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PIPING GUIDE Made by . A.

1 CHECK LIST FOR ISOMETRICS


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) Line Nos. Line Specs Start Point Location End Point Location Branch Connection Valve Accecibility Support Insulation (For Insulated Line Only) Instrument Connection Flow Arrow High Point Vent, Low Point Drain Hydro Test Vent And Drain Nozzle Connection Nozzle Nos. Equipment Nos. Coordinates And Elevations Iso North Bill Of Material Valve Tag Nos. Instruments Tag Nos. Contination Sheets Or Iso. Nos. Grid Location And Nos.

A.2 DOCUMENTS FOR ISOMETRICS CHECKING


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Piping And Instrument Diagrames Piping Layouts Sectional Drawings Equipment Drawings Nozzle Orientations Piping Specification Suppotrs Standard Special Items Drawings Sress Analysis Report

A.3 POINTS TO REMEMBERS IN ISOMETRICS CHECKING


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) Pump Suction Is Bigger Than Discharge Line Eccentric Reducer (Flat Side Top) Using For Pump Suction Line This Is Using For Avoid The Air Block In Pump Suction. Pump Suction Line And Compresser Suction Line Keep Always Downword Position, No Loops Permitted To Pump Suction. Psv Outlet Always Rising Position. Check The Valve Accesibility For Maitainance Purpose. Valve Operating Height Min 250mm To 1200mm From Floor Level. Lift Check Valve Always Horizontally Using. Swing Check Valve Verticaly And Horiontaly Using. Control Station Operating Height 500mm To 750mm From Floor Level. Shoe Not Required For Trunion. (Insulated Lines) Headroom Clearance Minimum 2.2m From Ground/Floor Level. Dripleg Required For Steam Line Header. Shoe Required For Insulated Lines (Steam ,Chilled Water,Brine,Steam Condasate). Shoe Not Required For Condansate Line When Line Will Be On Pipe Rack. Nozzle Orientations Should Be Keep As Per Piping Requirement. Avoid The Obstucles. Keep A Piping Routing Neat And Clearly. Control Stations Locates Side Of Near The Walls Or Columns Give A Trunion Supports To Control Station Both Side Of Control Valves. Use A Dike Wall Around The Equipments For Avoid The Liquid To Spread In The Plant Area. The Volume Of Dike Wall Is 1.5 Times More Than Total Capacity Of Equipments. Use Weldneck Flange For Pressure Piping.

B.1 TYPES OF CONTROL VALVE


1) Pcv Pressure control Valve

2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Tcv Fcv Lcv Xv Xcv

Temperature Control Valve Flow Control Valve Level Control Valve Isolation Valve High Pressure Control Valve

B.2 TYPES OF PUMPS


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Reciprocating Pump Rotary Pump Centrifugal Pump Vacuum Pump Metering Pump

B.3 TYPES OF EXCHANGER


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Air Cooler Exchanger Plate Type Exchanger Shell & Tube Exchanger 2 Pipe Exchanger Spiral Exchanger

B.4 TYPES OF COMPRESSOR


1) Elevated Centrifugal Compressor 2) Grade-Mounted Centrifugal Compressor 3) Reciprocating Compressor

B.5 TYPES OF TOWER


1) Tray Tower 2) Packed Tower 3) Vacuume Tower

B.6 TYPES OF VALVE


1) Gate Valve

2) Globe Valve

3) Check Valve (Non Return Valve)

4) Ball Valve

5) Butterfly Valve 6) Diaframe Valve 7) Plug Valve

B.7 TYPE OF FLANGES


1) Weldneck Flange (Flat Face,Race Face)

2) Slipon Flange

Do

3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

Lap Joint Flange Reducing Flange Screwed Flange Blind Flange Socketweld Flange

(Flat Face) (Flat Face,Race Face)

B.7A PRESSURE TEMPERATURE RATTING


150#, 300#, 400#, 600#, 900#, 1500#, 2500#.

