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GSM

1. GSM
1.1. GSM
1.2.
1.3.
1.4. GSM
1.6. D GSM
1
2. GSM
2.1. GSM
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.
2.5.
2
3. 3.3.
3.4.
4. GSM
4.1.
4.2. GSM
4.4.
4.5.
4.6.
4
5. GSM
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6 GSM
5.7 HLR, VLR MSC
5.8
5
6. GSM
6.1
6.2
6.3 GSM
6.4 GSM
6.4
6

1. GSM
1.1. GSM
1980 .,
862-960 , GSM ()

: 890915 ( - MS), 935-960 ( BTS) [1.1, 1.2].


GSM
(NB D). D 8 124 .

.

(SFH) 217 .
,
, ,

16 .
233 ,
() 35 .
GSM (GMSK).
(DTX),

.
/
(RPE/LTR-LTP-). , - 13 /.
GSM ;
(RSA).
, GSM, .

, ;
(PSTN), (PDN)
(ISDN).
GSM
,
,
,
, /
, /
,

,


,

D (/)


,
TDMA/FDMA

1.2.

890-915
935-960
45
270, 833
13
200
124
16-20
GMSK
0,3
81,2
217
2
RPE/LTP
35

. 1.1
, GSM,
, 1.1, MSC (Mobile Switching Centre) - ; BSS (Base
Station System) - ; (Operations and Maintenance Centre) -
; MS (Mobile Stations) - .
.
GSM
SS N 7 (CCITT SS. N 7).
,
. MSC ISDN
(PSTN, PDN, ISDN ..)
. .
ISDN , MSC
. " ",
,
.
MSC ,
(, ). MSC
. (PSTN) MSC
SS N 7,
.
MSC , ,
(-). MSC
, .
MSC ,
.
MSC ,
, (BSS).


.
, .
, (BSC), BSC.
, BSC,
MSC. GSM
(), MSC.
, (HLR) (VLR). HLR
- ,

. HLR
(IMSI).
(AUC) (. 1.2, 1.3).

HLR .
, ,
, .

() ,
(TMSI) VLR.
, HLR, MSC VLR ,
HLR, , HLR
.
IMSI MSISDN ( ISDN).
MSC VLR, ,
.
,
, - VLR.
, HLR.
BSC, ,
BSC, BSC, VLR
, , HLR VLR

HLR .
, ,
, .
() ,
(TMSI) VLR.
, HLR, MSC VLR ,
HLR, , HLR
.
IMSI MSISDN ( ISDN).
MSC VLR, ,
.
,
, - VLR.
, HLR.
BSC, ,
BSC, BSC, VLR
, . , HLR VLR,
.
VLR , HLR, VLR ,
, VLR.
GSM (LA),
(LAC). VLR LA.
LA ,

VLR. LA VLR,
VLR VLR. VLR ,
HLR, .
VLR "" (MSRN).
, VLR MSRN MSC,
,
.
VLR MSC .
, VLR TMSI HLR.
. TMSI
. VLR
IMSI, TMSI MSRN. VLR
, ,
HLR .

- .
.
. AUC
,
(EIR - Equipment Identification Register).

(SIM), : (IMSI),
(Ki), (A3).
SIM
.
.
(RAND) . Ki A3
(SRES), ..
SRES = Ki * [ RAND]
SRES , SRES
SRES, . ,
. , ,
. SRES SIM.
(, Ki) SIM.
EIR - ,
(11).
. EIR
11, :
- 11, ,
.
- 11 ,
.
- 11 , ,
, "
".
EIR MSC , MSC
.
HLR, EIR, EIR
11. MSC , 11
EIR, .
IWF - , MSC.
,
(DIE) GSM
. ""
. IWF
, , ,
PAD .25.
- , MSC PSTN (
) - , , GSM.
68
. GSM
, ,
/ , .., 180 .

,
,
MSC, PSTN .
- .
GSM ,
.
- , GSM,
.
GSM .25.
,
, .

.
. .
GSM,
.
.

