SECOND EDITTON
ERRATA
PREFACE
Page 27
'fhc design of process equipment such as shellandtube heat exrlrlrrgcrs, pressure vessels and storage tanks requires a familiarity with a virr icty of sources of design data and procedures. The purpose ofthis book i$ to oonsolidate the scattered literature and present the material in simplilro(l li)rm so that it can be easily applied to design problems. Typical exirrrrplcs have been included to illustrate the application of the relationships
rrrrtl procedures presented in the text. Therefore, the designer should find tlris book to be a convenient and useful rcference. This book is based upon the author's several years of design exper
t5,
M^".:^sn#zpt u
Page 125
V S,;
IMY
and extensive researchinto previously published literature. The topics l)r'cscnted were selected based upon t}le problems most frequently encrountered by the author. Every effort has been made to eliminate effors during the develop0r0r1t of this book. However, should any euors be noted, the reader is enoouraged to bring them to the attention of the author. In addition any comments or questions related to the topics within this book are invited l)y the author. Neither the author nor the publisher, however, can assume tcsponsibility for the results of designers using values or procedures contained in this book since so many variables affect every design. The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to Frank R. llollig for editorial work and to Eugene F. Megyesy for his help in preparce
ic
The author also wishes to express his appreciation to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Gulf Publishing Company, Chemical Engineering, The James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation, Institution of Mechanical Engineers, The Intemational Conference of Building Officials,
Kanti K. Mahajan
Printed in the United States of America
ln this second edition several new topics have been incorpofatcd. The additions are as follows: Solved examples have been included for design of major components in the chaptet of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers'
Chapter on Flange Deslgn has been expanded to cover design of llanges with full face gaskets. A new chapter, entitled Air Cooled Heat Exchangers has been irrcluded in three parts. It covers fully the design method of Air
(
ixrlers. At the request of users of the first edition sevenAppendices have bccn added to Dresent the derivation of various formulas. Chapter on Deslg n of Tall Stacks has been enlarged and rewritfcn under the title: Mechanical Design of SelfSupported Steel Stacks. lt covers more detailed design methods of wide variety of stacks. And finally, two chapters: Vessel Codes of Various Countries antl Equivalent Materials ofVarious Countries havebeen deleted due to the lack of information necessary for updating the data of those
(
carefully checked the material of the first edition and called hrs irttcntion to errors and omissions. Kanti K. Mahajan
CONTENTS
l,
ShellandTube Heat
Exchangers
...
.......
.... .. ..
.......
2, Flange
Design
59
. 4. Stress Analysis of Floating Heads 5, Fixed Tubeslreet DesUn. . . 6. Flanged and Flued Expansion Joints 7. Pipe Segment Expansion foints. E, Vertical Vessels Supported bylugs.. 9, Vertical Vessel leg DeslSn .
3, Rotauon of Hub Flhnges . .
10. ASME Code, Section
....
.....185
. . . . . . . . . . . . .195
..... .......207
................
VIII, Division
Division
1..
.227
ll.
.......259 *,y 12. Vibration Analysis of Tbll Tbwers . . . . . . . . . . .' > [3. Design of Rectangular 'Ibnks . : . . . . . . . . . . . . .267 .
14.
.... ..,281 Header Box Design.... ,....,...290 Coverplate and Flange Design For Header 3s1 . . . . . .302
.
I
Appendix 2
Derivation of ASME code formulas for shell and head thicknesses of cylindrical vessels for intemal pressure 313 Derivation of fornulas for checking thicloesss at various levels of vertical vessels. . . . . . . . . , . . . .317
Appcndix
Appendix 4
Dcriv$tion of formulas for anchor boh chair dcsign for ve ical vessels .. . .. . . . . .321 Derivation of TEMA equation for nonfixed tubesheet thickness or ASME equation for flat unstayed circular
larSe heads
in
bending
......327
Appendix
Appendix 6 Appendix 7
Derivation of TEMA equation for pressure due to differential thermal expansion for lixed tubesheets . .. .. .333 Derivation of TEMA equation for flat channel cover thickness . ...............337 Derivation of formulas for calculating allowable buckling stress in tall cylindrical towers... ......341
I
SHELLAND.TUBf, HEAT EXCHANGERS
lntroduction
to another. This type of equipment is mostly used in petroehemical plants and petroleum refineries. Proper selection of such equipment cannot only minimize the initial plant cost but can also reduce the daily operating and maintenance costs' The project or process engineer
does not have to be familiar with the complete design aspects since these exchangers are generally designed by the manufacturer' The project or process engineer, however, must understand the methods ol designing and labricating heat exchangers in order to obtain the best suited unit liom the manulacturer. By knowing these methods, he can cooperate more closely with the manulacturer and this can save them both time and money in exchanger applications. Several types ol heat exchangers are available but only lhe major types along with their design leatures will be discussed in this chapter. Applications of Heat Exchangers
A heat exchanger
fluid
Heat exchangers are used in a wide variety of applications ln petrochemicai plants and petroleum relineries. The functions of the
major types are:'
Chiller
The chiller cools a process stream by evaporating a rel'rigerant. lt ls tusually employed where required process temperatures are lower than those attainable with cooling waler.
.s'
I)tist(;N ()tr t,tr,(x:liss li(?tI
(irudcnscr
,MLiN I'
Sterm Generator The steam generator generates stam lbr use elsewhere in th plant by using high level heat from any available Iuel.
Superheatel
Partial Condenser
The partial condenser condenses vapors at a point high enough to provide a temperature dillerence great enough to preheat a cold stream oi process Uuid. lt saves heat and eliminates the need lbr providing a
separate preheater using a Iurnace or steam.
!hporizer
The vaporizer is a heater which vaporizes part of the liquid led to it'
Wast Heat Boilel
Final Condenser The linal condenser condenses vapors to a linal storage temperature ol around l00oF. It generally uses water cooling which means that the translerred heat is lost to the process.
Cooler
generator' The waste heat boiler produces steam and is similar to a steam
The cooler cools process streams by removing heat to cooling water, atmospheric air or other media.
Exchanger The exchanger exchanges heat from a hot to a cold process stream. Heatr The heater heats a process stream by condensing steam. Reboiler
except that the heating medium is a hot waste gas or hot liquid byproduct produced within the plant. To perform these applications, many types of heat exchangers are available. However, their design and materials of construction must be suitable for the desired operating conditions. The selection of matrials of construction is mainly influenced by the operating temPerature, and the corrosive nature of the fluid being handled. In each case seleclion must be both economical and practical.
The reboiler connects to the bottom of a distillation column to boil bottoms liquids and supply heat to the column. The heating media can be steam, hot water or hot process stream.
Thermosiphon Reboiler
With the thermosiphon rboiler the natural circulation ol the boiling medium is obtained by maintaining sufficient liquid head to provide lbr circulation of the fluid material.
Forced Circulation Reboiler The lbrced circulation reboiler uses a pump to lorcc liquid through thc
reboiler ol
distillation column.
t0
tl
w,
IIQLJIPMUN't
igurc 2 shows sections ol typical exchangers. The tube bundle is up made of tubes, tubshets and cross baflles. The channel at the front end of the exchanger serves as a header to feed the fluid into the tubes. The tloating head at the back end ofthe tube bundle is the return header. It moves freely with the thermal expansion of the tubes in the bundle. The shell unit is essentially a cylinder with a bolting flange at each end. The channel bolts to th front flange, and the shell cover bolts to the rear flange. Figure 2 also shows some ofthe variations available in shellandtub designs. Each variation has certain advantages, and also has some disadvantages. The major types of shellandtube heat exchangrs depending on their mechanical conliguration are discussed below.r
FRONT END STATIONARY HEAD TYPES N
ti
SPLIT FLOW
nrln
DIVIDED FLOW
LfLr_____ilJ
X
CHANNEL AND REMOVABLE COVER KETTLE TYPE REBOILER
cRoss FLow
CHANNEL INTEGRAL WTTH TUBESHEET AND REMOVABLE COVER
I
FLOATING HEAD
WTTH BACKING DEVICE
FIXED TUBESHEET
(Courresy
of Tubular
FIG.r. SHELLANDTUBE HEAT EXcHANGERS (Continued) (Courtesy of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Asociation.)
IJ
t2
FIXED TUBESHEET
U_iUBE BUNDLE
or
Channel Cover
20. Slipon Backing Flange 21. Floating Head CoverExternal 22. Floatine Tubesheet Skirt 23. Packing Box 24. Packrr'g 25. Packing Gland
26.
kntern Ring
27. Tierods and Spacers 28. Transverse Baffles or Suppod Plates 29. Impingement Plate
34. Instrument Connection 35. Support Saddle 36. Lifting Lug 37. Support Bracket
38. Weir
AJW
(Courtesy
of Tubular
(Courtesy
of
t5
Iil,t.ANl)
t.u$ti
CFU
llanges lbr bolting tubeside headers. This construction requires t hat shcll and tubesheet materials must be weldable to each other. are no gasketed joints on the shellside, fixed_ _ Because there exchangers provide maxrmum protection against leakage of lgbesheet fluid to the outside. Since clearance betwe; th; oui..rn.r, 5Sellside lgbes and the shell is only the minimum required for fabrication, tubes may completely fill the exchanger shell. However, this type has lirnitations such as: (a) the shell side cannor be mechanically cleaned or inspected, and (bl t hereis no provision for dillerential therrnut ot rne ruDes and the shell. An expansionjoint may be installed in "iounrron ihe shell 1e provide lbr difl'erential thermal expansion, but this req;ir;;;;retul design and high quality fabrication, which for large sizes."rufi.,n o substantial cost increase. Tubeside headers, channel covers, gaskets erc., are accessible lbr maintenance and replacement, and tubes can be replaced.and cleaned internally. The shellside can be cleaned onll oy 6sckwashing or circulating a cleaning fluid. Fixedtubesheet exchangers tjnd use primarily in services where the _. 56ellside fluids are nonfouling, such as steam, refrigerants, gases, certain heat transfer nuids, some cooling waters and clean process streams.
In this type, both ends of Ushaped tubes are fastened to a single stationary tubesheet, thus eliminating the problem ot aifiereitiat llermal expansion because the tubes are free to expand unJ The tube bundle can be removed from the heat ixchanger "o"i.u",. shell foi
inspectron and cleaning or replacement.
The Utube bundles provide aboul the same minimum clearance between the outermost tubes and the inside ofthe shell as fixed_tubesheet exchangers. The number of tube holes in the tubesheet for anv sivcn 5hell, however, is less than for the fixed_tubesheet kind becau,ie of lirnitations on bending tubes. The number of tubeside passes must always be an even number, the maximum is limited only by ft" nu.U". of return bends.
AKT
(Courtesy
FIG.2. HEAT EXCHANCER CONSTRUCTION TYPES of Tubular Exchanger Manufactuiers Association,) 16
maintenance and replacement. BundG tube replacement i" ifr" rows presents no problems. Tlrc others can be replaced only when "r,rt" sDeclal tube supports are used, which allow the U _ tu bes to be spread apart so as
l'1
Outsidepackcd, lantern ring units are generally limited to 150 pst. and 500 F. This construction cannot be used when leakage ofeither fluid to the outside is not acceptable, or when possible mixing oftubeside and shellside fluids cannot be tolerated. PullThrough Bundle Fig. 3(c)
This type ofexchanger has a separate head bolted directly to the floating tubeshiet. Both lhe assembled tubeshet and head are small enough to
mechanically cleaned. Also the floating head is free to move, thus compensating for any di{ferential expansion between tubes and shell without costly expansion joint provisions. This type is qulte expensrve' The basic variations are:
OutsidePacked Stuffing Box Fig. 3(a)
In this type,
shellside 0uid is sealed by rings of packing comprssed within a stufling box by a packing'follower ring. The packing allows the floating tubesheet to move back and forth. Since the stufling box only contacts shllside fluid, shellside and tubeside fluids do not mix, should leakage occur through the packing. The number of tubeside passes rs limited only by the number of tubes in the bundle Since the outer tube Iimit approaches the inside of the floating tubesheet skirt, clearances between outermost tubes and shell are dictatd by skirt thickness'
exchangers are not applicable when leakage of the shellside fluid to the outside cannot be tolerated.
slide through the shell, and the tube bundle can be removed without breaking anyjoints at the floating nd. Although this feature can reduce shellside mainlenance, it increases tubeside maintenance. Clearance requirements (the largest for any typ of shelland'tube exchanger) beiween the outermost tubes and the inside ofthe shell must provide for both the gasket and the bolting at the floating tubeshet. The number of tubeside passes is limited only by the numbr of tubes. With an odd number of passes, a nozzle must extend from the floatinghead coYer through the shell cover. Provision for both dilferential thermal expansion and tubebundle removal must be made by such methods as packed joints or internal bellows. Since this type of exchanger requires an internal gasket between the floating tubesheet and its head, applications are usually restricted to services where never visible failures of the internal gasket are not intolerable.
Inside Split BackingRing Fig. 3(d) In this design, the floating cover is secured against the floating tubesheet by bolting to a strong, wellsecured split backingring This closure, located beyond the end of the shell, is enclosed by a shell cover of large diameter. Shell cover, split backingring and floatinghead cover must be removed [or the tube bundle to slide through the shell. Clearances between the outermost tubes and the inside of the shell (which are about the same as those lbr outsidepacked stulling box exchangers) approach the inside diameter of the gasket at the lloating tubesheet. This type of construction has the same limitation on the number of tubeside passes as the pullthrough bundle, but is more suitable lbr higher shellside temperatures and pressures
Used
these
rinls of weep provided with ring packings (or Orings) separated by a lantrn
Here. the shellside and tubeside fluids are each sealed by separate iroles, so that leakage through either packing will be to the outside The width of the tubesheet must be suflicient to allow for the two packings,
the lantern ring and for differential thermal expansion A small skirt is sometimes attached to the floating tubesheet to provide bearing surface for packings and lantern ring. Since there can be no partition at the floating end' the number of tubeside passes is limited to one or two. Slightly larger than required for Utube eichangers, the clearance between the outermost tubes and the inside of the shell must prevent tubhole distortion during tube rolling ncar the outside edge of th tubesheet.
l8
19
t)lisl(;N
)1,
l,l((x:l.ss liQt,lPMIN'l
has
1& _!. Q
9Z
published detailed standards for the design and construction of.shellandtube heat exchangers. The mechanical standard has been divided into three parts rePresenting the following three diflerent classes of heat
exchangers:
^x
e
p
(,
l.
Class
requirements of petroleum and related processing applications' Equipment fabricated pr this class is designed for safety and
such applications.
"R" Exchangers
z
F
2. Class "C" Exchrngers This is specified for the generally moderate requirements of commercial and general process applications'
Equipment fabricated in accordance with this class isdesigned for the economy and ove.all compactness consistent with safety and service requirements in such applications. 3. Class "B" Exchangers This cl4ss is specified for chemical process service. The equipment is designed for the maximum economy and overall compactness consistent with safety and service requirements in such applications. Fabrication Procedure''s
Shells The shell portion ofthe heat exchanger is made ofeither seamless pipe or rolled and welded cylinder. These are fabricated from pipe with nominal pipe diameters up to 12" as given in Table 1. Above 12" and including 24" the actual outside diameter and the nominal pipe diameter are the same. Shells above 24" in diameter are fabricated by rolling and welding steel
c0>
oo
plates in accordance with the ASME Code Section VIII, Division l, for Fressure Vessels. Automatic welding is used almost exclusively on the longitudinal sams and also on most of the circumferential seams.
20
srs *x
i$,i
xE
lE:e
.
x!
croo lroo laroS,+or Govr o o I u, o .r I t\ r .'lclc I @ c?111 ooo I ooo I !99 ooo l9\e tooo
Flanges
. od
Flanges are designed and fabricated in accordance with the ASME code. Forgings are mostly used to make these flanges. The channel and shell
ro! 6c) loorao l!(N lon cj'l.j'l;ci lol..\ v)c).o lofl q19 t('.o \q F(r crour jOoc{ c^t\
body flanges require careful facing operations. Flanges made to recognized standards can also be used at the assigned pressuretemperature ratlngs.
Tubesheets and Tube Hole Pattern
an
z
Ll
FJ
*+
I  , , lcrovl toat , ,,lqc': lo !  t  t, ', I @o({ .vtoa o.9o !c :!'1,? \qq ooo ooI  ,  ,
:R
E]
cqn
_e
N\O
n.c
F
z F IA X
U)
,, I
vlo.!o 6(\ o<jcj<j I   I N!6 {()N, r oao 6O e cjdcj. (\(! cidci
l{l\e looo
ar(t oir
qgl
o
q'l
F
Tubesheets are cut either mechanically or with welding torches from plates or forgings ofdesired materials. Tube holes cannot be drilled very close together, since too small a width of inetal between adjacent tubes structurally weakens the tubesheet. The shortest distance between two adjacent tube holes is th clearance or ligament, and these are now fairly
()
V)
F !t 'J E J
tn
standard. Four principal tube arrays employed in shellandtube heat exchangers are triangular, rotated triangular, square and rotated square as shown in Figure 4. The triangular arrangement gives the strongest tubesheet for a given shellside flow passage area, whereas the square
3
,.1
z z
z 3
it
9O
Ir69lF.!q loo lpo.o qd  !v)N I lo!olt\O lxoc, ldN.,) looo iooo ocici I cjcio lood lcicio lodd ldcid
I . , , l.oo!oo9 . , . l<()f) i..ii 66.o6o 666 <jcjct I
ooo
ooo ooo
cicid
ooB ooo
cicici
oso Lclo o.vr4, .o L$!t\ l@o li^.i l;^ PQN !?N q<9 !o !'19 a(lh ooo loo
 66o to.)o lcj ci cj
=
v) v)
('\o.o NoolNv) 6h@ lN.oo o.\ (tNN ddN Ir,oi ooo I dcjcj looo
I Nd(r tN..N .vroo
z z
E
!E
"*
i('
qo
I I
odc)
O\ON
9n9 OOO
qrqlo l..No
iN
!Po
It
t! Fl
F
9
,: .!
9o
OOCi r)vrF
cqc t.iqc?
..i ai
(:q9
u)oo 1000looo N66 000looo qeq teqq 9\\ (ood {90 0!o
Siii;
ls stttt69 ta{ol'

