. ; .. (); ..
; .. ; . (); (); .. ;
.. ; .. (); .. ; . . ; ..
; .. ; .. ; .. ; .. .

: ..
: 33-17-87; 65-93; 899 478422
E-mail:tinmag@mail ru
-: www.sheneba.ge
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EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: M. Tsikarishvili
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Sinaarsi
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SCIENTIFIC-TECHNICAL JOURNAL BUILDING

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-
e. moiswrafiSvili, m. moiswrafiSvili, b. bregaZe, l. balavaZe.
yrilis
daZabuli
mdgomareobis
modeli
da
dinamikuri
zemoqmedebis sixSirisa da xangrZlivobis Sefaseba ............................................6
r. cxvedaZe, d. tabataZe, g. daTuaSvili, k. iaSvili. uban-uban
araerTgvarovani Rrutaniani. cilindris gaangariSeba...................................12
i.
mSvenieraZe,
i.
jinWaraZe.
rekomendaciebi
rkinabetonis
gumbaTebis konstruirebisaTvis.............................................................................................17
e.moiswrafiSvili, m. moiswrafiSvili, g. maisuraZe, d. fanculaia.
miwis vakisis tanSi Zabvebis gavrcelebis muSa zonebis sazRverebis
gansazRvra .........................................................................................................................................................20
g. wuleiskiri, m. arabiZe, T. kokaia. sacxovrebeli saxlis gegmis
naxazis gamoxazvis Taviseburebani. .......................................................................................24
m. maisuraZe T. Wanturia. xelovnebis arqiteqturuli garemo
Tanaziareba. ............................................................................................................30
m.
javaxiSvili.
adgilobriv
nedleulze
damzadebuli
bgeramSTanTqmeli
nakeTobebis,
silikomanganumis
widebis
Tvisebebis kvleva...........................................................................................................................34
T.
papuaSvili,
m.
SiSinaSvili,
v.
jRamaia,
n.
eloSvili.
asfaltbetonis narevis Semadgenlobis gansazRvra
marSalis
xelsawyos gamoyenebiT ............................................................................................37
T. kupataZe, g. kvantaliani, n. kupataZe. cicabo qanobian
daRmarTebze
satvirTo
matareblebis
damuxruWebis
siTburi
reJimis gamokvleva .............................................................................................................41
b. surgulaZe, g. beraZe. milsadenebis didmaliani gadasasvlelis
winaswar daZabuli kombinirebuli konstruqcia .................................................47
g.
eragia,
T.
kakutaSvili.
navTobproduqtebis
Sesanaxi
rezervuarebis simtkiceze gaangariSebis inJinruli (gamartivebuli)
meTodis Sesaxeb ...........................................................................................................55

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-
n. filfani, m. kublaSvili, v. WankotaZe.
pirveli gvaris
singularuli
integraluri
gantolebis
ricxviTi
amoxsna
monakveTze dadebiTi indeqsis SemTxvevaSi ................................................................59
a.
gogberaSvili.
saZirkvlebisa
da
miwaSi
CaRrmavebuli
sarTulebis mowyoba wyalgaumtar betonze ..............................................................63
m.
ZoweniZe. Tanamedrove sainformacio teqnologiebis gavlena
msoflio ekonomikaze ..........................................................................................................................67
e. fancxava, o.kiRuraZe. qvabis dolSi mimdinare procesebis
maTematikuri modelireba ...........................................................................................71
m. jixvaZe. drekadkedlebian milSi siTxis arastacionaluri dinebis
TaviseburebaTa gamosakvlevi eqsperimentuli danadgaris aRwera da
cdebis Catarebis meTodika ............................................................................................................77
axali teqnologiebi. n TevzaZe, r. JRenti. sainJinro esTetika da

arqiteqtura erTimeorisgan gamomdinareobs. ...................................................82


milocva ...................................................................................................................................................86
...........................................................................................................................87
SUMMARIES.........................................................................................................................................................91

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yrilis daZabuli mdgomareobis modeli da dinamikuri


zemoqmedebis sixSirisa da xangrZlivobis Sefaseba
e.moiswrafiSvili, m. moiswrafiSvili, b. bregaZe, l. balavaZe.
(saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, m.kostavas 77, 0175, Tbilisi,
saqarTvelo)

reziume:
yrilebis
daZabuli
mdgomareobis
kvlevis
Sedegebi
saSualebas
gvaZlevs
axleburad
SevafasoT
eqspluatirebul
rkinigzebze misi muSaobis xasiaTi. yrilis siRrmis mixedviT muSa
zonebSi gamoyofil iqna calkeuli ubnebi, romlebic gansxvavdebian
moZravi Semadgenlobis Zaluri dinamikuri zemoqmedebis intensivobisa
da sidideebis mixedviT.
Catarebuli kvlevis Sedegebi SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas miwis
vakisis gaangariSebebis meTodebis dasaxvewad, kerZoT gruntis
datkepnvis saWiro mniSvnelobis miRwevisaTvis; yrilis safuZvlisa da
Wrilebis ZiriTadi moednis stabilurobis SefasebisaTvis; agreTve
dinamikuri datvirTulobis sidideebis gansazRvrisaTvis sxva da sxva
sainJinro nagebobebze (miwis vakisis wyalgamtari milebi, sinTetikuri
masalebis damcavi fenebi, damcavi kedlebi da sxva)
sakvanZo sityvebi: rkinigzis miwis vakisi, yrilis tani, dinamikuri
Zabvebi,saangariSo
kveTi,
ZiriTadi
moedani,
dinamikuri
datvirTuloba,
datvirTulobis
ciklis
sixSire,
gruntebis
dinamikuri aqtivoba.

1. Sesavali
moZravi
Semadgenlobis
zemoqmedebis
Sedegad
yrili
muSaobs
mravaljeradi cikluri, Zaluri datvirTulobis reJimSi. amitom yrilis
muSa zonebis mdgomareobis SefasebisaTvis mniSvnelovania, ara marto masze
gadacemuli Zabvebis sidideebis mniSvnelobebi, aramed maTi zemoqmedebis
sixSire da aseTi ciklebis saerTo raodenoba.

2. ZiriTadi nawili
eqspluataciaSi myof rkinigzebze Catarebuli
eqsperimentaluri
kvvlevebis analizis Sedegebi saSualebas iZleva davadginoT, Zabvebis
cvalebadobis xasiaTi liandagis gaswvriv nax.1-ze warmodgenili epiuris
saxiT, saidanac aSkarad Cans, rom yrilebSi Zaluri datvirTulobis
intensivoba mniSvnelovnad icvleba muSa zonebis siRrmeSi.
datvirTva-gantvirTvis
ciklis
sixSire
f
hercebSi
ganisazRvreba
formuliT:
f = 1/ti = 0,278 V/li
(1)
sadac: V matareblebis moZraobis siCqarea, km/sT;
6

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-
li - ekipaJis RerZebs Soris manZili, m.
SemoviRoT horizontaluri manZilebis aRniSvnebi:
l0 urikis xisti bazis sigrZe; lm.
mezobeli
vagonebis urikebis Tvlebis
RerZebs Soris manZili; lv.u.
v.
vagonis urikebis Siga RerZebs Soris manZili;

nax.1. oTxRerZiani vagonis zemoqmedebiT aRZruli dinamikuri Zabvebis


epiurebi yrilis tanSi liandagis gaswvriv.
ciklis sixSireebi f hercebSi ganisazRvrul iqna eleqtromatareblis
-200 da oTxRerZiani satvirTo vagonebisaTvis.
Catarebuli
gaangariSebebi
cxadyofs,
rom
gruntebis
Zaluri
datvirTulobis sixSire xazobrivad izrdeba moZraobis siCqareebTan
damokidebulebiT damokidebulebiT, (nax. 2). gansakuTrebiT rTul dinamikur
pirobebSi muSaoba uxdeba miwis vakisis ZiriTad moedans da yrilis zeda
fenebs. yrilis siRrmeSi cikluri zemoqmedeba TandaTan mcirdeba, roca
siRrme DZ = 1,5-2,5 m. eleqtromatareblebis da oTxRerZiani satvirTo
vagonebis zemoqmedebis sixSireebi Tanabrdeba da tolia 2 hercis. xolo,
roca DZ =>2,5 m. matareblebis cikluri Zaluri zemoqmedeba saerTod ar
aRiniSneba.
zemoT aRniSnulidan gamomdinare SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom:
- roca DZ = 0-0,5 m. yrilis zeda nawilis datvirTilobis saerTo raodenoba,
moZravi Semadgenlobis RerZebis raodenobis tolia, e.i. N=ni .
7

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-
- roca DZ2 = 0 -1,5 m. sadac datvirTulobis maqsimumi aRiniSneba satvirT
moZravi SemadgenmoZravi Semadgenlobis Zaluri zemoqmedebis
lobis tipi
xangrZlivoba
T wm, moZraobis siCqaris gaTvaliswinebiT, km/sT
vagonebis zemoqmedebiT, yrilis dinamikuri datvirTulobis ricxvi N2=ni/2 .
- roca DZ3 = 1,5-2,5 m. maSin Zabvebis sidide maqsimalur mniSvnelobas aRwevs
mezobeli vagonebis urikebs Soris Sua nawilSi. maSin datvirTulobis
saerTo raodenoba toli iqneba N3=ni/4 , e.i. matarebelSi vagonebis
raodenobis toli.
- roca DZi =>2,5 m. yrils matareblebidan gadaecema umniSvnelo datvirTvebi,
romlebic Tanabrad aris ganawilebuli matareblis qveS mTel sigrZeze.
amrigad yrilis siRrmeSi muSa zona araerTgvarovania moZravi
Semadgenlobis zemoqmedebis reaqciisadmi. gruntis fenebis dinamikuri
aqtivoba D, romlis ricxobrivi mniSvneloba warmoadgens datvirTulobis
ciklis Ni raodenobas siRrmis DZi intervalSi, gamravlebuls amave
intervalSi moqmedi D dinamikuri Zabvebis saSualo mniSvnelobaze, e.i.
Di = Ni . D
(2)
magaliTisaTvis
mogvyavs
muSa
zonebis
dinamikuri
aqtivobis
gaangariSebis Sedegebi, -200 samgzavro matareblis (V=200 km/sT) da
satvirTo matareblis (60 vagoni, (V=100 km/sT) zemoqmedebaze, cxr.1
cxrili 1.
fardoba
Di/DZi

datvirTulobis muSa zonebis


dinamikuri
datvirTvebis ciklis raode- dinamikuri
saSualo
noba, Ni , cikli
aqtivoba
Di,
mniSvkpa, cikli
nelobebi,D,
kpa
0-0,5
44/65
60/240
2640/15600
1,00/1,00
0,5-1,5
22/38
30/120
660/4560
0,25/0,29
1,5-2,5
10/17
15/60
150/1020
0,06/0,07
SeniSvna: mricxvelSi -200, 15 vagoni; mniSvnelSi samgzavro matarebeli, 60
vagoni.
cxrili 1-is monacemebis analizis Sedegad SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom
Sereuli moZraobis ubnebze, satvirTo matareblebis zemoqmedebaze yrilis
gruntis
dinamikuri
aqtivoba
3,5-7
jer
metia,
vidre
samgzavro
matarebkisaTvis.
yrilis cikluri Zaluri datvirTuloba grZeldeba matareblis gavlis
mTel T wm periodSi, romelic ganisazRvreba matareblis L sigrZesTan da
moZraobis siCqaresTan damokidebulebiT:
T = 3,6 L/ V
(3)
muSa zonebze sxva da sxva tipis matareblebis dinamikuri zemoqmedebis T
xangrZlivoba mocemulia cxrilSi 2.
muSa zonebis
siRrmeTa
intervali
DZi , m

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15
samgzavro vagoni
LL=375 m
25vagoni,
LL=625 m
satvirTo, oTxRerZiani vagonebiT,
LL=868 m

40
33,8

80
16,9

100
13,5

140
9,6

160
8,4

200
6,8

56,2

28,1

22,5

16,1

14,1

11,2

78,2

39,1

31,2

cxrili 2.
gaangariSebis Sedegebma gviCvena, rom yrilze Zaluri zemoqmedebis
xangrZlivoba Seadgens: samgzavro matarebkisaTvis (V=200 km/sT) 7-11 wm; xolo
satvirTo matareblebis (V=100 km/sT) 31 wm-s. Sesabamisad yrili
dinamikurad datvirTul mdgomareobaSi imyofeba 3-4 jer meti drois
ganmavlobaSi, vidre samgzavro matareblisaTvis. yovelive zemoT aRniSnulis
gamo SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom rom Sereuli moZraobis
Cqarosnul
ubnebze,
yrilze
dinamikuri
zemiqmedebis
TvalsazrisiT
ganmsazRvrels satvirTo matareblebis zemoqmedeba warmoadgens.
Teoriuli eqsperimentaluri kvlevebis Sedegebis analizis safuZvelze
Sedgenil iqna yrilis mdgomareobis ganzogadoebuli modeli, nax. 2.

nax. 2. yrilis daZabuli mdgomareobis modelis sqema.


yrilis mdgomareobis dadgenili maxasiaTebeli parametrebis mniSvnelobebi mocemulia cxrilSi 3.
cxrili 3.
9

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-
yrilis zonebi,
siRrmis Zi
intervalSi

I muSa
zona

Ia (00,5)
Ib (0,51,5)
Ig (1,52,5)
Id
(2,54,0)
II yrilis
qveda nawili

III yrilis

d
fardobiTi
V=200 km/sT
dinamikuriZabve- dinamikurobis datvirTva- dinamikuri
bis fardoba
koeficienti gantvirTvis aqtivoba
mudmivm Zabe%-Si, Di
ciklis
nd
bTan d/m
sixSire
f,herci
3,17
1,58
3,4; 15; 22,2
100
1.12

1,19

3; 9

27

0,33

0,71

0,07

0,41

< 1

0,01

moZraobis siCqaris gavlena ar SeimCneva;


aRiZvreba damatebiTi Zabvebi 1-2 kpa
sididis, romelic axloa statikuri
Zabvebis sididesTan
Zabvebi aRZruli moZravi Semadgenlobis zemoqmedebiT ar
arsebobs

ferdoebi
nax. 2-ze warmodgenil modelze muSa zonaa
zona 1, romelSiac
yrilis zeda nawilSi, dinamikuri Zabvebi maqsimalur mniSvnelobebs
relsqveSa (1 - 1) kveTebSi aRwevs, xolo minimalurs liandis RerZis gaswvriv
(kveTi 2 2), rac Seesabameba Zabvebis ganawilebis sqemas relsqveSa kveTSi,
romelic reglamentirebulia liandagis movla-Senaxvis normebiT.
moZraviSemadgenlobis
zemoqmedebis
xasiaTs
yrilis
siRrmeSi
specifikuri Taviseburebei axasiaTebs, romelic saSualebas iZleva muSa
zona (I) daiyos oTx nawilad: Ia , Ib , Ig da Id . isini gansxvavdebian
erTmaneTisagan maTze moqmedi Zabvebis sididisa da xasiaTis mixedviT;
dinamikuri Zabvebis ganmeoradobis sixSiriT da gruntis datvirTvagantvirTvis ciklis saerTo raodenobiT; moZraobis siCqaris gavleniT;
moZraviSemadgenlobis
zemoqmedebisadmi
gruntis
calkeuli
fenebis
aqtivobiT.
yrilis
ferdoebze
(zona
III)
Zabvebi
moZravi
Semadgenlobis
zemoqmedebis Sedegad praqtikulad ar SeimCneva, xolo da zonis sazRvrebi
dadgindeba hiperboluri moxazulobis X=0 zedapiris mixedviT, romelic
gamoiTvleba cnobili formuliT.

3. daskvna

10

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-
Catarebuli kvlevis Sedegebi SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas miwis vakisis
gaangariSebebis dasaxvewad, kerZod gruntis datkepnvis saWiro mniSvnelobis
miRwevisaTvis;
yrilis
safuZvlisa
da
Wrilebis
ZiriTadi
moednis
stabilurobis
SefasebisaTvis;
agreTve
dinamikuri
datvirTulobis
sidideebis gansazRvrisaTvis sxva da sxva sainJinro nagebobebze (miwis
vakisis wyalgamtari milebi, sinTetikuri masalebis damcavi fenebi, damcavi
kedlebi da sxva).

literatura
1. -01-95,
2. UIC Code 719-R 2nd edition, 1.1.1994 Earthworks and track-bed layers for railway lines

uban-uban araerTgvarovani Rrutaniani


cilindris gaangariSeba
11

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r. cxvedaZe, d. tabataZe, g. daTuaSvili, k. iaSvili


(saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, saqarTvelo, 0175, Tbilisi,
kostavas 77)

reziume: naSromSi mocemulia sqelkedliani cilindris gaangariSeba,


romelic
ganicdis
mudmiv
Sida
da
gare
dawnevas.
ganxorcielebulia uban-uban mudmivi sididis mqone drekadi
maxasiaTeblebis mqone masalisagan. miRebuli gadamwyveti
diferencialuri gantolebis wyvetili amoxsna moZebnilia
akademikos S. miqelaZis mier damuSavebuli maTematikuri
aparatis gamoyenebiT.
sakvanZo
sityvebi:
normaluri,
fundamentaluri
funqciebi,
diferencialuri gantoleba, wyvetili parametrebi

1. Sesavali
Txelkedliani da sqelkedliani cilindruli garsebi, romelTa
geometriuli da fizikuri parametrebi ganicdian pirveli gvaris wyvetas,
farTod gamoiyeneba Tanamedrove teqnikis sxvadasxva sferoSi.
wyvetilparametrebiani garsebis da filebis gaangariSebis problemebs
mieZRvna mravali mecnieris Sromebi, sadac ZiriTadi aqcenti gakeTebulia
WrilebiTa da xvrelebiT gamowveuli naxtomebis SesaZlo gaTvaliswinebaze
[1.2].
gansaxilvel amocanaSi Seswavlilia sakiTxi, rodesac cilindruli
garsis Semadgenili masalis drekadobis moduli, radialuri mimarTulebiT
ganicdis pirveli gvaris wyvetas [3].

2. ZiriTadi nawili
ganvixiloT Rrutaniani sqelkedliani cilindri, romelic ganicdis
mudmivi Sida ( Pa ) da gare ( Pb ) wnevis moqmedebas. cilindris masalis drekadi
maxasiaTeblebi zedapiris gare normalis mimarTulebiT arian uban-uban
sxvadasxva mudmivi sidideebi (nax.1).
Cveni mizania ganvsazRvroT Zabvebi da gadaadgilebebi sqelkedliani
Rrutaniani cilindrisaTvis, drekadi wonasworobis dros. simartivisaTvis
ganvixiloT usasrulod grZeli mili, romelsac z RerZis mimarTulebiT ar
aqvs wagrZeleba ( Dl z = 0 ).
aRniSnuli cilindris drekadi wonasworobis pirobas aqvs saxe:
du
u
r = ( + 2 ) +
dr
r
(1)

u
du
t = ( + 2 ) +
r
dr
12

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z = ( r + t )

(2)

d 2 u 1 du u
+
- =0
dz 2 r dz z 2

(3)

En n
En
; =
, sadac E n drekadobis modulia, nn puasonis
1(1 + n )
(1 + n )(1 - 2 n )

koeficienti, m, l lames koeficientebi, xolo

( , )

midmivi sidideebia. r , t

da z aRniSnaven radialur tangencialur da RerZul Zabvebs Sesabamisad,


xolo u ki radialur gadadgilebas.
SemoviRoT axali cvladi

nax. 1
t = l n r, r = l t
maSin (3) miiRebs saxes

d2u
-u =0
dt 2
13

(4)
(5)

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gadadgilebis funqcia u aris uwyveti, xolo misi pirveli rigis
warmoebuli ganicdis pirveli gvaris wyvetas drekadi mudmivebis cvlilebis
adgilebSi ( t = t i = l n r, i = 1, 2,...n ), romlebic ganisazRvreba radialuri Zabvebis
uwyvetobis pirobidan.

( ) ( )
( t ) + 2 ( t ) U ( t + ( t ) U ( t ) ) =
( )
( )
( )
( )

( t ) + 2 ( t ) U ( t + ( t ) U ( t ) )
( )
( )
( )
( )

( ) = U ( t ( ) ) - U ( t ( ) ) U ( t ( ) ) = - U ( t ( ) )
t
+ 2 ( t ( ) )
( ) ( ( ))
- 1 U ( t ( ) ) +
=
( t ) + 2 ( t )
( )
( )

( t ( ) ) - t ( )
+
U(t )
( t ( ) ) + 2 ( t ( ) )

r t i ( -) = r t i( + )

i -

i -

i +

i +

i -

i -

i +

i +

1
i

i +

i -

i -

i -

i +

i +

/
i

i -

(6)

i -

i -

i +

i +

i +

(5)
diferencialuri
gantolebis
amoxsna
fundamentaluri funqciebi.s daxmarebiT [4]

veZeboT

normaluri

U ( t ) = C1Y1 ( t ) + C 2 Y2 ( t ) + i(1) Y2 ( t - t i + t 0 )

(7)

i =1

normaluri fundamentaluri funqciebs aqvs saxe:


l2t + a 2
l 2t - a 2
Y1 ( t ) =
,
Y
t
=
(
)
2
2al t
2al t
CavsvaT (8) formula (7)-Si, miviRebT

)+

l 2t - ri2
2al t
2ril t
i =1
ganisazRvreba sasazRvro pirobebidan

U (t) =
mudmivebi C1 da C 2

C1 l 2t + a 2 + C 2 l 2t - a 2

(8)

(i1)

(9)

r = - Pa roca r = a

r = - Pb roca r = b
(1.1; 1.4; 1.9) gaTvaliswinebiT miviRebT
P a
2
C2 = C1 - a
;
1 + 21
1 + 21

C1 =

(10)

n
n
K1
b 2 + ri2
b2 - ri 2ab 2 Pb
- ( n + 2 n ) a i(1)
- n ai(1)
K2
ri K 2
ri K 2
K2
i -1
i =1

sadac
K1 =

Pa a
( n + 2 n ) b 2 + a 2 + n b2 - a 2

1 + 21

K 2 = ( n + 2 n ) b - a
2

) + (b

14

+a

)-

1 ( n + 2 ) b 2 + a 2 + 1 n b 2 - a 2
1 + 21

))

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C1 da C 2 mudmivebis gansazRvris Semdeg ganvsazRvravT gadaadgilebas U -s
r da t Zabvebs Sesabamisad (9) da (1) formulebis daxmarebiT.
aRniSnulis msgavsad SegviZlia ganvixiloT mbrunavi uban-uban
araerTgvarovani firfita mudmivi sisqiT. aseTi firfitis diferencialur
gantolebas aqvs saxe [5]
d 2 u 1 du u 1 - 2 2
+
- =
r
(11)
dr 2 r d 2 r 2
E
g
axali cvladis

( t = lnr

r = lt

SemoRebiT SEmdeg (11) miiRebs saxes:

d2u
1 - 2 2 3t
4
=
l
(12)
dt 2
E
g
sadac moculobiTi wonaa firfitis masalis, mudmivi kuTxuri siCqarea.
(12) gantoleba (5) gantolebisgan gansxvavdeba mxolod marjvena nawiliT.
(12) gantolebis kerZo amonaxsns aqvs Semdegi saxe [4]
t

U* = f ( x ) u r ( t - x + t 0 )dx
t0

sadac f ( x ) (12) gantolebis marjvena nawils aRniSnavs.


ricxviTi magaliTis saxiT ganvixiloT oTxfeniani cilindri (nax.1)
Pa = 5 107 n/m2, Pb = 6 107 n/m2, a = 1 m, b = 5 m. ( z 0 = 1 m, z1 = 2 m, z 2 = 3 m, z3 = 4 m z 4 = 5 m).
saboloo Sedegebi mocemuli cxrilis saxiT (cxr.1)
cxrili 1.
fenis
#

E 10-11
(n/m2)

1.8

1.9

2.0

r
(m)

0.25

0.26

0.27

U 102
(m)

r 10-5
(n/m2)

t 10-5
(n/m2)

1.00

-0.00284

-500.000

-637.022

1.25

-0.334

-524.664

-612.358

1.50

-0.0387

-538.06

-598.960

1.75

-0.04441

-546.140

-590.882

2.00

-0.0497

-551.383

2.25

-0.0549

-558.167

-585.639
-616.030
-609.246

2.50

-0.0602

-563.020

-604.394

2.75

-0.0656

-566.610

-600.803

3.00

-0.0710

-569.341

3.25

-0.0760

-573.706

-598.073
-627.472
-623.177

3.50

-0.0811

-577.114

-619.770

15

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2.1

0.28

3.75

-0.0863

-579.863

-617.02

4.00

-0.0915

-582.11.