.
NMC - ,
GSM. ,
, . NMC
,
, . ,
, ,
NMC. ,
, , . ,
NMC
.
NMC ,
.
GSM PSTN
. NMC NMC. NMC

(BSS). NMC
, " ", (
) .
NMC - ,
, NMC
. NMC , .
NMC , NMC
, , , ,
.
BSS - , (BSC) -
(BTS). -
. BSS , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, .
BSS MSC, HLR, VLR , : ,
, MSC, MSC ,
- . BSS MSC
.
- , MSC
(64 / ) , GSM (. GSM 04.08).
, ,
13 /. "".
( 6,5
/).
- ,
(LPC), (LTP),
(RPE - RELP).

MSC,
- BSC 13 /,
() 16 /.
4 64 /.
GSM - , 120 . (64
/), " ",
SS N7 LAPD. (64 /) ,
X.25 .
, 3064 / + 64
/ + 64 / = 2048 /.
MS - , ,
GSM . GSM
1- 20 ,
, 5- , 0,8 (. 1.1).
,
.
. ,
(IMSI), .
, , , .
(11).
GSM
[1.2].
1.1

20

1,5

1,5

1,5

1,5

0,8

1,5

1.3.
GSM
: ; GSM;
GSM . GSM
. 1.1.
ETSI/GSM 03.02.

PSTN
MSC 2 /
SS N 7. 2 /
G.732.
ISDN
ISDN 2 /,
SS N 7
Q.701-Q.710, Q.711-Q.714, Q.716, Q.781, 0.782, 0.791, 0.795, 0.761-0.764, 0.766.
NMT-450
NMT-450 2
/ SS N7.
(TUP - Telephone User Part)
( - Message Transfer Part) . 2 /
G.732.
GSM
GSM GSM.
(SCCP)
(GMSC).
GSM -

MSC BSS (-) BSS,


, . - .
SS N7 . --
08 ETSI/GSM.
MSC HLR VLR (-). MSC
, VLR.
MSC, VLR,
. , MS
. ,
, MSC VLR,
HLR.
MSC HLR (-) MSC
HLR. MSC () HLR ,
.
, MSC HLR
, MS.
HLR VLR (D-)
, . ,
,
. HLR . VLR HLR MS,
,
.
MSC (-) MSC
HANDOVER - ""
.
BSC BTS(A-bis ) BSC BTS
ETSI/GSM ,
2,048 /. 64
/.
BSC (-) BSC ,
.25.
BSC-
BSC (); -- 2,048
/ 16 / 64
/.
MS BTS (Um-) 04 05 ETSI/GSM.
,
, ETSI/GSM 12.01 Q.3,
ISO OSI.
SS N7
.25. .25 PSDN
.
GSM - Q.3
, ETSI/GSM 12.01.
GSM
MSC - (SC) .
ETSI/GSM 03.40.
.
, . ..
.-.
1.4. GSM
GSM : .
: () 300, 600, 1200, 2400,
4800 9600 / ; ()
1200, 2400, 4800 9600 / ,
(CSPDN) ISDN;
300-9600 /
(PSPDN), , Datex-P;
2400-9600 / [1.1, 1.2].

9,6 /
. 9,6 /
.
,
V.24 .21 .
.
:
1) ( : , .);
2) ;
3) "", "";
4) "" ( 3).
( ,
, ).
, GSM ,
.
GSM PLMN . 1.4 (GSM PLMN - GSM Public Land Mobile
Network - ; (Terminal Equipment) -
, (Mobile Terminal) - , IWF (Interworking Function) -
). , GSM, ( -
).

.
.
. 160- ,
.
, , - ,
,
, (),
.
: (Mobile Termination 0) ,
: 1 (Mobile Termination 1) -
ISDN; 2 (Mobile Termination 2) -
V .
,
, (DTE), ..
: 1 (Terminal Equipment 1) - ,
ISDN; 2 (Terminal Equipment 2) - ,
V ( ISDN ).
2 1 (
ISDN) .
GSM,
,
,
.
1.6. D GSM
()
GSM (TDMA).
. 1.6 [1.4]. ,
, = 3 28 53 760 (12533,76 ). 2048
, = 12533,76/2048 = 6,12 .