22
o!t0 .rc'
l6] 3*:88
(4,
& trE X
(d)
Shell flange
are screwed into the tubesheets placcd secttrcly at thc eorrect spacing lor the given exchanger. Baffles are then slipped onto the tie rods and Iirmly located in their proper place by use ol spacers between I hem as shou n in
Fig.5. There are several types of baffles which are employed in heat as exchangers, but by far the most common are the segmnt baffles generalplates are which are drilled baffles shown in Fig. 6. Segmental be ly cut to some percentage of the shell inside diameter' Baffles may 90o be rotated or may flow for "upanddown" arranged, ur rho*rr, to prJuid" "sidetoside" flow, the later being desirable when a mixture of liquid and gas flows through the shell' The baffle pitch not the percentage cut detlrmines the effective velocity of the shell fluid'
Other types of bames are the disc or donut, and the orifice baflles as in Figs.7 and 8 respectively. Although additional types are sometimes employed, they are not of general importance.
(b)
(c)
shown
Tubes
not be confused with steel pipes or other types of pipes which are extruded to iron pipe sizes. The outside diameter of heat exchanger or condenser tubes is the actual outside diameter in inches within a very
strict tolerance. Heat exchanger tubes are available in a variety ofmetals which include steel,copper, admiralty, muntz metal, brass, 7030 copper
nickel, aluminium bronze, alurninium and stainless steel. They are obtainable in a number of wall thicknesses defined by the Birmingham Wire Gage, which is usually referred to as the BWG or gage of the tube.
These tubes are available in various sizes, of which are most common in heat exchanger design.
i"
ffi*ss$
Fs88888?
6gm
\oooooo/ ./
N9,/o'ittihg
*,*ttj
The choice of a tube material for any particular application may at all in many cases but may be a dilficult and complex problem in severely corrosive envitonments. All the known
presnt no problem
factors which influence or contribut to corrosion such as past performance of materials under similar service condition, type of corrosion experienced in similar units, etc. would aid an engineer materially in selection of most economical and most serviceable tube material for the job.
Duplex Tubes
It
(l,r')rI "l'ft'c{ss llcnt Transfer" rv Donald Q. Kern  Copvdghr r9s0 I'v Mfl irnw llill ll.x)k Cornprny)
24
outside the tubs are extremely corrosive, and in addition require a dilferent amount of corrosion on each side. Tubes which combine two
is not uncommon to find conditions where the fluids both inside and
25
SI
orific\[l
rl
r1 nl
(a)
Detail (b) * FIG. ?  ORIFICE BAFFLE
ir
O. D. of tubes
problem' differrent metals called duplex tubes can be used to meet this of two tubes. bonding mechanically by Duplex tubes are manufactured way In this contact' in intimate are they that so different metals or alloys nonferrous or ferrous of combinations it is possible to choose various alloys to combat successfully a certain type of corrosion at the^outside surface and entirely different type of corrosion at the inside surface'
Ferrules passing Where contact of the ends of th outer tube with the fluid replaced tfriough tlt" toUe isconsidered objectionable, these ends may be ferrules with flrrules of the same alloy as that of the inside tube' These the place when need be only long enough to ensure their bing held in have distinct advantage to tube ends are rollid into the tubesheets' It is a furnished as an integral part of the tube to facilitate
iil."1".tut".
ir,.Lttutiott. The construction of duplex tubes with attached ferrules shown in Fig. 9 and 10 before and after installation respectively'
is
Tube Rolling
Doughnut
'
fixed in Tubes are passed through the tubeshets and baffles, and are preliminary.fashion in a place by an expanding operation. They are set from Ly forcing u piog ug"intt the tubes. The plug preYents the tube
FERRULE
(Same material
as
inner tube)
rotatrng turning when the roller expander is inserted' The roller is a limit of elastic the mandril having a slight taper. It is capable ofexceeding that it so the tube metai and transforms it into a semiplastic condition and A simple seal flows into the grooves and forms an extremely tight a tube is shown in Fig. 11. Tube rolling is a skill,since ""u.ll. "ornrnon by rolling too thin and leaving a seal with little Ouog"O U. rvstructural strength.
Turning Slot \
Tube wall
FIG.
TO
(lr,'rn
'11rxrcss
lltl't Transfer"
 Copyrisht
1950
'
Copyright r95O
27 26
l)lisl(;N olr
Plt.(
)(il'lss llQtrlPMuN'l
sllDl,lANl)ltJttli
llliAl lix(
l{AN(il:Rs
ln some industrial uses it is desirable to install tubes in a tubesheet so that they can be removed easily as shown in Fig. 12. The tubes are actually packed in the tubesheet by means of ferrules using a soft metal packing ring. After completion ofthe bundle assembly, it is brought to a test rack where a hydrotest is applied. Bundles are then lowered vertically into the exchanger shells and linal hydrotest of the exchanger is made. After the outside ofthe shell is painted with a rustpreventive paint and all flanges are covered to prevent damage, the unit is ready for shipment.
DESIGN CAI,CULATIONS
Shell Cylinder
Reference: ASME Section
Paragraph UG27(c)
Design of rnajor shell and tube heat exchanger components is illustrated in the examples given below.
P = Design Pressure, Psig : 50 PSig n = C..t A"i inside radius, in. = 28 125 in' temperature' psi = J : eilo*uuf" stress at design : 85 E = Welcl joint efficiencY C.A.: Corrosion allowance, in : .125 in'
13'800 psi
Now
in'
50(28.125) _i .125
13s00(.85)
.6(50)
=
Usinghand calculation method, mechanically design all the components ofa carbon steel, 56 inch inside diameter having 16 feet long tubes, TEMA 'AET" type of shell and tube heat exchanger for the following conditions.
.1202
.125
'2452
in , use
72" (SA285C)
SHELL
Design Pressure, Psig Design Temper'ature,'F Corrosion Allowance, In. Number of Passes
SIDE 50 400 Va l4
TUBE SIDE
420
5O(28.t25) + .25
13300(.85)
.6(s0)
250
'/a
.1202
125
'2452
VIII, Division
l'
kragraph UG32(d)
S : Allowable stess at design temPeratue' psi E = Weld joint efficiency = '85 C.A. = Corroiion allowance, in = 125 in'
13'800 psi
28
in.
8r
Now
l '375 in
st
.lP
50(28.125\
: 1.3125 in. (min'), use 2'25 in' k,  2^l (1.375  R75) = o.2222 < 0.333 (rone =E h :2.25
h
1.5(eo)
1.5( 875)
13800(.85)
.1(s0)
F .125
.u025
Therefore, the flange can be designed as an integral type as shown in Fig. 1a of Chapter 2. Now assume (64) lVt in. dia. bolts. From Table 3. in
i 199
.125
.0625
.3O'14
in.,
use
have
Channl Cylinder
Reference: Same as shell cylinder
Now C.A.
and
t = :
420(28.125\
c=B+
2(g
t) + 2(R'):56.25 +
2(1.75)
62.s in
17500(.8s) .8078
.6(420)
A:
.125
in
Chapter
Welding neck flanges are used in design. Both channel flanges will be
+
identical as they are independent because tube side design pressure is conffolling the design. Referring to the nomenclature, figures, tables and design steps for
independent hub flange in chapter 2 and using SA 105 flanges and SA193
v
Assume
7600
N=
Fig. la.
0.625 in.
87 bolts, we
have
p: S' : S" =
Sr" Sr"
420 psi
25'000 Psi
25,000 Psi
A/ 6 =:::: 22
Therefore
Vc.:t
a
U.LYJ
n.
2(2195)
G
1.5in.
Assume
gr
1.5(go)
B: 8" :
 2(b) : 62.s  1.2s  2(0.2s) = 60.191 in. Assume rib area : RA : '{0.7018 in.2 Therefore W.r: 10.2795 (n) 60.191 + .5(40.7018)l 7600 : 556,344 lb. :
C
2(0.25)
Ho
40.70181 3.7s(420)
It
W^,
thus
1t
= (60.1910), 42o
t,t95,097 tb
'l'hcrclurc,
,195,097
230,590
Mo =
1,425,68l. tb
1,456,044 (1.1545)
1,681,003
inlb
t(O =:
tr(62.5\
Assumet:5.0625in.
g
threads
2(1
.25) +
g.e+l in.
7.5625 in.
Ao
Since
64(.929)
59.456 tn.2
2(1.25)
A,
)
W
A,
0.5 (57.02'15
59.4s6) 25,000
r,456,044 rb
maximum bolt spacing, the chosen bolt spacing < normal bolt spacing, the correction
and
'"t
Since
..
=zrr?oooioo.rsl = o5l7l
(59.456) 2s.000
in
N>
Nr,
" ='u#=
tu
t.681.003 ( t.0)
56.25
55.ite
29,884
HD:4
\56.25)2 42O
1.043.j23 tb
H6 = Ho
= 230,590 lb Hr= 1,195,097  ,043,723 = t5t,3j4 tb hp:1.75 + .5(1.375) = 2.4375 n. hc= .5 (62.5  60.191) : t.1545 in. hr=.5 (r.75 + 1.375 + 1.1545) : 2.1398
Mo=
fr\
1.1556
in.
Now 1,043,723 (2.4375) 2,544,07 5 intb Mc = 230,590 (1.154s) = 266,216 inIb Mr:151,374 (2.1398) 323,910 inlb
Z:1.8565 z = 6.9647
Y and
13.487
U:14.8209
Now
Therefore,
3,134,201 inlb
L
8o
= r.57l4
Hc:
1,456,044lb.
ho
:\6r.25.r;, = 7.0156
33
^rn
.S,, =
.0625)2
8o
we have
P, "
1.51
t4
and
ho
 = .320i
s,. ''
=#(5.0625)'
> S^,
ss Trorl? aRTl\
6.9647(2,765)
Sincc S, o. K.
10,064)
F=
Similarly from Fig. 5 in Chapter 2,
0.8736
V = 0.3488
and ftom Fig. 8 in Chapter 2,
1.20r9{ 29.884)
l3.l32Psi >26.250
Psi O.K.
f = r.20r9
p  =:
and
S
1.84(29.884)
Psi O.K.
0.8736 7.0156
l)A\
29.884(13 .487
6.964i (1,483)
14.8209
s.
(7.0156t (.875)2
s.,
laRR
228.2333
therefore,
0.5(13,132
5,398)
c=
5.0625 (.1245)
+:
1.63
B =14 \ \s.oozsr.l245)
3/
t=
All stresses in both the operating as well as the gasket seating conditions within allowables. Thus, the inde_pendent flange design is O.K. are Next we will discuss the design of the shell side or the dependent
flange.
l.E4
I .63
R7R,
.5685
i:
Calculating Stresses Operating Condition
.8782
P=
.5685
50 psi
1.4467
Since, the flange and bolt materials are the same as for the independent flange, the values of Sr, S S" and St remain unchanged. Noq in the uncorroded condition
^ r 60  ',
Assume
8r =
8r
Assume
0.6875 in.
Nrtw
H<;=W^tH=l'425,691  142'273: l '283 '411 Ib Hr = 142,273  124,252 = 18,021 lb ho : 2.4315 + .5(.6875) : 2.7813 in' hc : .5(62.50  60.191) = 1.1545 in. hr= .5(2.4375 + 6875 + 1.1545) :2.1398 in
Mp
h=
Slope
2.0 in.
>
'
ro 6R?5 ::
2.O
n 17sl
Mc
Mr
124,252(2.7813) = 345'577 inlb l'481'718 inib r,283,4r7 (1. 1545) inlb 1398) 38'561 r8,02r(2 = =
Fig. la of Chapter 2.
Since, both the flanges are to be bolted together, the number and size of bolts, and diameten B, C, G and A will be the same as for the independent flange. Also, the values ofn and y will remain unchanged since thi gasket
'l'hcrcfore,
Mo
345,577
1,481,718
38,561
1,865,854
inlb
material is the same. The value of radial clearance R will be greater than the minimum required for this flange, because its bolt circle dia. C has to match the bolt circle dia. of the independent flange and its g, is smaller than g, of the independent flange. So in this case
Hc=W:
'l'hcrcfore,
l'456'045 inlb
Mo
A$sume
1,456,M5( 1.1545)
l'681'019
inlb
2 4315
in'
t.0.
4.8125 in.
Normal bolt spacing will be greater than the actual bolt sPacing , thus
Cr
The width and the effective width of the gasket will be the same as for
Ho
W^za :
u:ffff=zz,nr
lnd
556'344 Ib
2n (.2795) 60.191(3.75) 50
19,820 lb
H = 160.191.t, 50
142,273
r'r
={Se:
zr,tss
A.
as earlier, thus I7
will
l,
(so)
since the value of is the same as in the independent flange the values of Y and U will remain unchanged. Now
H" =X66.zs)2
*The values of
Wu
124,zszrb
L=@:
Lo
0.375
r.srrs
ho =\/s6.2s(0.37
s) = 4.s928
ho
h:2'o : 4.5928
=
F
V
o.+zss
s, 1U{114!D (4.8125)2
6.s647(7s7)