4.25

-0.0963

-585.429

-614.771
-643.418
-639.907

4.50

-0.101

-588.371

-636.964

4.75

-0.106

-590.861

-634.474

5.00

-0.111

-600.000

-632.348

3. daskvna
rogorc mosalodneli iyo miRebuli Sedegebis mixedviT SegviZlia
davaskvnaT, rom wyvetis wertilebSi drekadi maxasiaTeblebis zrda iwvevs t
- Zabvis zrdas.

l i t e r a t u r a
1. .. . . .
1980, . 69-130;
2. .. .
1990. 43-136
3. r.cxvedaZe.
wyvetilmaxasiaTebliani
filebis
da
garsebis
gaangariSebis variantebi, `teqnikuri universiteti~, 2004w. . gv. 8-31;
4. .. . -. 1948. c. 101-152
5. .. . . . ., 1965, . 180-195.

rekomendaciebi rkinabetonis gumbaTebis


konstruirebisaTvis
i. mSvenieraZe, i. jinWaraZe

16

samecniero-teqnikuri Jurnali ,,mSenebloba


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-
(saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, m. kostavas q. 77,
0175, Tbilisi, saqarTvelo)

reziume:

statiaSi
ganxilulia
gadaxurvis
konstruqciebSi
gamoyenebuli
sferuli
garsis
gaangariSebis
da
konstruirebis
meTodi.
garsis
zedapiri
aRiwereba
elifsoidis an wriuli konusis zedapiris gaTanabrebiT. igi
martivia samuSaos warmoebis TvalsazrisiT. SemoTavazebulia
garsis winaswardaZabuli sayrdeni rgolis gaangariSeba da
konstruireba.
sakvanZo sityvebi: garsi, simtkice, winaswardaZabuli bagiri, betoni,
armatura.

1. Sesavali
Tanamedrove samSeneblo mecniereba ikvlevs Senobebs da nagebobebs,
romelTa gaangariSeba maTi sirTulidan gamomdinare dakavSirebulia
analizuri da ricxviTi meTodebis gamoyenebasTan. is uyenebs did moTxovnebs
konstruqciebis gaangariSebis da proeqtirebis axali meTodebis danergvas.
swored aseT amocanas warmoadgens didmaliani gumbaTovani garsebi.
garsTa Teoria reologiur TvisebebTan dakavSirebiT iyofa ramdenime
nawilad. ukanasknel wlebSi yuradReba eZleva fizikuri arawrfivobis,
plastikurobis, cocvadobis xangamZleobis da simtkicis problemebs. aqedan
gamomdinare saangariSo gantolebebi miiReba masalis reologiuri modelis
Sesabamisad wonasworobis gantolebebisa da deformaciis gaTvaliswinebiT.

2. ZiriTadi nawili
bolo wlebSi ganviTareba hpova garsebis Teoriis araklasikurma
meTodebma. am problemas eZRvneba akademikos i. vekuas Sromebi. aRsaniSnavia
saqarTveloSi akademikos i. RuduSauris mier SemoTavazebuli garsTa
gaangariSebis metad martivi da amavdroulad zusti meTodi, romelmac didi
praqtikuli gamoyeneba hpova.
gadaxurvis konstruqciebSi xSirad iyeneben garsebs, romelTa Sua
zedapiri aRiwereba sferuli zedapiriT. wriuli gumbaTebis aweulobis
isari aiReba garsis wriuli konturis 1/10-sa, gamoirCeva samuSaos warmoebis
simartiviT, magram naklebad ekonomiuria, vidre sferuli garsebi.
rkinabetonis gumbaTebis an maTi elementebis konstruirebisaTvis
rekomendebulia rbili plastiuri foladebis gamoyeneba, rogoricaa A-II da
A-III
klasis
armatura.
sayrden
rgolSi
ki
gamoiyeneba
Rerovani,
mavTulovani, bagirovani da sxva maRali simtkicis armatura, romelic
winaswardaZabuli da dauZabavia. gumbaTebisTvis rekomendebulia maRali
klasis mZime da msubuqi betonis gamoyeneba.
garsis sisqe iniSneba konstruqciuli mosazrebebiT gamomdinare
simtkicis pirobidan. monoliTuri gumbaTebisaTvis rekomendebulia gumbaTis
simrudis radiusis 1/6000, magram aranaklebi 50 mm-sa, xolo asawyob
17

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gumbaTebSi filis minimalur sisqed aiReba 30 mm. gumbaTis gadaxurvis
napirebi garsSemotymulia sayrdeni rgolebiT; yvelaze sapasuxismgeblo
elementad iTvleba qveda sayrdeni gaWimuli rgoli.
a)

b)

nax. 1. gumbaTis winaswar daWimuli sayrdeni rgoli


a gegma; b daWimvisa da calkeuli Reroebisa an konebis ankerirebis
detalebi sayrden pilastrebze; 1 pilastrebi; 2 armaturis Reroebi
an konebi; 3 qveda sayrdeni rgoli; 4 ankeri; 5 spiralebi;
6 gasamTlianebeli nakeri.
gumbaTis gluvi zedapiris armireba xdeba meridianze, armaturis
raodenoba garsis Sua nawilisaken TandaTanobiT mcirdeba, gumbaTis
garsSemowerilobis
sigrZis
Semcirebis
Sesabamisad.
garsis
tanis
konstruirebisaTvis miRebulia armaturis erTi bade Tu garsis sisqe 70 mm-s
ar aRemateba. didi sisqis SemTxvevaSi garsis tanis konstruireba xdeba ori
badeTi gamoiyeneba A-I klasis armatura (4-6) mm diametriT, bijiT 150-200 mm.
xvrelebis irgvliv, Tu aseTi arsebobs gumbaTis tanSi ewyoba
konstruqciuli armatura aranaklebi d = 8 mm-is, romelic Semoevleba filis
xvrels. rekomendebulia xvrelebi daproeqtdes mrgvali, ovaluri an
mravalkuTxaa.
qveda sayrdeni rgolis konstruirebisaTvis saWiroa gamovTvaloT
gamWimavi Zalva, davadginoT armaturis farTobi da SevarCioT saWiro
raodenobis Reroebi.
samSeneblo meqanikis saangariSo formulebiT gamoiTvleba Zalva
sayrden rgolSi (ganxilulia ricxviTi magaliTi).

18

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b)

a)

12636 737

14736 III

622 III

622 III

222 III
222 III

522 III

522 III

nax. 2. monoliTuri rkinabetonis sayrdeni rgolis armireba:


a) winaswardaZabuli Rerovani armaturiT; b) mzidi winaswardaZabuli
bagirebiT
amocana Sesrulebulia kompiuterze, mocemulia daZabul-deformirebuli
mdgomareobis sqemebi sxvadasxva RerZebis mimarT.

3. daskvna
ricxviTi magaliTi, romelic Sesrulebulia warmodgenilia or
variantad, pirveli variantis mixedviT gamoyenebulia Rerovani armatura.
gumbaTis sayrden rgolSi winaswardaZabuli armaturis da dauZabavi
armaturis Rirebuleba Seadgens 218,4 lars.
meore variantis mixedviT gamoyenebulia winaswardaZabuli bagiri,
romlis Rirebulebac 156,4 laria. ekonomiam 1 grZiv metrze Seadgina 62
lari. e.i. umjobesia daZabul Rerod gamoviyenoT bagirovani armatura.

literatura
1. m. miqelaZe. Txelkedliani sivrculi sistemebis gaangariSebis safuZvlebi.
ganaTleba, Tbilisi. 1980.
2. r. cxvedaZe, g. maxaraZe. sferuli gumbaTis gaangariSeba sayrdeni rgolis
gaTvaliswinebiT. samecniero teqnikuri Jurnali `mSenebloba~, # 1, 2006.
3. .. .
.: . 1982.
4. .. . .: 1976.
5. .. -
. Georgian Engineering News, 2, , 2006.
6. l. maxvilaZe, k. odiSvili, k. maxvilaZe da sxvebi. didmaliani
rkinabetonis gumbaTebis mSeneblobis axali teqnologia. Tbilisi, 2004.
7. samSeneblo normebi da wesebi, betonisa da rkinabetonis konstruqciebSi
(p 03.01-09), Tbilisi. 2009.
8. .. . . 1949. , . 783.
9. .., .., .
- .
, 3, .: 2005.
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miwis vakisis tanSi Zabvebis gavrcelebis muSa zonebis


sazRverebis gansazRvra
e.moiswrafiSvili, m. moiswrafiSvili, g. maisuraZe,
d. fanculaia.
(saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, m.kostavas 77, 0175, Tbilisi,
saqarTvelo)

reziume: SemoTavazebuli meTodi saSualebas iZleva yrilis tanis


saangariSo kveTSi davadginoT Zabvebis sidideebi da maTi gavrcelebis
sazRvrebi
siRrmeSi vertikaluri da ganivi mimarTulebiT. igi
safuZveli gaxdeba matareblebis moZraobis siCqaris gavlenis
SefasebisaTvis,
gansakuTrebiT
Cqarosnuli
moZraobis
ubnebze,
momatebuli dinamikuri aqtivobis zonebis gansazRvrisa da yrilis
daZabuli mdgomareobis modelis dadgenisaTvis.
sakvanZo sityvebi: rkinigzis miwis vakisi, yrilis tani, dinamikuri
Zabvebi,saangariSo kveTi, ZiriTadi moedani, dinamikuri datvirTuloba.

1. Sesavali
yrilis tanis saangariSo kveTSi Zabvebis sidideebis, vertikaluri da
ganivi mimarTulebiT siRrmeSi maTi gavrcelebis sazRvrebis dadgenas, miwis
vakisze dinamikuri Zabvebis zemoqmedebis realuri suraTis misaRebad
udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba.

2. ZiriTadi nawili
cnobili, rom dinamikuri din Zabvebis mniSvnelobebi maqsimaluria
miwis vakisis ZiriTad moedanze. yrilis tanis siRrmeSi maTi gavlena TandaTanobiT mcirdeba, da Z=1,0 m siRrmeSi dinamikuri din da mudmivmoqmedi
statikuri st. Zabvebis mniSvnelobebi daaxloebiT Tanabrdeba. siRrmeSi
Z=3,0 m dinamikuri din Zabvebis mniSvnelobebi maqsimaluri sididis mxolod
7% -s Seadgens, roca xolo Z=4,0 m 2%-s.
din da z.n. mniSvnelobebis cvalibadoba siRrmesTan damokidebulebiT
naCvenebia naxazze 1.

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nax. 1. Zabvebis cvalebadobis grafiki yrilis siRrmesTan damokidebulebiT.


SedarebisaTvis gansazRvrul iqna yrilSi saangariSo Zabvebis
mniSvnelobebi, sworkuTxa statikuri datvirTis zemoqmedebaze, drekadobis
Teoriis xazobrivi formulebis saSualebiT, erTgvarovani izotropuli
naxevarsivrcisaTvis.
gaangariSebis Sedegebi cxadyofs, rom miwis vakisis ZiriTad moedanze
gadacemuli Tanabari 0 saang. = 80 kpa datvirTvisas, arsebuli meTodikiT.
gaangariSebuli st. Zabvebis mniSnelobebi (nax. 2.) didaT aRemateba realur
sidideebs, amitom igi zustad ver asaxavs yrilis muSaobis pirobebs,

nax. 2. yrilis ferdoSi dinamikuri Zabvebis gavlenis sazRrebi.


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-
dawola Spalis sawolidan balastis prozmaze da miwis vakisis ZiriTad
moedanze gadaecema hiperbolur
X=0
zedapirze, ganivi mimarTulebiT.
hiperbolis gantoleba X=0 , romlis drosac funqcia Bi (Xj ) = 0 tolia
L
1
1 + hi2 2
X J =0 =
(1)
2
m
Spalis boloebs gareT, balastis prizma, miwis vakisis gverduli da
miwis vakisis ferdos nawili yi manZilze ar ganicdis matareblebidan
gadacemul dinamikur Zaluri datvirTvis zemoqmedebas, (nax. 2.).
orliandagian
rkinigzebze,
Semxvedri
matareblebis
erTdrouli
zemoqmedebis SemTxvevaSi, saangariSo kveTSi Zabvebis ganawilebis xasiaT
warmodgenilia naxazze 3.

nax. 3. dinamikuri Zabvebi orliandagian yrilebSi Semxvedri matareblebis


erTdrouli zemoqmedebis SemTxvevaSi.
naxazidan naTlad Cans, rom meore liandagze moZravi matarebeli ver
axdens Zalur zemoqmedebas pirveli liandagis balastis prizmaze da miwis
vakisis zeda nawilze, xolo yrilis qveda nawilSi Zi 1,7 m, damatebiTi
dinamikuri Zabvebis mniSvnelobebi umniSvneloa da icvleba 1-2 kpa
farglebSi.
aqedan
gamomdinare
Semxvedri
matareblebis
zegavlenis
gaTvaliswinebis aucilebloba SeiZleba gamoiricxos.

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3.

daskvna

SemoTavazebuli meTodi saSualebas iZleva yrilis tanis saangariSo


kveTSi davadginoT Zabvebis sidideebi da maTi gavrcelebis sazRvrebi
siRrmeSi vertikaluri da ganivi mimarTulebiT. igi safuZveli gaxdeba
matareblebis moZraobis siCqaris gavlenis SefasebisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT
Cqarosnuli moZraobis ubnebze, momatebuli dinamikuri aqtivobis zonebis
gansazRvrisa da yrilis daZabuli mdgomareobis modelis dadgenisaTvis.

literatura
3. UIC Code 719-R 2nd edition, 1.1.1994 Earthworks and track-bed layers for railway lines
4. .449-72

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sacxovrebeli saxlis gegmis naxazis gamoxazvis


Taviseburebani
g. wuleiskiri, m. arabiZe, T. kokaia
(saqaeTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, m. kostavas q. # 77, Tbilisi,
saqarTvelo)

reziume:
samSeneblo fakultetis studentebisaTvis sainJinro
grafikis specialuri kursis (samSeneblo xazva) Seswavlisas didi
mniSvneloba eniWeba samSeneblo naxazis, es iqneba samoqalaqo Tu
samrewvelo Senobis gagmis, Wrilis Tu fasadis naxazi, agebis
Tanmimdevrobas, rac Zalian Seuwyobs xels rogorc zedmeti
grafikuli agebebis Tavidan acilebas, ise gansaxilveli masalis ukeT
aTvisebas.
dRemde gamosul samSeneblo xazvis yvela saxelmZRvaneloSi
naxazis gamoxazvis oTxi etapia ganxiluli. es savsebiT sakmarisia
specialistisaTvis, magram ar aris sakmarisi individualurad momuSave
studentebis da dapartamentTan arsebuli grafikuli disciplinebis
maswavlebelTa momzadebis centris mSemenelTaTvis. Aamitom erT-erTi
naxazis,
magaliTad
sacxovrebeli
saxlis
sarTulis
gegmis
Sesrulebis procesi davyaviT aT etapad, TviToeuli etapisaTvis
dawvrilebiTi teqsturi komentarebiT.
sakvanZo sityvebi: Senobis gegma, kapitaluri kedeli, tixari, kibis
ujredi, RerZebis dakvalva, Wdeebi.

1. Sesavali
samoqalaqo Senobis gegma warmoadgens misi horizontaluri sibrtyiT
warmosaxviT Wrils, romelic gamosaxazi sarTulis iatakidan misi simaRlis
erT mesamedze an erTi metris donezea Sesrulebuli. am SemTxvevaSi karis
RiobTan erTad WrilSi fanjris Riobebic moyvebian.
sarTulis gegmebi ixazeba 1 : 200, 1 : 400, 1 : 500 masStabebSi. naxazis
gadatvirTvis SemTxvevaSi gegma da misi fragmentebi ufro did, 1 : 50 da 1 :
100 masStabSic SeiZleba gamoixazos.
Senobis gegmis mixedviT SeiZleba vimsjeloT mis formaze da zomaze,
mocemuli
sarTulis
saTavsoebis
urTierTganlagebaze,
Senobis
konstruqciuli elementebis zomebze, Sida da gare kapitaluri kedlebis,
svetebis, tixrebis, karebisa da fanjrebis Riobebis da saxv. ganlagebaze da
zomebze.
1 : 50 da 1 : 100 masStabebSi Sesrulebul sarTulis gegmebze saWiroebisda
mixedviT
uCveneben
sanitarul-teqnikur
mowyobilobebsac:
abazanebs.
saSxapeebs, unitazebs, pirsabanebs, wyalsadenis baknebs da sxv.
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2. ZiriTadi nawili
rogorc SesavalSi avRniSneT, samoqalaqo Senobis, anu sacxovrebeli
saxlis sarTulis gegmis gamoxazva davyaviT aT etapad.
ganvixiloT es stapebi cal-calke.
1. kapitaluri

kedlebis RerZebis dakvalva

samoqalaqo Senobis kapitaluri kedlebis RerZebi ixazeba mocemulobis


Sesabamisad wvrili wyvetil-wertilovani xazebiT. dasaSvebia Strixebis
sigrZeebis gaorkeceba (nax. 1).
2. kapitaluri kedlebis sisqeebis Cveneba
kapitaluri kedlis sisqe damokidebulia masze momqmed darvirTvebze. im
dros, rodesac ZiriTad saSen masalad aguri iTvleboda, kapitaluri
kedlis sisqe SeiZleboda pirobiTad yofiliyo 250 mm (aguris sigrZe),
380 mm (aguris sigrZe da sigane), an 500 mm (ori aguris sigrZe). amaTgan
yvelaze popularuli zomaa 380 mm (agurnaxevari). mSeneblobis blokebze da
panelebze gadasvlis Semdegac ZiriTadad es zomaa gamoyenebuli. (nax. 2).

nax. 2

nax. 1

3. kibis ujredis gamoxazva sarTulisa (pirveli, Sualeduri, bolo)


da asvlis mimarTulebis CvenebiT
ormarSiani kibis ujredis SemTxvevaSi pirveli sarTulis gegmaze ixazeba
erT-erTi marSis fragmenti. Sualeduri sarTulis gegmaze _ orive marSi,
erT-erTi maTganis ori paraleluri iribi xaziT gawyvetiT. bolo sarTulis
gegmaze _ orive marSi mTlianad. asvlis mimarTulebis maCvenebeli isari
Tavsdeba marSis mTel sigrZeze SuaSi (nax. 3).
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Tu sarTulis simaRled aviRebT 3 metrs (3 000 mm) da safexuris
simaRled 150 mm-s, erTi sarTulidan meore sarTulze asasvlelad an
Camosasvlelad dagvWirdeba 3 000 : 150 = 20 safexuri. anu aT-aTi safexuri
TviToeul marSze. radgan marSis zeda bolo sabijelis sibrtye uTavsdeba
Sesabamisi baqnis sibrtyes, gegmaze TviToeul baqanze aRiniSneba cxra-cxra
safexuri. aq unda gaviTvaliswinoT sarTulis baqnis sigane _ 1 400 mm da
cxra safexuris siganeTa jami _ 300 x 9 = 2700 mm. (nax. 3).

4. tixrebis gamoxazva
tixrebis sisqis modulad aRebulia mSeneblobaSi xmarebuli sxvadasxva
masalis 70-80 mm sisqis filebi (nax. 4).

nax. 3

nax. 4

5. karebis Riobebis aRniSvna frTianobis da gaRebis mimarTulebebis


CvenebiT
ZiriTadad kari SeiZleba iyos erTfrTiani an orfrTiani. orive
SemTxvevaSi standartebiT gaTvaliswinebulia maTi siganeebi da simaRleebi.
aviRoT pirobiTad erTfrTiani karis Riobis zoma1 000 x 2 700 mm,
orfrTianisa ki _ 1 400 x 2 700 mm. gaRebis mimarTulebis saCveneblad ixazeba
Sesabamisi kedlis an tixris sibrtyis mimarT 30 gradusiT daxrili karis
siganis
toli
xazi.
gegmis
da
Wrilis
naxazebze
karis
Riobis
gamosaxulebisaTvis saerTod iSleba konturis xazebis is nawili, sadac
karis Riobi aris gaTvaliswinebuli (nax. 5).
6. fanjrebisa da aivnebis gamosaxva
fanjrebis zomebic mkacrad aris standartizirebuli. fanjara SeiZleba
iyos erTfrTiani an orfrTiani, vertikaluri an horizontaluri gaRebiT.
fanjris Riobis zomad pirobiTad SeiZleba aviRoT 1 000 x 1 400 mm. fanjris
Riobis Cvenebisas im adgilze, sadac fanjaraa gaTvaliswinebuli, konturis

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xazi icvleba wvrili xaziT da RerZis xazis garda emateba SigniT erTi
wvrili xazi RerZis xazsa da
gare komturis xazs Soris, Tu fanjara erTmagi SeminviTaa da ori xazi, Tu
fanjara ormagi SeminviTaa.
aq calke aRsaniSnavia e. w. naoTxalis sakiTxi. rodesac sacxovrebeli
saxlebi ZiriTadad aguriT Sendeboda, fanjris Riobis SigniT, mis kideebSi
fasadis mxares
gaTvaliswinebuli iyo aguris sigrZis erTi meoTxedis
toli nawilis SemoWra (aqedan dasaxeleba _ ,,naoTxali). es saWiro iyo
fanjris frTis montaJis dros misi zusti fiqsirebisaTvis da amave dros
ukeTesi TboizolaciisaTvis eqspluataciis dros. Tanamedrove samSeneblo
industriis pirobebSi naoTxali winaswar gaTvaliswinebulia samSeneblo
panelebis damzadebis procesSi da misi naxazze Cveneba ar aris
savaldebulo. aivani gegmaze gamoisaxeba wvrili xaziT sigrZisa da siganis
CvenebiT. am gabaritis SigniT gamoisaxeba moajiris konturi (nax. 6).

nax. 5

nax. 6
7. gare zomis xazebis gamotana

samoqalaqo Senobis gegmis naxazze gare zomis xazebi daitaneba Semdegi


TanmimdevrobiT (1:100 masStabis SemTxvevaSi):
zomis pirveli xazi (naxazis ukiduresi wertilidan dacilebuli 15 mmiT). masze gamoisaxeba Sesabamis fasadze myofi Riobebis zomebi da maT
Soris manZilebi.
zomis meore xazi (pirveli xazidan dacilebuli 10 mm-iT). Sesabamis
fasadze gamomavali kapitaluri kedlebis da tixrebis sisqeebi da maT
Soris manZilebi.
zomis mesame xazi (meore
xazidan dacilebuli 10 mm-iT). _ Sesabamis
fasadze gamomavali kapitalur kedlebis RerZebs Soris manZilebi.
zomis meoTxe xazi (mesame xazidan dacilebuli 10 mm-iT). _ DSesabamisi
fasadis gabarituli zoma(nax. 7).
8. Sida zomis xazebis da aivnebis zomebis datana
saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi dasaSvebia naxazis konturis SigniT im Sida
kedlebis da tixrebis sisqeebisa da maT Soris manZilebis aRniSvna, romelTa
Cveneba ver moxerxda gare zomebis datanis dros.
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radganac aivnebis gabaritebi erTnairia, maTi datana nebismier adgilze
SeiZleba (nax. 8).

nax. 7

nax. 8

9. zomebis mniSvnelobebis da saTavsoebis farTobebis datana da


kapitaluri kedlebis markireba
horizontaluri
zomebis
gamomsaxveli
ricxvebi
daitaneba
horizontalurad Sesabamisi monakveTebis SuaSi zomis xazis zemod erTi
milimetris daSorebiT. Tu zomis gamomsaxveli ricxvi ar eteva Sesabamis
monakveTSi, dasaSvebia misi datana am monakveTis gverdiT marjvena mxares.
vertikaluri zomebis gamomsaxveli ricxvebi daitaneba vertikalurad
Sesabamisi monakveTebis SuaSi zomis xazis marcniv erTi milimetris
daSorebiT. aqac Tu zomis gamomsaxveli ricxvi ar eteva Sesabamis
monakveTSi, dasaSvebia misi datana am monakveTis gverdiT zemo mxares.
Yyoveli saTavsos marjvena qveda kuTxeSi iwereba misi farTobis
amsaxveli cifri, gamosaxuli kvalratul metrebSi.
amis Semdeg xorcieldeba kapitaluri kedlebis markireba. vertikaluri
RerZebi
markirdeba
marcxnidan
marjvniv
arabuli
cifrebiT,
horizontalurebi ki _ qvemodan zemoT qarTuli anbanis asoebiT. aq unda
gamovricxoT aso ,,vinis gamoyeneba misi samianTan msgavsebis gamo (nax. 9).
10. pirobiTi Wrilebis sibrtyeebis da xedvis mimarTulebis Cveneba,
konturebis Semovleba
pirobiTi Wrilebi SeiZleba iyos sworxazovani da safexurivani imisda
mixedviT, Tu Senobis ra mniSvnelovani nawilebia saCvenebeli. aucilebelia
xedvis mimarTulebis Cveneba isris saSualebiT.