B.7B FLANGES FACING


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Ff Rf T/G M/F Rtj Flat Face Raise Face Tongue And Groove Face Male And Female Faces Ring Type Joint Faces

B.8 TYPES OF FITTINGS


1) 90 Elbow, 45 Elbow (Butt Welded, Socket Welded, Threded) 2) Equal Tee, Reducing Tee Do 3) Cap,Union,Plug, Half Coupling, Full Coupling, Lateral.

B.9 TYPES OF OLETS


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Laterolet Elbowlet Weldolet Sockolet Threadolet

6) Sweepolet 7) Nippolet

B.10 TYPES OF REDUCER


1) Eccentric Reducer 2) Concentric Reducer 3) Swages (Butt Welded) (Butt Welded) (Socket Weld, Threded)

B.11 TYPES OF INSTRUMENTS


1) 2) 3) 3) 4) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Psv Lg Li Pg Pi Cv Ti Tw Fe Fi Fo Pressure Safety Valve Level Guage Level Indicator Pressure Guage Pressure Indicator Control Valve Temperature Indicator Thermowell Flow Elements Flow Indicators Flow Orifice Flanges

A GENERAL PURPOSE
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Control Valves (Globe, Ball, Butterfly) On/Off Valves (Ball, Butterfly) Relief Valves (Pressure, Thermal) Rapture Disc Restriction Orifice

B FLOW MESSURING INSTRUMENTS


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Orifice Plate Variable Aria Flow Meter Magnetic Flow Meter Turbine Flow Meter Positive Displacement Meter

C TEMPERATURE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Thermocouples Resistance Temperature Detactors Filled System Bimetallic Thermometres Thermowells

D PRESSURE MESSURING INSTRUMENTS


1) 2) 3) 4) Manometer Bourden Type Bellow Type Diaphragm Type

E LEVEL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Level Guage (Direct Type) Hydrostatic Head (Inferential) Buoyancy Conductance Capacitance Radiation Float

B.12 SPECIAL ITEMS


1) Steam Trap (Float Type, Thermodynamic,Bucket) 2) Orifice Flange 3) Flow Elements

4) Strainner (Y Type Srainner, Bucket Type Strainner)

B.13 TYPES OF PIPE ENDS


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Pbe Ple Pse Ble Tse Plain Both End Plain Large End Plain Small End Bevelled Large End Threaded Small End

B.14 TYPES OF GASKETS


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Full Face Inside Bolt Circle Spiral Wound Mettalic Ring Type Metal Jacketed

C.1 SERVICE CODE FOR UTILITY LINES


1) Lps Low Pressure Steam 2) Hps High Pressure Steam 3) Mps Medium Pressure Steam 4) Cws Cooling Water Supply 5) Cwr Cooling Water Return 6) Chws Chilled Water Supply 7) Chwr Chilled Water Return 8) Bs Brine Supply 9) Br Brine Return 10) Ia Instrument Air 11) Ca Compress Air 12) Dmw Potable Water35 13) Ps Process Water

C.2 SERVICE CODE FOR PROCESS LINE


1) Fg = Fuel Gas 2) Pa = General Hydrocarbon 3) Pb = Hydrocarbon With Sulfer 4) Pc = Hydrocarbon With Hydrogen 5) Pd = Hydrocarbon With Hydrogen & H2s 6) Pe = Hydrocarbon With Sour Water 7) Cb = High Strenght Caustic 8) Va = Sulphuric Acid 9) Ha = Hydrocloric Acid 10) Cc = Low Strenght Caustic 11) Ct = Catalyst 12) Hy = Hydrogen 13) Ch = Chemicals 14) Ni = Nitrogen 15) Ca = Amines 16) Su = Molten Sulphur 17) Ga = Gaseus Extinguishant 18) Dl = Diesel 19) Fg = Fuel Gas 20) Fs = Fuel Gas (Sour) 21) Fo = Fuel Oil 22) Rt = Refrigerant 23) Lg = Flue Gas 24) Lo = Lube Oil 25) Ba = General Hydrocarbon 26) Bb = Hydrocarbon With Sulphur 27) Bc = Hydrocarbon With Hydrogen 28) Bd = Hydrocarbon With Hydrogen & H2s 29) Be = Hydrocarbon With Sour Water