o.K'
0.4355 we have
Sincc
: :
S. > S^'
o.5 (20,720 +14,047):17 ,383 psi< 17,500 psi O'K
0.8442
llrcrclbre.
f = 1'2179
Now
t,,
0.1838
.687
e
and
== 4.5928
0.8442
. 2.1794(29,88s) ^^ psr <17,500 psi O.K. S.. = ___________ _: 6EZ ' ^ 4.125'(4.8t25)2 . 29,885(r3.4871) .\... =   o.vo,+r(682) : (4.8125\2 '
s.
lhcrefore,
12,655 psi <17,500 psi O'K'
d=
14.8209
0.26j 1@.5928)
(0.375)'z
35.8386
Since
s^,
0.5(18,667
12,655)
4 8125(0.1838)
+I=
oK'
1.8846
p :( r
)a.8l2s(0.1838)
+ I :2.t794
t.ot:t
conditions are within allowables, thus the dependent flange design is O'K' Additional desired thickness for raised face, counterbore, tongue or lroove should be added to the calculated thickness / to obtain the final total thickness of the flange In the above example we added %o in. to the thickness of each flange Jor counterbore.
(4.8125)l
J.ii
4.1251
(lhannel Cover
Rcference: TEMA hragraph R8.2, ASME Section
VIII, Division l,
Para
+ 3.11 =
graph UG34(c) Design pressure, psig = 420 Psig G = Mean gasket diametel in. = 60.191 in. Norninal bolt diameters, in. = 1.25 in. h" Radial distance betwen mean gasket diameter and bolt circle, in' 1.1545 in.
P:
.2t79(33,17t) =
.1251(.687 5)2 t251(4 .8125)2
^ = ,s^
2.1794(33,171)
4 .
d,: : = A,: Actual total crosssectional area of bolts, in.z = 59.456 \n'2 i : Required channel cover thickness at the bottom of the pass partition
groove, as determined by the TEMA equation or the appropnate ASME code equation. whichever is greater, in.
38
:
sHttlLANt),',t
ulrlt
IiAI Ix(]]tAN(]trRs
w,
: 17,500 psi ^ : Allowable J"o stess for cover material at design temperature' psi : 17,500 psi E : Elastic modulus of cover material at design temperature, psi : 28.4s(10)6 psi lV : Design bolt load for sasket rb
.1975 in. C = A factor for method of cover attachment = .3 S., = Allowable stress for cover materi2l ar^.^r.,;^ ,^^..._ naterial ar at atmospheric temperature, psi
in.
l{cference: TEMA Paragraph R7.1 P = Design pressure, psig = 420 psig S Allowable stress for tubesheet material at design temperature, psi = 17,500 psi G: Mean gasket diametet in. = 60.191 in. Tirbesheet constant 1.0 (for tubesheets having straight tubes) C.A. Shell side corrosion allowance plus tube side corrosion allowance or depth ofpass partition groove, whichever is greater, in. = .3125 in.
= 1,425,687 tb
TEMA Equation
legu_,r9g
r,4s6,044 rb
F: : :
"0"#l';":"::?fl,i:'
Now 7
,=l*y".r#y1,,
_lt
=
7
+ cA
:iv;*
FG Tp
_
1.0(60. 191)
2
10)6
28.45( t0)6
t/i$
l06
.1744 in.
j,,t + J
,^
.3125
l87s
= 4.6624
0.3125
4.9749 in.
ASME Equations
Operating Condition
Notes:
(l)
Ihbesheet thickness
is
t=G
=
60.191
r
cP r.9lw_,) h*.;;*
to'
will
17.s00 (60.191)3
Floating Head
Reference: ASME Section
5.5177 in.
t=U.,
=
(ct,
 "'
C.A.
.9fl,456.044) 1.ts45
17,s00 (60.19t)3
Intemal design pressure, psig = 420 psig Pc = Extemal design pressure, psig = 59 nrit S" = Allowable bolt stress at atrnospheric temperature, psi = 25,000 psi Sr: Allowable bolt stress at design temperature, psi = 25,000 psi Sra = Allowable stress for flange material at atmospheric temperature, psi 25.000 osi Sn: Allowable stress for flange material at design temperature, psi = 25,000 psi Srr = Allowable stress for head material at design temperature, psi = 17,500 psi C.A. = Shell or tube side corrosion allowance, in. = .125 in.
P:
41
L = Inside radius fo( dished only head, in' =.8(B) = '8(51.25) = a1.0 in. Rr = Rib area, in.2 = 19.22 in.2
Flange and head will be designed using corroded dimensions becguse conoded condition results in greaier thickness. Thus in corroded condition
Solid Soft Steel Use 7r in. x 7a in. single nubbin for gasket facing. trlange Design Allolving % in. clearance between the LD. of the shell and the O.D. of the
flange, we get
in. = 56
.375
55.625 in.
2(.125) = 55.375 in' A = 55.625 B = 51.25 + 2.\.125') = 51.5 in. L= 41 + .125 = 41.125 rn. W., = Minimum required bolt load for gasket seating, lb = (bnG + .5Ra)) = [.12s(tt) 51.625 +.5(19.22, 18000
Assume (56) I % in. dia. bolts. TEMA recommended minimum wrench and nut clearances are not used for the flange design since this is an intemal joint
Il,
ApI
660
Il
= 537.896 lb = Total jointcontact surface compression load, lb = (2ttbG + R)mP :12(tr) .r2s(51.62s) + 9.nls.s@n) = 138,060 lb = Total hydrostatic end load, lb
:55.625
From Table
2.0
53.625 in.
=loct p
= .(5r.625)2 420
psi
n = Gasket factor : 5.5 ) = Gasket seating stress, psi = 18,000 Assume N = Gasket width. in. = .375 in. also w = Nubbin width, in. = .125 in.
bo
Fig. (2) of Table 2 in Chapter 2 applies to this situation, so = Basic gasket seating width, in.
w+N
D
.125
.375
.125 in,
: 879,143 + 138,060 = 1,017.203 lb A,, : Total required crosssectional W^r ^ ^W,a : Urearcr :or;oI
J" J,
= Greatr
=H+HP
bo
.125
n.
Also
G = Diameter at location of gasket load reaction, in.
d_537,896 ztmo 
t,Ot7 203
zsooo
Bolt hole dia.  .375  N = 53.625  1.25  .375  .375 = 51.625 in. = Inside diameter of flange, in.
=C
= 40.6881 in.2
From Table 3 in Chapier 2, the root area ofa I % in. dia. bolt having 8 threads per inch is .728 in.2 which gives Aa = Actual total oosssectional area of bolts, in2
:G_N
= 51.625
.3?5
= 56(.728)
51.25 in.
Since
40.768 in.2
A,
A,
l'
= Flange design bolt load for the operating condition or gasket ing, as may apply, lb
.lf,
Radial distance ftom the bolt circle to the inside of the flange ring, m, =.5(C a) = .5(53.62s 51.5) = 1.0625 in. ic = Radial distance from gasket load reaction to the bolt circle, in. 51.625) = 1.0 in. = .5(C G) = .5(53.62s frr = Radial distance from bolt circle to circle on which acts, in. =,s(hD + he) = .5(1.0625 + 1.0) = 1.0313 in. hn = Iever arm of force 11^ about centroid of flange ring, in.
io =
Ii.
:Aus"
_ :
Since
=0
Now
in.
2ryG
40.768(2s,000)
Ma = Moment due to
I/r,
inlb
2r(18,000) 51.625
.1746 in. therefore chosen gasket width is adequate.
N) N,,r,
=Hoho = 874,890 (1.0625) = 929,571 inlb Mc = Moment due to llc, inlb 138,060 inlb = He hc = 138,060(1.0) Mr Moment due to I1r, inlb = Hr hr = 4,253(1.0313) = 4,386 inlb Mn = Moment due to llR, inlb
:
: :
Hn hn lb
1,089,471(0)
0 inlb
Mo
Total moment acting upon the flange for the operating condition, in
:!8,
4
1T
=MolM6+Mr+MR =929571 + 138,060 + 4,386 + 0 : ,072,017 inlb Mt:Mal moment acting upon the flange for the gasket seating, inlb
:WC
1,018,201(1.0)
1,018,201 inlb
Ilc
:Ho
= 138,060 lb 1{. = Difference between total hydrostatic end force and hydrostatic end force on area inside of flange, lb
P8\,6I;;
8S&(A
:HHo
:879,143
Ilr
A)
874,8m
 1.5)2  5l.s)
(5
55.375 55.375
51.5 51.5
Mr= H, hr"
:129,698(0) = 0 inlb Moe = Ibtal moment acting upon the flange due to extemal pressure, psi
8.83 in.
Mp:
= 507(.0313) Ho h^
16
inlb
#;"r>
1,018,20r,,55.375
5l
=Mo*M,rM*
=6,510
16
p.B\/trL 8 Sf" (A
+ 0 = 6,526inlb
B,
B)
i(lr5oo)(553?5
51.52
51.5)
= .3044
J
p :YoG, p,
=Moe1e B S/"\A
=
+n
:f,u.azsl,5o =
no:!SP
ru,66o lb
r"
t
J(r?Joor(5si?s :0.20
sr
sl.s
in.
=itsr.sy so : Hr=H =
Ho
104,660
lo4,l53 rb
.8454 in.
104,153
507 lb
Thus the flange thickness for operating condition controls. Adding %o in. counterbore and ys in. for shell side corrosion allowance, we get,
for
Total thickness of flange= 8.83 + .1875 + .125 = 9.1425 in., Use 9.25 in.
t*,'slfV{4#l 5t.5 L
:
.0625 in.
_ .833 PL sl{
.833(420) (41.125)
17,500
= 1.0313  1.0 = .0313 in. ha=o Mo= Ho ho, : 104,153(.062s) = 6,510 inlb
46
hre: hr 
hc
Extemal Pressure
sHIit1.ANI)ltJBli
I tAt lixcltAN(itsRs
Lltt , = 41.1251.875 =
47
(max
= 1.0)::1.0 17,500
in.
17.500
: t,:
375 in.
sEt
.6P
_
/,,
420(28.r2s)
17500(1.0)
:0.6849 in.
.6(420)
=,r/D +
forming
PR"
s"E
.6P
.125
420(3.931s)
15000(1.0)
.6(420)
u. r rZr rn.
VIII, Division l,
dix L
P = Design pressure, psig = 420 psig C.A. : Corrosion allowance, in. = .125 in. R : Conoded inside cylinder radius, in.  28.125 in.
R,: d:
Corroded inside nozzle radius, in. = 3.9375 in. Corroded inside nozzle diameter, in. = 7.g75 in. Er = Channel cylinder joint efficiency 1.0 E: Nozzle neck joint efficiency 1.0 S: Allowable cylinder stress at design temperature, psi = 17,500 psi S": Allowable nozzle stress at design temperature, psi = 15,000 psi Corroded cylinder thickness, in. = 0.875 in. Corroded nozzle thickness, in. 0.375 in. S, Allowable reinforcing pad stress at design temperature, psi :17,500 psi
:7.87s(.6849) (1.0) + 2(.375) (.6849) (1.0) (l = 5.467 in.z A, = Excess area in cylindet in.2 : Larger of the following : d(EJ  Ft,)  2t, (EJ Ft,) (.1  f,) = 7.875 {l(.875)  l(.6849)}  2(.375){l(.875)
:dt,F + Zt"t,F (1 
f,r)
.8571)
l(.6849r(l
.8571)
1.4767 in.z
t: t,: :
:2(t + t.) (Ert  Ft.)  zt"(EJ  Ft)(l  f,) = 2(.875 + .37s) {l(.875)  l(.6849)}  2(.375) U(.875) l(.6849)) (l  .8s71) : .3369 'n.2
42:
Excess arca in nozzle, in,2 Smaller of the following :5(t" t,") f1 t .1121) .8571(.875) = 5(.375 = .9858 in.2
of
1.0, =
I /,)UU !f,
 ttt'
or
.4225 in.z
EXAMPLE NO.2
Ao
: A, t A, !
Since
Ar + Az+ A4<A,
Using hand calculation method, design a fixed tube sheet for a TEMA "NEN" type of shell and tube heat exchanger for the following data: Shell
20 in. O.D., Carbon Steel (41068), % in. thick Mean Shell metal temperature = 298"F
Tbbs
Additional arearequired
: A=
(At + A2 +
5.467
2.O197
3.M3
Try 15.5 in. O.D., .5 in. thick SA51670 pad thus , Dp outside diameter ot 15.5 in. and, t, reinforcing pad thickness, in. = .5 reinforcing pad, in.
rn,z
( 284,
3/4
:
=
288'F
Ar : :
lhbe Sheet
Carbon Stel (A51670) Mean tube sheet metal temperature Design Conditions
.4767 in.z
= 2147
SHELL SIDE TUBE SIDE
130
s(t" :5(.37s
=.9858
: A., : : :
in.2
t,")
f^ t
.1121) .8571(.875)
or
.5} .8s71
Design Pressure, Psig Design Temperature, 'F Corrosion Allowance, In. Number of hsses
75 360
Y8
200
Y8 1
fa
(.857l)
.1205 in.2
Let c =
hd
Aor:
to cylinder weld leg size, in. = .375 in. Area of pad to cylinder fillet weld
Use TEMA "R" and ASME Section VIII, Division 1 design criteria for calculations . Assume that there is no shell expansion joint and check to see if one is required.
DFSIGN CAI,CULATIONS
Fixed Thbesheet
Reference: TEMA Paragraph R7
.6478 + .1205 Since area a\ailable for reinforcement is greater than area requircd, the opening is adequately reinforced.
50
3.4375 in.z
Ps = Shell side design pressure, psig P, = lhbe side design pressure, psig
75 psig
130 Psig
in. =
)l
20 in.
ff1
= Outside diameter of tubes, in. = 0.75 in. ," = Corroded shell thickness, in. = 0.25 in. ,r ='IUbe wall thickness, in. 0.083 in. G: Corroded shell I.D., in. = l9.5in. N = Number of tubes = 284 E": Elastic modulus of shell material at metal temperature, psi 28.21(10)6 psi 4= Elastic modulus of tube material at metal temperature, psi = 28.26(10)6 psi E Elastic modulus of tubesheet malerial at metal temperature, psi = 28.63(10)6 psi d" Coefficient ofthermal expansion of shell material at metal temperature, in./in. "F 6.596(10)6 in./in "F a, Coefficient of thermal expansion of tube material at metal temperado
4(r) 28.21(10)6 (.2s) [6.s96(10)6 (228)  6. [20  3(0.25t [1 + (1) .3135 (3.82)]
=
216.89 psi
: :
Pr, =
= o (since
M, =
g;
Pr"
: :