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sacxovrebeli
saxlis
gegmaze
dakonturebas
eqvemdebareba
yvela
kapitaluri kedeli da tixari karebisa da fanjrebis Riobebis garda da
Wrilis sibrtyis an sibrtyeebis maCvenebeli simboloebi (nax. 10).

nax. 9

nax. 10

3. daskvna
sabolood SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom nebismieri samSeneblo naxazis (Cven
SemTxvevaSi _ sacxovrebeli saxlis sarTulis gegmis) agebis procesis
etapebis raodenobis gazrda da maTi Tanmimdevrobis mkacri dacva bevrad
gaaadvilebs am process, dagvicavs zedmeti agebebisagan, zedmeti damxmare
grafikuli elementebisagan, romlebic saboloo naxazisaTvis saWiro ar
aris da gvixsnis pirdapir gzas samSeneblo naxazebis Sesrulebis sruli
kompiuterizaciisaken.

literatura
1. adamia i. samSeneblo xazva. ,,ganaTleba. Tbilisi. 1969.
2. baaxia g., margvelaSvili a. samSeneblo xazva (damxmare saxelmZRvanelo). ,,teqnikuri universiteti. Tbilisi. 1971.
3. wuleiskiri g. samSeneblo xazva (damxmare saxelmZRvanelo). ,,teqnikuri
universiteti. Tbilisi. 2001.
4. SavguliZe a. teqnikuri xazvis propedevtikuri kursi. ,,teqnikuri
universiteti. Tbilisi. 2005.
5. bacikaZe i., wuleiskiri g., kvinikaZe z., arabiZe m. sainJinro grafikis
kursi. Tbilisi. 2008.
6. wuleiskiri g., arabiZe m. sainJinro grafika (samSeneblo naxazebi).
,,teqnikuri universiteti. Tbilisi. 2009.
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xelovnebis

arqiteqturuli garemo Tanaziareba.


m. maisuraZe, T. Wanturia

(saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, saqarTvelo, 0175, Tbilisi,


kostavas 77)

reziume:

statia moicavs sakiTxs arqiteqturisa da monumenturi


xelovnebis sinTezis mravalsaxeobaze, maT problemebze,
urTierTSerwymisa da gansakuTrebuli xedvis, sivrculi
arealis warmoqmnis perspeqtivebze.
ganxilulia
problemebi
dakavSirebuli
xelovnebis
sxvadasxva
saxeobebis
rolze
Tanamedrove
qalaqTan
mimarTebaSi.
sakvanZo sityvebi: aRorZineba, baroko, moderni, iluzoruli sivrce.

1. Sesavali
mTlianobis saocari gancda geufleba, rodesac ganixilav egviptur
taZrebs,
kompleqsebs,
sadac
arqiteqtura,
reliefebi,
qandakebebi,
monumentaluri ferwera, aramarto mkacradaa damorCilebuli erTian
religiur-filosofiuri ideas, aramed erTi saerTo mTlianobaa. aseve,
warmoudgenelia evropuli goTika fasadebze daxunZluli wmindanebisa Tu
qimerebis, vitraJebisa da mooqrovili sakurTxevlis gareSe, da
aseve,
xelovnebis saxeobebi, erTianobis umaRles mwvervals aRweven aRorZinebis,
barokosa Tu klasicizmis xanis SemoqmedebaSic.

2. ZiriTadinawili
qarTul xelovnebaSi SemorCenilia margalitebi, romelTa ganxilviT
SegviZlia damajereblad visaubroT qarTuli xalxuri xelovnebis ZirZvel
kulturaze - xelovnebis sxvadasxva saxeobis urTierTkavSirsa da
urTierTsinTezis,
gamdidrebis
xelovnebaze

dedaboZi,
karebebze
amotvifruli formebi, aivnebis dekori _ xis Wris xelovneba, buxari _
mravalsaxovani formiTa da ornamentirebuli zedapirebiT, svanuri maCubi da
sxva mravali. am SemTxvevaSi, xelovnebis organuli urTierTdamokidebuleba
bunebrivia da aucilebeli. xSirad, Seucnoblad, saxlis patroni da
diasaxlisi sakuTar TavSi aerTianebdnen xuroTmoZRvris, mxatvris,
moqandakis, mqargvelis, meTixovnis profesiebs, xolo Tavisufal dros,
musikosebadac gvevlinebodnen. ase, rom Semoqmedebis yvela saxeoba
erTmaneTs erwymoda, rogorc sicocxlis forma gamoxatuli xalxis sulier
moTxovnaSi.
aqedan
gamomdinare
kidev
erTxel
vrwmundebiT,
rom
uZvelesi
arqiteqturuli Zeglebi aSkarad migvaniSneben Tu ramdenad daxvewili da

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mravlismomcveli iyo SemoqmedebiTi midgoma sakuTari Semoqmedebisadmi. es
iyo nimuSi Tu risi mocema SeeZlo gaerTianebul xelovnebas.
ras gvaZlevs am mxriv Tanamedroveoba? epoqa mCqefare da dinamikuri, epoqa
iluzoruli perspeqtivebiT da kompiuteruli samyaroTi, lazeruli epoqis
realobiT, samganzimilebiani sivrcisaken swrafvis SemecnebiT aRsavse.
aSkaraa, rom XXI saukune xelovnebis saxeobebis sinTezis warmoudgenel
perspeqtivebs SemogvTavazebs _ Tanamedrove arqiteqturam warmoaCina, rom
sinTezis namdvili era momavalSi gvelis. gamoCnda axali saintereso
eqsperimentebi musikaSi _ mravalJReradi sinTezis aratradiciuli formebis
Zebna jer kidev arasrulyofilia, magram isini arseboben da xsnian axal,
aqamde arnaxul perspeqtivebs mxatvrul urTierTmoqmedebaSi. Tanamedrove
arqiteqturam warmoqmna zedapiris (kedlis) moxatvis sruliad axleburi
xedva, erTdroulad mimarTuli rogorc interierze, aseve eqsterierSi
aRqmaze. cvlileba ganicada qandakebamac. Aantonio gaudis mier agebuli
taZari TumcaRa Seqmnilia mkacrad arqiteqtoruli statikiT, metwilad
mainc gamoZerwilia vidre agebulia. man naTlad SesZina uzarmazar taZars
arqiteqtorul monumenturi Jreradoba, riTic uzrunvelyo qandakebaze
gaTvlili maradisoba.
rogorc TeatrSia ganawilebuli yvela roli da yvelam icis Tavisi
adgili, asevea arqiteqturaSic _ gansazRvrul sivrceSi arqiteqtori igive
scenaristi da reJisoria, arqiteqturuli obieqti, sivrceSi moqmedebiT,
speqtaklis personaJad warmogvidgeba. moqandake igive
msaxiobia, (rolis
brwyinvale an cudi SesrulebiT), romlis profesionalizmzea damokidebuli
konkretuli orientiris arseboba an ararseboba. SesaZloa, winaprebisagan
adamianma miiRo mudmivi orientaciis aucileblobis SenarCunebis instiqti.
cnobilia, rom ucnob quCebze yofnis Semdeg nacnobi orientiris danaxva an
quCis danaxva .... es yvelasaTvis nacnobi grZnobaa. kacobriobisaTvis
orientaciis
dakargvas,
mTeli
istoriis
ganmavlobaSi
mohqonda
usiamovnebebi, ubedureba. kargad orientirebis miswrafeba cxovrobs CvenSi
da moqmedebs Cvens xasiaTze. swored amitom, Cveni qalaqebi ise unda aSendes,
rom maTSi advili iyos orientireba. unda iyos advilad dasamaxsovrebeli
adgilebi, risi damaxsovrebiTac SevZlebT orientirebas.
qalaquri mSeneblobis erTsaxeoba cudia, Tundac, misi adamianze
zemoqmedebis TvalsazrisiT. erTsaxeoba Trgunavs adamians da mavned
moqmedebs mis fsiqikaze. es problema gansakuTrebiT warmoCndeba axal
saukuneSi, sadac did qalaqebSi aqtualuria erTsaxeobis problema. aseve
rTuli SesamCnevi araa, rom Tanamedrove qalaqs ar hyofnis erTi, raRac
gansazRvruli formiT orientiris Seqmna, amisaTvis saWiroa mizanmimarTuli
konkretuli miznebisaTvis dalagebuli xelovnebis sistema.
yovelive
zemoTqmulidan
gamomdinare
ocdameerTe
saukuneSi
arqiteqtorulmxatvruli sinTezi Cndeba, rogorc obieqturi aucilebloba
da ara rogorc romelime mxatvris keTili survili. magram, rodesac saqme
gvaqvs mkacr arqiteqturul diqtatTan, maSin qreba individualizmi da
TviTgamoxatvis yvelanairi saSualeba ispoba, individualizmis ararseboba
usaxobas qmnis. XX saukunis arqiteqtori le korbuzie Tvlida, rom
sakuTari damoukidebeli individualizmi araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar unda
dakargos arqiteqturasTan sinTezSi arc qandakebam da arc ferweram, isini
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unda arsebobdnen masTan erTad, mis sivrceSi magram aucileblad sakuTari
funqciiT. fernand leJe aRniSnavda, rom arqiteqtura ar unda ganvixiloT
rogorc daproeqtebuli kedeli naxatebisTvis es mxolod Zveli
azrovnebis bralia, aucileblad unda Sedges TanamSromloba. rusi
arqiteqtori ivane fominis azriT proeqtis avtori valdebulia dautovos
SesaZlebloba
mxatvars
(Semoqmeds)
damoukidebeli
kompoziciisTvis,
romelic
met
srulyofas
SeZenda arqiteqtoris
kompozicias.
aseT
SemTxvevaSi arqiteqtura yovelTvis bevrad ukeTesad gamoiyureba.
sayovelTaodaa cnobili gamoTqma arqiteqtura xelovnebis dedaa,
xelovnebis yvela saxeobidan mxolod arqiteqturaa adamianis Tanamgzavri,
rogorc wesi, arqiteqturul sivrceSi iqmneba rogorc sivrcobrivi, aseve
droebiTi xelovnebac. es sivrce SeiZleba iyos erTianad morgebuli rogorc
erTi, aseve sxvadasxva xelovnebis saxeobisaTvis.
xelovnebis sinTezisaTvis, qalaqis iersaxis did problemad rCeba
nagebobebi, arqiteqturuli ansamblebis koloristika, afiSebi da reklamebi,
vitrinebis gaformeba, saqalaqo mowyobilobebi. qalaqgegmarebis istoria
TvalnaTliv gvaswavlis feris rolis gansakuTrebul adgils qalaqis
ansamblis
Camoyalibebis
gansazRvraSi,
romelic
gadawyvetebis
mravalferovnebiT gamoirCeva (antikur qalaqebze mzis sxivis moqmedeba
TeTri marmarilo da oqrosferi mzis sxivis TamaSi Seudarebel efeqts
qmnis akropolisis aRqmaSi). aq unda gavixsenoT, revoluciis Semdegi
TxuTmet wliani periodis sabWoTa arqiteqturis cdebi. am periodSi
aqtiurad muSavdeboda e.w. ferTa simbolika, analizirdeboda sxvadasxva
feris aRqmis pirobebi da zemoqmedebis xasiaTi mayurebelze. amave dros,
feri aRiqmeboda, rogorc xelovnebis erT-erTi umTavresi saSualeba.
aRiniSneboda, rom feri saSualebas aZlevda sxvadasxva ferSi SeRebiliyo
axali Senobebis geometriuli zedapirebi da sivrceebi ise, rom ar
darRveuliyo maTi lipidaruli ubraloeba. dRes qalaqis ganviTarebis
uamravi saSualeba arsebobs, rac aseve arqiteqtorisTvis saukeTeso formaa
qalaqis
axleburad
warmoCinebisaTvis,
axali
mxatvruli
gadawyvetilebisaTvis. Ramis ganaTebiT axleburad danaxul qalaqs miyevxar
azramde, rom ara nagebobebi, aramed azri qmnis qalaqebs, azri xelovani
adamianisa, romelic ayalibebs sakuTar sasicocxlo garemos, Sesabamisad,
sakuTari warmosaxviTa da moTxovnilebebiT. isic faqtia, rom arqiteqtura
ar unda eZebdes Svelas xelovnebis sxva saxeobebSi is unda iyos mSvenieri
gamomsaxvelobiTi TavisTavad da mxolod aseT pirobebSi SeZlebs is
TanamSromlobas da urTierTobas sxva danarCenTan.
adamianebi individualistebi arian da is, rac erTisTvis cudia,
meorisTvis SeiZleba mimzidveli aRmoCndes, xolo mesame Tvis absolutur
gaugeblobaSi
ganviTardes.
arqiteqturul
sivrcesTan
mimarTebaSi
xelovnebis saxeobebidan yvelaze aqtiurad mainc qandakeba gamoikveTa.
qandakebam, romelic aRar warmoadgens Senobis nawils, arqiteqturasTan
erTad ikisra qalaqis sivrculi organizaciis funqcia, misi saSualebiT
icvleba sivrcis masStabi, gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens Tanamedrove
qandakebis originaluroba. didi xania aRaravis aRelvebs truizmuli,
erTferovani, utyvi figurebi sworkuTxa postamentebze.
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stereotipebi, rogorc wesi, damRupvelia xelovnebis yvela saxeobisTvis
da, gansakuTrebiT, monumentisaTvis. rogorc wesi, qandakeba gamoirCeva
Tavisi
bunebiT,
individobis
pretenziiT.
xSirad
uaRresad
maRalprofesiulad
Sesrulebuli,
magram
mravaljer
gameorebuli
kompozicia kargavs TviTgamoxatvisunars da qalaqis interierSi nakleb
SesamCnev elementad warmoCndeba. Tu cisartyela didxans Cans cis
laJvardze, mas aRar Sescqerian _ ambobs goeTe da marTlac, Tu mxatvruli
ileTi sakmaod xSirad aris gameorebuli is kargavs Tavis siaxlis
SegrZnebas, ganicdis devalvacias.

3. daskvna
aseve sayuradReboa, rom xelovnebis sxvadasxva saxeobebisa erT sivrceSi
gamoyeneba iwvevs saerTo kompoziciis danawevrebas (daSlas), yuradRebis
gafantvas, mTlianobis gamomsaxvelobis dakninebas. dRes, aseve, xSirad
gvxvdeba principi ver SeZeli silamazis Seqmna, samagierod SeZeli
simdidris Cveneba. rasac sabolood usaxurobamde dahyavs e.w. Semoqmedeba.
XXI saukunis arqiteqturuli reJisura saSualebas iZleva arqiteqturul
sivrceSi,
xelovnebis
sxva
saxeobebis
sinTezsa
da
kompoziciur
individualizmze dayrdnobiT Seqmnas sruliad gansxvavebuli sivrculi
areali. didi Zalisxmeva da profesiuli unar-Cvevebis gamovlenaa saWiro
imisTvis, rom daZleuli iqnes Stampebi arqiteqturul formebTan sinTezSi _
qandakebaSi, monumentur ferweraSi, gamoyenebiT xelovnebasa da maT saerTo
formaTwarmoqmnaSi.

literatura
1. ., A . - , , 2005
2. .., .
: . 1984
3. Architecture of Culture & Commerce : January March, 2006
4. Historic Skyscrapers : January April, 2006
5. Hagia Sophia : Architecture, Structure and Liturgy, By: Rowland J.Mainstone, Taschen, 2001
6. The Story of Architecture : By: Jonathan Glancey, First American Edition, 2000

33

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adgilobriv nedleulze damzadebuli bgeramSTanTqmeli


nakeTobebis, silikomanganumis widebis Tvisebebis kvleva
m. javaxiSvili
(saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, saqarTvelo, 0175, Tbilisi,
kostavas 77)

reziume: rogorc xelovnur ise bunebriv Semavseblebs Soris widebi


ikaveben
gansakuTrebul
adgils,
amitomac
arsebobs
samSeneblo
nakeTobebSi
iafi
produqtebis,
widebis
gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba. arcTu ise didi xnis win
samSeneblo masalebis warmoebaSi ZiriTadad
gamoiyeneboda
mxolod
granulirebuli brZmedis
widebi. SemdegSi ki
mecnierebma SeZles
samSeneblo masalebis warmoebaSi
gamoeyenebinaT
feradi
metalurgiis
zogierTi
wida,
miRebuli spilenZis, tyviis, nikelis, kalis da a.S. gamodnobis
Sedegad.
erTi tona feradi liTonis gadamuSavebis Sedegad widis
saSualo gamosavali Seadgens 15-25%-s.
sakvanZo sityvebi: metalurgiuli widebi, silikomanganumis widebi,
nayaris
simkvrive, hidravlikuri aqtivoba, granulacia,
hidratacia.

1. Sesavali
widebi ikaveben gansakuTrebul adgils rogorc xelovnur ise bunebriv
Semavseblebs Soris. amitomac arsebobs samSeneblo nakeTobebSi iafi
produqtebis, widebis gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba.
widebs miekuTvneba, rogorc Savi ise feradi liTonebis dnobis dros
miRebuli Tanaproduqtebi. metalurgiuli widebis qimiuri da mineralogiuri
Semadgenloba
ar
aris
mudmivi,
maTi
mravali
saxeoba
qimiuri
SemadgenlobiT uaxlovdeba portland da Tixamiwovan cements.
arc Tu ise didi xnis win samSeneblo masalebis warmoebaSi ZiriTadad
gamoiyeneboda
mxolod granulirebuli brZmedis
widebi. SemdegSi ki
mecnierebma SeZles samSeneblo masalebis warmoebaSi gamoeyenebinaT feradi
metalurgiis zogierTi wida, miRebuli spilenZis, tyviis, nikelis, kalis da
a.S. gamodnobis Sedegad. erTi tona feradi liTonis gadamuSavebis Sedegad
widis saSualo gamosavali Seadgens 15-25 tonas.

2. ZiriTadi nawili
metalurgiuli widebis qimiuri analizis Sedegad dadgenilia, rom
maTi SemadgenlobaSi ZiriTadad Sedis oTxi saxis Jangeuli: CaO, MgO. AL2O3,

34

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-
SiO2. metalurgiul widebi mcire raodenobiT Seicaven agreTve rkinis da
manganumis Jangeulebs da gogirdovan SenaerTebs.
feradi metalurgiis widebi arsebiTad gansxvavdeba Savi metalurgiis
widebisagan, rogorc SemadgenlobiT ise fiziko-meqanikuri TvisebebiT.
feradi liTonebis
warmoebaSi ZiriTad nedleulad
gamoyenebulia
sulfiduri madani, romelic sakmao raodenobiT Seicavs rkinas, romelic
widaSi gvxvdeba rkinis qveJangis saxiT.
spilenZis qarxnis warmoebis
widebi Seicaven 30-40% FeO-, Saxtur
RumelSi nikelis warmoebis Sedegad miRebuli widebi ki 17-20%-.
feradi metalurgiis widebi mcire raodenobiT Seicavs GaO MgO-.
samagierod
maT SemadgenlobaSi xSirad gvxvdeba iseTi minarevebi
rogoricaa: gogirdi, cinki, tyvia, nikeli, kobalti da sxva.
zestafonis
feroSenadnobTa
qarxnis
silikomanganumis
widebSi
mniSvnelovani raodenobiT (22%) aris manganumi. nayaris simkvrive Seadgens
400-500kg/m3, widis granulebi Zlier forovania,
250c temperaturis dros
misi siTbogamtaroba tolia 0,100BT/(M.K). 2-5 mm-i zomis widis marcvlebis
mikroskopulma Semowmebam dagvanaxa, rom maT Soris mZime nawilakebis saxiT
gvxvdeba seri feris eleqtrodebis natexebi.
widis Semavseblebi simkvrivis mixedviT SeiZleba davyoT: mZime
(>1000kg/m3) da msubuq (1000kg/m3); marcvlis zomebis mixedviT ki - wvrili
(<5mm) da msxvili (>5mm).
aqtiuri
danamatebis
gareSe
da
Cveulebriv
temperaturaze
daqucmacebul widas, ar gaaCnia simtkice, rac aixsneba masSi aqtiuri
fazebis
ararsebobiT
an
dabali
SemcvelobiT.
widis
erTaderT
makristalizebel komponentad iTvleba orkalciumiani silikati - 2CaO.SiO2.
sxva
danarCeni
mineralebi
iZenen
hidravlikur
Tvisebebs,
maRali
temperaturisa da wylis orTqlis wnevis pirobebSi, aqtiur danamatebTan
erTad.
mecnierebis daskvniT, mineralebis aqtivoba anadgurebs
kristalebs
Semdegi mimdevrobiT: melilits - - 2CaO.SiO2; mervinits
montiCelits
dabalfuZian alumo da kalciumis
silikatebs.
,
, aramed didi raodenobiT kristaluri fazebis Semcveli
widebi.
minis maRali Siga qimiuri energia uzrunvelyofs mis momatebul xsnadobas,
ris
Sedegadac
xdeba
gadajerebuli
xsnarebis
warmoqmna,
maTi
kristalizacia,
gamagreba
da
xelovnuri
qvis
warmoqmna.
minawidis
hidravlikuri aqtivoba damokidebulia Rumelidan gamosuli nadnobis
temperaturaze, mis qimiur Semadgenlobaze, granulaciis xasiaTsa da
siCqareze da a.S. minawidis hidrataciis meqanizmi mdgomareobs SemdegSi:
uaryofiTad damuxtuli hidroqsilis ionebis SeWra iwvevs minaSi el.
statikuri
wonasworobis
sistemis
darRvevas
da
widis
daSlas.
hidratirebuli kaJmiwis afski, Cveulebriv pirobebSi, aqtiuri danamatebis
gareSe winaaRmdegobas uwevs minis nawilakebis zedapirze hidrataciis
warmoqmnas. ionSemcveli ( Ca+2, (OH)- (SO4)-2) tute naerTebis da sulfatebis
wyalxsnarebis Seyvana, xels uwyobs widis afskebis daSlas da
axali
gaSiSvlebuli zedapirebis warmoqmnas. hidratirebuli kaJmiwa tute garemoSi
35

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-
uerTdeba
kalciumis
hidrosilikatebsa
da
hidroalumosilikatebs,
sulfatur garemoSi ki kalciumis sulfati urTierTmoqmedebs TixamiwasTan,
kalciumis Jangis hidratTan da wyalTan hidrosulfatoaluminatebis
warmoqmniT. sulfaturi garemos SeqmniT widebis aqtivoba izrdeba. tute
garemos roli SeiZleba Seasrulos kirma, sodam, tute liTonebis sxva
marilebma da sustma mJaveebma, portlandcementma. sulfaturi garemosaTvis
ki orwylianma an naxevarwylianma TabaSirma, natriumis sulfatma.
widebis hiravlikuri aqtivobis amaRlebas iwvevs misi wvrilad
daqucmaceba. widebis Semkvreli Tvisebebis gamovlenas xels uwyobs qimiurad
gaaqtiureba da avtoklavSi damuSaveba.
silikomanganumis widebis sxvadasxva formis marcvlebis daxasiaTeba
moyvanilia cxrilSi.

3
,

,/
,%

0,4
324
34
0,4-0,6
312
35
1-2
0,6-0,8
292
36
1,4
0,8-1,0
280
37
2-5
0,4
314
36
0,4-0,6
298
38
0,6-0,8
281
39
4
0,8-1,0
269
41
5-10
0,4
302
39
0,4-0,6
295
41
0,6-0,8
287
43
7
0,8-1,0
272
45

3. daskvna
cxrilis monacemebidan Cans, rom widis marcvlebis formis koeficienti
miuxedavad misi sxvadasxva fraqciisa uaxlovdeba erTs,
aqvs dabali
simkvrive da aris foriani, rac aris aucilebeli piroba imisa, rom igi
SeiZleba efeqturad
iqnas gamoyenebuli bgeramSTanTqmeli masalebis
warmoebisas.

literatura

1. . . . .

. . 61, , , 123.
2. . . . .

. 28-1/-69. ,
, 112.
36

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asfaltbetonis narevis Semadgenlobis gansazRvra


marSalis xelsawyos gamoyenebiT
T. papuaSvili, m. SiSinaSvili, v. jRamaia, n. eloSvili
(saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, m. kostavas q.77, 0175, Tbilisi,
saqarTvelo)

reziume: naSromis ZiriTad mizans warmoadgens marSalis meTodis


gamoyenebiT asfaltbetonis narevis Semadgenlobis (receptis) dadgena,
misi simkvrivis, forianobis, 600C-ze asfaltbetonis mdgradobis da
plastiurobis maCveneblis gaTvaliswinebiT, romelic Seesabameba
evropul normativebs.
sakvanZo
sityvebi: asfaltbetoni,
marSalis
xelsawyo,
nimuSis
Semkvriveba.
1. Sesavali
a/b-is narevis Semadgenlobis daproeqtebis meTodebidan dReisaTvis
msoflioSi
yvelaze
metad
gavrcelebulia
brius
marSalis
mier
SemuSavebuli meTodi.