D.1 SHORT CODE


1) Ibr 2) Astm 3) Ansi 4) Smls 5) Thd 6) Bw 8) Sw 9) Ecc. Red. 10) Conc.Red. 11) Eq.Tee 12) Red. Tee 13) Clpg 14) Vlv 15) Str 16) T 17) Elb 18) Fof.El. 19) Ptfl.El. 20) Gr.El 21) Sch 22) Thk 23) Eqpt 24) Sorf 25) Soff 26) Wnrf 27) Wnff 28) Bop.El. 29) Cl.El. 30) Pcd 31) Nb 32) Ns 33) Be 34) Isi 35) Fst 36) Fsd 37) Suc. 38) Disch. 39) Wp.El. 40) Ga 41) P&Id Indian Boiler Regulation Act American Society Of Testing Material American National Standard Institute Seamless Threded Butt Welded Socket Welded Eccentric Reducer Concentric Reducer Equal Tee Reducing Tee Coupling Valve Strainner Trap Elbow Finish Floor Elevation Platform Elevation Ground Elevation Schedule Thickness Equipment Slipon Rase Face Slipon Flat Face Weldneck Rase Face Weldneck Flat Face Bottom Of Elevation Center Line Elevation Pitch Circle Dia. Nominal Bore Nominal Size Beveled End Indian Standard Institute Flat Side Top Flat Side Down Suction Discharge Work Point Elevation General Arrangement Piping And Instrument Diagrames

D.2 AMERICAN STANDARD


42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) Astm Api Aisi Ansi Aws Awwa Asme The American Society Of Testing Materials The Americal Petroleum Institute The American Iron And Steel Institute The American National Standard Institute The American Welding Society The American Water Works Association The American Society Of Mechanical Engineers

D.3 API STANDARDS


1) 2) 3) 4) Api5l Api6d Api600 Api 605 Specification For Pipe Line Pipe Line Valves, End Closers, Connectors, And Swivels Steel Gate Valve Large Diametre Carbon Steel Flanges

D.4 ANSI STANDARDS


1) Ansi/Asme 31.1 2) Ansi/Asme 31.2 3) Ansi/Asme-31.3 Power Piping-1995 Fuel Gas Piping-1968 Chemical Petroleum Refinery Piping-1993

D.5 BRITISH STANDARD


1) BS10 2) BS806 3) BS916 4) BS1560 5) BS1414 6) BS1600 7) BS1965 8) BS2080 9) BS2598 10) BS3351 FLANGES PIPES AND FITTINGS FOR BOILER BLACK BOLTS,NUTS AND SCREWS STEEL PIPE FLANGES GATE VALVES FOR PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES DIMENSIONS OF STEEL PIPES BUTT WELDING PIPE FITTINGS FACE TO FACE /END TO END DIMENSIONS OF VALVES GLASS PIPE LINES AND FITTINGS. PIPING SYSTEM FOR PETROLEUM REFINERIES

E.1 DRAWINGS
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) Study Layout General Arrangement Drawings Piping And Instrument Diagrames Sectional Layouts Civil Layouts Equipment Layouts Fabrication Details Drawing Foudation Details Drawings Structural Layout Isometrics Piping Details Layout Nozzle Orientations Plot Plan Flow Diagrame

F1 PROCESS DESIGN CODE FOR SERVICE


1) Sulfer 2) Asme B31.3

F2.PIPING MATERIAL CODE


1) Buttwelded Fittings 2) Spectacle Blind 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Piping Valve Flange Small Fittings Gasket A234-Wp5, Sch.40, B16.9 Buttweld, 5crom Molydenum Alloysteel Per Astm Grade Wp5,Schedule 40, Per Ansi B16.9 A240-304h 600lb Rf Smth Stainless Steel, Per Astm A240 Grade 321, Class 600, Per Api 590 Cs. A106 Gr. B Cs A216 Wcb Asme B16.5, Class 150 Ratting As A182 F5 Spiral Wound