.
GSM :
1) 26- TDMA ;
2) 51- TDMA .
51 26 .
:
1) = 6120/51 = 120 ;
2) = 6120/26 = 235,385 (3060/13 ). TDMA
= 120/26 = 235,385/51 = 4,615 (60/13 ).
TDMA (NF) NFmax,
NFmax = (26512048) -1 = 2715647.
, 2715647 TDMA .
,

NF . TDMA

= 60/13:8 = 576,9 (15/26 )


TN 0 7. ,
, - ,
, .
,
(). , ,
0,546 ,
.
270,833 /.
, TDMA 156,25 .
576,9 /156,25 = 3,69 .
, , BN 0 155;
1/4 156.
, ,
TDMA
():
NB ,
RACH. 114 (GP) 8,25
30,46 . 114 57 ,
26 ,
.
NB (Steeling Flag), ,
.
(Traffic Channel) "" .
NB 26
, . :
-
. RXQUAL,
. , , ,
. RXQUAL ,
" " (Handover) ;
- NB
;
-
. ,
.
,
. FB . 142
. - ,
1625/24 .
(200 ),
0,022% 900 . FB 8,25
, . (FB)
(FCCH).
SB .
64 ,
.
. (SCH).
DB . DB NB (.
1.6) 26 . DB
. DB , .
.
.
, , .
. 8 , -
(41 ), 36
. (68,25 , 252 ),
( )
,

.

GSM - 35 .
233,3 .
GSM ,
TDMA , .
, TDMA , . 1.7,
NB, FB, DB SB TDMA - . 1.8.
(88 )
TDMA (148 ).
. 1.9.

GSM -
. (SFH - Slow Frequency Hopping) ,
. SFH ,
.
, ,
TDMA (577 ), ()
.
1 .
45
. , ,
,
. (-
) .

( ) .
.
TDMA/FDMA GSM
. 1.10,1.11.

, ,
GSM,
3-4 .
D GSM
/ 9
, 17-18 .
1
1.1 M.Mouly, M.B.Pautet. The GSM System for Mobile Communications. 1992. p.p. 702.
1.2 .. . . .
48. "-". . 1994.
1.3 A. Mehrotra. Cellular Radio: Analog and Digital Systems. Artech House, Boston-London. 1994. p.p. 460.
1.4 .. . TDMA GSM. "". N
10. 1993. . 9-12.
1.5 W. Heger. GSM vs. CDMA. GSM Global System for Mobile Communications. Proceedings of the GSM
Promotion Seminar 1994 GSM MoU Group in Cooperation with ETSI GSM Members. 15 December 1994. p.p. 3.11 - 3.1-18.

2. GSM
2.1. GSM
GSM ()
: 890-915 - ( ""); 935-960 -
( "") [2.1].
GSM
NMT-900, TAGS, ETACS. , GSM,
. 2.1.
, GSM, .
200 , GSM 124 . ,
, ,
45 . .
.
FI () - 890-915 , Fu () -
935-960 , :
FI () = 890,2 + 0,2 (-1), : Fu () = FI () + 45, ; 1 < < 124.
2.1 (RX) ()
.
8 , 8
TDMA .
TDMA .
, ,
: -
(); - ().
,
.
2.2.
GSM : TCH/F (Full Rate Traffic
Channel) -
22,8 / ( );
TCH/H (Half Rate Traffic Channel) -
11,4 / ( Lm).

. ;
- , (..
- ).
2.1
Channel
RX Frequency TX Frequency Channel
Decimal Hexadecimal
1
01
2
02
3
03
4
04
5
05
6
06
7
07
8
08
9
09
10
OA
11
0
12

13
OD
14
OE
15
OF

MHz
890.20
890.40
890.60
890.80
891.00
891.20
891.40
891.60
891.80
892.00
892.20
892.40
892.60
892.80
893.00

RX Frequency TX Frequency
MHz
935.20
935.40
935.60
935.80
936.00
936.20
936.40
936.60
936.80
937.00
937.20
937.40
937.60
937.80
938.00

Decimal
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77

Hexadecimal
3F
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
4A
4
4C
4D

MHz
902.60
902.80
903.00
903.20
903.40
903.60
903.80
904,00
904.20
904.40
904.60
904.80
905.00
905.20
905.40

MHz
947.60
947.80
948.00
948.20
948.40
948.60
948.80
949.00
949.20
949.40
949.60
949.80
950.00
950.20
950.40

