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Russian academi of sciences. institute for the history of material culture

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RPA RESEARCH-AND-PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION NORTHERN ARCHAEOLOGY


Ano institute for archaeology of the north


-
State protection service for the cultural heritage objects
of the yamalo-nenets autonomous okrug

Russian academi of sciences. institute for the history of material culture


Ano institute for archaeology of the north
RPA RESEARCH-AND-PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION NORTHERN ARCHAEOLOGY
State protection service for the cultural heritage objects
of the yamalo-nenets autonomous okrug

leg V. Kardash

Hillfort of sikhirtya
of the Nakhodka bight
The first research results

katerinburg Nefyeyugansk
2011

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2011

902(571.122)
63.4(251-6)
42
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ISBN 978-5-8057-0783-5


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54

Summary

SUMMARY
Not more than one fourth of the defensive and residential
complex in the Nakhodka Bight Hillfort had been studied with
stationary excavation. Within the digging area there were explored remains of six dwellings and just two of them were researched entirely. The collection, obtained on the back of the excavation, works out 1,5 thousand whole and fragmented artifacts
made of wood, bone, metal, glass. A collection of animal osteal
remains numbers 6,5 thousand items. Moreover, pieces of wood
were sampled for tree-ring dating.
The complex study of this site has not only produced the collection of unique objects and significant samples. The analysis
of discovered data enables to reconstruct many aspects of culture, economy and religion of the ancient indigenous population
of the Yamal Peninsula. Consequently, these conclusions throw
light on the matters of legendary Sikhirtya people, which commove many researches of the North in XX century. Where are
fiction and verity in legends about the Sikhirtya? Did this people
ever exist? Was there ever an ancient Arctic culture and what did
it pose if it was? Where did the Sikhirtya go: did they disappear
into thin air or blend into Nenets and Khanty ethnics?
It is worthy of note, that at the present moment there are
more queries than answers, and it is so not only in North-West
Siberia. Lack of complex researches on sites of ancient population of the Russian Arctic leaves a lot of questions unanswered
and assumptions unreasoned. The present work introduces to
the social, cultural and scientific use the first body of authentic
sources on one of sites left by the Arctic ancient ethnos of the
so-called Sikhirtya.
Taking stock, we pose a general characteristic of the culture
of the Nakhodka Bight population. The settlement represents
an integrated defensive and living construction, designed as a
unitary structure of one architecture tradition. The hillfort was
erected simultaneously in 1220 according to results of tree-dating. The settlement consisted of six (or probably eight) dwellings,
grouped together into two ranges stretched by a central corridor,
which had entrances to every house. Along the outer perimeter
the complex was surrounded with a turfy frame-pillar wall. All
the dwellings and the central corridor had covering of sticks with
waterproofing layer of birch bark and moss. It was construction
that formed the mould-like appearance of the hillfort. Later such
constructions must had got the name of Sikhirtya hills. Besides,
the phrase coming belowground seems to be assignable. On
our viewpoint, it directly shows the way of entering to a dwelling:
down through the smoke escape hatch, located above the hearth.
Almost all aborigines of the Siberian North and Kamchatka enter
their houses in this manner. Entrance, that was usually realized as
an adit in one of facades, seems to be just a ventilative aperture.
Analysis of archaeozoological and archaeological sources
and ethnographical materials enables to give relatively valid

depiction for economy of ancient inhabitants of the Nakhodka


Bight hillfort. They employed forage subsistence strategy, based
on hunting and fishing. Occupations were highly dedicated: they
included nutritive Reindeer hunting, polar fox trapping for fur
trading, sturgeon fishing accompanied with ringed sealing. Reindeer hunting must had been a communal occupation; probably,
they practiced enclosing hunting with cannon nets, that is now
used by the Nganasans [, 1948. P. 16-39. Fig.6-11?]. Deer
breeding in any form (trading, nutritive, transport) didnt exist at
all. On a small scale there was sledge-dog breeding in practice.
Skies (Golitsa, skies without fur underlay, protecting from sliding backward) and imported dugout boats were in limited use as
well. The major way of locomotion was apparently pedestrian or
in winter by skies.
Barter was an important part of economy for hillfort residents. The basic good was polar fox fur. Trapping was a family occupation. As judged by the quantity of imported artifact,
goods exchange performed intensive and comparatively profitable relations, at least for the period of the XIII the early XIV
centuries. At this time imported goods accounts for about 30%
of the collection. It is possible, that the hillfort aborigines offered
other products complementary to polar fox furs: for example,
sturgeon glue or something else. Judging by some marks, residents of the hillfort communicated with merchants immediately.
It is not impossible, that by that time a net of trading and hunting
wintering, such as Nadymsky Hillfort or Tazovskaya work shop,
were formed through the region.
Religion of the hillfort inhabitants remains a mystery; we can
do no more than mention, that there probably existed a communal sanctuary devoted to deities giving luck in deer hunting.
There also was a family sacrarium in each home with a deity of
anthropomorphous personification. The deity patronized family
and individual occupation, and polar fox for the first instance.
Among the most important findings we should note visible
differences in architecture, body of artifacts and economy of the
Nakhodka Bight population from the XIII- early XIV centuries
and such sites as Nadymsky, Poluisky (Obdorsky) and Voikarsky hillforts, which functioned later (the XIII-XVIII centuries)
and traditionally associated with indigenous population of the
region. Comparison of the hillfort complex research results and
ethnological data provides opportunity to clearly correlate inhabitants of the hillfort with the Sichirtya, Yamal ancient population.
Presently, among other sites of the region the Nakhodka Bight
Hillfort is considered to be the northmost stationary long-term
settlement with a defensive and living complex, left by ancient
native population of the West Siberian Arctic. Investigation of
this site is essential to understand culture genesis of following indigenous peoples and annexion of the Low Ob area to Muscovy
and later to Russia.
55

......................................................................................................................7
1. .........................................................11
2. ....................................................................16
3. , ...........22
3.1. ..................................................................................................22
3.2. .........................................................................27
3.3. ..........................................................................................28
3.4. .............................................................29
3.5. ........................................................................................35
4. ...........................................................38
5. ...............................................................................................42
6. ...............................................................................46
......................................................................................................................50
.............................................................52
SUMMARY...............................................................................................................................55
CONTENTS..............................................................................................................................56

LIST OF CONTENTS
PREFACE.....................................................................................................................................7
1. RESERCH OF THE HILLFORT IN THE NAKHODKA BIGHT............................11
2. ARCHITECTURE OF THE SIKHIRTYA HILLFORT...............................................16
3. HUNTING AND HOUSEHOLD TOOLS AND ARTICLES OF DAILY USE.....22
3.1. Clothing................................................................................................................22
3.2. Hair picks..............................................................................................................27
3.3. Hunting tools and instruments........................................................................28
3.4. Means of locomotion..........................................................................................29
3.5. Household articles..............................................................................................35
4. TRADING OF THE NAKHODKA BIGHT INHABITANTS..................................38
5. ECONOMY OF THE SIKHIRTYA.................................................................................42
6. RELIGION OF THE HILLFORT RESIDENTS............................................................46
CONCLUSION........................................................................................................................50
LIST OF SOURCES AND LITERATURE..........................................................................52
SUMMARY...............................................................................................................................55

56


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