2. ZiriTadi nawili
marSalis meTodi standartirebuli iqna ASTM D 1559 Si da
ramdenjerme iqna modificirebuli. Semadgenlobis proeqtirebis es meTodi
SemdgomSi mdgomareobs:
1. xdeba qvis masalebis vargisianobis Sefaseba. gansazRvraven RorRis
cveTas los-anJelesis barabanSi, Tixovani nawilakebis Semadgenlobas,
firfitovani da nemsisebri marcvlebis Semadgenlobas, wyalmedegobas,
msxvrevis procesSi warmoqmnili nawilakebis procentul Semadgenlobas. Tu
masalebis xarisxi misaRebia, adgenen marcvlebis Semadgenlobas, WeSmarit
simtkices da bitumis adsorbcias gamosaxuls procentebSi. adgenen narevis
mineralogiur Semadgenlobas, xelmZRvaneloben Semkvrivebuli narevebis
mrudiT da sakontrolo wertilebiT, romelic iZleva im masalis dasaSveb
procentul raodenobas, romelic gavida sacris 2.36 mm da 0.075 mm diametris
zomis xvretSi, amzadeben am masalebiT nimuSs bitumTan Sesarevad.
2. xdeba SemakavSirebeli masalis Tvisebebis Sefaseba. irCeven bitumis
markas
mSeneblobis
geografiuli
zonis
safaris
daniSnulebis
gaTvaliswinebiT. adgenen bitumis simkvrives, zomaven welvadobas sxvadasxva
temperaturaze, ageben welvadoba-temperaturis grafiks, adgenen Serevis
temperaturas, romlis drosac SekavSireba Seadgens 0.170.02 mpa-wm. da
Semkvrivebis temperaturas, romlis drosac bitumis SekavSireba Seadgens
0.280.03 mpa-wm. magaliTisaTvis ix. nax. #1. magaliTi #1 naxazisaTvis:
kapilaruli viskozimetriT adgenen Semdeg mniSvnelobebs: kinematikuri
welvadoba (santistoskebSi _ Semcirebuli sts) 60, 135 da 159C0 : 2.8X105 sts,

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-
498 sts da 219 sts Sedegebs miRebuls
Seesabameba Semdeg tolobas lglgE=A-VTSlgT,

60

da

135C0

temperaturisas,

nax. #1. Serevis temperaturis gansazRvra da nimuSebis Semkvrivebis


damokidebuleba bitumis welvadobasTan.
sadac E-aris bitumis kinematikuri welvadoba, sts, T-temperatura, A=2.28
parametri, C0, VTS=0.868 welvadobis SegrZnebis koeficienti temperaturis
cvalebadobasTan
(viscosity-temperature
susceptibility)
wertili,
romelic
0
Seesabameba welvadobis sakontrolo gazomvis 159 C, praqtikulad Zevs amave
sworze. msxvili Savi feriT
naCvenebia rekomendirebuli bitumis
welvadobis diapazoni Serevis dros, xolo nacrisferiT _ Semkvrivebisas
(datkepnisas). vixelmZRvanelebT mocemuli tolobebiT an misi grafikebiT
SesaZlebelia nimuSis narevis momzadebisaTvis Serevis temperaturis naxva
(povna) _ 163-1730C, romlis drosac welvadoba E=150-190 sts da Semkvrivebis
(datkepnis) temperaturaa 148-1550C, drosac E=250-310 sts.
3. amzadeben gamosacdel nimuSebs. standartuli zoma nimuSisaTvis:
diametri 102 mm, simaRle 64 mm. miRebulia, rom nimuSis diametri minimum 4jer unda aRematebodes narevSi arsebul maqsimaluri zomis marcvlis
diametrs. amitom nimuSebisaTvis narevs amzadeben im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac
marcvlis
maqsimaluri
zoma
aris
2.5
mm-mde.
msxvilmarcvlovani
narevebisaTvis, romelSic marcvlis maqsimaluri zomaa 37,5 mm iReben nimuSs
diametriT 152 mm, simaRliT 114 mm, Sesabamisi procedurebi maTi momzadebisa
da gamocdisaTvis normirebulia 2001 w. amzadeben 15-18 Semkvrivebul nimuSs,
xuTi-eqvsi sxvadasxva raodenobis bitumis SemcvelobiT, cvalebadobis bijiT
0.5%. saSualo mniSvnelobas iReben gamocdis da bazirebuli rekomendaciebis
safuZvelze. amis garda amzadeben 3 nimuSs fxvier mdgomareobaSi, romlebic
Semdgom
gamoiyeneba
orfaziani
Semkvrivebis
sistemisaTvis
_
qvis
masala+bitumi (asfaltbetoni narCeni forianobis gareSe).
4. adgenen a/b-is moculobis maCveneblebs. fxvier nimuSebze adgenen a/b-is
WeSmarit simkvrives, xolo Semkvrivebulebze _ saSualo simkvrives.
TiToeuli nimuSisaTvis gamoiTvleba narCeni forianoba (VTM), mineraluri
masalis forianoba (VMA) da marcvlebsSorisi forebis procents Sevsebuls
bitumiT (VFA).
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-
5.
nimuSebs
gamocdian
marSalis
xelsawyoTi.
nimuSs,
romlis
0
temperatura 60 C-ia aTavseben momWerebs Soris, romelTa mrudis radiusi
cilindruli nimuSis radiusis tolia da tvirTaven 50 mm/wT deformaciis
siCqariT, manam sanam datvirTva miaRwevs maqsimums, nimuSi daiwyebs daSlas.
datvirTvis maqsimalur mniSvnelobas uwodeben marSaliT mdgradobas.
imavdroulad zomaven zeda momWeris vertikalur gadaadgilebas qvedasTan
damokidebulebaSi im momentamde sanam datvirTva miaRwevs maqsimums. mas
uwodeben denadobas marSaliT an plastikurobis maCvenebels da gamosaxaven
diumis measedi nawiliT.
6. analizs ukeTeben gamocdis Sedegebs. ageben eqvs grafiks, naCvenebs
nax. #2-ze da amowmeben miRebuli monacemebis siswores, xelmZRvaneloben
aseTi gamosaxulebiT:

a)

b)

g)

d)

e)

v)

nax. #2 monacemTa grafikebi, damzadebuli da gamocdili


marSalis meTodiT
narevs saerTod aqvs maqsimaluri simkvrive bitumis romelime SemadgenlobiT
(nax. #2-a), sxvaTaSoris Sesabamisoba am raodenobis bitumis, rogorc wesi
(magram ara yovelTvis) metia vidre misi Semadgenloba, romlis drosac
maqsimaluri mdgradoba marSaliT gamosaxulia nax. #5-b. denadoba marSaliT
izrdeba
narevSi
bitumis
Semadgenlobis
gazrdiT
(nax.
#5-g);
39

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-
marcvlebsSorisi forebi Sevsebuli bitumiT yovelTvis matulobs narevSi
bitumis Semadgenlobis gazrdiT (nax. #5-g). mineraluri Semadgenlobis
forianoba bitumis raRac gansazRvruli raodenobisas aris minimumamde (nax.
#5-d) analogiurad gruntis optimalur tenianobasTan, magram es minimum
gamoxatulia sustad. SegaxsenebT, rom TiToeuli wertili am grafikebze
miRebulia rogorc saSualo mniSvneloba samive nimuSisaTvis.
7.
pouloben
bitumis
optimalur
Semcvelobas.
Tavdapirvelad
ganixilaven monacemebs mdgradobaze da denadobaze. mocemul SemTxvevaSi
mZime moZraobisaTvis saWiroa mdgradobis miRweva aranakleb 8006 H da
denadoba 8-dan 14-mde. es moTxovnebi kmayofildeba (miiRweva) roca bitumis
Semcvelobaa 5%-dan 7%-mde (nax. #2-b-e) sxvaTa Soris mdgradobis didi
rezerviT. ase rom bitumis optimaluri Semadgenlobis sawyisma diapazonma
daiwia
5-7.5%
dan
7-5%-mde.
Semdgom
standartebis
moTxovnisamebr
Cveulebrivia marcvlebsSoris forebis Sevseba 70-80% da narCeni forianoba
3-5%. ase rom bitumis optimaluri Semadgenlobis moZiebis diapazoni
Semcirda 5-7%-dan 6.2-7%-mde, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom narCeni forianobis
diapazoni tolia 4% Seesabameba 6.9% bitums (nax. #2-g). unda CaiTvalos, rom
bitumis optimaluri Semcveloba
iyos 6.9%. SesaZlebelia agreTve sxva
midgomac, magaliTad: a/b-is simkvrivis saSualo maqsimumi miiReba 6.6%
bitumiT (nax. #2-a) narevis mdgradobis maqsimumi _ 6.8%-isas (nax. #2-b)
narCeni
forianobis
4%
miiReba
6.9%
bitumiT
(nax.
#2-g).
samive
mniSvnelobidan saSualos gamoangariSebiT miviRebT 6.8%.

3. daskvna
marSalis
meTodis
upiratesobas
miekuTvneba
gamoyenebuli
xelsawyoebis portatuloba da is yuradReba, romelic eqceva narevis
komponentebis moculobiTi Semcvelobis maCveneblebs _ narCen forianobaze.
narevis Semadgenlobis moculobiTi proeqtireba, roca narevis Semadgeneli
yvela komponenti gamosaxulia TiToeulis mier dakavebuli moculobiT
datkepnil narevSi gaxda Zlieri komponenti narevis marSlis meTodiT
daproeqtebis procesisaTvis.

literatura:
1. .. .
, , 2006
2. ..
. , , 2007

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cicabo qanobian daRmarTebze satvirTo matareblebis


damuxruWebis siTburi reJimis gamokvleva
T. kupataZe, g. kvantaliani, n. kupataZe
(saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, m. kostavas q. 77, 0175,
Tbilisi, saqarTvelo)

reziume:

naSromSi ganxilulia Tu ra gavlenas axdens cicabo


daRmarTebze xundebis temperaturuli reJimi, matareblebis
samuxruWo sistemis muSaobis saimedoobaze da moZraobis
usafrTxoebis pirobebze.
grZel cicabo daRmarTebze moZraobisas xangrZlivi
meqanikuri damuxruWebis dros xaxunis Sedegad xurdeba
samuxruWo sistemis detalebi. gaxurebis Sedegad (350 zeviT)
irRveva samuxruWo xundebis meqanikuri mdgomareoba da
Sesabamisad mcirdeba moZraobis usafrTxoebis garantia.
amitom grZel daRmarTebze aucilebelia samuxruWo xundebis
Tburi reJimis Seswavla da cicabo daRmarTiani gadasarbenis
Sesabamisi sigrZis dadgena.
sakvanZo sityvebi: samuxruWo sistema, moZraobis usafrTxoeba,
matareblis kinetikuri energia, kompoziciuri xundebi, Tujis
xundebi, siTburi datvirTva, cveTamedegoba, moZraobis
usafrTxoebis garantia, saxelmZRvanelo qanobi.

1. Sesavali
mTiani reliefis pirobebSi samTo rkinigzebi xasiaTdebian cicabo
daRmarTebiT. aseT daRmarTebze matareblebis moZraobis usafrTxoebis
pirobebis Seswavla metad mniSvnelovania. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT im faqts,
rom umetes SemTxvevaSi samTo rkinigzebze gvxvdeba cicabo qanobiani
monakveTebi sadac grZivi profilis qanobi aRwevs 3035 xolo wriuli
mrudis radiusi 300400 metria, amitom aseTi rkinigzebis daproeqtebis dros
gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs matareblis wonis normis sworad SerCevas,
matareblis moZraobis siCqareebis dadgenas da sxva.
grZel daRmarTebze erT-erT ZiriTad problemad rCeba satvirTo
matareblis damuxruWebis sakiTxi bolo periodSi sagrZnoblad gaumjobesda
moZravi Semadgenlobis samuxruWo aRWurviloba, rac iZleva matareblebis
moZraobis siCqareebis gazrdis saSualebas. eqspluataciaSi Semovida
mZlavri tipis elmavlebi da Tbomavlebi ramac mkveTrad gazarda satvirTo
matareblebis wonebi da moZraobis siCqareebi. miuxedavad zemoT aRniSnulisa
rTul mTian pirobebSi sadac gvxvdeba didqanobiani daZabuli ubnebi,
matareblis moZraobis siCqareebi da wonebi mkveTrad SezRudulia
samuxruWo pirobebidan gamomdinare.
grZel daRmarTebze erT-erT ZiriTad problemad rCeba satvirTo
matareblis damuxruWebis sakiTxi.
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2. ZiriTadi nawili
samuxruWo sistemis saimedooba da moZraobis usafrTxoeba cicabo
daRmarTebze bevrad aris damokidebuli samuxruWo xundebis temperaturul
reJimze.
meqanikuri damuxruWebis dros xaxunis Sedegad xurdeba xaxunSi
monawile detalebi da gamoyofili siTbo gamoifrqveva garemoSi. moZraobis
siCqaris gazrdasTan erTad izrdeba matareblis kinetikuri energia da
Sesabamisad izrdeba samuxruWo sistemis friqciuli mowyobiloba.
kompoziciuri masalisagan damzadebuli xundebi saSualebas iZlevian
gavzardoT samuxruWo Zala da Sesabamisad daRmarTebze dasaSvebi
siCqareebi. amasTanave kompoziciuri masalis ZiriTadi nakli mdgomareobs
mis dabal TbogamtarunarianobaSi, rac mkveTrad zrdis Tvlis siTbur
datvirTvas. kompoziciuri xundebis dadebiT mxares Seadgens agreTve maRali
cveTamedegoba, rac uzrunvelyofs maT normalur muSaobas SedarebiT grZel
daRmarTebzec.
gaxurebis Sedegad (3500 zeviT) irRveva samuxruWo xundebis meqanikuri
mdgomareoba da Sesabamisad mcirdeba moZraobis usafrTxoebis garantia.
amitom grZel daRmarTebze aucilebelia samuxruWo xundebis Tburi reJimis
Seswavla.
mTian pirobebSi rkinigzebis grZiv profils axasiaTebs SedarebiT
maRali saxelmZRvanelo qanobi. xSirad misi sidide aRwevs 30-35%0.
magaliTad suramis uReltexilze daRmarTis maqsimaluri qanobia 29%0,
xolo marabda-axalqalaqis ubanze 35%0.
gagrZelebuli daRmarTis sigrZe bevr SemTxvevaSi ramodenime km-s
aRwevs da zogjer moicavs mTel gadasarbens. magaliTad marabdaaxalqalaqis xazze daZabuli daRmarTis sigrZe 10-15km-s aRwevs. bolo
periodSi eqspluataciaSi Semovida mZlavri elmavlebi, ramac saSualeba
mogvca matareblis wonis gazrdisa. gaizarda agreTve moZravi Semadgenlobis
siCqarec. amis gamo damuxruWebis problemebma cicabo qanobian daRmarTebze
miiqcia mecnierebisa da praqtikosebis yuradReba. dRis wesrigSi dadga
marabda-axalqalaqis
rkinigzis
xazis
rekonstruqcia,
sadac
gaTvaliswinebulia matareblis masisa da moZraobis siCqareebis gazrda. es
garemoebebi ganapirobebs cicabo qanobian daRmarTebze matareblebis
usafrTxo moZraobis pirobebis gamokvlevis aucileblobas.
xundebis gaxurebis temperaturis dadgena erTob rTulia, vinaidan igi
damokidebulia sxvadasxva faqtorebze. yvelaze sando da dasabuTebuli
kvlevebi am sakiTxze aqvs cnobil rus mecniers da praqtikos v. inozemcevs.
profesori v. inozemcevi xundebis gaxurebis temperaturis SemowmebisaTvis
grZel daRmarTebze gvTavazobs Semdeg formulas
(1 - a p )a R hPeS 0
(1)
(1 - e -0.03 t ) 2
tS m d
sadac:

ap

-koeficientia,

romelic

damuxruWebis wils.

42

iTvaliswinebs

rekuperaciuli

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a R - Tburi nakadis ganawilebis koeficientia; Tujis xundebisaTvis


a R = 0,7 kompoziciuri xundebisaTvis 0,95
h - simaRleTa Soris sxvaobaa
p - Tvalze mosuli dawolaa p=10,5 t
e - Tvlis muSaobis araTanabrobis koeficientia e = 1,5
S 0 da S m - sxvadasxva tipis vagonebis saangariSo samuxruWo manZilebia;

erTgvarovani vagonebisTvis S 0 = S m
d - Tvlis diametria, d=0,87 m
t - damuxruWebis droa, wm-Si.
zemoT moyvanili formulis daxmarebiT SesaZlebelia daRmarTebis
maqsimaluri sigrZis dadgena im pirobiT, rom xundebis gadaxurebis
temperatura darCes normis farglebSi.
SevcvaloT simaRleTa sxvaoba h.
rogorc manZilisa da qanobis
namravli h= l i da Tu formula (1) SevitanT koeficientebis ricxobriv
mniSvnelobebs miviRebT, Tujis xundebisaTvis
12,7(1 - a p )l i
(1 - e -0,03 t ) 2
(2)
t
kompoziciuri xundebisaTvis

16.3(1 - a p )l i
t

(1 - e -0 ,03 t ) 2

(3)

damuxruWebis xangrZlivoba t SeiZleba warmovidginoT Semdegi saxiT


l
t = 3600 wm
v
Tu formulebs (2) da (3) amovxsniT l -s mimarT miviRebT, Tujis
xundebisaTvis
V
567
ln 2 (1 l=
)
(4)
3,24
(1 - a p )u i
kompoziciuri xundebisaTvis
V
419
ln 2 (1 )
l=
(5)
3,24
(1 - a p )u i
bolo wlebSi xundebis gaxurebis temperaturis Sesaxeb Teoriuli da
eqsperimentaluri kvlevebi Catarda yofil rkinigzis sakavSiro institutis
avtomuxruWebis laboratoriaSi. am gamokvlevebis safuZvelze xundebis
gaxurebis temperatura damyarebuli siCqariT damuxruWebisas SesaZlebelia
gamoiTvalos Semdegi formuliT:

T=
sadac z =

q
(1 - e - z ) 0 c
a

2a t

,
P lgc
q Tburi nakadis simkvrivea,
a _ Tbogacemis koeficientia,
43

(6)

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l - Tbogamtarobis koeficientia, Tvlis liTonisaTvis


l = 10,3 10 -3 kkal/m.wm
g - Tvlis liTonis moculobiTi masaa.
g = 7850 kg/m3
c Tvlis liTonis xvedriTi Tbotevadobaa, c = 0,11 kkl/kg
t damuxruWebis xangrZlivobaa, wm; Tburi nakadis simkvrive
ganisazRvreba moZraobis siCqarisa da damuxruWeba Zalis mixedviT.

q=

a R (1 - a p )bm PVA e
3,6 F

(7)

sadac: a R _ Tburi nakadis gavrcelebis koeficientia, Tujis xundebisaTvis

a R = 0,7 xolo kompoziciuri xundebisaTvis a R = 0.95

bm damuxruWebis xvedriTi Zalaa kg/t, Tanabari moZraobisas

bm = i - wx

i daRmarTis dayvanili qanobia, %0.


wx matareblis moZraobis winaRobaa uqmi svlisas.
p Tvalze mosuli dawolaa p = 11 t.
v moZraobis siCqarea, km/sT;
A muSaobis Tburi ekvivalentia.
1
A=
= 2,34 10 -3 kkl/kgm
427
a p - eleqtruli damuxruWebis wilia.
F Tvlis zedapiris farTobia, romelzedac gamoiyofa siTbo F=0,257
m2
siTbogacemis koeficienti
a = 0,4 10 -2 (1 + 0,7 v ) kkl/m2wm
gamosaxuleba
da tolia:

Plgc Tvlis foladisaTvis warmoadgens mudmiv sidides

P lgc = 3,14 10,3 10 -3 7850 0,11 = 5, 2846


daRmarTebze damyarebuli siCqareebiT matareblis moZraobisas t wamis
ganmavlobaSi gavlili gza toli iqneba

L=

vt
km
3600

rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli kompoziciuri xundebi nakleb


Tbogamtarni arian da maTi gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi ufro mosalodnelia
moxaxune zedapirebis gadaxureba. amitom gamoTvlebs vawarmoebT mxolod
kompoziciuri xundebisaTvis.
imisaTvis, rom davadginoT daRmarTis maqsimaluri sigrZe xundebis
gadaxurebis pirobiT damuxruWebis dro t SevcvaloT gamosaxulebiT 3600
da formula (6) amovxsnaT l -s mimarT, miviRebT
44

L
v

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L = v[

1
aT 2
ln(1 )] km
q
ka

(8)

sadac KK mudmivia da tolia:

K=

2 3600
= 22,707
Plgc

daRmarTis maqsimaluri sigrZeebis mniSvnelobebi gadaxurebis pirobiT


qanobis, siCqaris da eleqtruli damuxruWebisagan damokidebulebiT
mocemulia cxrilSi #1.
daRmarTebis maqsimaluri sigrZe
qanobisagan damokidebulebiT
cxrili 1.

ap

0
0,1
0,2
0,3

40
9,3
11,3
15,6
21,3

i=20%0
30
13,0
16,7
22,1
30,4

20
21,4
27,6
37,6
53,4

40
5,5
6,8
8,8
12,6

i=25%0
30
7,8
10,2
13,0
17,8

20
12,6
16,1
21,4
29,8

40
3,8
4,7
6,2
8,5

i=30%0
30
5,2
6,6
8,6
11,6

20
8,3
10,8
14,6
10,0

40
3,1
3,8
4,7
5,6

i=35%0
30
5,6
4,8
6,0
7,3

20
7,5
8,7
11,0
13,6

daRmarTis maqsimaluri sigrZis damokidebuleba moZraobis siCqarisgan


qanobisa da eleqtruli damuxruWebisagan warmodgenilia nax. #1.

nax. 1. daRmarTis maqsimaluri sigrZeebi xundebis gadaxurebis pirobiT


45

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Teoriuli gamokvlevis saimedoobis dasadgenad miRebuli Sedegebi


Sejerda saqarTvelos rkinigzis suramis sauReltexilo ubanze Catarebuli
eqsperimentebis monacemebTan. Eqsperimentebi saeqspluatacio pirobebSi
Catarda saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis TanamSromlebis mier
saqarTvelos rkinigzis savagono meurneobis samsaxuris muSakebTan erTad.
eqsperimenti
Catarebuli
iqna
muxruWebis
gamosacdel
vagonlaboratoriis daxmarebiT, romelic mibmuli iyo satvirTo matareblis
bolo vagonze. cdebi tardeboda suramis uReltexilis xaSuri-zestafonis
monakveTze.
Catarebuli
cdebis
Sedegebma
aCvena,
rom
Teoriuli
gaangariSebis sizuste eWvs ar iwvevs.

3. daskvna
Teoriuli gamokvlevebis safuZvelze, romelic Sejerebulia praqtikuli
cdebis
SedegebTan,
SesaZlebelia
rkinigzebis
daproeqtebis
dros
ganisazRvros cicabo daRmarTis maqsimaluri sigrZe xundebis gadaxurebis
pirobiT, rac
matareblebis usafrTxo moZraobis erT-erTi ZiriTadi da
aucilebeli pirobaa.

Lliteratura
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.

.., .., ..,


. . , 1973, . 256.
..
. , 1975, #3.
.. . .,
, 1986, . 283.
..
3, 1970 .

. . -- (1440). ., , 1988, . 160.
g. Kvantaliani, T. kupataZe, n. kupataZe
transporti
da manqanaTmSenebloba #2 2006 w.
T. kupataZe n. kupataZe
transporti da manqanaTmSenebloba #1
(9) 2008 w.

46

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milsadenebis didmaliani gadasasvlelis winaswar


daZabuli kombinirebuli konstruqcia
b. surgulaZe, g. beraZe
(saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, m. kostavas q. #77, 0175,
Tbilisi, saqarTvelo)

reziume:

SemoTavazebulia axali tipis milsadenebis didmaliani


gadasasvlelis
winaswar
daZabuli
kombinirebuli
konstruqcia,
romlis
konstruqciuli
gadawyveta
analogebisagan gansxvavdeba winaswar damZabavi/dasaZabavi
elementebis
ganlagebiT
da
misi
daZabvis
axaligaumjobesebuli
sqemiT.
naSromSi
aRwerili
teqnikuri
gadawyvetiT
miiRweva
magistraluri
gazsadenis
milis
montaJis
gamartiveba
da
aseve
gadasasvlelis
mzid
elementebSi ZalvaTa moxerxebuli regulireba.
sakvanZo
sityvebi:
didmaliani
gadasasvleli,
winaswardaZabuli
sivrciTi
kombinirebuli
konstruqcia,
paraboluri
moxazulobis foladis TaRovani wamwe, zeda sartyeli,
rvakuTxa formis Rerovani prizma, moqnili elementebi,
kuTxviliani
mTlian
ganikveTiani
elementebi,
naxevarcilindruli
elementebi,
kuTxviliani
sadebebi,
miltuCebi, cilindruli saxsari, Wimebi, WanWikebi, damWimavi
qanCebi, kontrqanCi, ZalvaTa regulireba, zidvis unari,
saimedooba, mali, aweulobis isari, simaRle, iribanebi, quro,
burjebi.

1. Sesavali
naSromSi
ganxilulia
magistraluri
milsadenebis
didmaliani
gadasasvlelis arsebuli analogebi da maTi teqnikuri gadawyvetebi.
kritikuli analizis safuZvelze ganxilulia maTi dadebiTi da uaryofiTi
mxareebi. mocemulia axali
tipis winaswar daZabuli kombinirebuli
konstruqciis
teqnikuri
gadawyveta,
romlis
upiratesoba
arsebul
analogebTan ganpirovnebulia imiT, rom konstruqciis winaswar daZabvis
Semdeg sistema ar gadascems sayrden burjebs horizontalur (gambrjen)
Zalebs, gamartivebulia magistraluri gassadenis milis montaJi da igi ar
aris CarTuli gadasasvlelis konstruqciuli sistemis saerTo muSaobaSi,
aseve moxerxebulia gadasasvlelis mzid elementebSi ZalvaTa regulireba,
rac uzrunvelyofs elementebis damzadebisa da montaJis gamartivebas,
masalis xarjisa da mSeneblobis xangrZlivobis Semcirebas, konstruqciis
zidvis unaris amaRlebasa da eqspluataciis dros saimedoobis gazrdas.