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31 .
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
1A
1
1C
ID
IE
IF
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
2A
2
2C
2D
2E
2F
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

3D

893.20
893.40
893.60
893.80
894.00
894.20
894.40
894.60
894.80
895.00
895.20
895.40
895.60
895.80
896.00
896.20
896.40
896.60
896.80
897.00
897.20
897.40
897.60
897.80
898.00
898.20
898.40
898.60
898.80
899.00
899.20
899.40
899.60
899.80
900.00
900.20
900.40
900.60
900.80
901.00
901.20
901.40
901.60
901.80
902.00
902.20
902.40

938.20
938.40
938.60
938.80
939.00
939.20
939.40
939.60
939.80
940.00
940.20
940.40
940.60
940.80
941.00
941.20
941.40
941.60
941.80
942.00
942.20
942.40
942.60
942.80
943.00
943.20
943.40
943.60
943.80
944.00
944.20
944.40
944.60
944.80
945.00
945.20
945.40
945.60
945.80
946.00
946.20
946.40
946.60
946.80
947.00
947.20
947.40

78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124

4E
4F
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
5A
5
5C
5D
5E
5F
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
6A
6
6C
6D
6E
6F
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
7A
7
7C

905.60
905.80
906.00
906.20
906.40
906.60
906.80
907.00
907.20
907.40
907.60
907.80
908.00
908.20
908.40
908.60
908.80
909.00
909.20
909.40
909.60
909.80
910.00
910.20
910.40
910.60
910.80
911.00
911.20
911.40
911.60
911.80
912.00
912.20
912.40
912.60
912.80
913.00
913,20
913.40
913.60
913.80
914.00
914.20
914.40
914.60
914.80

950.60
950.80
951.00
951.20
951.40
951.60
951.80
952.00
952.20
952.40
952.60
952.80
953.00
953.20
953.40
953.60
953.80
954.00
954.20
954.40
954.60
954.80
955.00
955.20
955.40
955.60
955.80
956.00
956.20
956.40
956.60
956.80
957.00
957.20
957.40
957.60
957.80
958.00
958.20
958.40
958.60
958.80
959.00
959.20
959.40
959.60
959.80

: TCH/FS (Full
Rate Traffic Channel for Speech)

- ; TCH/HS (Half Rate Traffic Channel for Speech)


- ; TCH/F 9,6 (Full Rate Traffic Channel for 9,6 kbit/s User
Data)
- 9,6 /: TCH/F 4,8 (Full Rate Traffic Channel for 4,8 kbit/s
User Data)
- 4,8 /; TCH/F 2,4 (Full Rate Traffic Channel for 2,4 kbit/s
User Data)
- 2,4 /; / 4,8 (Half Rate Traffic Channel for 9,6 kbit/s
User Data)
- 4,8 /; / 2,4 (Half Rate Traffic Channel for 9,6 kbit/s
User Data) - 2,4 /.
TCH/FS 13 / (
22,8 / TCH/F). TCH/HS
. GSM,
.
GSM 1997 .
,
. ,
, , .25.
2.3.
() .
:
(Broadcast Control Channels) - ; (Common Control
Channels) - ; SDCCH ( Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channels) -
; (Associated Control Channels) - .

. , .
:
FCCH (Frequency Correction Channel) - ,
.
;
SCH (Synchronization Channel) - ,
() :
(Broadcast Control Channel) - ,
( ,
, ..).
:
(Paging Channel) - ,
:
RACH (Random Access Channel) - ,
;
AGCH (Access Grant Channel) - ,
( ,
).

. : SDCCH/4 (Stand-alone Dedicated
Control Channel)
- , ; SDCCH/8 (Stand-alone Dedicated
Control Channel) - , .
.
,
, .

. "" ,
"" - . :
FACCH (Fast Associated Control Channel) - ,
, .. " "
;
SACCH (Slow Assocaited Control Channel) - ,
"" .
"" ,
, .

:
.