= (n2 (G)3
6'?
M":
o (since
M" =
g;
ture, in./in.
'F =
O" = Shell metal temperature  70"F = 228'F O, = Tub" metal temperature  70"F = 218"F Mr = Total flange moments in operating condition, in lb = 0 M2 = Total flange moments in gasket seating condition, in  lb= 0 F = Thbesheet factor I (for tubesheets with straight tubes) Rctor I (for shell without expansion joint) S = Allowable tubesheet stress at design temperature, psi = 17,500psi ?= Assumed thickness of tubesheet, in. 1.25 in. Z = lbbe length between inner tubesheet faces, in. = 141 in. D; = Expansionjoint inside diameter, in. = 0 (since there is no expansion joint)
f"=t"fo)'
:12s4(4,J2:.Siee
P! = P forir,s
_
J:
,L
* rrr.t +/")) +
.3135 (1.5
:J(e'
.5799)l
(t + .lKF q\
75r.4(1) u.5
L
Now
,,
 t") Et\N (4  t)
+ (F
P = Effective shell side design pressure, psi (will be the greater absolute value of the follorings)
P=.5(P"'
P
.083)
P=Pas=0 P=.5(P!  Pa Pns) = .5(29'379  46.89  0) = P = .S(Pas + P7) : .5(0 + 46.89) = 23.45 psi P : P"'  Pes = 29.379  0 : 29.379Psi
29.319 psi.
=P: =
: 
8.76psi
8.76 psi
l.rrsrr+rreorffi
(,*) I
The maximum absolute value of effective shell side design pressue will be
Now
_ 4./ E, t"
O"
(Do_3t")(t+JKFq)
a, O,)
f,=1*(+'
)J
r.75  2 =l284ller
(.083Ir
'z
=.74s
Ss
1.0 (from TEMA kragraph R7.22) = Maximum effective longitudinal shell sness
_ (D. _ (20
4t"
.25)
(l)
(83.5)
=
Since
''[uffiffi@]:zs'sznsr
P,' is positive
will be 75.87 psi
4(.2s)
P P P
= Effective tub side design pressure, psi (will be the greater absolute value of the followings) =.s(Pi + PE, + P) = .5(75.87 + 0 + 46.89) = 6l.38psi = Pt! + Pat : 75.87 + o = 75.87psi
S" (allowable) = 15,000 psi (tensile) S" < S, (allowable), shell is O.K. in tension Using rnaximum negative value of
P"t we have
T:
(20
.25\
//'6.89).
FC
Where
2y
IF
s
gxeater
4(.25'l
:
of effective shell or
tube side design pressure
A= .r25  (DJzt")
P is tlle
(2O1.5)
.003l
r(rg.5\ V
EE
l75oo
S" (allowable)
=B=
(min.) + shell
side
C.A. +
or groove depth
or use r = 1.25 + .125 + .125 : 1.5 in. (5451670)
S.:
35,000 psi
31,5oopsi
2,474 psi at hydrostatic test
tubesheets thicker than computed are permissible provided neither sheU nor tubes are overloaded.
P,* = Pr = 54.13 Psi I  29.379 psi or P,* =p orPr+=  Pa =  46.89psi or Pj* = Pr + P"' = 54.13 + 29.379 = 83.5 psi orPr*:Pr  Pa = 54.13  46.89 = 7.24 psi
or Ps:* or Prt
Pr Pr
 P,'=
130
75.87
54.13 psi
7s.87
=Ps'
=Pr + P"'
Pa
29.379
Pd
zg.37g ft99 = 17'99 nsi Lrr, Fq " = ';(75) P,* = Pr. : 50.52 Psi or Pr* =  Pr:  17.99 Psi or P,a : Po = 46.89 Psi or P,* : P,  Pg : 50.52  17.99 : 32.53 Psr
P'
54
55
r
DBSIGN OF PROCESS BQUTPMENT
SHELLANDTUBE HEAT EXCHANOERS
Po = 59.52 + 46.89 = 97.41 psi ot P,4 =P3+Pd: 17.99 + 46.89 = i8.9psi or P,* = p,  P3 + Pd = 50.52  17.99 + 46.89 =
Using maximum positive \alue of P,* we have C, = 0.5 (From TEMA hragraph it7.23) S, = Maximum effective longitudinal tube stess
ot P,r = p, +
c"
J
3'417 Psi in tension or
Fo G2 Ct Pt+
4N4@o t)
3.82 (19.5)2 .5 07.4tl 4(284) (.083) (.7s  .083)
Sc
=
S,
.9(S,)
1.5(,9)
1.5(S,)
S, (allowable)
<
C,:1.0
("08ilJ5:ls3): .s, : lhbe maierial yield stress : r : Radius of glration of tube : 0.25Vdo2 + (do  2r)z
+,2g4)
^ ''
3.82 (19.5\2
(17.99\
416 psi (compressive) 26,000 psi
32.53 psi
W; = Maximum
= 0.25 V.75)2 + t .75  .t66)2 : .2376 in. = Maximum unsupported tube span = 60 in. (span between two baffles)
K
= ;;
1l Fo
P,* (G)2
so.sz eg.5t2
: ar3.82l
4(284')'
kt
: :
1.0 (For unsupported span between two baffles) Equivalent unsupported buckling length of the tubes 1(60) = 60 in.
A, :
:203 lb
Nominal transverse crosssectional area of tube wall
do2 f Ll
vs.
kl r
60 .2376
IGFE.
2(n)2 28.26(10)6
26,000
,(
= .7854
(do
u,)21
:.78s41
LJ
.7s2
(.15
.166)2)
I = .1739 in.z
= 10,000 psi = hctor for the length of the roller expanded portion of the tube = 1,0 (For joints made with roller expanded tubes in grooved tube
holes)
56
57
/;. : Pactor for reliability ofjoint = 0.70 (for rolled joints having two or more grooves) : 4, Ratio of tubesheet yield stress at metal temperature to the tube yield
stress at metal temperature
or 1.0,
whichever
=
17,
expanded 1.0
joirts
Maximum allowable tubelotubesheet joint load
2
FLANGE DESIGN
l
(0.70) I
(allowable)
:
17,
All the
stresses are within allowables therefore, the tube sheet design is adequate and expansion joint is not required.
The flange is the most essential part of pressure vessels, heat cxchangers and storage tanks. Flanges are used on the shell ofa vessel or
in exchanger to permit disassembly and removal or cleaning of internal parts. Flanges are also used for making piping connections and any other nozzle attachments at openings. The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code permits, and even cncourages, the use of flanges made to recognized standards such as "Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings," ANSI 816.5, 1973 or 19'11
ii
REFERENCES
Morton, Donald S., "Heat Exchangers Dominate Process Heat Transfer," Chemical Engineering, June ll,1962, pp. 170176. 2. Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, 6th Edition. 1978. New York. 3. Lord R. C., Minton P. E., and Slusser, R. P, "Design of Heat Exchangers," Chemical Engineering, J anruary 26,1970, pp. 96 l18. 4. Rase, Howard F., and Barrow, M. H., "Project Engineering of Process Plants," John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1957. 5. Kern, Donald Q., "Process Heat Transfer", lst Edition, McGrawHill Book Company, New York, N.Y., 1950. 6. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, "Pressure Vessels," Division I, ASME, New York, N.Y., 1983.
l.
cdition. Flanges conforming to this standard can be used without calculation at the pressuretemperature ratings assigned in 1977 edition. Certain other standards, however, that are not nearly as well known, also provide designs which may be lound acceptable, particularly in the sizes above 24" which is the upper size limit of the ANSI 816.5 standard. Thus, it is often possible to find in a recognized standard the exact flange type, size and material neded for a particular
application.
The following are typical flange standards:
MSS SP44 was developed to establish uniform flange dimensions for use with high pressure pipe lines of26" through 36" size, and classes 300 through 900. It is now revised to include class 150 and sizes 12" through 60'. API (American Petroleum Institute) Standard 605, Large Diameter Carbon Steel Flanges, 75, 150 and 300Ib rating in sizes 26" through 60"
inclusive.
Taylor Forge Standard, classes 75, 175 and 350 in sizes 26" through 72"'
92" and 96" respetively.
58
59
Irl.AN(il; l)rlsl(;N
lig. lc shows the original application of this type. The hub can
ho made of any length or omitted entirely. Bsides lapjoint, slip on, threaded and socket type flangs are also classed as loose typ. For hubbed flanges ofthis type, there is no minimum limitation on i or go.
The flanges included in the API Standard and the several Taylor Forge Standards are designed in accordance with the requirements of
thecode. When flanges to other standards are considered, only allowable ratings in accordance with the code need to be checked instead of the development of an individual design.
Taylor Forge Catalog No. 722 lists all of the above and also other large diameter flanges. A lot of unnecessary flange design time can be saved by choosing the appropriate flange from this catalog. Howevcr, due to the variety of sizes and pressure and temperature combinations required for process equipment, manual designing ofthese flanges is not very uncommon. The design analysis of various types of flanges along with the sample design calculations for eash kind are included in this chapter.
We will cover the design ofcircular flanges under internal pressure with gaskets entirely within the inrer edges of the bolt holes and with the outer
recommended. Ifthe hub is too small to meet these limits, it is best to design it as in Fig. 1f, but ofintegral type, using hub thickness equal to (t r + t,) at large end, t, at small end and B as the inside diameter ofthe
vessel or nozzle.
While designing loose type flanges, B should be taken as the inside dianeter of the flange but not the vessel or nozzle.
Optional Type Flanges. This type covers designs where the attachment of the flange to the vessel or nozzle wall is such that the
assembly is considered to act as a unit which should be calculated as
rims of the flanges not touching under the applied loading as discussed rn ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel coder and EPG Bulletin No. 502,2 Thesc are classified as circular flanges as illustrated in Appendix 2 of 1983 edition of the ASME code Section VIII, Div l, Paragraph 24 and Fig. 24. The following are types of such flanges: 1 Intgral Type Flanges. This type covers designs where the flange rs integral with the neck or vessel wall, buttwelded to the neck or vessel wall, or attached to the neck or vessel walt by any other type of welded joint that is considered to be the equivalent to an integral structure. In welded construction, the neck or vessel wall is considered to act as a hub.
an integral flange, with the vessel wall taking on the functions of the hub. This obviously includes welded construction with no apparent hub, as shown in Fig. 1g and lh, or constructions with such small hubs that do not merit inclusion in the loose typ group. The term "optional" is used because the designer may calculate the construction as a loose type flange provided none of the following
values is exceeded:
:300 psi
Operating temperature
700"F
Fig. la through ld represent flanges of this type. For flangcs having tapered hubs, the dimension 9o is defined in the code as the
hub thickness at the small end, but for calculation purposes it is more convenient to let go equal the wall thickness of the attached cylinder. Also, th hub length I extends exactly to the point where its slopeline meets the O.D. of the vessel or nozzle and thus ft may actually be shorter or longer than the hub length as manufactured. The dimension B in this case will be the inside diameter of both the flange and the vessel or nozzle. 2 Loose Type Flanges. This type covers designs where the flange has no dirct attachment between the vessel or nozzle and those where
Thus the integral flanges that come within the above restrictions can also be designed as loose type flanges. This simplifies the calculations and may result in som economy.
60
6l
lrl.AN(ili l)l1Sl(;N
{rl
llrt: r'cquired bolt load, tIl.r, shall be sufficient to resist the hydrostatic r'l(l li)rcc, H, exerted by the internal pressure on the area bounded by the ,lrrrrrrctcr of gasket reaction G, and, to maintain on the gasket or joint, {,ntircl surface a compression load. tl, Thus'
w^t:H+He::G2P+2bncn?
f. 8. tu1., At Niip.irt Ot Carocr B.1..., n@0. Ard Lop t.d.p.nd.nt Of
(l)
whete Hub Stope Adiacen! To Flange E ceeds 1:3 Use Dataits (1b) ot (1c)
W^z:brGY
tk.w
(2)
FIG.2a