47

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SCIENTIFIC-TECHNICAL JOURNAL BUILDING

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2. ZiriTadi nawili
magistraluri milsadenis didmaliani gadasasvlelis winaswar
daZabuli kombinirebuli konstruqcia, Seicavs paraboluri moxazulobis
zeda sartylian TaRovan wamwes, winaswar daZabul mzid bagirovan
elementebs, milsadenis mzid elementebze misamagrebel cilindruli formis
elementebs, damWimav mowyobilobebs, sayrden napiris burjebs, gansxvavdeba
imiT, rom milsadenis mzid elementebze misamagrebel cilindruli formis
elementebi Sesrulebulia rvakuTxa formis prizmebisagan, romelTa oTx
ferdze
radianulad
ganlagebulia
paraboluri
moxazulobis
zeda
sartyliani TaRovani wamweebi, xolo danarCen oTx ferdze
radianulad
ganlagebul dgarebze ganTavsebulia bagirebi, romlebic saxsrulad arian
Camagrebuli milsadenis konstruqciis sayrden kvanZebTan, xolo dgarebs,
Tavisufal boloSi, gaaCniaT kuTxviliani sadebebi, romlebSic Caxraxnulia
kuTxviliani mTlianganikveTiani elementebi,
romlebic aRWurvili arin
kontrqanCiTa da mis oTkuTxa nawilSi mowyobil jvrisebri naxvretebiT,
mTlianganikveTiani
elementebis
boloebi
cilindruli
saxsriTaa
damagrebuli
bagiris
dgarTan
damakavSirebel
Ria
profilisagan
Sesrulebul
elementebTan,
romelebzec
saxsruladaa
ganTavsebuli
naxevarcilindruli sakvanZo detalebi, xolo bagiri furclovani sadebiTa
da WanWikebiT SeerTebulia Ria profilisagan Sesrulebul elementebTan,
wamwis zeda sartylis kvanZebi da bagiris damWeri radianulad ganlagebuli
dgarebi erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli arian xisti kavSirebiT.
mSeneblobis praqtikaSi ZiriTadad cnobilia naSromSi SemoTavazebuli
magistraluri milsadenis gadasasvlelebis konstruqciis Semdegi saxis
analogiuri konstruqciebi: 1. xidiseburi kiduli konstruqcia, romelic
Seicavs pilonebs, saankero sayrdenebs, orStoiani mzid bagirebs, maT Soris
ganTavsebul gambrjenebs
da mzid bagirebze Sekidebul milsadens. 2.
magistraluri milsadenis kiduli gadasasvlelebi, romelic Seicavs mzid
bagirebs, romlebzec sakidebiT damagrebul malis naSens da masze
ganTavsebul milsadens, moZrav da uZrav sayrdenebs. 3. magistraluri
milsadenis gadasasvlelebis Sprengeluri tipis konstruqcia, romelic
Seicavs milsadens, Sprengelebis mosawyobad saWiro xist dgarebs da
Sprengelis winaswar daZabul bagirovan elementebs, burjebs da masze
mowyobil sayrden dgarebs. 4. magistraluri milsadenis gadasasvlelebis
kombinirebuli konstruqcia, romelic Seicavs pilonebze ganTavsebul
sayrdeni WimebiT aRWurvil mzid bagirs, konstruqciis malis SuaSi
ganlagebul TaRovan wamwes da masze ganTavsebul milsadens.
aRniSnuli teqnikuri gadawyvetebis uaryofiT mxares warmoadgens is, rom
milsadeni CarTulia gadasasvlelis konstruqciis muSaobaSi da Sesabamisad
mSeneblobis seismurad aqtiuri raionebisaTvis naklebadaa uzrunvelyofili
(mizanSewonili), xolo vantebze milsadenis mimagreba arTulebs mis montaJs.
aseve garTulebulia
TaRovani wamwisa da masze mrudwiruli milsadenis
montaJi. gadasasvlelis milsadenis napira nawilebi warmoadgens TviTmzid
elementebs,
yovelive
es,
ki
iwvevs
masalis
xarjis,
mSeneblobis
xangrZlivobisa da Sromatevadobis gazrdas, zidvis unarisa da saimedoobis
48

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-
Semcirebas. aseve, mSeneblobis seismurad aqtiuri raionebisaTvis naklebadaa
uzrunvelyofili misi saimedo eqspuatacia.
L malisa f aweulobis/Caweulobis isris mqone magistraluri milsadenis
didmaliani gadasasvlelis mzid elementebze misamagrebel cilindruli
formis elementebi Sesrulebulia rvakuTxa formis prizmebisagan 1,
romelTa oTx ferdze radianulad ganlagebulia paraboluri moxazulobis
zeda sartyliani TaRovani wamweebi 2, xolo danarCen oTx ferdze
radianulad ganlagebul dgarebze 3 ganTavsebulia bagirebi 4, romlebic
saxsrebiT 5 arian Camagrebuli milsadenis konstruqciis sayrden kvanZebTan
6, xolo dgarebs 3, Tavisufal boloSi, gaaCniaT kuTxviliani sadebebi 7,
romlebSic Caxraxnulia kuTxviliani mTlianganikveTiani elementebi 8,
romlebic aRWurvili arin kontrqanCiTa 9 da mis oTkuTxa nawilSi
mowyobil jvrisebri naxvretebiT 10,
mTlianganikveTiani elementebis 8
boloebi cilindruli saxsriTaa mimagrebuli bagiris 4 dgarTan 3
damakavSirebel
Ria
profilisagan
Sesrulebul
elementebTan
11,
romelebzec
saxsruladaa
damagrebuli
naxevarcilindruli
sakvanZo
detalebi 12, xolo bagiri 4 furclovani sadebiTa 13 da WanWikebiT 14
SeerTebulia Ria profilisagan Sesrulebul elementebTan 11, wamwis 2 zeda
sartylis kvanZebi da bagiris 4 damWeri radianulad ganlagebuli dgarebi 3
erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli arian xisti kavSirebiT 15.
L malisa f aweulobis/Caweulobis isris mqone
magistraluri
milsadenis didmaliani gadasasvlelis winaswar daZabuli kombinirebuli
konstruqciis erianad akreba (mTliani konstruqciis akreba) xorcieldeba
Semdegi TanmimdevrobiT. samSeneblo moedanze, saTanado Targis gamoyenebiT,
rvakuTxa formis prizmebis 1 oTx ferdze warmoebs akreba, qarxnuli wesiT
damzadebuli, paraboluri moxazulobis zeda sartyliani TaRovani wamweebis
2, xolo danarCen oTx ferdze radianulad montaJdeba dgarebi 3, romelTa
Tavisufal boloebSi gaaCniaT kuTxviliani sadebebi 7
romlebSic
Caxraxnulia kuTxviliani mTlianganikveTiani elementebi 8,
romlebic
aRWurvili arin kontrqanCiTa 9 da mis oTkuTxa nawilSi mowyobil
jvrisebri formiT Sesrulebul naxvretebiT 10
mTlianganikveTiani
elementebis 8 boloebi cilindruli saxsriTaa mimagrebuli bagiris 4
dgarTan 3 damakavSirebel Ria profilisagan Sesrulebul elementebTan 11,
romelebzec
saxsruladaa
damagrebuli
naxevarcilindruli
sakvanZo
detalebi 12, romlebzec
bagiris 4 Camagreba warmoebs furclovani
sadebebisa 13 da WanWikebis 14 gamoyenebiT, konstruqciis sayrden kvanZebSi 6
xorcieldeba bagirebis 4 saxsruli Camagreba, paraboluri moxazulobis
zeda sartyliani TaRovani wamweebis 2 zeda sartylis kvanZebi da bagiris 4
damWeri radianulad ganlagebuli dgarebi 3 erTmaneTTan SeerTebuli arian
xisti kavSirebiT 15, akrefili mTliani konstruqcia montaJdeba sayrden
napiris burjebze 16.
aseve SesaZlebelia L malisa f aweulobis isris mqone
magistraluri
milsadenis
didmaliani
gadasasvlelis
kombinirebuli
konstruqciis
seqciebad dayofa da maTi qarxnuli wesiT damzadeba. seqciebad gamijvna
warmoebs rvakuTxa formis prizmebze 1 maT Sua nawilSi miltuCebis
mowyobiT. seqciebis akreba xorcieldeba Semdegi TanmimdevrobiT. seqciebSi
arsebuli rvakuTxa formis prizmebis 1 oTx ferdze warmoebs akreba,
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-
qarxnuli wesiT damzadebuli, paraboluri moxazulobis zeda sartyliani
saTanado nawilebad dayofili TaRovani wamweebis 2, xolo danarCen oTx
ferdze radianulad montaJdeba dgarebi 3, romelTa Tavisufal boloebSi
gaaCniaT kuTxviliani sadebebi 7
romlebSic Caxraxnulia kuTxviliani
mTlian ganikveTiani elementebi 8, romlebic aRWurvili arin kontrqanCiTa
9 da mis oTkuTxa nawilSi mowyobil jvrisebri formiT Sesrulebul
naxvretebiT 10, mTlianganikveTiani elementebis 8 boloebi cilindruli
saxsriTaa mimagrebuli bagiris 4 dgarTan 3 damakavSirebel
Ria
profilisagan Sesrulebul elementebTan 11,
romelebzec saxsruladaa
ganTavsebuli
naxevarcilindruli
sakvanZo
detalebi
12.
seqciebis
gaerTmTlianebis Sesruleba xorcieldeba samSeneblo moedanze, saTanado
Targis gamoyenebiT, romlis Semdeg sakvanZo detalebze 12 warmoebs bagiris
4 Camagreba furclovani sadebebisa 13 da WanWikebis 14 gamoyenebiT,
konstruqciis sayrden kvanZebSi 6 xorcieldeba bagirebis 4 saxsruli
Camagreba, paraboluri moxazulobis zeda sartyliani TaRovani wamweebis 2
zeda sartylis kvanZebi da bagiris 4 damWeri radianulad ganlagebuli
dgarebi 3 erTmaneTTan SeerTebuli arian xisti kavSirebiT 15, akrefili
mTliani konstruqcia montaJdeba sayrden napiris burjebze 16.
magistraluri milsadenis gadasasvlelis kombinirebuli konstruqciis
winaswar daZabva warmoebs Semdegnairad: pirvel etapze winaswar daZabuli
mzidi
bagiris
gareSe
akrefili
gadasasvlelis
konstruqciis
mTlianganikveTiani elementis 8 oTkuTxa nawilSi mowyobil jvrisebri
naxvretebis 10
gamoyenebiT, sinqronuli brunviT bagiris 4 dgarTan 3
damakavSirebel
Ria profilisagan Sesrulebul elementebs 11 da masze
damagrebul naxevarcilindruli sakvanZo detalebs 12, unda ganTavsdes
radianulad ganlagebuli dgaris bolosTan, winaswar gansazRvruli
sididiT, minimalurad axlos (bagiris 4 dgarTan 3 misamagrebeli detalebi
11,12 ganTavsdeba winaswar gansazRvruli zomaze),
konstruqciis sayrden
kvanZebSi 6 xorcieldeba winaswar gansazRvuli sigrZis bagirebis 4
saxsruli Camagreba, xolo dgarTan 3 damakavSirebel
Ria profilisagan
Sesrulebul elementebTan 11, romelebzec saxsruladaa damagrebuli
naxevarcilindruli sakvanZo detalebi 12,
bagiri 4 Camagreba warmoebs
furclovani sadebebisa 13 da WanWikebis 14 gamoyenebiT, ris Semdeg
mTlianganikveTiani elementis 8 mis oTkuTxa nawilSi mowyobil jvrisebri
formiT Sesrulebul naxvretebis 10 gamoyenebiT, sinqronuli brunvis
Sedegad bagiris Casamagrebeli elementebi 11, 12 gadaadgildebian radianuli
mimarTulebiT, rac ganapirobebs (uzrunvelyofs) bagirebis daZabvas da
Sesabamisad mTliani konstruqciis saproeqto mdgomareobaSi moyvanas.
L malisa f aweulobis/Caweulobis isris mqone magistraluri milsadenis
didmaliani
gadasasvlelis
konstruqciis
SemoTavazebuli
teqnikuri
gadawyvetis upiratesoba arsebul analogebTan ganpirovnebulia imiT, rom
konstruqciis winaswar daZabvis Semdeg sistema ar gadascems sayrden
burjebs horizontalur (gambrjen) Zalebs, gamartivebulia gassadenis milis
montaJi da igi ar aris CarTuli sistemis saerTo muSaobaSi, aseve
moxerxebulia gadasasvlelis mzid elementebSi ZalvaTa regulireba, rac
uzrunvelyofs elementebis damzadebisa da montaJis gamartivebas, masalis
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xarjisa da mSeneblobis xangrZlivobis Semcirebas, konstruqciis zidvis
unaris amaRlebasa da eqspluataciis dros saimedoobis gazrdas.
naSromSi ganxiluli axali tipis magistraluri milsadenis didmaliani
gadasasvlelis winaswar daZabuli konstruqciis teqnikuri gadawyvetilebis
gasacnobad warmogidgenilia grfikuli masala naxazebis saxiT.

nax. 1. milsadenebis didmaliani gadasasvlelis winaswar daZabuli


kombinirebuli konstruqciis xedi Wrili I-I-is mixedviT;

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nax. 2. milsadenebis didmaliani gadasasvlelis winaswar d aZabuli


kombinirebuli konstruqciis xedi Wrili II-II-is mixedviT;

nax. 3. milsadenebis didmaliani gadasasvlelis winaswar


daZabuli kombinirebuli konstruqciis ganivi Wrili A-A;
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nax. 4. bagirebis Camagrebis kvanZi Wrili 1-1 da 2-2-s mixedviT;

nax. 5. kvanZi-2 da Wrili 3-3


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3. daskvna
naSromSi
warmodgenilia
magistraluri
milsadenis
didmaliani
gadasasvlelis winaswar daZabuli konstruqcia. SemoTavazebuli teqnikuri
gadawyvetis Sedegia is, rom konstruqciis winaswar daZabvis Semdeg sistema
ar
gadascems
sayrden
burjebs
horizontalur
(gambrjen)
Zalebs,
gamartivebulia gazsadenis milis montaJi da igi ar aris CarTuli
magistraluri milsadenis sistemis saerTo muSaobaSi. aseve moxerxebulia
gadasasvlelis mzid elementebSi ZalvaTa regulireba, rac uzrunvelyofs
elementebis damzadebisa da montaJis gamartivebas, masalis xarjisa da
mSeneblobis xangrZlivobis Semcirebas, konstruqciis zidvis unaris
amaRlebasa da eqspluataciis dros saimedoobis gazrdas.

literatura
1. ssrk saavtoro mowmoba #857343, kl. E04 B17/00, 1981, biuleteni N31.
2. ssrk saavtoro mowmoba #659684, kl. E04 B17/00, 1979, biuleteni N16.
3. . . , . . , , . 130, 131.
, 1965.
4. ssrk saavtoro mowmoba SU 1678948 A1, kl. E01 D 17/00, 1991, biulet, N35.

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navTobproduqtebis Sesanaxi rezervuarebis simtkiceze


gaangariSebis inJinruli (gamartivebuli) meTodis Sesaxeb
g. eragia, T. kakutaSvili
(saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, saqarTvelo, 0175, Tbilisi,
kostavas 77)

reziume:

Tanamedrove civilizebul samyaroSi navTobproduqtebis


moxmareba erT-erT pirvel adgilze imyofeba da warmoadgens
mTeli samomxmareblo paketis 85%. amitom navTobproduqtebis
usafrTxod Senaxvis da dacvis sakiTxebs metad didi
yuradReba
eTmoba
da
warmoadgens
metad
aqtualur
problemas.
naSromSi ganxilulia sxvadsxva geometriuli, fizikuri da
Tburi maxasiaTeblebis mqone rezervuarebis gaangariSebis
gamartivebuli meTodebi.
sakvanZo sityvebi: rezervuari, wonasworobis pirobebis normatiuli
datvirTva, Zvris Zala, garsTa Teoria.

4. Sesavali
adamiani dasabamidan cdilobs moiwyos Tavisi cxovreba ise, rom
advilad gaumklavdes stiqiur movlenebs, aagos mtkice da mdgradi
sacxovrisi da Seqmnas saaresobo produqtebis Sesanaxi daculi danadgarebi.
didi sacavebis garda metad gavrcelebulia mcire magram sakmaod
tevadi rkinebetonis, betonis, foladis da sxva saxis rezervuarebi. maTi
gaangariSebis mizniT rezervuars gulisxmoben cilindrul garsad da
iyeneben garsTa Teoriis meTodebs. miuxedavad imisa, rom gaangariSebisas
iReben sxvadasxva gasamartivebel hipoTezebs, saboloo ricxviTi Sedegis
miReba metad Zneldeba. Tumca sasrul elementTa meTodis gamoyenebiT
manqanur enaze dasmuli amocana gadawyvetilad SeiZleba CaiTvalos. aqac
daZabul-deformirebuli
mdgomareobis
dadgenas
manqanuri
enidan
realobamde gasavleli gza inJinrisaTvis gaugebari niuansia.
erT-erT gavrcelebul gzad sainJinro prqatikaSi iTvleba samSeneblo
normebisa da wesebis gamoyenebiT angariSis Catareba, rac Tavis mxriv
moicavs mravali empiriuli farmuliT sargeblobas.
Cven avirCieT garsTa Teoriis meTodi da garkveuli moxerxebuli
gardaqmnebis saSualebiT, SevZeliT gaangariSebis gamartivebuli meTodis
miReba.

5. ZiriTadi nawili
cilindruli
rezervuaris
daZabul-deformirebuli
mdgomareba
zogadad xasiaTdeba xuTi T1, T2, S, N1, N2, ZaliT da sami M1, M2, H momentiT. T1
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da T2 normaluri Zalebia, S Zvris Zalaa, xolo N1 da N2 ki ganivi anu
gadamWreli Zalebi. M1 da M2 mRunavi momentebia, H ki mgrexi momenti.
1
cilindruli rezrvuaris SemTxvevaSi
= 0 , R2=R1, y = Rq , garda amisa
R1
gamoiyeneba statikuri da kinematikuri xasiaTis Semdegi dasvebebi H=M1=N1=0
da aseve Zvris deformacia w, ganivi deformacia e1 da puasonis koeficienti
n miCneulia nulis tolad.

naxazi 1
aRniSnuli daSvebebis gaTvaliswinebiT wonasworobis pirobebi iqneba
[1] (nax.1).
T1 1 S
1 2M 2
S T2
+
+
=0 R
+ R% = 0
- T2 + Rq n = 0
(1)
x R q
x q
R q 2
Tu gamovricxavT wonasworobis pirveli ori gantolebidan Zvris Zala
1 2M 2
S-s da SevitanoT masSi wonasworobis mesame gantolebidan T2 =
- + Rq n
R q 2
mniSvneloba miviRebT:
2T1
1 4 M 2 1 2 q n 1 q 0
=
(2)
+
R q 2 R q
x 2 R 3 q 4
gamovsaxoT gantoleba (2)-Si Semavali T1 da M2 ucnobebi erTi w
CaRunvis
funqciis
saSualebiT,
ramdenadac
kinematikuri
dasvebebis
safuZvelze e2=w=0 anu
1 V0 W
+
= e2 = 0
(3)
R q
R
V0 1 u 0
+
=w =0
x R q
V0 gadaadgilebis gamoricxvis Sedegad (3) tolobebidan gveqneba:
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-
2 u 0 1 w
=
R x
q 2
hukis kanonis Tanaxmad
2 u 0 Eh 4 w

(4)
q 2 = R 4 x 4

Eh 3 2 w
M2 =
(5)
12 R 2 q 2
(4) da (5) tolobebis gaTvaliswineba (2)-Si sabolood mogvcems cilindruli
garsis naxevradmomentur Teoriis gadamwyvet gantolebas
8W 12 4W 12 R 2 2 q 4 q n

(6)
+
=
+
q 8 h 2 x 4
q 4
Eh 3 q 2
wriuli Sekruli cilindruli garsi, romelic ganicdis simetriuli
datvirTvis qmedebas simetriis safuZvelze Siga Zalebis sidideebi
damokidebulni iqnebian mxolod x koordinatze, ris gamoc gantoleba (6)
miiRebs saxes:
d 4W
12 1 -n 2 q
4
W
+
4
=
(7)
b
dx 4
Eh 2
3 1 -n 2
4
b = 2 2
h R
wriuli cilindruli rezervuaris SemTxvevaSi, romelic savsea siTxiT,
Tu CavTvliT rom rezrvuaris simaRlea , xolo siTxis kuTri wona g, maSin
rezervuaris
kedlebze
moqmedi
nomunaluri
datvirTvis
intensioba
ganisazRvreba formuliT (nax. 2)
q = g (l - x )
(8)
4T1
Eh 3
=
x 2q 2 R 3 x 3

naxazi 2
(8)-is gaTvaliswinebiT (7) miiRebs saxes:

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-
d 4W
g (l - x )
+ 4b 4W =
4
D
dx

(9)

(9)-is zogadi amonaxsnia

g (e - x )R 2
W = e (c1 cos bx + c 2 sin bx ) + e (c3 cos bx + c 4 sin bx ) +
Eh
roca rezervuaris simaRle gacilebiT metia fuZis radiusze SegviZlia
CavTvaloT, rom aseT SemTxvevaSi c1=c2=0
g (e - x )R 2
W = e - bx (c3 cos bx + c 4 sin bx ) +
Eh
c3 da c4 sainvesticio mudmivebi ganisazRvrebian sasazRvro pirobebidan
magalTad fuZis xstad Camagrebis SemTxvevaSi
dW
roca x=0 w=0 da
= 0 am tolobebidan ganisazRvrebian c3 da c4 mudmivebi.
dx
geR 2
gR 2 l
c3 = ; c4 = - 1
Eh
Eh b

sabolood w CaRunvis funqciisaTvis miviRebT:


gR 2
W = - e - bx (e cos bx + sin bx ) + (e - x )
Eh
imisda mixedviT Tu rogoria rezervuaris geometria da ra siTxiTaa savse
w funqciis saSualebiT konkretulad ganisazRvreba yvela Zalovani sidide
da maTi saSualebiT ki rezervuaris simtkicis piroba.
bx

- bx

3. daskvna
naSromSi gamoyenebuli cilindruli garsebisaTvis naxevrad momenturi
Teoria misadagebulia rezervuars, romelic saSualebas iZleva rezervuaris
gamartivebuli meTodiT gaangariSebas.

l i t e r a t u r a
1. S. miqealaZe garsTa Teoria. Tbilisi 1974w. gv. 133-143;
2. . . . . . . 1963 . 535547

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pirveli gvaris singularuli integraluri gantolebis


ricxviTi amoxsna monakveTze dadebiTi indeqsis SemTxvevaSi
n. filfani, m. kublaSvili, v. WankotaZe
(saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti,
m. kostavas q. #77, 0175 Tbilisi, saqarTvelo)

reziume:
pirveli
gvaris
singularuli
integraluri
gantolebisaTvis monakveTze, dadebiTi indeqsis SemTxvevaSi, agebulia
maRali rigis sizustis ricxviTi amoxsnis algoriTmi. ganxilulia
konkretuli gamoyenebiTi tipis meqanikis amocana, romlis kompiuteruli realizebis programa dawerilia Matematica simbolur enaze.
sakvanZo sityvebi: singularuli integrali, indeqsi, ricxviTi
amoxsna, kvadraturuli formula.

1. Sesavali
ganvixiloT pirveli gvaris singularuli integraluri gantoleba

1 +1 j0 (x)d(x) 1 +1
+ k(x0 ,x)j0 (x)dx = f(x0 ), (x [-1, +1])
p -1 x - x0
p -1

(1)

aseT
gantolebebze
miiyvaneba
iseTi
mniSvnelovani
amocanebi,
rogoricaa, magaliTad, dirixles amocana sibrtyeze Wrilebis SemTxvevaSi
[1] (Sesabamisad, konformuli gadamsaxavi funqciis agebis, Rerosa da Zelis
grexis amocanebi), aseve drekadobis Teoriis ZiriTadi sasazRvro amocanebi
am ukanasknelze Tavis mxriv dadis samSeneblo meqanikis mravali
gamoyenebiTi praqtikuli tipis amocanebi.