. :
FACCH/F, TCH/F; FACCH/H, /; SACCH/TF, TCH/F;
SACCH/TH, /; SACCH/C4, SDCCH/4; SACCH/C8,
SDCCH/8. . 2.2.
2.4.
FACCH SACCH 26 .
SACCH . 2.3.
13- TDMA SACCH; 26- TDMA
. SACCH
13- 26- TDMA .
TDMA 114 . -
24 TDMA 26 120
, 22,8 /.
SACCH TDMA , 114 ,
SACCH 950 /. TCH/SACCH
() 26- TDMA 22,8 + 0,950 +0,950 - 24,7 /.
. 2.3 ), 26- ( )
, 12 TDMA ( t). 26- TDMA
SACCH .
11,4 /;
TCH/SACCH - 24,7 /.
FACCH
TDMA , t
.
( FACCH SACCH) 51-
. 51- . 2.4.
/
TCH/SACCH,
, / ,
. , , ,
.
(, " - ")
(), , .
(SCH, " - ") ()
.
(FCCH, " - ")
.
(RACH, " - ")
ALOHA ,
.
(AGCH, " - ")
(SDCCH ) ,
RACH.
(, " - ") ,
( ).
. 2.4 ,
51- .
"" /
RACH, .

.
"" 51 5 10 , ,
FCCH, SCH. 8
.
, 9 ( )
AGCH . ,

: 4 , 5 - FCCH, 5 - SCH 36 AGCH,


(9 ).
,
.
, AGCH/PCH 1,94 / (4114
235 ).
, 51- .
"" , .
8SDCCH/8
(. 2.4 , ). , , py BCCH/CCCH SDCCH/4 (. 2.4 , )
. ,
BCCH/CCCH. 2, 4 6
, SCH
FCCH.

.
, , 1
: - ; - -
; - .
.

(GMSK).
2.5.
GSM -
(GMSK). "" ,
()
, [2.2,
2.3]. GMSK ,
90. ,
.
^ ^^ .
" ". GSM
GMSK- = 0,3, -
3 , - .
2
2.1 .. . GSM."". N 10,
1993. . 9-12.
2.2 . Mouly, .. Pautet. The GSM System for Mobile Communications. 1992. p.p. 702. 2.3 A. Mehrotra.
Cellular Radio Performance Engineering. Artech House. 1994. p.p. 536

3.
: 1 50
1 132 16 (. 3.4). 1
(. 3.4). (53, 50)

(D)=D3+D+1.
, Sw
- , ,
,
(. 3.2). Sw
. . 3.4.
, . 3.4.
, .
,
. 3.4. , ,
, . 189 1

(2,1,5) =1/2 (. 3.2).


. 3.6 [3.2].
. 3.4, 2189+78^456 .
456 57 (. 3.4),
(. 3.3, 3.4). .
3.4 , . 4 114 ,
- (DI/B). . 3.4 4 ,
(11/). (. 3.43)
hi, h0,
.
3.3.

. - (11/)
1^19, 19116=2204 .
1- ( ) (), =1 ...116,
, , :
1 ( + j, j + 19t) = (, m) j = m mod 19, t=m mod 6.
. 3.7 [3.2).
3.4.
. 3.8 , .
,
(SCH) (RACH).
=184 .
(Fire )
(D)=(D^+ 1)(D^+ D^+ 1)

GF (2) U (0) 0223 + (1) 0222 + ... U (222) D+U (223),
U (0), U (1)...U (183) - . U (184), U (185)...U (223) - .
224 ( 40 )
() .
, TDMA ,
3 5
.

=1/2 ( TCH/FS),
GO = 1 + 03+ 04 G1 = 1+0+0 2+ 04
456 {(0),...(455 )}.
(. 3.4),
8 57- (...7).
. j,
Bj = {b (j,0), b (j,1)...b (i,56 )},
456
b (j,i) = c(k), 3.2.
3.2
0
0
25

30

168
232
296
360
424
32
96
160
224
288

225
289
353
417
25
89
153
217
281
345

292
346
410
18
82
146
210
274
338
402

339
403
11
775
139
203
257
331
395
3

396
4
58
132
196
250
324
388
452
60

453
61
125
189
253
317
381
445
33
117

54
118
182
246
310
374
438
46
110
174

111
175
239
303
367
431
39
103
157
231

35

40

45

50

55
56

352
416
24
88
152
216
280
344
408
16
80
144
208
272
336
400
8
72
136
200
254
328
392