FIG.
Fu
Pcr.r.o
^=,4
;A
Ba.k.hle SoD.
At. fha
As
62
63
l.t.AN(iti Dl1st(;N
ts
o
F
F
3i'^ ^
,:
'd
=I;
a zt
4a <rr 21
z1
^*:i
.Y
!o yc7 E
9'Z
$M
g
mftum
5a$#'
R?RC9 83338
E 5i+;, *r
;I
s
E
iE
>iE
.;
E *
<E
<F
iis d'j:
;ts
E:{:i rz
i i+
;h.:::'
 !.n
cc.
3FE i ; iE.s I
I, I
<t
FC .9
Errij I
A
! Ed : ;
=7.
<! F
o i9
.iJ
J o
.=
3i
'
3P
3, h u.:>e
::5 i.ti.:=i
o d
! o : ;
:o,Y3 E*.i=3
> =
,r.
): ti
E7i, = i *!! :E:'9n
= F
F';
=i,i.
;: i;;
c
F
ar
]. 6
Ya .:=
<
E
33
=9:.
: O;:E
;r,,ib
o o< !l
ai
Jo
tE:6
rr1
93
!l
E;E9 1 i:
f $E!! ;
U
iE
?.a
Fv
c z
64
65
FLANGE DESI(]N
\
al
+
/:
b
l
{:..sj"
l'+
l
*:=+i+t {'s
dj o:<
+ 16l
E
!!:
r;: ; 1"s"{
!r, t o LE
i.9 E=
r! ce
5>
:5 .E
.:
i;
Ei;*:i[;
FT
EI
F r{
E]
g^l
=l
M
l^r
F H
El
,i
a
Iv
'] i
< l
I cl
l"'lc
*' 
I
l';.$ (,*
vll
l.r
vtl
3
F
\z$
T+
$z
{Ff
Ftil
IN
{1tzN ' rt
iNNRB lrl _'t]*1.r_
,=
a>
ZF
laF 3N
ZN
z
2A
;= ?: T:
a^
L
E
r,t
rt
z7
oo
67
trt.AN(;li I)]st(;N
lk)lts must
be spaced close
l)clwcen bolts.
rrrrrrrbcr of bolts that can be placed in a given bolt circle. The maximum
lil'(i Bulletin 502 "Modern Flange Design" recommends the following frrrpirical relationship for maximum bolt spacing:
Bolt spacing (maximum):2a '
l,lstsblishing Bolt Circl
I lrc thickness of hub at back of flange Ir)llows:
g
lxrll spacing is limited by the permissible deflection that would exist lr('twocn flanges. If the deflection is excessive, the gasket joint will leak.
The required bolt load for the oprating conditions, t/,,, shall be sufficient to resist the hydrostatic end force, H, exerted by the internal
pressure on the area bounded by the outside diameter ofthe gasket. H, is
6L +. (m + 0.5)
be calculated as
to be considred as zero for all selfenergizing gasket except certain seal configurations which generate axial loads which must be considered.
g, should first
2.590
Boltup or Gasket Seating Condition Selfenergizing gaskets may be considered to require an inconsequential amount of bolting force to produce a seal. So ttl.2 can be assumed equal to zero. Bolting, however, must be pretightened to provide a bolt load sufficient to withstand the hydrostatic end force I/. Determination of Bolt Area
L:
1.25
o to
Table 3 lists the root area, minimum bolt spacing, radial distance ofbolt size. The minimum boltcircle tliirnreter will be either the diameter necessary to satisfy the radial ' lcirrances,i.e. B * 2(tr + R) or the diameter necessary to satisfy the boltrpircing requirement,i.e. N(Bolt spacing)/z, whichever is greater. The
rrd
,rptimum design is usually obtained when these two controllirrg (lr meters are approximately equal.
l,'lange Design Bolt Load, W
If S, denotes the allowable bolt stress at the operating temperature, and S, the allowable bolt stress at atmospheric temperature, then the minimum required total bolt area,4 is obtained as follows:
w^ J,
'2. whicherer
is greater
crosssectional area of bolts, lr, will not be less than 1.. Excessrve bolting may have to be provided while designing relatively thin flanges for low pressure service because of the following,
Selection oibolts to be used shall be made such that the actual total
W:W^,
For gasket seating
t 4,r u,:. .^ Ab\5.
(3)
l.
Due to the danger of overstressing smaller size bolts during tightening, a minimum bolt size of /z " is usual in most piping and
pressure vessel work,
g)
ln formula (4) S, shall not be less than that tabulated in Subsection C of thc ASME Section VIII, Division t code. In addition to the minimum fcquirements for safety formula (4) provides e margin against abuse of thc flange from overbolting since margin against such abuse is needed
68
69
lrl.AN(;li I)l1Sl(;N
  rr rrl)llcric tcnrpcta(tc ltrd bcforc applicatiott tlf intcrnal pressure, the llrrrrgc tlcsigrr is rcquircd to satisfy this loading only under such ( ll (lrll()lls. Whcrc additional safety against abuse is desired, or where it ts r( ( cssirt y that the flange be suitable to withstand the lull available bolt
.r
! sN{ 5E
i3
a
sNs ssN
ss sss s
.E!
ioJ
o
 s*s sss
SSs
ssx
s:s;s
s5
l,
,!.E
t
& Er,r
ss xs
lilurge Moments
I lrc various axial forces on the flange produce bending moments. The rrrorlcnt ol a load is the product of the load and its moment arm. The Ir()ltcnt arm is determined by the relative position ofthe bolt circle with I rsllcct to that of the load producing the moment. The forces and the I vcr arms for a typical integraltype flange for operating condition are ',lrown in Fig. 3. The total moment must be equal to the sum of the nr()u)cnts acting on the flange:
3l
SN
sNs
NS
lrr
nge Loads
Lever Arms
Moments
tr
FI
!j
o t z
ci ct
rt atc,t{
rt,,:9.195432 o
hr:n+i
, "r,
R+ gt+
2
Mr:
hc
Hoh,
L
(5)
J F
iE
EE
sss sxs
ss sN5 sss ss
nqc?
i.: s
a.
ll,:H11o Il,:ltYg
i/, u
(6)
CG
(1)
!Ei
c.i
t't .q
kt <t 6
z: <i 6(,
EEi d<;'
;.P I
o
Mo:
M D+
Mr+ Mo
(8)
qqc! 9\q
a?c\ 99
i.:
=o 3#"
t\94
ss ss x
:.
5d FE] E*
ln the case of loosetype flanges in which the flange bears directly on rhc gasket, the force Il, is considered to act on the inside diameter ofthe llange and the gasket load at the center line of the gasket face. The lever irrms for the moments are:
sxs
ss
, C.B "2
t" _hp+
2
(e)
sxs xxs
hc
(10)
70
'71
trt.ANCll l)tisl(;N
h.:=
(ll)
These lever arms also apply to optional type flanges when they are designed as loosetype flanges. However, exception to the above is taken in the case of lapjoint flange Fig. 1e in which the lever arm ho is given by
equation (9) and lever arms lrr and lo are identical and are given by equation (11). For gasket seating, the total flange moment Mo is based on the flange design bolt load of formula (4), which is opposed only by the gasket load in which case
Mo:I'Yq:G)
bolts are spaced sufliciently close to produce a reasonably
ir2)
The moments obtained by the above formulas are valid only if the
even
distribution of gasket load. This spacing can be called normal spacing and is assumed to be equal to (2d+ t). Thus, ifthe actual spacing exceeds the normal bolt spacing, the flange thickness must be increased in order to maintain an even distribution ofgasket load. This necessary increase in thickness can be determined by giving the total moments a corresponding increase, the thickness increase being proportional to the square root of the moment increase as derived from formulas for
calculation of S^ and St, the radial and tangential stresses in the flange respectively. So the total moment can be multiplied by a correctron factor as derived from the above relationship and given by:
ii t
o l.E" I  ;tr i 3 'rP <! 'a
...'
^ tr:
FIG. 3  FORCES AND LEVER ARMS FOR INTEGRAL FLANGE IN OPERATINC CONDITION
'ra
73
Itl:Sl(,N
()l l,ltrx:l
SS
tirlll ,MtlNt
lrl
AN(;li I)liSl(;N
,1
'.q
u)
ci
E
6
SB ci 3 3 oOo
,no
3E
'i
PE
.3 :g  o
E
35 ^ >d
: cas
3 5
o ''oooo 'co@sc) N
o.o(o dr N J
_qq9c? ooooo
33 3E :33 do c; ci oo
E
3
>r .:
.rI
!
,u
d
E
o
o
P9 
!5 o vE
!+
6i
o
A
74
75
Mocr
B
Factors T. Z. y and U can be determined from Table 4 as a function ol K, the ratio of the outside to inside diameter of the flange. Factors F, \ Fr,Vrandf canbe obtained from Figures 4 through 8. l,irctors F and Iz apply in designing integral type flanges while F" and I/, rrlc used for loose flange calculations. The hub stress correction factor jf is of significance only when tapered hubs are involved, as its value is I for hu bs of uniform thickness. Flange thickness t must be initially assumed. Using the assumed value of r, the various factors c, B, y, d and ,t can now be determined (see thc attached calculation sheets) and used in the formulas for calculating lhc flange stresses.
For integral fype flanges &s well as for optional type flanges ctlculated as integral type and for loose type with a hub which is considered in the design, the stresses in the flange for the operating
condition are: l.onsitudinal hub stress sI : .2
^gr l{adial flange stress
fM
VALUES OF/(UA51.6) (Hub Stress Correction Factor) (Reproduced from ASME CODE Section VIII, Div. t)
Frc.
'I
condition and gasket seating condition, whichever controls. In order to simplify calculations, the following factors are introduced in operating as well as gasket seating conditions bydividing their respective moments
by the flange inside diameter B:
.The
Sa:0
Sr:0
B
and
S": 't'
MY
,
M:Mocr
The stresses for gasket seating condition in either case can be found by substituting M in place of M in the above equations.
76
77
l)l,Sl(;N
)l
Si( iN
K
r.oo
I
T
r.9l r.9l  9l
K
1.016
z
r.90 t.90
1.90
12.O5
Z
I 1.52 11.40
1 1
K
21.11
T
1.86 r .86 1.86
1.86
z
7.88 7.78 7.73 7.6a 15.26 r 5.15 15.05
r
1
U
16.77
r.9l 9l 9l 9l r.9l
9l 9l
r000.50 l91l.t6 2100.18 500.50 956.16 1050.72 333.83 637.85 700.93 250.50 178.71 526.05 200.50 383.22 a21.12 67.17 319.55 351.16 13.36 271.09 301.20 25.50 239.95 263.75 I t.6l 2 t 3.4C 231.12 00.50 r 92.1 9 2r r.l9
t.o17
1.0a8
l.or9
r.050
I.90
r.89
1.89 1.89 1.89
at.o2
1021
45.09
11.21
I
ll l
1l
1.88
I
.88
t.88
1.88
1.88 1.88
?0.5 
39.43
43.34 42.51
I.l6
l.2E
I 1.05
10.91 r 0.83 10.73 10.62 10.52
24.16
23.91
23.67
23.11
I6.65
16.54 16.43 16.35 16.22
4.95
4.86
L86
1.86 1.86
1.86
t.051
L05 2 1.053
r.008
r.009
r.ot0 l.0t
l.0l
I
t.054
1.055 1.056 1.057 1.058
tl   ll
4t.73
40.96 40.23
2l.r
r.88
36.60
35.96
35.3 4 34.7 4
r.88
1.88
39.64
8.84 38.r 9 37.56 36.95
3
i?33
r.r 03 r.r04 r.t 05
23.20 22.97
22.39 22.14 22.12
l.l4l
1.142
7.62 7.57
7.53
l.l
 4.76  4.66
t6.lI
6.01 15.91
r
43
L88
1.88
20.3t 20.15
19.94
19.7 6
1.144
1.145
1.t 46
'l
r.86
r.86
1.86
7.48 7.43
7.38
15.83
15.71 15.61
r.012
l.9l
9t.rl
8
171.A3
 92.13
17
I8.38
I 8.06
r.0t 3
a
1.9 
r.9l
r,91
r.015
6.?5
t62.81
I51.30 I { r.33
132.19