2. ZiriTadi nawili
vigulisxmoT, rom (1) gantolebaSi f (x), K(x 0 , x) H [ -1;1] da ganvixiloT
SemTxveva, roca veZebT (1) gantolebis amonaxsns, romelic SemousazRvrelia
orive - 1 da +1 boloebze. rogorc cnobilia (ix. [1] $86), am SemTxvevaSi (1)
gantolebis indeqsi 1-is tolia da amonaxsni, zogadad, calsaxad ar
ganisazRvreba.
pirvel rigSi ganvixiloT gantoleba:

1 +1 j0 (x)dx
= f(x0 )
p -1 x - x0

(2)

rogorc cnobilia [1], imis mixedviT amonaxsns funqciaTa romel


klasSi veZebT [intervalis erT boloze SemosazRvruli, meoreze Semou59

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sazRvreli (indeqsi = 0 ), oriveze SemosazRvruli ( = -1) , orive boloze
SemousazRvreli ( = 1) ] gantolebis zust amonaxsnebs aqvs sxvadasxva saxe.
Cven ganvixiloT yvelaze rTuli SemTxveva, roca = 1. aseT SemTxvevaSi me-(2) gantolebis yvela zusti amonaxsni gamoisaxeba formuliT:

j0 (x0 ) =

+1

0 -1

(1- x)(1+ x)f(x)dx


c
+
x - x0
(1- x0 )(1+ x0 )

(1- x )(1+ x )

(3)

sadac c nebismieri mudmivia, da


+1

j 0 ( x )d x = c

(4)

-1

(3) formulaSi singularuli integralis daTvla inJinrisaTvis


rTulia. j0 (x 0 ) funqcias Cven vTvliT [2]-Si agebuli maRali rigis sizustis
kvadraturuli formuliT

j0(x0k )

1
p (1- x0k )(1+ x0k

f (x )

li 0 i

x -x
)
i=1

0k

1
(1-x0k )(1+ x0k )

(5)

sadac

f (x) = (1 - x)(1 + x)f (x)


p(2i - 1)
, i = 1, 2,..., n
2n
pk
x 0k = cos ,
k = 1, 2,..., n - 1
n
p
i = 1, 2,..., n
li = ,
n
x i = cos

davubrundeT (1) gantolebis ricxviT amoxsnas. [-1;1] Sualedi davyoT


[2]-Si moyvanili x0k = cos
wertilebiT

Sn(j0 ; x 0k )=

da

p(2i -1)
pk
, i = 1,2,...,n diskretuli
, k = 1,2,...,n -1. xi = cos
2n
n

1 + 1 j0 (x)dx
p -1 x - x 0

j (x )
1 n
li 0 i

p =i 1 x i - x 0k

singularuli

kvadraturuli

integrali

formuliT,

SevcvaloT

sadac

p
li = , i = 1,2,...,n, xolo regularuli K n (x o , x) nawili kvadraturuli formiT
n

Kn (xok ,xi ) =

1 n
li K[x0k , xi ]j0 (xi ) k = 1,2,...,n -1;
p i=1

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-
+1

j0 (x)dx = c toloba

SevcvaloT

miaxloebiT

-1

1 n
li j0[x i ] = c
p i= 1

miviRebT

wrfiv gantolebaTa sistemas j0 (x1 ), j0 (x 2 ),..., j0 (x n ) ucnobebis mimarT:


(6)
ganvixiloT konkretuli magaliTi:
y2
O2
x2
y1

O1
x1

sur. 1.
vTqvaT, usasrulo firfitaze moculia Tanabari sigrZis bzari,
amasTan maTi gantoleba da masze datvirTva akmayofilebs simetriis pirobas
(sur.1) maSin rogorc cnobilia [3] _ aRniSnuli amocana miiyvaneba (1)
singularul integralur gantolebaze. am SemTxvevaSi (1) gantolebaSi
K(x 0 , x) guls aqvs Semdegi saxe:

K(x 0 , x) =

x + x 0 + d cos b
(x + x 0 + d cos b) 2 + d 2 sin 2 b

(1) gantoleba (4) damatebiTi pirobiT SevcvaloT me-(6) sistemiT. Seqmnilia Sesabamisi sistemis amoxsnis programa `Mathematica~ simbolur enaze. (6)
sistemis amoxsnis Semdeg, rodesac n = 3 vRebulobT Semdeg Sedegs:

j [ - 0 .8 6 6 ] - 1 .6 9 6 3 6 + 1 .0 8 8 1 9 c
j [ 0 ] 0 .0 1 4 3 1 1 2 + 1 .0 1 7 7 8 c
j [ 0 .8 6 6 ] 1 .7 1 0 6 7 + 0 .8 9 4 0 3 4 c

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(7)

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3. daskvna
rogorc (7)-dan Cans me-(4) damatebiT pirobaSi Semavali c-mudmivi cxadi
saxiT monawileobs amonaxsnebSi, es ukanaskneli ki saSualebas gvaZlevs (4)
SezRudvis
Sesabamisad,
romel
klasSic
veZebT
amonaxsns
me-(6)
damokidebulebiT miviRebT Sesabamis amonaxsns. es problema dRemde ar iyo
gadawyvetili.

Lliteratura
1.
2.

3.

.. . //..: , 1968, 511 .


m. kublaSvili, mumdivkoeficientebiani singularuli integraluri
gantolebis ricxviTi amoxsnebi gaxsnil intervalze. saerTaSoriso
konferencia `informaciuli da gamoTvliTi teqnologiebi~, Tezisebis
krebuli. Tbilisi, 2-6 maisi, 2010 weli.
.. .. ..
.// , , 1976, 443 .

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saZirkvlebisa da miwaSi CaRrmavebuli sarTulebis mowyoba


wyalgaumtar betonze
b. gogberaSvili
(saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, m.kostavas q#77, 0175Tbilisi,
saqarTvelo)

reziume: qalaqur pirobebSi sainJinro komunikaciebidan wyalsadenis,


kanalizaciis, Tboqselis gamonadeni teqnogenuri wylebisagan
dabinZurda gruntis wylebic, amoiwia maTi gamyarebis donemac,
danestianda saZirkvlebi da miwaSi CaRrmavebuli kedlebic;
sardafebSi wyali Cadga; maTi saeqspluatacio mdgomareobis
gaumjobesebaze milionobiT
Tanxebi ixarjeba; aRniSnulis
gamo
statiaSi
ganixileba
axalmSeneblobebisas
miwaSi
CaRrmavebuli
konstruqciebis
wyalgaumtar
betonebiT
mowyobis sakiTxebi ekonomikuri da socialuri efeqturobis
gamovleniT.
sakvanZo sityvebi: saZirkvlebi, miwaSi CaRrmavebuli sarTulebi,
wyalgaumtari
betoni,
gruntisa
da
teqnogenuri
wylebi,
imavdrouli ekonomiuri efeqti, jansaRi garemo.

1. Sesavali
ratomRac
NEBnebismiri
sainvesticio
proeqtis
ganxorcielebisas
sazogadoebrivi efeqtis ZiriTad ganmsazRvrel faqtorad miiCneva misi
RirebulebiTi maCvenebeli, romelic dgindeba konsrtuqciuli gadawyvetis an
urTierTSemcvleli saSeni masalebis calkeuli variantebis mixedviT,
Senoba-nagebobaTa
mTliani
Rirebulebis
gansazRvriTa
da
miRebuli
Sefasebebis urTierTSedarebiT.
aRniSnuli meTodiT xdeba imavdrouli efeqtis gaangariSeba amasTan
xSir SemTxvevaSi gvaviwydeba, rom nebismieri variantiT ganxorcielebul
Senoba-nagebobaze eqspluataciis periodSi maTze moqmedeben rigi uaryofiTi
faqtorebi, romlebic iwveven mzidi konstruqciuli elementebis naadrev
fizikur cveTas da saeqspluatacio pirobebis mkveTr gauaresebas. aRniSnuli
gansakuTrebiT exeba saZirkvlebsa da miwaSi CaRrmavebul sarTulebs maT
SemomzRudav kedlebTan erTad, romlebic umetes SemTxvevaSi gruntisa da
teqnogenuri wylebis gavlenis qveS imyofebian.
Senoba-nagebobaTa garSemo mowyobili sadrenaJe sistemebi aseT
SemTxvevaSi ver CaiTvleba saimedod, vinaidan sadrenaJe xvrelebi ramdenime
weliwadSi mTlianad ibidneba da drenaJebi wyalmocilebis funqcias
kargaven. aRniSnuli problema gansakuTrebuli simwvaviT dgeba mWidrod
dasaxlebuli da maRali intensivobis ganaSenianebis mqone qalaqebSi.

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2. ZiriTadi nawili
qalaqis arqiteqturis samsaxuri calkeul mSeneblobaze nebarTvis
gacemas,
rogorc
wesi
axorcielebs
damkveTis
mier
warmodgenili
saproeqto saxarjTaRricxvo maT Soris konstruqciuli dokumentaciis
saTanado inspeqtirebis safuZvelze. aRniSnuli dokumentacia moicavs
momavali Senoba nagebobis arqiteqturul da konstruqciul gadawyvetas,
moqmedi samSeneblo normebisa da wesebis moTxovnaTa Sesabamisad.
Senoba saZirkvlebidan iwyeba da mis mSral garemoSi funqcionireba
gansazRvravs mosaxleobis keTildReobasac da TviT Senobis xanmedegobasac
saremonto samuSaoebis Catarebis gareSe.
Tanamedrove cxovrebis pirobebSi
Senobis sardafis funqcia Seicvala,
aucilebeli gaxda masSi avtosadgomebis ganTavseba, ris gamoc xSirad
sarTulebis CaRrmaveba miwaSi ramdenime doniania.
gruntis wylebi miwis siRrmeSi yovelTvis figurirebdnen reliefTan
axlos an Rrmad,
cxadia dasaxlebebi Tavdapirvelad
mosworebul
reliefze gaCnda Rrmad mdebareobis gruntis wylebian teritoriebze,
romlebis Senobis sardafebs safrTxes ar uqmnidnen. Zvel sardafebs
sameurneo daniSnuleba hqonda,
grili temperaturis pirobebSi masSi
inaxavdnen Wirnaxuls
xorceulsa da sxva produqtebs.
amJamad ki
ZiriTadad gamoiyenebian avtosadgomebad, agreTve wyalkanalizaciisa da
sxva sistemebis Senobis qveS ganTavsebisa da saqalaqo qselebTan mierTebis
daniSnulebiT.
mosaxleobis matebam saWiro gaxada uswormasworo adgilebis mosworeba,
gruntis gadaadgilebiT xevebisa da xramebis amovseba. maT adgilze Senobebi
aigo da quCebi gaiWra. mTebidan monadeni wylebi Tu quCebs ar moyveba an
saniaRvre koleqtorebSi ar Cadis, poulobs xvrelebs da kvlav miwawayril
xevebisa da xramebis Zvel fskerebs mihyveba.
adrindel periodSi gruntis wylebi wyaros wylebis msgavsad sufTa
iyo, TbilisSi wyal kanalizaciis sistemebi me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi gaCnda,
ormocdaaTian wlebSi maT daemata Tboqselebi.
maTi perioduli
dazianebebisagan gamonadeni
teqnogenuri (dabinZurebuli) wylebi Seeria
gruntis wylebs da misma donemac amoiwia. xruSovkis 4-5 saraTulian
sacxovrebel saxlebs saerTod ar aqvT sardafi da saxlis qveS gamaval
konstruqciebTan misvla rTuli iyo. xolo Tboqselebi rkinabetonis gauval
arxebSi iyo ganTavsebuli.
maTi dazianebisas wyali miwis qveS gzas
ikvlevda da Znelad fiqsirdeboda. aRniSnulis gamo miwis qveS gruntis
wylebTan Sereuli dabinZurebuli mdinareebi Seiqmna.
1950 wels Seqmnilma Tbilisi zRvidan wylis nakadebma gaikvlia
mdinare mtkvrisaken gza
da didube-CuRureTis sacxovrebel sardafebSic
wyali Cadga, gaCnda koRo, kapilaruli Sewovisagan sardafis kedlebi
danestianda, wylis kapilaruli aRmasvla sacxovrebel binebSic SeimCneva.
mTebidan movardnil da miwis qveS gamavali nakadebi qalaq Tbilisis
pirobebSi
mdinare mtkvarSi Caedinebodnen kldovan qanebSi napralebis
gavliT, dabinZurebulma wylebma napralebi amoavso da
faqtobrivad
qalaqi miwiqveSa dabinZurebuli gruntis wylebis Waobad iqca.
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-
gruntis wylebis donis amowevam gaawyliana arc Tu ise didi xnis win
aSenebuli sacxovrebeli saxlebis saZirkvlebi, Senobebi dajda, kedlebi
daibzara. aRniSnulis gamo gasuli saukunis samocdaaTian wlebSi daSales
pekinis quCaze policiis Senobisa da budapeStis quCis win aguris mzid
kedlebSi agebuli
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis studentTa 5
sarTuliani saerTo sacxovrebeli, aseve pekinis quCaze, bulaCauris quCis
mimdebared
ori
tyupi
5
sarTuliani
Senobidan
erT-erTs
sadac
janmrTelobis dacvis da adgilobrivi mrewvelobis saministroebi iyo
ganTavsebuli 1960 wlidan ramodenimejer Cautarda profilaqtikurgasamagrebeli samuSaoebi, magram bzarebis warmoqmna mzid kedlebSi kvlav
grZeldeboda mepatroneTa gadawyvetilebiT 2011 wels es Senoba daiSala.
calke aRsaniSnavia varkeTilis 40-amde xruSovkis tipis sacxovrebeli
saxlebi, jdenisa da avariulobis gamo maTi eqspluataciidan sul raRac 1520
weliwadSi daSales aRniSnuli korpusebi da mosaxleoba sxva imxanad
agebul saxlebSi gadaiyvanes. 7-8 wlis win simon Ciqovanis quCaze teqnikuri
universitetis
arqiteqturis institutis mimdebared asagebi saxlis qveS
sadrenaJe sistema
miaerTes quCaze gamaval saniaRvre Was. drenaJis
mowyobidan 2-3 weliwadSi wyali Cadga aRniSnuli sacxovrebeli saxlis
sardafSi da drenaJi ufunqcio gaxda. aseTi saxlebis SenarCunebis mizniT
eqspluataciis pirvandel etapzeve saWiro xdeba ZviradRirebuli saremonto
samuSaoebis Catareba, Tumca mosalodneli Sedegebis gansazRvra did
sirTules ar warmoadgenda calkeuli aseTi Senoba-nagebobis mSeneblobis
stadiaze.
aseTi SemTxvevebis simravlisa da eqspluataciis garkveul periodSi
Tavis
dazRvevis
mizniT
zogierTi
investori
mSenebel
firmas
xelSekrulebiT erTi an meti wliT ublokavs saxarjTaRricxvo mogebiT
gaTvaliswinebuli Tanxebis gadaricxvas, itovebs maT garantiis saxiT
mosalodneli xarvezebis gamosasworeblad, aseTma midgomam marTalia
garkveuli zarali miayena calkeul samSeneblo kompanias,
magram
mniSvnelovnad Seamcira sainvesticio riskebi. Ggaizarda ra mSenebare
firmebis pasuxismgebloba ara Tu mSeneblobis
aramed eqspluataciaSi
gadacemidan garkveul periodze.
ra aris saWiro saimedo saZirkvlebisa da miwaSi
CaRrmavebuli mzidi
konstruqciebisa
da
kedlebis
amosayvanad?
msoflio
praqtikaSi
mravaljeradad aris aprobirebuli sulfatmedegi cementebi, aseve qimiuri
fxvnilebi (penetroni, kalmatroni da sxvebi) romelTa gamoyenebiTac betoni
da Sesalesi xsnari wyalgaumtari xdeba. 2011 wlis III kvartlis samSeneblo
resursebis fasebis mixedviT
b-400 markis sulfatmedeg da Cveulebriv
portland cementze damzadebul 1m/3
25 klasis betonis Rirebulebebi
Sesabamisad
136 da 15 laria, gansxvaveba Seadgens 21 lars. Mmocemul
SemTxvevaSi Tu saZirkvlebze da miwaSi CaRrmavebul sarTulebze betonis
xarji
Seadgens
1000m/3.
mSenebloba
gaZvirdeba
21
aTasi
lariT.
proporciulad 2000m/3-ze sul raRac 12 aTasi lariT da a.S.
aT sarTuliani mzidi monoliTur rkinabetonis
karkasis RirebulebaSi
miwis niSnulis donemde da miwaSi erTi sarTuliT CaRrmavebuli nawilis
amoyvanaze xarjebi saSualod Seadgens aT procents, ori sarTulis
SemTxvevaSi TxuTmet procents da a.S. amdenad wyalgaumtari betonebis
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gamoyenebiT
Sesrulebuli
samuSaoebi
iZleva
aRniSnuli
saxlebis
eqspluataciis mTel periodSi mSral da janmrTelobisaTvis uvnebel
garemoSi cxovrebis saSualebas. adamianebis yofiTi pirobebisa da sabinao
fondis eqspluataciis periodSi mosalodneli xarjebis gaTvaliswinebiT
savsebiT mizanSewonilad SeiZleba CaiTvalos miwisqveSa sarTulebis
wyalgaumtari betonebiT mowyobaze damatebiT xarjebis gaweva.
aq yuradsaRebia Semdegi: betonis Casxma erTdroulad miwaSi CaRrmavebul
sarTulebis mTel farTobze cxadia ver moxerxdeba, gruntis wylebi
moqmedeben rogorc qvevidan, agreTve gverdebidan, mSeneblobis periodSi
gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos aseve wyaldamwevi RonisZiebebi, xolo
sxvadasxva dReebSi Casxmuli betonis SeerTebis pirapirebi ki aucileblad
unda damuSavdes wyalSeuRwevadi masaliT. miwaSi CaRrmavebul sarTulebze,
sadac
ewyoba
avtosadgomebi
da
saZirkveli
rkinabetonis
filebis
gamoyenebiT aris Sesrulebuli, sasurvelia maTi monoliTuri rkinabetoniT
ganxorcieleba. am SemTxvevaSic aucilebelia sxvadasxva dros Casxmul
betonebis pirapirebi damuSavdes wyalSeuRwevadi masaliT.

3. daskvna
MMMMmWidrod

dasaxlebuli
qalaqis
tipis
sacxovrebel
ubnebSi
ganaSenianebis farTis simwire, avtofarexebze da calkeul damxmare
saTavsoebze gazrdili moTxovnileba dRis wesrigSi ayenebs sacxovrebel
korpusebsa da kerZo binebSi mravaliarusiani CaRrmavebuli saZirkvlebis
mowyobis aucileblobas.
amasTan, Cvens mier aRniSnuli funqciis matarebeli, eqspluataciaSi
myofi miwaSi CaRrmavebuli sardafebis arsebuli mdgomareobis Seswavlam
dagvarwmuna, rom maTi umravlesoba, iatakisa da kedlebis dabinZurebuli
wylebiT dasvelebis gamo,
saeqspluataciod
miuRebulia, xolo maTTvis
sasurveli funqciis aRdgena dakavSirebulia damatebiT
uzarmazar
finansur da materialur resursebTan.
Senoba
saZirkvelidan
iwyeba,
amitom
aucilebelia
damkveTis,
damproeqtebeli da samSeneblo firmis erToblivi Zalisxmeva optimaluri,
Tundac mcired ZviradRirebuli da saimedo gadawyvetilebebis miRebaze
SezRudul qalaqis pirobebSi kerZod, roca mimdebare quCebisa da Senobebis
qveS teqnogenuri wylebiT gajerebuli gruntis wylebia. mSeneblobaze
miwaSi CaRrmavebuli sarTulebis mowyoba aucileblad unda ganxorcieldes
wyalgaumtari betonebis gamoyenebiT. Mmxolod aseT SemTxvevaSi eqneba
mSeneblobas xangrZliv periodze gaTvlili araimavdrouli ekonomikuri
efeqti SenobebSi jansaRi sacxovrebeli da samuSao pirobebis SeqmniT.

literatura
1.
2.
3.
4.

a. Wanturia- mSeneblobis organizacia dagegmva da marTva


sn da w 1.03.03-85 samSeneblo warmoebis organizacia rusul enaze
r.maxvilaZe Senoba-nagebobaTa Sefasebis kriteriumebi da auditi
2011 ww. III kvartlis samSeneblo masalebis fasTa krebuli.
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Tanamedrove sainformacio teqnologiebis gavlena msoflio


ekonomikaze
n. ZoweniZe

(saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, m. kostavas q#77, 0175 Tbilisi,


saqarTvelo)

reziume: Tanamedrove ekonomikuri sivrcis ganviTarebis tendenciebi


moiTxovs met yuradRebas saero ekonomikis ganviTarebis
strategiis
SemuSavebisas
da
qveynis
infrastruqturis
Camoyalibebisas.
ekonomikaSi
mimdinare
cvlilebebis
Tavisdruli Seswavla da analizi uzurnvelyofs pozitiuri
cvlilebebis efeqtis zrdas.
sakvanZo
sityvebi:
saerTaSoriso
organizaciebi,
informacia,
kompiuteruli teqnika, investicia.

1. Sesavali
saqarTvelos
ekonomika
misi
mravalferovani
ekonomonikuri,
politikuri da socialuri kavSirebis fonze warmoadgens msoflio
ekonomikis garkveul nawils. bolo wlebis manZilze saqarTvelos
samewarmeo sferoSi mravali investicia iyo Cadebuli da gaixsna sxva
qveynebis warmomadgenlobebi da organizaciebi. Semodis sazRvargareT
warmoebuli teqnika da masalebi, inergeba axali teqnologiebi, rac
moiTxovs saTanado momzadebas da garkveul wilad cvlilebebs.
saqarTvelos Tanamedrove ekonomika viTardeba rTul da cvalebad
garemoSi, rac axal moTxovnebs wauyenebs samewarmeo sferos. qveynis
ekonomika mTlianobaSi warmoadgens rTul meqnizms. misi infrastruqtura
mosustebulia mravali mizezis gamo, romelTa Soris ekonomikuri sakiTxebi
moiTxovs yuradRebas upirveles yovlisa.
sainformacio teqnologiebis danergva dRes warmoadgens bunebriv,
magram jer kidev dasaxvew process. am sferos ganviTareba iwvevs mraval
cvlilebas. msoflioSi sainformacio teqnologiebis danergvas moyva
samewarmeo sferos sruli rekonstruqcia da axali mimdinareobebis
Camoyalibeba, ramac gamoiwvia warmoebuli produqciis TviTRirebulebis
Semcireba, sawarmoo sferos sazRvrebis gafarToeba. msoflios yvela qveyana
CarTulia saerTo samewarmeo sferoSi. samewarmeo sferos garda finansuri
sistemebi aqtiurad iyeneben axal sainformacio teqnologiebs, da dRes
dReobiT misi arsebobac warmoadgenelia sxva saxiT.

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2. ZiriTadi nawili
msoflio ekonomika ganicdis cvlilebebs, gamoixateba erovnuli
daxuruli
makroekonomikidan
Ria
makroekonomikaze
gadasvliT
da
saerTeSoriso ekonomikuri sistemebis SeqmniT da ganviTarebiT, maT Soris
gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia (UN), evropis dacvis da kooperaciis
organizacia (OSCE), evropis sabWo (CoE), evropis gaerTianeba (EU), msoflios
savaWro organizacia (WTO), saxelmwifo politikis globaluri qselebi
(GPPN), navTobis eqsportiuor qveyanaTa organizacia (OPEC), mSenebel
konsultantTa saerTaSoriso federacia (IFCE), da mravali sxva. Amitom
gamoyofen saerTaSoriso organizaciebs, saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo da
saerTaSoriso
arasamTavrobo
sajaro
organizaciebs.
am
mravali
organizaciis da gaerTianebebis Camoyalibebis kval da kval yalibdeba da
viTardeba kacobriobis saqmianobis axali dargi, romlis saqmianobis sferos
warmoadgens
sainformacio
teqnologiebis
programuli
uzrunvelyof,
sainformacio sistemebis Seqmna, progamuli enebis Seqmna da monacemTa
konstruireba.
am saqmianobebis mTavar mizans warmoadgens bizness strategiis oTxi
ZiriTadi
saxis
saqmianobis
SemuSaveba:
saqmianobis
avtomatizacia,
informaciuli uzrunvelyofa, biznes urTierTSeTanxmebebSi monawileebis
dakavSirebas da sawarmoo xelsawyoebiT uzrunvelyofas. Yovelive amas moyva
sainformacio teqnologiebis mravalferovani discipline-bis/kompetenciebis
Camoyalibeba rTuli kompiuteruli qselebis SemuSavebidan dawyebuli da
sainformacio bazebis SeqmniT damTavrebuli.
am
axlad
Seqmnili
da
didi
siCqariT
ganviTarebadi
dargis
specialistebis movaleobaSi Sedis monacemTa marTvis, qselebis organizebis,
kompiuteruli
teqnikis
Seqmnis,
monacemTa
bazis
da
programuli
uzrunvelyofis proeqtirebis, agreTve saerTo sistemebis marTvis da
administrirebis funqciebi. sainformacio teqnologiebi integrirebulia
sxva samomxmareblo sawarmoo teqnologiebSi, rogoric arian mobiluri
telefonebis, satransporto saSualebaTa da sxva.. arc Tu ise did xnis win,
2009
wels,
kvlevis
da
te3qnologiebis
akreditaciis
sabWos
da
kompiuteruli teqnikis asociaciis TanamSromlobiT Camoyalibda saswavlo
(ganaTlebis)
akreditaciis
standartebi
sainformacio
teqnologiebis
dargisaTvis.
unda
aRiniSnos,
rom
msoflio
sainformacio
teqnologiebi
uzrunvelyofen msoflio Semosavals 763 miliardi dolaris odenobiT, 2009
wlis monacemebiT. maRali teqnologiebis mrewvelobis dargi ganicdis
saerTaSoriso bazris gavlenas iseve, rogorc sxva nebismieri dargi. am
gavlenis zogierTi niSan-Tvisebeba gansakuTrebulid sainteresoa. maT Soris
arian iseTic, romelic sabazro ekonomikisaTvis ara aris axali. ufro
metic, zogierTi maTgani moqmedi qselur mrewvelobaSi 1990-ian wlebSi
Tavisi niSniT mogvagonebs satelefono da sakabelo mrewvelobebis
ganviTarebis xanas 1890-ian wlebSi. Tumca Zveli periodis samrewvelo
ekonomikaze moqmedi Zalebi gacilebiT nakleb kritikuli iyo, vidre
qseluri ekonomikisaTvis. meore rigis Zalebi samrewvelo dargisaTvis
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-
xSirad
pirveli
rigis
saSiSroebad
SeiZleba
iqces
sainformacio
produqciisaTvis.
sainformacio
teqnologiebis,
informaciis
gadamuSavebis
da
sainformacio momsaxurebis saSualebebis Seqmnis seqtori warmoadgens
Tanamedrove ekonomikis mniSvnelovan nawils. inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis
da informaciuli momsaxurebis msoflio eqsporti gautolda kvebis
produqtebis da navTobproduqtebis msoflio eqsports. cnobili dou
jonsis indeqsis gaangariSebisas msoflios 30 aqciaSi Setanilia adre
qimiuri warmoebebis magivrad Microsoft, Intel, ATT da SBC Communications.
bolo wlebSi amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis vaWrobis suministros mier
Catarebulma gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom
investiciebma sainformacio
teqnologiebis
ganviTarebaze gamoiwvia
mwarmoeblurobis zrda da
ekonomikis
grZelvadiani
gamococxleba.
kvleva
romelic
Caatara
ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis da ganviTarebis organizaciam (Organization for
Economic Co-operation and Development OECD) cxadyo igive Sedegi. ar aris sakmaris
sainformacio teqnologiebis seZena da danergva, aucilebelia amisaTvis
samarTlebrivi da normatiuli garemos Seqmna, rom Sesatyvisi resursebi
gaxdes ufro xelmisawvdomi da organizaciuli cvilebebis Catareba iyos
SesaZlebeli organizaciebSi.
afrikaSi da indoeTSi gamoiyeneba soflis meurneobisaTvis savaWro
qselebi,
romelTa
meSveobiT
uSualod
ukavSirdebian
mwarmoeblebi
myidvelebs. magaliTad, moqmedebs proeqti PEOPlink romelSidac aris
CarTuli 100 aTasze meti xelosani sxvadasxva ganviTarebadi qveynidan da
FairTradeDirect.com-is
onlainis
savaWro
portaliT
meSveobiT
ukavSirdebian Tavis klientebs an potenciar myidvelebs. proeqtma Utilities
Afrique Exchange Seqmna eleqtronuli
momsaxurebis servisi afrikis
kontinentze, rac unda amcirebdes danaxarjebs Sesyidvebis dros, igive
eleqtronuli comercia (mas uwodeben B2B-s tipis urTierTobas).
sainformacio
teqnologiebma
gamoyeneba
hpova
aseve
socialuri
proeqtebis ganxorcielebaSi, social inclusin, romlebic isaxavdnen
miznad
moqalaqeebisaTvis
sazogadoebaSi
monawilebis
miRebis
SesaZleblobis
micemaSi
igive
Tanxmobis
proeqtebi.
iTvleba,
rom
umravlesoba SemTxvevaSi mosaxleobis garkveuli bilis mZime finansuri
mdgomareoba aris gamowveuli infromaciis ar qoniT, an araswori
informaciis flobiT.
sainformacio teqnologiebis gamoyeneba savaldebuloc aris ganaTlebis
sistemaSi, jandacvaSi, garemos dacvis sferoSi, sadac informaciis
Tavisdrouloba da diagnostika pirvelmniSvnelovania da sasicocxlo
daniSnulebas iZens. garda amisa yoveli es sfero aris damokidebuli
warmoebis ganviTarebaze.