409
17
81
145
209
273
337
401
9
73
137
201
255
329
393
1
55
129
193
257
321
385
449

10
74
138
202
256
330
394
2
56
130
194
258
322
386
450
58
122
186
250
314
376
442
50

57
131
195
259
323
387
451
59
123
187
251
315
379
443
51
115
179
243
307
371
435
43
107

124
138
252
316
380
444
32
115
180
244
308
372
436
44
108
172
236
300
364
428
36
100
164

181
245
309
373
437
45
109
173
237
301
365
429
37
101
165
229
293
357
421
29
93
157
221

238
302
366
430
38
102
156
230
294
358
422
30
94
158
222
286
350
414
22
86
150
214
278

295
359
423
31
95
159
223
287
351
415
23
87
131
215
279
343
407
25
79
143
207
271
235

- ,
(. 3.6).

GSM . 3.9. SACCH, ,
AGCH, SDCCH /-.
. 3.10. (n, k, t) ^-

, .
,
.
. 3.11, 3.12 ,
, .
4. GSM
4.1.
GSM
,
.
.
(DTX) ,
. DTX
(VAD),
, .
,
, . ,

, . DTX
, - .
GSM . 4.1,
[4.1, 4.2, 4.3].
4.2. GSM

GSM
[4.3]:
- ,
;
- ,
16 /,
- ;
- ;
- , ;
- ;
- :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
GSM .
20 9 .
6 6 .
(SBC) ( ) ,
SBC [4.4].
RPE-LPC - Regular-Pulse Excitation/Linear Predicative Coding (, Philips) -
;
MPE-LTP - Multi-Pulse Excitation/Long-Term Prediction (, IBM) -
:

,
. , LTP .
N .
5 .
r (i) LPC LTP
3,6 /.

3-4 .
9,4 /.
3,6+9,4 = 13 /.

(RPE) , . 4.3.
, ISDN,
.
20 .
, -,
, 70-80 .
4.4.
(VAD)
.
. VAD
. VAD -
. ,
, 50%,
. VAD
[4.6]:
- ;
- ;
- , :
- . GSM VAD
. VAD . 4.4.
. ,
, . VAD
.
,
.

, , .
+ ,
. .
(+).

. ( )
VAD , VAD
, . VAD
.
, , ,
,
[4.6].
VAD RPE/LTP-LPC -,
LPC ,
VAD.
4.5.

. (VAD) ,
, .

LPC .
, (SID ).
LPC SID .
,
.
. ,
, ,
.
SID 480 .

.
4.6.

.
.
,
.
,
, .
SID . SID ,
SID . SID ,
.
,
DTX
GSM PLMN
.
4
4.1 . Mouly, -. Pautet. The GSM System for Mobile Communications. 1992. p. 701.
4.2 A. Mehrotra. Cellular Radio Performance Engineering. Artech House. Boston-London. 1994. p. 536.
4.3 P. Vary. GSM Speech Codec. Conference Proceedings DCRC, 12-14 October. 1988. Hagen FRG. p.p.2a/1-2a/6.
4.4 . Sonthcott. Speech Proceeding in the Pan-European Cellular Mobile Telephone System. IEE Colloquium:
"Digitized Speech Communication via Mobile Radio". London. 19 December, 1988. p.p. 5/1-5/5.
4.5 P. Vary, R. Hofman. Sprachcodec ftir das Europaische Funkfernsprechnetz. Frequenz. 42, 1988. s.s. 85-92.
4.6 D. Freeman, . Sonthcott, 1. Boyd. A Voice Activity Detector for the Pan-European Digital Cellular Mobile
Telephone Service. IEE Colloquium ""Digitized Speech Communication via Mobile Radio". London. 19 December,
1988. p.p. 6/1-6/5
5. GSM

5.1

, : .
-,
. , -,
(), ,
, .
. -
.