t.89
1.89 1.89
1.89 1.89 1.89
1.0s9
1.060
34.17
33.62
I l0l r.102
x
ll
I
't0.43
10.33 10.23
4.29
33.04
2.55 32.04 31.55 31.08 30.61
3
36.34
35.78 31.64
ll ll
2l .92
21 21
I .1
47
t.86
1.86
7.34
7.29
4.20
l0.l
r.88
1.88
10.05
.72 .52
.l 48
 4.12
15.5l
15.42
21.30
21.11 20.96
49 1.150
1.1
r.86
1.86
7.25 7.20
7.11
I5.34
15.23 l5.t 4 15.05 14.96 14.47 14.78 14.70
14.61
t.90
1.90 1.90
lo
24.8l
1.06t 1 .062
.063 1.064
r
16.64
  8.00
I r 1.78 106.30
I6.40
{ 06 07
I I ]
L89
1.89
l6.t
r
1
34.17
33.65
t.065
1.066
1
5.90 5.67
09 1.rr0
t.108
l.l 5l
1.152
1.153 1.154 l.t 55 1.156 1.157 l.l 58
1.86
1.86 1.86
s.90
20.77
20.59 20.38 20.25 20.08
t
7.07
7.O3
1.86 1.86
6.99 6.95
6.91
.021
18.t2
45.96
3.98 12.17 ,(0.5 
4
r0t.33
96.75
.o22
.023
88.0t
81.30
80.8