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3.

daskvna

sainformacio teqnologiebis ganviTarebas moyva samrewvelo da


industriis swrafi ganviTareba, informaciisadmi axali midgoma
Camoyalibda, ramac srulebiT Secvala sawarmoo sferoSi marTvis da
organizaciis meTodebi da wamoayena aucilebeli rekonstruqciis
saWiroeba. sainformacio teqnologiebi dRes warmoadgens warmoebis,
momsaxurebis da kvleviT sferoebs, rac mas SesZens gansakuTrebul
mimzidvelobas.

literatura
1. g. jolia saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri urTierTobebi, Tbilisi, 2009w.
2. m. moghami - saerTaSoriso ganviTereba: koncefciebi da strategiebi
/inglisur enaze/
3. h. van-Cungi iengi aziis biznes-sistemebis dinamika globalizaciis
eraSi, 2000 w.
4. WTO - wliuri angariSi, 2011w.
5. http://www. peopl.ischool.berkly.edu

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qvabis dolSi mimdinare procesebis


maTematikuri modelireba
e. fancxava, o.kiRuraZe
(saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, saqarTvelo, 0.175, Tbilisi,
kostavas 77)

reziume:

naSromSi mocemulia qvabis dolSi mimdinare procesebis


maTematikuri
modelireba.
dolSi
wnevis
cvlileba
gamowveulia saTbobis Tbounarianobis da mkvebavi wylis
temperaturis cvlilebebiT. procentulad Tbounarianobis
cvlileba ufro mniSvnelovnad moqmedebs wnevis cvlilebaze,
vidre mkvebavi wylis temperaturis cvlileba. miRebulia
gardamaval reJimSi
qvabis
dolSi
wnevis cvlilebis
saangariSo formula, romelsac aqvs eqsponentas saxe.
sakvanZo sityvebi: qvabis doli, gardamavali reJimi, Tburi balansi,
enTalpia.

1. Sesavali
qvabagregatis erT-erT sapasuxismgeblo
kvanZs warmoadgens qvabis
doli, romelSic xdeba orTqlis generacia, misi separacia da teniani najeri
orTqlis miReba. dolis liToni
gaTvlilia garkveul dasaSveb wnevaze
muSaobisaTvis. qvabis muSaobis nominaluri reJimidan gadaxra SeiZleba
dakavSirebuli iyos mraval faqtorTan. magaliTad, gamoyenebuli saTbobis
Tbounarianobis, mkvebavi wylis temperaturis cvlilebebTan da sxva.
Seswavlilia qvabis dolSi mimdinare gardamavali reJimebi, romelTa
gavlena sabolood aisaxeba wnevis cvlilebaze. mocemulia Sesabamisi
analizuri gamosaxuleba, romelic miiReba agregatis musaobis statikuri da
dinamikuri reJimebis analiziT.

2. ZiriTadi nawili
ganvixiloT qvabis dolis siTburi balansi:
Qsac. + Qmk.wy. - QorT. - Qgaqr.
= 0,
anu
Qsac. + Qmk.wy. = QorT . + Qgaqr. ,
(1)
sadac: Qsac. - aris dolSi sacecxlidan Setanili siTbur simZlavre;
Qmk.wy. - dolSi mkvebavi wyliT Setanili siTburi simZlavre;
QorT. - dolidan orTqliT gamotanili siTburi simZlavre;

Qgaqr. -dolidan saqvabe wylis gaqreviT gamotanili siTburi simZlavre.


m
Qsac. = hsac. B Qud.
, kvt.,

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-
sadac
m3/wm;

hsac. -aris

sacecxlis m.q. koeficienti;

B-

m
Qud.
- saTbobis muSa udablesi Tbounari, kj/m3

saTbobis wamuri xarji,


.

Qmk.wy. = Gmk.wy imk.wy kvt. G


sadac

Gmk.wy imk.wy -

aris dolSi miwodebuli mkvebavi wylis wamuri xarji, kg/wm;

dolSi miwodebuli mkvebavi wylis enTalpia, kj/kg.

Qgaqr. = Ggaqr. i sadac

kvt.,

Ggaqr. - aris dolidan uwyveti gaqrevis wylis wamuri


i - gaqrevis wylis (saqvabe wylis enTalpia), kj/kg

xarji, kg/wm;

QorT. = DorT. i , kvt.,

sadac DorT. - aris qvabis orTqlmwarmoebloba, kg/wm;


orTqlis enTalpia, kj/kg.
maSin (1) gantoleba miiRebs saxes:

i - mSrali najeri

m
hsac. B Qud.
+ Gmk.wy imk.wy - DorT. i - Ggaqr. i = 0 ,

(2)
procesis maTematikuri aRwerisaTvis saWiroa mkvebavi wylis, gaqrevis
wlis da mSrali najeri orTqlis enTalpiebis da orTqladqcevis siTbos
wnevaze damokidebulebebis analizuri gamosaxulebebis codna. aproqsimacia
Sesrulebulia absoluturi wnevis 4-14 bari diapazonisaTvis.
3000
2750

i" = 4,9509P + 2725,6

2500

R2 = 0,95

enTalpia, kj/kg

2250
2000

r = -17,027P + 2190,4

1750

R2 = 0,9893

1500
1250

I'= 21,974P + 535,22

1000

R2 = 0,983

750
500
4

dol Si

10

11

12

13

14

orT ql i s w n eva, b ari

nax.1. damokidebulebebi i=f1(P), r=f2(P), i=f3(P) wylisaTvis

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200
190

180
o

n aj erob i s t emperat u r a,

170
160

tnaj. = 0,0178x3 - 0,7219x2 + 13,357x + 100,73

150

R2 = 1

140
130
4

10

11

12

13

14

dolSi orTqlis wn eva, bari


nax.2. wylis najerobis temperaturis damokidebuleba wnevaze. tnaj.=f(P)
nax.1. mocemulia analizuri damokidebulebebi i=f1(P), r=f2(P), i=f3(P)
wylisaTvis. aseve nax.2.- wylis najerobis temperaturis damokidebuleba
wnevaze
(mesame
xarisxis
polinomi).
nax.3.
moyvanilia
najerobis
temperaturaze
wylis
enTalpiis,
mSrali
najeri
orTqlisa
da
orTqladqcevis siTbos aproqsimaciis formulebiT miRebuli mniSvnelobebis
gadaxra %-ebSi cxrilis monacemebidan.

gdaxra c xri l i s
m o n ac e m e b i d a n , %

2
1
0
-1
-2
-3

10

11

12

i'
r
i"

-4
orTqlis wneva dolSi, bari
nax.3. cxrilis monacemebidan gdaxra %-ebSi
73

13

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absoluturi

wnevis

diapazonisaTvis

P=4-14

bari

mkvebavi

enTalpia analizisaTvis sakmarisi sizustiT tolia: imk.wy = 4.2 tmk.wy.

imk.wy

wylis

wylis da misi orTqlis parametrebis damokidebulebebis gamoyenebiT


= 4.2 tmk.wy. , i=f1(P), r=f2(P), i=f3(P) (2) formula miiRebs saxes:
m
+ Gmk.wy 4.2 tmk.wy - DorT. (4.9464 P + 2725.6) - Ggaqr. (21.974 P + 535.22) = 0 (3)
hsac. B Qud.

dolis
statikuri
reJimiT muSaobis
SemTxvevaSi,
Tu
cvladi
parametrebisaTvis SemoviRebT aRniSvnas 0-s maSin formula (3) miiRebs
saxes:
o

m
+ 4.2 Gmk.wy tmk.wy - P o (4.9464 Do + 21.974 Ggaqr.) - Do 2725.6 - Ggaq 535.22 = 0 (4)
hsac. B Qud.
dolis dinamikuri reJimiT muSaobis SemTxvevaSi formula (4) miiRebs saxes:
o

o
m
hsac. B Qud.
+ 4.2 Gmk.wy tmk.wy - Po (4.9464 Do + 21.974 Ggaqr.) - Do 2725.6 - Ggaq 535.22 =

sadac

d (i ' g )
dt

aris

qvabis

dolSi

akumulirebuli

dinamikuri reJimiT muSaobis dros.


g- qvabSi arsebuli wlis raodenoba, kg.
SemoviRoT aRniSvnebi: hsac. B = a1 ; 4.2 Gmk.wy = a2 ;

siTburi

d (i' g )
, (5)
dt

simZlavre

4.9464 Do + 21.974 Ggaqr. = a3 ;

21.974 = a4 . koeficientebis ganzomilebebia: [a1 ] = kg/wm; [a2 ] = kvt/o C;


[a3 ] = kvt sm 2 /kg; [a 4 ] = kj sm 2 /kg2 ; maSin (4) da (5) gamosaxulebebi Caiwereba:
o

m
a1 Qud.
+ a2 tmk.wy - a3 Po - Do 2725.6 - Ggaq 535.22 = 0 ,

m
a1 Qud.
+ a2 tmk.wy - a3 P - Do 2725.6 - Ggaq 535.22 =

d (i'g )
,
dt

(6)
(7)

visargebloT mcire gdaxrebis meTodiT, miviRebT


o

m
m
Qud.
= Qud.
+ DQud ; tmk.wy = tmk.wy + Dtmk.wy ; P = Po + DP ,

(8)
dinamikis gantolebidan (7) statikis gantolebis (6) gamoklebiT da
gamosaxulebebis (8) gaTvaliswinebiT miviRebT:
m
a1 DQud.
+ a2 Dtmk.wy - a3 DP =

d (i ' g )
,
dt

d (i' g ) d (i' ) gd(21.974 P + 535.22) 21.974 gdP a4 gdP


,
=
=
=
=
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt
(10) s gaTvaliswinebiT gvqneba
m
a1 DQud.
+ a2 Dtmk.wy - a3 DP =

a4 gdP
dt

(11) diferencialuri gantolebis amoxsna gvaZlevs:


a g
t = - 4 ln x + C ,
a3
74

(9)
(10)

(11)

(12)

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-
sadac x = k - a 3 DP
integrirebis mudmiva C ganisazRvreba sawyisi pirobidan: roca

t = o , maSin

a3 DP = o da C = a 4 g ln k , maSin (12) miiRebs saxes:


a3

t =-

a4 g
a g
ln x + 4 ln k
a3
a3

(13) is potencirebis Semdeg miviRebT:

a3t
a4 g

a
1 / 3 = T
a4 g
sabolood miviRebT:
kompleqss

k
,
=
k - a 3 DP

da

- 3 t
a4g
k
1 - e
DP =
a3

(13)

aqvs drois (wm) ganzomileba.

m
t
+ a2 Dtmk.wy
a1 DQud
T
DP =
1 - e
a3

, bari
(14)

formuliT (14) mocemulia qvabis dolSi wnevis ( DP ) cvlileba grdamaval


reJimebSi saTbobis Tbounaris ( DQ

ud

), mkvebavi wylis temperaturis

( Dt

mk.wy

cvilebebis droze ( t ) damokidebulebiT.


ganvixiloT konkretuli magaliTi.
mocemulia DKVp -10/13 tipis orTqlis qvabi. misi nominaluri
warmadobaa 10 tona orTqli saaTSi. (saTbobi-qvanaxSiri). bunebriv gazze
muSaobis SemTxvevaSi orTqlis warmadoba izrdeba 30-40%-iT.
amitom miviRoT: Do =3.892kg/wm, nominaluri wneva Pabs.=14 bari, mkvebavi wylis
temperatura tmk.wy=100oC , uwyveti gaqrevis wylis raodenoba 3%, bunebrivi
gazis Tbounari

DQ

ud

=37100 kj/m3

Gmk.wy=4.009 kg/wm, m.q. koeficienti h =91%,

saTbobis xarji B=0.274 m3/wm, gaqrevis wylis raodenoba Ggaqr=0.12 kg/wm.


qvabi eqspluataciaSia xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi da amitom
praqtikulad muSa wnevad miRebulia 9 bari absoluturi (sapasporto
monacemebiT nominaluri wnevaa 14 bari). zemoT CamoTvlili parametrebi
Sesabamisia qvabis statikur reJimSi muSaobis pirobebisaTvis. realurad
qvabs uwevs dinamikur rejimSi muSaoba, roca SeiZleba Seicvalos saTbobis
Tbounari, mkvebavi wylis temperatura da sxva, rac gamoiwvevs saboloo
jamSi qvabis dolSi wnevis garkveul cvlilebas.
konkretuli SemTxvevisaTvis formuliT (14) gaangariSebis safuZvelze
miRebulia, rom saTbobis Tbounarianobis cvlilebas -1.3% dan +1.3%-de
SeuZlia gamoiwvios dolSi wnevis mniSvnelovani cvlileba diapazonSi 4-14
bari. wnevis igive
diapazonSi cvlileba mosalodnelia mkvebavi wylis
temperaturis
-7dan
+7%-de
cvlilebiT.
gaangariSebebi
Catarebulia
PpirobebisaTvis:
qvabis
statikur
reJimSi
muSaobisas
saTbobis
3
Tbounarianoba Seadgens 37100 kj/m . , xolo absoluturi muSa wneva 9 bars,
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-
xolo qvabis statikur reJimSi muSaobisas mkvebavi wylis temperatura
tolia 100 oC. wnevis cvlilebis kompensacia SesaZlebelia generirebuli
orTqlis xarjis (datvirTvis) Sesabamisi regulirebiT.

3. daskvna
gardamaval reJimSi qvabis dolSi wnevis cvlileba (procentulad)
ufro mniSvnelovania gamowveuli saTbobis Tbounarianobis cvlilebiT,
vidre
mkvebavi wylis
temperaturis
cvlilebiT. wnevis cvlilebis
kompensacia SesaZlebelia generirebuli orTqlis xarjis (datvirTvis)
Sesabamisi regulirebiT.

literatura
1. .., .. .
. . 1975

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drekadkedlebian milSi siTxis arastacionaluri dinebis


TaviseburebaTa gamosakvlevi eqsperimentuli danadgaris
aRwera da cdebis Catarebis meTodika
m. jixvaZe
(saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, saqarTvelo, 0.175, Tbilisi,
kostavas 77)

reziume:

naSromi
eZRvneba
drekadkedlebiani
plastikuri
da
elastikuri milebis Tbogadamcem aparaturaSi SesaZlo
gamoyenebis problemas. aRwerilia liTonisa da plastikuri
masis milebis hidravlikuri winaaRmdegobebis da am milebiT
ganxorcielebuli
Tbogadacemis
procesis
intensivobis
xarisxobrivad
urTierTSesadarebeli
eqsperimentuli
danadgaris principuli sqema da cdebis Catarebis meTodika.
sakvanZo sityvebi: Tbogadamcemi, elastikuri mili.

1. Sesavali
drekadkedlebian
milebSi
siTxeebis
arastacionaluri
dinebis
hidrodinamikuri
maxasiaTeblebis
kvlevas
yovelwliurad
mravali
samecniero naSromi eZRvneba. praqtikulad yoveli maTgani samedicino
mimarTulebazea orientirebuli (vinaidan sisxlZarRvebi ganixileba rogorc
plastikuri, elastikuri milebi) da sisxlis moZraobis kanonzomierebaTa
Seswavlas emsaxureba. yovel SemTxvevaSi xsenebuli publikaciebis analizi
naTlad gvaCvenebs Tu raoden rTuli bunebisaa plastikur da elastikur
kedlebian milebSi blanti siTxis moZraoba da ramdenad mravalmxrivia
siTxis dinebis maxasiaTeblebsa da milis drekad kedlebs Soris
warmoqmnili kavSirurTierTobebi. swored am sirTuleebiTaa gapirobebuli
is
garemoeba,
rom
jer
kidev
ar
aris
damuSavebuli
xsenebuli
kavSirurTierTobebis iseTi maTematikuri modeli, romlis safuZvelzec
miRebuli iqneboda praqtikuli gamoTvlebisaTvis metnaklebad vargisi
saangariSo analizuri gamosaxulebebi.

2. ZiriTadi nawili
yovel SemTxvevaSi literaturuli wyaroebis analizi calsaxad
adasturebs, rom drekadkedlebian arxebSi siTxis moZraoba xasiaTdeba
mTeli rigi gansakuTrebuli TaviseburebebiT. aqedan gamomdinare adre Cven
gamovTqviT
[1]
konceptualuri
mosazreba
imis
Taobaze,
rom
drekadkedlebiani
milebis
Tbogadamcem
danadgarebSi
gamoyenebiT
mosalodnelia siTxis gadaadgilebaze gaweuli energetikuli danaxarjebis
garkveuli Semcireba da Tbogadamcemi danadgaris efeqturobis gazrda.
77

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-
SemdegSi, literaturuli wyaroebis analizis safuZvelze, Cven
CamovayalibeT [2] xsenebuli konceptualuri mosazrebis gamamarTlebeli
damatebiTi argumentebi da davasabuTeT problemis eqsperimentuli kvlevis
mizanSewoniloba.
aRniSnulidan
gamomdinare
davamuSaveT
martivi
eqsperimentuli
danadgaris proeqti da cdebis Catarebis meodika, romlebsac qvemoT
warmovadgenT.
liTonis milebisa da imave cocxali kveTis farTobis mqone
elastiuri, plastiuri da drekadi masalisagan damzadebuli milebis
hidravlikuri
winaaRmdegobebis
xarisxobrivi
urTierTSedarebisaTvis
damuSavebuli eqsperimentuli danadgaris principuli sqema warmodgenilia
nax. 1-ze.
laboratoriul magidaze (1) moTavsebulia specialuri sadgari (2),
romelzec ganlagebulia wylis sawyisi moculoba (3). am ukanasknelis xufze
mierTebulia sawyis moculobaSi ganviTarebuli wnevis gamzomi manometri (4)
da `b~ onkaniani sahaero mili (5), xolo fskerze _ `c~ onkanis gavliT
samiltuCe koleqtori (6). samiltuCe koleqtoris miltuCebze mierTebulia
liTonisa da elastikuri masalisagan damzadebuli gamosakvlevi da
urTierTSesadarebeli milebi (7), romelTa qveda boloebi CaSvebulia siTxis
mimReb da siTxis donis mixedviT moculobis maCveneblebiT aRWurvil
WurWlebSi (8).
gamosacdel milebSi wylis dinebis sxvadasxva reJimis dasamyareblad
sawyis moculobasTan `a~ onkanis gavliT mierTebulia wyalsadenis mili da
`d~ onkanis gavliT haeris laboratoriuli kompresori (9).
sawyisi
moculoba (3) warmoadgens daaxloebiT 10 litri moculobis mqone WurWels,
romelSic garkveul donemde moTavsebuli iqneba wyali.
samiltuCe
koleqtori
Sedgeba
3
sm
simaRlis
liTonis
cilindrisagan, romelsac aqvs furclovani liTonis fskeri da xufi.
fskers da xufs aqvT specialuri wriuli Rarebi, romlebSic moTavsebulia
sahermetizacio sadebi. koleqtoris cilindri Tavsdeba zeda da qveda
sadebebes Soris da fskerisa da xufis gare, periferiul xvrelebSi gayrili
sahermetizacio momWerebiT xdeba koleqtoris Siga moculobis hermetizacia.
koleqtoris xufze mierTebulia erTi centraluri mili, romlis
saSualebiT koleqtori sawyis tevadobas uerTdeba, xolo koleqtoris
fskerze mierTebulia ramodenime miltuCi liTonis myari
da plastmasis
drekadi gamosakvlevi da urTierTSesadarebeli milebis misaerTeblad.
urTierTSedarebis sizustisaTvis miltuCebi koleqtoris centridan Tanabar
manZilebzea ganlagebuli.
plastiuri da drekadi milebisa da liTonis milebis hidravlikuri
winaaRmdegobebis urTierTSesadareblad dagegmilia cdebis ori seria.
kerZod: a) Tavisufali dineba atmosferuli wnevis pirobebSi da b)
iZulebiTi dineba sxvadasxva Warbi wnevis pirobebSi. orive seriaSi
eqsperimentebi unda Catardes nebismieri Siga da gare diametris, magram erTi
da igive sigrZis mqone milebze. amasTan liTonis milebisaTvis kedlis
sisqes araviTar mniSvnelobas ar vaniWebT, xolo plastikuri masalebisagan
damzadebuli milebis kedlebis sisqeebi sasurvelia mravalnairi iyos.
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nax. 1. eqsperimentuli danadgaris sqema


warmovadgenT orive seriaSi cdebis Catarebis Cvens mier damuSavebul
meTodikas.
a). Tavisufali dinebis SemTxveva.
am seriis cdebis Catareba unda moxdes Semdegi TanmimdevrobiT:
1.
Tavdapirvelad `c~ da `d~ ventilebi (ix. nax. 1) daketili unda
iyos, xolo `a~ da `b~ ventilebi ki unda gaiRos. wyalsadenis wyali `a~
ventilidan Seva sawyis moculobaSi (3) xolo am moculobaSi myofi haeri
gamova sahaero milidan `b~ ventilis gavliT. unda davukvirdiT sawyis
moculobaSi miRweul wylis dones donis mzomi milis meSveobiT da
sasurveli donis miRwevis Semdeg davketoT mxolod `a~ onkani. aqve unda
aRiniSnos, rom marTalia sawyis WurWelSi atmosferuli wneva iqneba, magram
sacdel milebSi ganviTarebul dinebaze garkveul zegavlenas moaxdens
WurWelSi Tavdapirvelad arsebuli wylis done (siTxis svetis dawneva).
amitomac yvela cda unda Catardes sawyis WurWelSi wylis Tavdapirveli
donis erTi da igive mniSvnelobis dros.
2.
sawyis moculobaSi sasurveli donis miRwevis Semdeg unda
davicadoT daaxloebiT 10 wuTi, raTa moculobaSi myofi wyali dawynardes
raTa Sevsebis procesSi warmoqmnilma moZraobam sxvadasxva cdis dros
sxvadasxva zegavlena ar moaxdinos sacdel milebSi ganviTarebul
nakadebze.
3.
Semdeg unda gavaRoT `c~ onkani da erTdroulad dawyebuli iqnes
drois
aTvla
wammzomis
saSualebiT.
sawyisi
moculobidan
urTierTSesadarebeli milebis gavliT wyali Camoedineba moculobis
gamzomi saSualebebiT aRWurvil WurWlebSi (8), romelTa sididisa da
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milebis diametrebis sididis mixedviT xdeba maTi sxvadasxva siCqariT
Sevseba. romelime WurWlis maqsimalur donemde Sevsebisas unda daiketos
`c~ ventili da erTdroulad dafiqsirdes `c~ ventilis gaRebidan
daketvamde gasuli t drois xangrZlivoba.
4.
Semdeg unda gaizomos TiToeul mimReb WurWelSi moTavsebuli
wylis moculoba da yvela monacemebi Setanili unda iqnas dakvirvebaTa
cxrilSi.
b). iZulebiTi dinebis SemTxveva.
cdebis am seriis Catareba unda moxdes Semdegi TanmimdevrobiT:
1.
Tavdapirvelad unda SevavsoT sawyisi WurWeli zustad im
TanmimdevrobiT, rogorc cdebis pirveli seriis sawyis etapze, rogorc es
aRwerili iyo punqtebSi a).1 da a).2.
2.
Semdeg unda Caiketos sahaero milis ventili `b~, gaixsnas
kompresoridan momavali damWirxni milis ventili `d~ da CairTos
eleqtrokvebis qselSi kompresori 9 (ix. nax. 1). amave dros unda dawyebuli
iqnas dakvirveba sawyisi WurWlis xufze mierTebul manometrze 4 (ix. nax. 1).
sawyis WurWelSi ganviTarebuli Warbi wnevis sasurveli sididis miRwevis
Semdeg unda Caiketos ventili `d~, gamoirTos kompresori eleqtrokvebis
qselidan da dakvirvebaTa cxrilSi Setanili unda iqnas manometris Cveneba
P (WurWelSi ganviTarebuli Warbi wnevis sidide).
3.
amis Semdeg cdebis Catareba unda movaxdinoT zustad im
TanmimdevrobiT, rogorc pirvel seriaSi, anu a).3 da a).4 punqtebis mixedviT.
meore seriis cdebi unda gavimeoroT imdenjer, rom sawyis WurWelSi
miRweuli Warbi wnevebis garkveul diapazonSi normalurad SeiZlebodes
SesaZlo sxvadasxva damokidebulebebis grafikuli ageba.
aqve unda aRiniSnos erTi garemoeba. saqme imaSia, rom hidravlikuri
winaaRmdegobebis urTierTSesadareblad ra Tqma inda sasurvelia liTonisa
da plastikuri masalisagan damzadebul milebs hqondeT erTi da igive Siga
diametri. rac praqtikulad Zalze Zneli gansaxorcielebelia, radgan Cvens
kvlevebSi unda gamoviyenoT ukve damzadebuli da bazarze sarealizaciod
gamotanili milebi da maTi Siga diametrebi, calkeuli iSviaTi SemTxvevis
garda, ra Tqma unda sxvadasxva sididis iqneba.