( ,
).
, ,
.
:
1) ;
2) .
, , ,
, .
""
.
- ,
, .
- ( )
, .
[5.1-5.3];
- ;
- .
-.
:
- ; -
.
. , ,
, , , .
.
,
f, , f () ,
, y=f(x) ,
[5.1-5.3]. , ,
,
.
RSA ( Rivest,
Shamir, Adieman) [5.1-5.3]. D, :
D ((*) = (D(*)).
, - .
, ( D) D (
). D,
Dx.
RSA,
. ,
:
- ;
- ;
- . : ,
= () . db () = db ( ()) = .
: F = Da ()
F ( ,
Da). F
(F) = (Da ()) = .
, .
,
. :
F = Da () = (F) = (Da ();

. db () = db ( (F)) = Da ();
, (Da ()) = .

, . RSA
. RSA ,
, [5.1, 5.2].
RSA

.
GSM ""
.
GSM [5.4, 5.5]:
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
.
GSM , 5.1.

5.1
GSM 02.09

,
GSM.

GSM 03.20

GSM 03.21

GSM 02.17

(SIM)

GSM 02.09

SIM

GSM,
, GSM .
, GSM.
5.2

- .
(SIM-),
:
- (IMSI);
- (Ki);
- (A3). SIM


.
.
(RAND) .
(SRES), RAND, Ki A3:
SRES = Ki [RAND].
SRES , SRES
SRES, . ,
. ,
, .
SRES SIM. (
Ki) SIM. . 5.1.
5.3


. .
(8) SIM. RAND
, SRES, (), RAND, Ki
8 (. 5.2):
= Ki [RAND].
. ,
, .
SIM.

RAND
.
. ,
.
, ,
, .
.

CMC (Ciphering Mode
Command) . CMC ,
, .
, 5.4
() ,
, " " (TMSI),
(LA). ' TMSI.
(, ),
(IMSI).
TMSI
. TMSI

,
TMSI (LAI), TMSI
.
5.5

MS BTS ,
TMSI. TMSI
.
, i ,
.
VLR
TMSI, .
, ,
TMSI, LAI. LAI

, '
. 1
5.6 GSM
, GSM,
: RAND - ,
;
- - ;
- ,
;
- , / ,
;
- ,
Ki;
- ,
Ki;
- / ,
;
- , ,
;
- .
5.2 GSM.
5.2
NN ..

1
2

( SIM)
(SIM)

3
4

(AUC)
(HLR)

(VLR)

6
7

(MSC)
(BSC)

5
A3; 8; IMSI; Ki;
TMSI/LAI; Kc/CKSN
A3; 8; IMSI/Ki

IMSI/RAND/SRES/Kc

IMSI/RAND/SRES/Kc,
IMSI/TMSI/LAI/Kc/CKSN
5, TMSI/IMSI/Kc
5, TMSI/IMSI/Kc

5.7 HLR, VLR MSC


, , (AUC).
- , ,

(HLR). AUC ,
. GSM AUC .
AUC :
- Ki
(IMSI);
- RAND/SRES/Kc IMSI HLR
.
VLR, VLR
.
:
- - . IMSI.
VLR HLR '' RAND/SRES/Kc,
IMSI;
- , TMSI
LAI. VLR VLR
IMSI RAND/SRES/Kc, TMSI/LAI,
VLR,
VLR RAND/SRES/Kc
HLR.
GSM 09.02.
VLR. VLR RAND (MSC)
SRES. TMSI
IMSI. TMSI (MSC).
GSM 09.02.

GSM 04.08.
5.8
GSM ,
, Ki,
IMSI, .
.
SIM . SIM
. SIM
, , SIM-,
GSM .
SIM SIM
(PIN),
.
SIM GSM 02.17.
, SIM, 5.2.
, GSM

, : (RAND/SRES/Kc HLR VLR; RAND SRES
- ). GSM
. GSM
. ,
AUC ( , AUC
).
, GSM. ,
GSM, .
5
5.1 . . . . : . .1979, . 67. N
3. . 71-109.
5.2 . . . . 1988. . 76. N 5, . 24-42.
5.3 . . , . 1988. . 76, N5, . 55-74.
5.4 P. Vander. Arend Security Aspects and the Implementation in the GSM-System. ConferenceProceedings DCRC,
12-14 October 1988. Hagen FRG. p.p. 4a/1-4a/7.
5.5 V. Michel. The Security Features in the GSM-System. 6-th World Telecommunication Forum Proceedings.
Geneva, 10-15 October, 1991. Part 2. p.p. 385-389
6. GSM