G.1 PIPE ENDS


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Bevelled Ends Plain Ends Screwed Ends Flanged Ends Spigot/Socket Ends Buttress End

H.1 PIPE MATERIALS


1) Astm A53 2) Astm A106 3) Api 4) Is 5) Is Welded And Seamless Pipe Seamless Cs Pipe For High Temp. Services 5l Line Pipe 1239 Steel Pipes For General Pupose 3589 Steel Pipes For General Services

H.2 DIMENSIONAL STANDARD


1) Ansi B16.1 2) Ansi B16.3 3) Ansi B16.4 4) Ansi B16.5 5) Ansi B16.9 6) Ansi B16.11 Cast Iron Flanged End Fittings Malleable Iron Threded Fittings Cast Iron Threded Fittings Steel Flanged End Fittings Buttwelding End Fittings Socketweld And Screwed End Fittings

H.3 SW/SCRD FITTING MATERIALS


1) Astm 105 2) Astm A181 3) Astm A182 4) Astm A234 5) Astm A350 Forged Carbon Steel Forged Carbon Steel For General Purposes Forged Alloy Steel And Stainless Steel Wrought Carbon Steel And Elevated Alloy Steel Pipe Fitting For Moderate And Elevated Temperatures Forged Alloy Steel For Low Temperature Services

H.3 BUTTWELDED END FITTINGS


1) Astm A234 2) Astm A403 3) Astm A420 Carbon Steel Fittings Austenitic Stainless Steel Fittings Alloy Steel For Low Temperature Services.

H.4 FLANGED END FITTINGS


1) Astm 216 2) Astm 351 3) Astm A352 4) Astm F 1545 5) Is 1538 Carbon Steel Castings Stainless Steel Castings Alloy Steel Castings Plasting Lined Fittings Ci Fittings

H.5 PIPING PACKAGES


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) Exchanger Piping Reactor Piping Tower Piping Column Piping Pump Suction Discharge Piping Pipe Rack Piping Boiler Piping Cooling Tower Piping Chiller Piping Steam Trap Assembly Control Valve Assembly Steam Manifold Assembly Utility Manifold Assembly Offsite Area Piping Tank Farm Area Piping Trench Piping Under Ground Piping Domestic Piping Diesel Engine Piping Compressor Piping

Piping Concepts
Site Plan
Considerations
All aspects of safety, operability, maintenance, constructability and economics. Layout and spacing of the roads, process plants, tanks and piperacks. Equipment location & spacing, associated piping, controls & maintenance & constructability Good accessibility to valves and instruments, avoiding hazardous obstructions like misplaced manifolds, valve stems & support columns. Constructability to ensure no obstruction to transportation, lifting & erection of equipment due to adjacent plant, structures or equipment and compliance to sequenced construction plan. Potential late delivery of large equipment items to avoid serious impact on construction schedule. One overall site plan for the entire complex, interconnecting piperacks and their relative locations to be made. Process units and offplot facilities, to be constructed to common schedule to be grouped and located to ensure minimum impact from and to the operating plant during construction for later phases. Prevailing wind direction to be considered for special cases. For e.g., Flares for the refinery to be located upwind of the process units. Layout of the tankage area to suit the flow of products and feed stocks with the pumps stations located outside of the bunded area. Roads to be provided around the tanks for access to all areas for maintenance & fire fighting. Unit Plot Plan One unit plot plan for each process unit. Equipment layout & spacing to allow for maintenance & constructability Air coolers to be on top of a pipe rack. No equipment is to be located above or below coolers to facilitate access to place the air coolers and remove the tube bundle for maintenance. Furnaces and boilers to be located at plot boundaries for ease of access. Adequate dropout and swinging space for tube pulling by mobile crane. Fired heaters to be located upwind of process units. In congested process areas, heater locations to provide the lowest risk of fire or explosion. Exchangers to be with channel end away from piperacks to facilitate tube bundle removal Pumps handling flammable materials not to be located below piperacks but to be placed with centreline of discharge at min. 1.5 m from the centre line of pipework column. Compressors to be located adjacent to roadway and downwind from heaters & to be in shelters to provide protection for equipment & personnel. Bridge or gantry crane for removal of compressor components. Vertical vessels to be placed on a common centreline parallel to the main piperack USO. Horizontal vessels to be located to minimise piping runs & to be lined up with their tangents on a common locating line. Reactors to be located for ease of access during catalyst unloading and loading operations. Space to be provided for cranes and storage of spent and new catalyst.