3. daskvna
miuxedavad aRniSnulisa, eqsperimentalur monacemTa analizis Cvens
mier SemuSavebuli meTodika saSualebas iZleva xarisxobrivad zustad
SevadaroT erTmaneTs plastikuri masebidan da liTonidan damzadebuli
milebis hidravlikuri winaaRmdegobebi.
dasasrul avRniSnavT, rom amJamad mimdinareobs zemoT aRwerili
eqsperimentuli danadgaris praqtikuli realizaciis samuSaoebi.

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l i t e r a t u r a
1. e. maWavariani, m. jixvaZe. polimerul milebiani rekuperaciuli
siTbogadamcemi. saerTaSoriso samecn.-teqnikuri konferenciis `garemos
dacva da mgradi ganviTareba~ Sromebi, Tbilisi, 2010 w. gv. 385 388.
2. e.
maWavariani,
m.
jixvaZe.
rekuperaciul
siTbogadamcemebSi
polimeruli
drekadi
milebis
gamoyenebis
perspeqtivis
Sesaxeb.
saerTaSoriso samecniero-teqnikuri konferenciis `gamoyenebiTi fizikis
aqtualuri sakiTxebi~ Sromebi, Tbilisi, 2011 w. gv. 378 381.

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axali teqnologiebi

sainJinro esTetika da arqiteqtura erTimeorisgan


gamomdinareobs
adamianebi
cxovroben
da moRvaweoben
arqiteqturul
sivrceSi,
mSeneblis mier xelovnurad Seqmnil garemoSi. es SeiZleba iyos qalaqi,
daba, sofeli.
imis mixedviT, Tu rogoria, masSi myofs moswons an ar
moswons is. adamians uyvars lamaz garemoSi cxovreba. lamazad gaSenebuli
qalaqi,
istoriuli Tu Tanamedrove arqiteqturuli Zeglebi dadebiT
gavlenas axdens masze, ayalibebs qalaqis erTgul da patriot pirovnebad,
qveynis moamaged da ubiZgebs keTili survilebisa da saqmeebisaken.
italieli pier luiji nervis sityvebiT `arqiteqtura konstruqciuli
realobaa~ da es realoba `laparakobs da metyvelebs maSin, rodesac sduman
simRerebi da Tqmulebebi, rodesac aRaraferi laparaobs daRupul xalxze~
(n. gogoli). swored am realobis Semqmnelebad gvevlinebian arqiteqtorebi
da mSeneblebi, romelTa saqmianoba erTad da ganuyoflad moiazreba.
arqiteqturul Canafiqrs
ganxorcieleba ar uweria mSeneblis gareSe,
sainJinro codnis gareSe, im risk-faqtorebis codnis gareSe, romlebic maT
erTad unda gaiTvaliswinon.
swored mWidro urTierTkavSiri arqiteqturul
da sainJinro
xelovnebaTa Soris ganapirobebs xelosnobidan arqiteqturul Semoqmedebasa
da
samSeneblo
xelovnebaze
gadasvlas
da,
sabolood,
optimalur
SemoqmedebiT gadawyvetamde misvlas. aucilebelia Sedges tandemi mSenebelsa
da arqiteqtors Soris. arqiteqtorma unda icodes mSeneblis, xolo
mSenebelma - arqiteqturis ena, unda Semcirdes manZili maT Soris.
msoflio arqiteqturisa da mSeneblobis ganviTarebis istoriidan
cnobilia magaliTebi, rodesac arqiteqturuli nawarmoebi iqmneba inJinermSeneblis mier. sakmarisia davasaxeloT `rkinabetonis poetad~ cnobili,
armocementis konstruqciis gamomgonebeli, inJineri pier luiji nervi,
romelic qmnis:
artemio frankis stadions florenciaSi, olimpiur
stadionebs romsa da turinSi, monrealis safinanso centrs, iuneskos
Senobas parizSi, caTambjenebs sidneisa da milanSi da sxva; aseve espaneli
santiago kalatrava, romelic flobs bakalavris xarisxs arqiteqturasa da
xelovneba-xelosnobaSi da magistris xarisxs samoqalaqo inJineriaSi,
Seiswavlis arqiteqturaSi kompleqsuri formis gardaqmnis teqnikas da
sadoqtoro Tezisis `sivrcul CarCoTa dakecvadobis Sesaxeb~ dacvis Semdeg
iwyebs saproeqto saqmianobas da misi avtorobiT iqmneba xelovnebisa da
mecnierebis qalaqi valensiaSi, alan lambertis galerea torontoSi (kanada),
miluokis xelovnebis muzeumi viskonsilSi (aSS), samuel bekedis xidi
dublinSi (irlandia), sakoncerto darbazi kanaris kunZulebze (espaneTi) da
sxva.
msgavsi
specialistebis
Camoyalibeba
saqarTvelos
teqnikuri
universitetis samSeneblo fakultetze, programa `mSeneblobaSi~ CarTuli
modulis - `mSenebloba da arqiteqturis~ mizania. saTanado meTodologiiT
uzrunvelyofili es moduli bakalavriatis doneze safuZvels Cauyris am
miznis ganxorcielebas da
saTanado unar-CvevebiT, arqiteqturuli da
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sainJinro codniT SeiaraRebuli axalgazrda SeZlebs swavlis warmatebiT
gagrZelebas da sivrcis konstruirebis procesis etapobrivad gaazrebas.
momavalSi moduli - `mSenebloba da arqiteqtura,~ magistraturis
TematikiT gamdidreba-gaZlierebiT ufro moTxovnadi gaxdeba sferoTi
dainteresebuli rogorc qarTveli, ise ucxoeli studentebisaTvis. am
SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebeli iqneba adgilobrivi ZalebiT im metad rTuli
procesis daZleva, rogoricaa arqiteqturuli obieqtis daproeqteba da
realizacia. mxolod am SemTxvevaSi aRar davkargavT Cveni qveynis mZlavr
inteleqtualur Zalas da aRar mogviwevs arqiteqturis, teqnologiebis da
sainJinro konstruqciebis importi.
am gziT avicilebT Tavidan iseTi `arqiteqturuli metyvelebis~
aRzevebas, romelic istebliSmentis an gabatonebuli sazogadoebrivi
gemovnebis zewoliT ganpirobebuli iseT kompromisze wasvlaa, romelic
mnaxvelis Tvalisgan arqiteqturuli nawarmoebis damalvis mcdelobis
safuZveli xdeba.
swavlebis procesisadmi aseTi midgoma ganapirobebs Cveni qveynis
mSeneblobis sferoSi
adgili daimkvidros maRalma teqnologiebma,
memkvidreobiTobisa da tradiciebis gaTvaliswinebiT, raTa Seiqmnas nikolas
grimSous vaterloos rkinigzis sadguris saerTaSoriso terminalis,
arqiteqtor renco pianos da inJiner riCard rojersis mier Seqmnili JorJ
pompidus saxelobis kulturis saerTaSoriso centris, norman fosteris
honk-kong Sanxais bankis, iorn utzonis sidneis operis Teatrisa da sxvaTa
msgavsi Sedevrebi.
sabolood aRvniSnavT, rom Cven damokidebulebas arqiteqturuli da
samSeneblo saqmianobisadmi aZlierebs farTo sazogadoebisaTvis dRes
gansaxilvelad warmodgenili ,,sivrciTi dagegmarebisa da samSeneblo
saqmianobis
kodeqsis~
proeqti,
(http://www.economy.ge/?category=21&lang=geo
,,sivrciTi dagegmarebisa da samSeneblo saqmianobis kodeqsi, kari I, Tavi I.
muxli 2~), romlis saxelmZRvanelo principad aRiarebulia
sivrciTi
dagegmarebisa da samSeneblo saqmianobis monawileTa Tanabaruflebianobis
dacva da maTi saqmianobis sajaroobis uzrunvelyofa.

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samecniero-teqnikuri Jurnali ,,mSenebloba


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nanuli TevzaZe,
ramaz JRenti

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-
milocva

demur danelia 75 wlisaa!


daibada 1937 wlis 25 Tebervals q. TbilisSi.
igi sami Tvis iyo roca mama konstantine zosimes Ze
danelia daxvrites komunistebma, amitom mas igi ar
axsovs.
demur danelia 1943 wlidan q. Tbilisis vaJTa
me-12
saSualo
skolis
moswavlea,
romelic
daamTavra 1954 wels oqros medalze. imave wels
swavla
gaagrZela
saqarTvelos
politeqnikuri
intitutis samSeneblo fakultetze, romlis sruli
kursi daamTavra 1959 wels warCinebiT da miiRo
inJiner-mSenebeli
hidroteqnikosis
kvalifikacia.
SromiTi
saqmianoba
daiwyo
institutis
damTavrebisTanave
sxvadasxva
samSeneblo
organizaciebSi:
saqhidroenergomSeni,
Tbilhidroproeqti,
lajanurhesi,
xramhesi,
male
masalaTa gamZleobisa da drekadobis Teoriis kaTedris aspiranti xdeba da
iwyebs samecniero moRvaweobas cnobili mecnieris aleqsandre kakuSaZis
xelmZRvanelobiT. desertaciis dacvis Semdeg mas mieniWa docentis, xolo
Semdeg profesoris samecniero wodebebi. muSaobda kaTedris gamgis
moadgiled, xolo Semdeg gamged 20 wlis ganmavlobaSi.
1970 wels daicva sakandidato, xolo 1991 wels sadoqtoro disertacia.
1992 wels mieniWa profesoris samecniero wodeba. misi xelmZRvanelobiT
daculia ramodenime sadisertacio naSromi.
d.
danelias
biografiaSi
gansakuTrebuli
adgili
uWiravs
sazRvargareTis umaRles saswavleblebSi mis nayofier moRvaweobas, sadac
TvalnaTliv warmoCinda misi maRali erudicia da profesionalizmi. amJamad
aris
masalaTa
gamZleobis
da
drekadobis
Teoriis
mimarTulebis
xelmZRvaneli, sruli profesori. d. danelia aris saqarTvelos sainJinro
akademiis namdvili wevri-akademikosi.
d. danelias gamoqveynebuli aqvs 120-mde samecniero naSromi, xuTi
monografia, aris 15 saxelmZRvanelos avtori.
masalaTa gamZleobis da drekadobis Teoriis mimarTulebis samecniero
mimarTulebaa
drekadobis
Teoriis
brtyeli
amocanebi,
nagebobaTa
seismomedegobis
sakiTxebi,
kerZod
hidroteqnikuri
nagebobebis
seismomedegoba
(kaSxlebi,
hidroeqnikuri
gvirabebi,
wyalgamtarebi,
wyalsacavebi da sxva).
igi, rogorc mimarTulebis xelmZRvaneli da profesori, aqtiurad
monawileobs
universitetisa da
qveynis sazogadoebriv
saqmianobaSi,
risTvisac dajildoebulia Rirsebis ordeniT.
baton demur danelias SeuZlia iamayos qarTuli RirsebiT aRsavse
lamazi ojaxiT.
Rrmad varT darwmunebulni, rom mravalmxrivi codniT, mdidari
cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebiT da adamianuri RirsebebiT Semkuli pirovneba,
kidev didxans did mamuliSvilur samsaxurs gauwevs saqarTvelos, mis xalxs
da teqnikur universitets.
Jurnal `mSenebloba redkolegia.
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SCIENTIFIC-TECHNICAL JOURNAL BUILDING

#1(24), 2012

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SUMMARIES
MODEL OF EMBANKMENT STRESS STATE AND ESTIMATION OF DYNAMIC
IMPACTS FREQUENCY AND DURATION. E. MOISTSRAPISHVILI, M.
MOISTSRAPISHVILI, B. BREGADZE, L. BALAVADZE. Scientific-technical journal
BUILDING #1(24), 2012.
: Results of the embankments stress state study gives the possibility to newly assessment the nature
of its work on the operated railways. According to the depth of the embankment in working areas
have been outlined separated areas that are different by rolling stock dynamic impact intensity and its
values.
The results of carried out study would be used for dev of earth embankment calculations methods, in
particular, for the achievement of desired ground compression value; for the assessment of stability
of embankment foundation and sections basic site as well as for the definition of dynamic load values
on various engineering structures (the earth embankment drain pipes, synthetic materials protective
layers, the protective walls, etc.).

ANALYSIS OF SECTIONALLY NON-HOMOGENEOUS HOLLOW CYLINDER.


R. TSKHVEDADZE, D. TABATADZE, G. DATUASHVILI, K. IASHVILI. Scientifictechnical journal BUILDING #1(24), 2012.

In the paper is describes the analysis of thick-walled cylinder that is undergoing in continuous
cylinder the internal and external pressure. Are implemented having sectional constant value with
material elastic characteristics. The obtained decisive solution of differential equation is found due
application of development by Academician Sh. Mikeladze mathematical apparatus.

Recomendations for ironconcrete domes constructions. P. Makhviladze, I.


Mshvenieradze, I. Jincharadze. Scientific-technical journal BUILDING #1(24), 2012.
In this article are sygested constructions with large pillar spans and new technologies of dome
buildings.
The large pillar span building edifice first of all demands corresponding steadiness recorer the
selecting of construction.

DEFINITION OF STRESS PROPAGATION WORKING AREAS IN EARTH


EMBANKMENT BODY E. Moistsrapishvili, M. Moistsrapishvili, G. Maisuradze, D.
Pantsulaia. Scientific-technical journal BUILDING #1(24), 2012.
The proposed method gives the possibility to define in the cross-section of embankment body the
stress values and their propagation limits in depth on the vertical and transverse directions. It will be
the basis for assessing the impact of train speed, especially on high-speed traffic areas, to identify
areas of increased activity and for determining the embankment stress state dynamic model.

FEATURES
OF
APARTMENT
HOUSE
PLAN DRAWING
G. TSULEISKIRI , M. ARABIDZE, T. KOKAYA. Scientific-technical journal
BUILDING #1(24), 2012.
For
the
students of
Civil Engineering
Faculty
studying at
special
courses (construction drawing) focuses on the sequence of building construction drawing, whether
it's drawing a plan, section, or the facade of a residential or industrial building, thus avoiding the
additional graphical representations, and more efficient digestion of material.
In published to current date textbooks on drawing are considered four stages of drawing. This is
enough for the specialist, but is not sufficient for individually learning students
and students of existing at Department of graphic disciplines Teachers Training Center.
Therefore, one of the drawings, as the case of apartment house floor plan execution process is
divided into ten stages, with detailed textual commentary of each phase.
91

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Reciprocity of art and architecture environment. M. Maisuradze, T. Chanturia.
Scientific-technical journal BUILDING #1(24), 2012.
The Article covers issues of synthesis variety for architectural and monumental art, their
problems, discusses confluence and special vision, and stresses perspectives for space areal
formation. Article also underlines problems associated to the different varieties of art roles in respect
to the modern city.

RESEARCH OF PROPERTIES OF ONE OF THE MAIN COMPONENTS OF


SOUND-ABSORBING STRUCTURES, SILICON MANGANESE SLAG, MADE
FROM LOCAL RAW MATERIALS M. JAVAKHISHVILI. Scientific-technical
journal BUILDING #1(24), 2012.
From the artificial as well as nature fillings the slag occupy a special place, so there is a low-cost
products, construction products, the possibility of using of slag. Not so long ago, in the production of
building materials was used only a granulated blast-furnace slags. Then, the scientists were able in
the manufacture construction materials to apply of some of the ferrous metallurgy slag, that is
received due results of copper, lead, nickel, potassium, etc smelting.

Determining of composition of asphalt concrete mix by Marshal equipment. T.


Papuashvili, M. Shishinashvili, V. Jghamaia, N. Eloshvili. Scientific-technical journal
BUILDING #1(24), 2012.
The main goal of work is determining of asphalt concrete mix composition (mix formula) by
using the Marshal method, its density, porosity, with relation to asphalt-concrete stability and
plasticity parameters under 600C, according to European Standards.

STUDY OF FREIGHT TRAINS BRAKE THERMAL MODE ON STEEP DESCENT


T.S. KUPATADZE, G.G. KVANTALIANI, N.T. KUPATADZE. Scientific-technical
journal BUILDING #1(24), 2012.
In the paper is considered the impact of the steep descent on shoes temperature mode, on the
reliability of trains braking system operating and traffic safety conditions.
The mechanical braking friction during the motion of a long steep descent are heated the details
of braking system. As result of heating (above 350), the mechanical condition of brake shoes are
failed and therefore guarantee of traffic safety is reduced. Thus on long steep descents is necessary
to study of brake shoes thermal mode and determine the length of the steep descent stages.

Pre-strained Combined Construction of the Large Sweep Pipeline Crossings B.


Surguladze, G. Beradze. Scientific-technical journal BUILDING #1(24), 2012.
Pre-strained combined construction for large sweep crossings of new-type pipelines has been proposed,
which constructively differs from its analogues in terms of location of pre-straining elements and a new,
improved scheme of straining. Through the engineering solution described in the paper work, it is possible to
achieve simplification of a main gas pipeline installation, as well as convenient adjustment of force in the
bearing elements of a crossing.

ON ENGINEERING (SIMPLIFIED) METHOD OF STRENGTH CALCULATIONS OF OIL


STORAGE RESERVOIRS. G. ERAGIA, T. KAKUTASHVILI. Scientific-technical journal

BUILDING #1(24), 2012.


In the modern civilized world the oil consumption is on the one of the first place and represents the
85% of w total consumer package. Thus the safe storage of petroleum products and the protection
issues have great attention and represent a very actual problem.
In the paper is considered the having various geometrical, physical and thermal characteristics
reservoirs calculation by simplified methods.

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samecniero-teqnikuri Jurnali ,,mSenebloba


SCIENTIFIC-TECHNICAL JOURNAL BUILDING

#1(24), 2012

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NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF THE FIRST ORDER SINGULAR INTEGRAL EQUATIONS
ON THE SEGMENT WITH THE POSITIVE INDEX. Pilpani N., Kublashvili M.,

Chankotadze. Scientific-technical journal BUILDING #1(24), 2012.


It is constructed high order precision numerical solution algorithm for singular integral
equations on the segment with the positive index. Software support of algorithm is executed in
symbolical language Matematica. Numerical solutions of a specific target of applied mechanics are
resulted.

Engineering basements and deep ground floors on the waterproof concrete.


a.gogberashvili. Scientific-technical journal BUILDING #1(24), 2012.
In the conditions of the city, from the water supply systems, water drain, heating systems flowing
out technogenic waters, ground waters are polluted, the level of their strengthening has risen, the
foundations and the deep walls in the ground are damped, the basements filled with water; the
millions of the sum spend for improving their condition. Proceedings from the aforesaid, at the time
of a new bouldering in article it is considered questions for the device constructions deepening in the
ground by water-proof concrete including revealing the economic and social effect.
Modern information technologies influence world economy.
M. Dzotsenidze.

Scientific-technical journal BUILDING #1(24), 2012.


After development of the Information Technilogies are followed core development of the
production industry, had been formed the new approach to information definition, that will
completely change manage and organisation methods of the production industry and show the
impotance of the reconstructions. Information Technology for today represents spheres of
manufacture, service and researches that gives it especial appeal.
MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF PROCESSES TAKING PLACE IN A BOILER DRUM
E. PANTSKHAVA, O. KIGURADZE. Scientific-technical journal BUILDING #1(24),

2012.
Mathematical modeling of processes running in transitional regimes of the boiler drum has been
provided in the work. Pressure variation in the drum has been caused by variations of fuel efficiency
and feed water temperature. In percentage expression, alteration of fuel efficiency effects to pressure
variation greater than variation of feed water temperature. Pressure variation design formula having
the view of exponent has been adopted at operation in transitional regime of the boiler drum.
DISCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENTAL EXPERIMENTAL UNIT AND TESTING
TECHNICUE FOR INVESTIGATION OF FEATURE OF FLUID FLOW IN ELASTIC
TUBES. M. DJIKHVADZE. Scientific-technical journal BUILDING #1(24), 2012.
The paper describes the problem of application of flexible, elastic, plastic tubes in constructions
of heat exchangers. The experimental unit and testing technicue for qualitative comparative analysis
of oleodynamic resistance and intensity of heat transmission processis in solid and elastic tubes is
given.

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samecniero-teqnikuri Jurnali ,,mSenebloba


SCIENTIFIC-TECHNICAL JOURNAL BUILDING

#1(24), 2012

avtorTa sayuradRebod
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis samSeneblo fakultetis
JurnalSi - ,,mSenebloba samecniero naSromis warmodgena xdeba
qarTul, inglisur da rusul enebze, romlebic unda akmayofilebdes
Semdeg moTxovnebs:
1. naSromi unda Sesruldes A4 formatis qaRaldis 1,5, intervaliT
nabeWd gverdze ISO standartis moTxovnis mixedviT,
naSromi
unda
momzaddes
Microsoft Word-Si
cxrilebsa
da
formulebis redaqtorebis gamoyenebiT; SesaZlebelia gamoyenebuli
iqnes Microsoft Excel-is programa;
samuSao qaRaldis velis zomebi: zeda 35 mm, qveda 25 mm,
marcxena 20 mm, marjvena 20 mm.
qarTul enaze Sesrulebuli naSromi unda aiwyos AcadNusx-is
garnituris SriftiT, inglisur da rusul enebze Sesrulebuli
naSromi ki Times NeW Roman SriftiT.
naSromis dasaxeleba unda aiwyos SriftiT 14; avtoris saxeli da
gvari SriftiT 13; dasaxeleba organizaciis, sadac Sesrulda
samuSao, unda mieTiTos frCxilebSi SriftiT 13; naSromis
reziume unda Sesruldes kursivi SriftiT 12; sakvanZo sityvebi
SriftiT 12; naSromis teqsti SriftiT 12; rusul enaze
Sesrulebuli naSromi SriftiT 12; literaturis CamonaTvalis
Semdeg Tan erTvis reziume inglisur da rusul enebze Semdegi
miTiTebebiT: naSromis dasaxeleba, avtoris (avtorebis) saxeli da
gvari. reziumes moculoba ar unda aRematebodes 10-15 striqons.
maTematikuri formulebi Sesrulebuli unda iyos MathType-Si,
naxazebi unda iyos Sesrulebuli mkafiod da TvalsaCinod.
2. naSromi warmodgenili unda iyos disketaze da erT egzempliarad
A4 formatis qaRaldze (mkafiod) dabeWdili;
3. naSroms Tan unda erTvodes monacemebi avtoris
(avtorebis)
Sesaxeb: samecniero xarisxi, wodeba da Tanamdeboba;
4. naSroms Tan unda axldes recenzentis daskvna.
5. avtori da recenzenti pasuxs ageben naSromis xarisxsa da
Sinaarsze;
6. zemoaRniSnuli moTxovnebis Seusruleblobis SemTxvevaSi statia
ar miiReba.

naSromi ibeWdeba avtorTa xarjiT.

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