r.89
1.89 1.89
30.17
29.7 4
33.17
32.69 32.22 31.79 31 .34 30.92
.o2a
r.90
.90
.026
77.61
7
.067
1.068 1.069
15.45 1 5.22
29.32
28.91
.o70
1.071
r.89 r.89
I5.02
14.s0
14.61 14.41
28.5r
28.13 27.76 27.39 27.04 26.69 26.36 26.03 25.72 25.40
t.o27
1.028 LO2 9
t.90 t.90
r.90
38.97
A.70
t.89
1.89
3/.51
36 22
3
.97 69.13
7 t
t.030
1.03 
t.90 t.90
1.90
r.99
67.1
61.9 
6.30 73.75
1.072 1.073
1.89
1.88
I4.22
'lLl l r.n6 Z
lr.
ll. 8 ll.u9 tl.l20
r.t 2l
.122 r.123

r.rrr
r.86
1.86
13.45
9.91
1.87
'
9.30
9.22
9.1 5
19.7 5
.a7
r.159 r.160
L86 L86
1.86
6.87
6.83
I3.30
6.79
6.71
I3.t5
13.07 13.00 12.92 12.85 12.78
12.71
1.87 1.87
t7.68
17.54 17.40

Ll61
1.162
1.1.63
t.85
1.85 1.85
t.o74
1.O75
I4.Ol
13.85 13.68 13.35
t.87
.87 1 .87
1 1
9.07 9.00
8.91 8.86 8.79 8.66 8.59 8.53
6.67
6.64
3 3_8,1
71.33
69.06 66.91 61.95 63.08
r.88
7.27
l.t
t7.13
 7.OO
r.85 r.85
1.85
6.60
6.56 6.53
r.032
1.03 3
31.7 6 30.8 
62.85 60.9?
59. r I
1.076 LO77
t.88
1.88 1.88
57.11
5
5.80
6r.32
59.66
58.08 56.59 55.17
1.o78 1 .079

1 1
16.87
'
18.54
I
13.97
I.88
1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88
l3.t
r
1.87
6.74
8.40
I
r.080
1.081
3.02
25.10
24.81
1.124
Ll25
16.62 16.19

1.85
1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85
18.26
6.49
6.46 6.42 6.39 6.35 6.32 6.29 6.25 6.22 6.19 6.16 6.13
12.64 12.58
12.51
I3.89
 3.a2 13.7 4
r
l8.l
12.43 12.38
12.31
3.66
51.29
12.87
 2.43 12.29
27.27
26.9 5
t.o37 t.038
1.039
t.90
1.90 1.90 1.90
51.50
50.2 
r.0r0
48.97
n7.81 16.71
53.82
24.52 24.21
24.0O
1.126 1.127

1
r.88
26.34 26.05
t.128
1
l.t
.129
30
1.87 1.87
1
6.37
4
16.25
l6.l
16.02
15.91
1
1.173 1 .174
1.175 1.176
8.22 8.16
t2.t0
12.06 12.00 I 1.93 11.87 11.79
t2.25 I2.18
I3.30 I3.25
13.18 l3.l l
'13.05
 2.96
l041 1.0a2
r.90
.013
1.0a 4
l.9o
.90
r.90
t.88
1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88
12.15
 2.O2
25.77
25.48 25.20 24.93 24.66
.O87
l l3l
15,61
11.6A
,t
50.15
r9.05
14.O2
L088
1.089 1.090
I1.89
11
1
t.0t5
.76
3.69
1.63
22.44
1.87  .87
5.79
I 5.68
I
r.86 t.uo
1.86
J.a/
5.46
l7.t
r t
't.177 1.174
1.179 1.180
I5.36
6.99 6.90
6.10
78
79
Ii(ltJ
)MtiN
I.
l l AN(;li l)lrSl( iN
'l
AllLlj
T
K
Lt82
1.184 1.186 1.188
Z
6.04 5.98
5.92
J.60
Y
 1.70
I 1.58
U
12.86 12.73
12.61
K
1.278
T
r.8l
z
4.t 6 8.05
t(
.434
L438 t.412
T
1.74 1.7 4 1 .71 1.74
1.73 1.73 1.73 1.73 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.72
1
Y
2.89
2.A7
K
6.10 6.0s 6.0r 5.97 5.93
1.75 1.76 1.77 1.7e 1 .79
r
T
r.60 r.60
.60 I .59 1.59
z
1.97
Y
3.61
3.61
U
4.00
3.96 3.93
1.85
1.85
1.85
r.t90
1.192
t.85
1.84 1.84 1.84 1.84
I1.36
11.26 I l.l5 11.05 10.95 10.85 10.7 5
I 0.65
I.28t .244
.287 1.290
1
t.8l
r.80
r.80
1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80
4.12
4.O8
8.85
7.98
7.9 
5.8r
J./ J
2.19  2.37
t
4.05
4.01
8.77 8.69
8.61
5.52
r.95
t.446
r.450 t.454 t.458
2.85 2.83
2.81
8.s3 8.46
t.94
1.92
l.9l
3.89 3.47
3.44
3.41
3.3 8 3.3 5 3.3 3
1.194
96 l.l 98 1.200 1.202
1
l.t
s.70
J.O5
12.2 5
t2.t 4
I 2.03
t.a4
1.84
1.84 1.84
3.98
3.9 4
5.60 5.50
5.45
r.305
r.80
1.80
1.79
3.9r
8.39
8.31
2.80 2.75
2.7 6
t.80
t.8l
5.80 5.76
5.71
L58
1.58 1.58
r.89 r.88
r
3.82 3.78
3.7 5
3.8I
3.84
8.24
8.18
8.1 I
t.462 t.466
t.470
2.7 4
5.21
5.1 6
1.82 1.83
.86
2.72
1.84
.57 1 ,57
1
1.85
1.84
3.72 3.69
3.6 5
.204
1.206 1.208
1.84
1.84
5.40
r.210
1 1
l.3l
1.308
I
3.8r
3.78
J./ J
1.79
1.84
1.83
0.30
2
t.79
1
8.05
.475
L 480
2.70
2.68 2,66 2.64 2.62
5.66
5.61
.79 3.69
1.79
r.485 r.490
5.57
5.49
r.85 r.86
 .87
r.56
r.56
l.8l
t.83
1.79
r.56
1.55 1.55 1,54