Pipe Stress Analysis Purpose


To ensure that piping is routed and supported so that no damage occurs to either the pipe or associated equipment due to the effects of thermal expansion or contraction, or loads resulting from weight, pressure, wind earthquake, pulsation, shock, foundation settlement, etc.

Procedure
Ensuring compliance to all Code, Client and Inspection Authority requirements pertaining to Piping Stress Analysis. Establishing all operating functions including start-up, shutdown, steam-out, various combinations of equipment working and idle, bypasses in and out of use, de-coking, etc., for lines to be analyzed. Stress Critical Line List Review. Nozzle loads calculations. Check for flange leakage where bending moments are large, including flanged connections at equipment. Anchor loads on structures and/or foundations. Finalising the location of spring supports with required loads and movements on the Stress sketch. Analysing requirement of reinforcement at branch connections, (other than for internal/external pressure considerations covered by the Piping Material Specification), or at concentrated loading points. Considering expansion joints in stress analysis Checking position of fixed and sliding supports of heat exchangers, horizontal drums, etc. Review of vendor drawings for equipment nozzle loadings.

Piping Layout (GA)


Purpose
For piping installation within a construction area. Information for construction planning. Information for testing and pre-commissioning. Information for Plant Operators

Methodology

Piping arrangement drawings produced in two stages: Planning drawing (study sketches / 2D CAD ) To solve major design problems, transmit information & co-ordinate activities of the different design departments. Preliminary piping arrangement for inter-discipline review & comment. Final drawings (3D CAD model or Non-CAD manual drawing) For 2" and larger lines with dimensions and labelling

GA Using 3D CAD Model

G.A. drawings to be extracted from 3D CAD model. All verification, geometric & clash checks to be completed (including equipment checks to vendor data) before IFC GA extraction. Additional Pipe support GAs issued for construction to reflect pipe support requirements only.

Non-CAD GAs

Design Data

High point of grade. Column and vessel orientation design sketches including: nozzles and manways column and vessel piping platform and ladder size instrument orientation and location height of tower and vessel skirts Orientation of major equipment nozzles, i.e. pumps, exchangers, compressors, etc.

Top of grout for all equipment foundations & pads. Pipe rack widths, bent spacing and top of support elevation of main pipe racks. Allocation of space for electrical, instrument racks, analyser houses, switchgear, and utility hose stations. Location of all main structural columns. Elevations of structural levels and extent of platforms, ladders and stairs required.

Contents of Piping Layout


Equipment co-ordinates. Elevations (Piping, Equipment, Platforms, etc.). Line No. Identification and Flow Arrow. Instrument Identification Match lines. Drawing Continuation References. Key Plan Identification. Complete "Holds" List. Reference Drawings. Structural Column Identification

Piping Layout - Checkpoints

Conformance with P&ID's for Line number, size, classification, direction of flow. Instrument connections and numbers (long form). Piping material classification changes. Drawing "Holds" list. Drawing title block & Drawing key plan. Compliance with standard drawings and plot plan. Adjacent drawings & key plans for correct co-ordinates & drawing references. Fire & Safety requirements & location of fire fighting equipment. Location of Drain hubs, Utility stations, safety showers, eyewashes, drinking fountains & ladders. No fouling of piping with structures, equipment and other lines. Requirements for operating aisles, headway and roadway clearances and other mandatory dimensional clearances

Piping Isometrics
Purpose
Adequate information to fabricate shop pipework. Adequate information to field run small bore piping. Adequate information to erect the pre-fabricated pipe spools. Adequate means of identifying materials for above mentioned isometrics. Adequate information for locating & identifying pipe supports welded to shop fabricated pipework.