6.1
GSM -
(. 6.1). ,
(GSM NM) [6.1 - 6.3]:
1, GSM NM
.
2. GSM NM ,
(PLMN), .
3. GSM NM ,
PLMN, .
4. GSM NM , ,
, .
5. GSM NM ,
.
6, GSM NM
, , ,
.
7. GSM NM , ,
.
GSM 1 (OSI)
(ISO),
, , ?
.
6.2
(TMN) GS^
[6.1, 6.2],
.
GSM TMN
( TMN) ( PLMN)
.
TMN , PLMN
.
TMN PLMN (,
SS N7, - ISDN). ^ GSM TMN
,
PLMN .
TMN 1
PLMN. . 6.1, GSM TMN
PLMN OSF (OS),
MF DSI
TMN, TMN
PLMN (NEF), ^
(WSF).
TMN .
RP - ()
q - OS,M NE ;
f - ( GSM);
- (1); -
, TMN;
m - ;
t - ;
FB -
WSF - ;
OSF - ;
MF - ;
DCF - GSM, ;
QAF - Q-;
SEF - () ;
MEF - ;
NEF - .
. 6.1

, . 6.1,
. ,
[6.3].
GSM TMN
PLMN ( ),
, .
,
, .
6.3 GSM

TMN ,
(OS), :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
GSM TMN , ..
( TMN OS),
( )
OS.

- ,
/ ,
(NE) .
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) () :
4) ;
5) .
, .
GSM TMN
(DCF) GSM TMN (DCN)
(LCN).
DCN GSM TMN OSI [6.2].

. , , .2
[6.3] Q3 . TMN.
, SS N7 Q3.

.25 (PC PDN).
(LCN) PLMN
TMN Q2 A-bis .

GSM (NE) PLMN, , MSC, HLR, BSS
.
:
- (MEF), . (ME)
MEF;
- (SEF), . ,
, , . (SE)
SEF.
, .
6.4 GSM
,
(DCN)
(LCN).


, .
,
.
TMN
GSM TMN . 6.2.
, , ,
SS N7 .25.
SS N7 ( ) Q.795 [6.4].
.25
.
SPS 6 GSM 09.02 [6.5], SS N7
:
- MSC HLR PLMN;
- ;
- ;
- " ".
TMN PLMN TMN
SS N7,
PLMN, .25
( ^) Q.513 [6.6]. .25
(.25 - SS N7).
BSS MSC (-, . 6.3)
SS N7.

(SCCP) 2 X.224 2, SCCP
3 .224 0. GSM .25
-.
BTS BSC (GSM A-bis ) Lap-D
.
PLMN, BTS, .25 .
TMN Q3 ,
PS PDN.
PLMN TMN
/ 02-11 [6.7].
GSM,
. 6.3.
, GSM TMN
( 3)
, ( ) Q.795
ISO (CMIS)
(FTAM), . 6.3 [6.8, 6.9].
, GSM TMN,
, SS N7 .25. ,
, PLMN,
.
6
6.1 Bernd F. GSM Network Management.
6.2 . Smythe Networks and their protocols, Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal, February 1990, pp.
27-34.
6.3 CCITT Recomendation M.2x (Amended third draft; to become M.30 in Blue Book). Principles for a
Telecommunications Management Network, March 1988.
6.4 CCITT (Draft Blue Book) Recomendation Q.795, Operations Administration and Maintenance Application Part
().
6.5 CEPT Draft Recomendation GSM 09.02, CCITT Signalling System N7, Mobile Application Part (MAP); also
referenced as CEPT T/S 43-10.
6.6 CCITT (Draft Blue Book) Recomendation Q.513 "Interfaces for Operations, Administration and Maintenance".
6.7 CEPT Recomendation I/L 02-11, Interfaces for Operation, Maintenance and Supervision of Telecommunications
Equipment in Telecommunications Centres, Copenhagen 1987.

6.8 ISO/IEC D7 9595/9596 series, OSI-Management Information Service Definition/Protocol Specification, Dec.
1987.
6.9 ISO/IEC DIS 8571 Series, OSI-File Transfer, Access and Management, April 1988
http://www.tcc.tomsk.ru/

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