Methodology
Shop and field isometrics to be extracted/drawn & self-contained within a model base, plant or unit as defined at start of job. Shop isometrics to be adequately dimensioned to enable spooling and/or shop fabrication. Field isometrics to be extracted/drawn with overall dimensions only for material purposes & to assist field erection.

Isometrics using 3D CAD Model

Isometrics to be extracted from 3D CAD model. Isometrics need not be fully checked dimensionally. P & ID check of the isometric and yellow off to be done. Material to be downloaded from model.

Isometric to be downloaded for piping spool drawings.

Non-CAD Isometrics
Manually prepared on Isometric Sheet. Both dimensional and P&ID checks to be done. Material to be manually entered.

Contents of Piping Isometrics


Line Number & Size Pipe Classification Direction of Flow Equipment Reference & Nozzle Identification Structural Number Identification Isometric Drawing Continuation References All Valving (except vent and drain valves) Strainers, Traps & Flexible Hoses Break with Shop and Field Field Welds (but not shop welds) Vents (as V) & Drains (as D) Orifice Assemblies Spectacle Blinds and Spacers Instrument Numbers, such as PI, TIs, TWs, etc. Instrument Connections Out of Specification Items Sample Points Special Shop Attachment of Pipe Support Dummy Legs Cold Pull Special Line Features, such as Fall, Reinforcing Pads, Weep Holes, Welded Lugs, etc. Spool Identification (suffix letter only) Insulation (include limit)

Piping Material
Scope
Material take-off Updating & control of material quantities with design Monitoring of material requisitions. Automated Material Control

Method

MTO download from 3D CAD Model Manual Material Entry (for non-modelled items).

Link to Procurement Tracking System

Piping Stock Code

Project Stock Code Index generated by Piping Material Classes to be issued as a project specification.

Responsibility

Lead Piping Engineer to schedule and co-ordinate all piping material take-off activities and material requisitioning. Civil Group to give take-off of underground carbon steel non-pressure piping using the appropriate piping class. Instrument Group to give take-off of all instrument piping beyond the primary (root) block valve (except at level instruments). Electrical Group to give take-off of all electrical cable duct piping. Piping Materials Engineer to transmit a summary of all tubing and tubing fittings requirements to Instrument Group for requisitioning.

Material Control

Initial material take off from : Completed preliminary line routings in the CAD model

Manual take off from P&IDs Total forecast material requirements including working surplus and contingency form the basis of the Bulk Material Requisitions. Frequency & timing of material extractions from CAD model & manual MTO ensure that bulk material status is concurrent with design. Field material control is possible as the data within the piping material control programme is downloaded to Procurement Tracking System. Material requisitions issued to procurement for enquiry/ purchase. MR quantities issued for purchase (initial & at each revision) are downloaded to Procurement Tracking System.

Statutory Requirements
Applicable Codes
International piping codes and standards accepted in India ASME/ANSI B31.1, Power Piping

ASME/ANSI B31.3, Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping Oil Industry Safety Directorate,Standard 118. Layout & spacing of roads,buildings,storage tanks and all equipment

Authority Approval

Indian Boiler Regulations (IBR) Materials and fabrication associated with steam and boiler feed systems. Chief Controller of Explosives. (CCOE) All Plot Plans for approval together with safety radii from various sources. (Hazardous Area Drawings). Tariff Advisory Committee (TAC)

Fire protection system & material selection