,u7:
t.500
1.505 1.510
1.88
.71
1.89
3.s 4
.212
.21 4
5.27
5.18
5.1 4
I0.21
1.216
1.2t 8 1.220 1.222
 
l0.r
I
ll.l2
I r.03
11.22
t.323
1
.326
.79 1 .79
1
5.t0
J.UJ
5.01
1.329
3.67 3.61
3.61 J.J6
1.7a
t0.94
10.87
I o.77 I 0.68
t.332
I.JJ5
t.7a
l.7a

3.56 3.53
3.5 
r.515 r.520
1
2.60
2.5a 2.56
t.90
5.41
3.51
2.s3
2.51
5.37
5.33
t.9l
1.92
.54
5.29
5.21
5.1 3
t.93
1.94
r.53 r.53
3.12 3.09
3.40
3.3 8 3.3 3
.224 L83
r.83
1.83 1 .82
r.338
r.341 1.311
1.317
.78
1.226
.22a 1 .230
1 .232 1.234 1.236 1
4.98
4.94 4.90
4.86 4.83
1.78 1.78
1.78
3.48 3.46
3.43
6.77 6.72
6.64
.525
r.95
r.350
1.354 1.358
1
.78
1.77 1.77
1
4.70
4.66 4.63
t.53
.71
3.07
3.03 3.Ol 2.98
2.9 6 2.9 4
96  .97 I .98
i.52
1
1.70
7.28
7.2
1
2.44
2.43
5.09 5.0s
4.99 4.92
I.99
2.00
2.01
r.5l r.5l
.52
t.69 t.68
I .68
1
3.30
3.2I
3,26
3.?1
4.79
4.7 6
.238
t.a2
1
0.36
1.240 1.242
.e2
3.40
3.3 4
t.55
1.56

.362
.77
7.t 1
7.O8
7.O l 6.9 5
r.69
1.68 1.68
2.40
2.37 2.31
2.31
4.60 4.54
4.48 4.12
t.5t
1.50 1.50 1.49
1.48
.67
t.66
I .65
0.05 9.98
9.91
1.366
.57
2.02
2.O4
1.370
1 .371 1.378
t.77 ,/6
1.76
3.2I
r.58
t.59
r.60
t.6/
1
4.36
4.31
4,86 4.79
1.73
2.06
2.O8
L63 t.62
1.60
3.17
3.t 3 3.09 3.05
3.01
1.241
t.246 .24a
1.250 1.252
1.82 1.82
1
9.08
9.O2
6.27
6.21
.82 .82
8.95
1.82

4.59
4.56 4.52
8.89
8.83
t.3a2
1.386 1.390 1.394 1.398
1
6.16
6.1 
.67
2.26 2.23
2.21
L48
1
t.6l
1
4.25
4.67
4.56 1.50
.62 .64
t.65
1.65
l
4.20
4.15
r.63
r
65
4.10
4.05
4.01
2.10 2.12 2.14 2.16 2.18 2.20 2.22 2.24 2.26 2.28 2.30 2.32
2.3 4
,17 ,46
r.59
1
2.7I
2.7 4
1.46
1
.57
1.56
2.71
2.97
2.9 4
2.67
,44 1.44
1
1.82
1
1.254
1.256 1.258 1.260
1
8.77
8.71
.82
4.49
4.46 4.43
6.60
o.55
r.65
.66  .67
I
r.65
1.64 1.64
1.63
1.82
8.65
8.59 8.53 8.45
.402
2.6 4
1
4.40
4.36 4.32 4.28
9.41 9.38
9.28 9.r 9
1.406
1.410 1.414
3.05
3.O2
5.47 5.82
t.68
2.10
2.08 2.06 2.04 2.02
2.OO
3.96 3.92
1.43
1
l.5l
1
.52 .49
2.61
.263
.272
]ot
1.70
1
t.oJ
1.63
3.47
3.83 3.79
3.7 5
t.4t
.42
t.50
1.48 1.46 1.45
2.8l
2.74 2.75
2.7 2
1.266
t.269
1
r.275
t.8l r.8l
r.8l
8.37
8.29
8.21 8.t 3
L418
1.422

/5
5
3.00
2.94 2.96
2.9 4
t.4l
1.40
1.7
4.24
4.20
9.i I
9.O2
1.75
,71
.426
,/4

8.93
1.430
.71
2.91
6.2 5
1.72
6.20 6.15
t.73
1.74
t.6l l.6l
.62 1 .62
1
1.17 4.12
4.08
4.O4
t.40
1.39
1.99
3.72 3.68
2.69 2.67
2.6 4
2.36
t.3B
1.44
80
8l
III,ANGI DLSI(iN
'fAllLE
4  F'ACTOIIS
INVOLVING K (Continued)
K
2.38 2.40 2.42 2.44 2.46 2.4a 2.50 2,53 2.56 2.59 2.62
2.6 5 2.6A 2.71
1
T
r.38
.37 1.36
1.35
z
l
1
U
2.3 8
K
3.5 0
3.5 4
T t.r0
t.o9
t.0B
1 1
z
l.t8
.17
1
U l.6l
.62
1.78
l.4l
43 .42
2.61
2.36
2.3 3
r.40
2.29 2.27
2.2 5
.07
1,07
1.06
t.l6 t.t6
r
,17
t./ J
1.73
1
.71
l l(;.
9a  TWO PASS
FIG,9b, FOUR
PASS
2.50 2.47
2.44
2.41
.37
r.3l
r.30
1.34
2.22 2.19
t.05
r.05 r.04
1
2.17
2.1 4
2.3I
2.3 5
.03
.O2
t.l5 t.t4
r.t5 l.r5
.16
.70
ARRANGEMENT
ARRANGEMENT
1.68
1
.67
FIG. 9 . MOST COMMON PASS ARRANGEMENTS FOR MULTIPASS CHANNEL Allowable Flange Dsign Stresses
r.64
1
r.30
r,29
1
r.33
3.90
3.9 4 3.9 8
1.03
1
2.12
2.O9
.28
2.74
L27
1.26 1.26
t.3l L3l
1.32
2.O7
2.04 2.02
2.O0
.62
t.0l
t.009
1.002
1.r4
1.6 
t.60
i.59
t.43
1.42

.57
2.80
2.8 3
1.30 1 .29
1.28
2.20
t.25
1.24
1.98
I .96
2.17
2.15
2.1 1 2.O9 2.O7 2.O4
4.20
4.25 4.30
1.13 1.12
t.l2
t.t
t.40
1.39
r.56 r.54
r.23
1
.28 1 .27
r
1
t.l2
I
t.38
l,5i
1.50 1.48
1.94
1.92
.22
.21
.27
1.22
r
'l
1.26
r.25
1.25 1.24
1
r.90 r.88
1.86 1.83
1.81
Ll l
4.40 4.45
4.5 0
.955
l.
r.
.94
.911
r.34
1.33
3.06
3.t 0
l.t9
l.t
.20
8
2.01
.9U
I.46
1,44
r.31
t.30

1
L43
1
Longitudinal hub stress Sr should not be greater than 1'5 S/" in the operating condition and 1.5 S/" in the gasket seating condition. l. Radial flange stress SR shall not exceed S/, in the oprating condition and S/. in the gasket seating condition. I. Tangential flange stress Sr shall not be greater than S/" in the operating condition and S/, in the gasket seating condition. 4. The greater of 0.5(srf + Sr) or 0.5(Sr, * Sr ) shall not exceed Sr" in the operating condition and S/" in the gasket seating condition.
l.
3.t 4
3.t 8 3.22 3.26
3.30
3.3 4 3.3 8
3.42 3.46
l.t I 1.lr
.23 .22
r.99
1
1.23
1
1.79
1
.97
.n8
l.2l
t.21
1
.77
1.75 1.73
1
.nl
.29
.42
t.2a
.27
,26
1
1.41
.911 .908
r.09
1.09 1.09 1.09 1.08 1.08
.9m
.893 .887 .880
I.39 t.3d
1.25
If any of the stresses other than S, exceeds the allowable' the flange hickness r can be revised till the stresibs are within allowable. However, if S,, xceeds the allowable, the increase in flange thickness will not help and it may be necessary to lengthen the hub, increase the 9r thickness or
I
.20 1 ,20
.71
l.t9
l.l8
l.l
r.69 1 .67
1.66
r.88 r.86
L24
1.23 1.22
1.21
1.61
4.90 4.95
Deign
5.00
.873
In certain application of
flanges, especially
in
shellandtube heat
cxchangers where multipass channels are specified, the area for pass ribs also contributes to required bolt load in the operating as well as in the gasket seating conditions. Its effect may be negligible in some cases but it is advisable to consider it in flange design wherever applicable. The most commonly used pass arrangements for two, four and six pass channels are indicated in Fig. 9. In order to simplify the calculations, the rib areas for each case and for exchanger sizes 6" through 100" inclusive are given in Table 5. Use ofrib area in llange design is illustrated in the calculation
sheet.
83 82
)lis t(;N
!.LANCE DBSICN
Table 5
Table 5
Nomlnal
Vessel Size
Rr,
in.2
Rr,
in.2
Two Pass
6 8
Four
Pass
in.
51
Two
Pass
Four
Pass
Six Pass
53.59 54.55
55.58
10 12
19.69
52
53
t4.43
15.60
20.06 20.44
20.81
36.02 36.68
5t3t
38.07 38.77 39.42
40.11 40.81
l1
16
54
55
56.60
57.63
l8
20
22 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
JI
t't.59
19.58 21.63
21.t9
21.56 21.94
22.31
t).o)
16.99 18.23
zt.oz
25.61 27.41
56 57 58
59
58.60
59.62
60.59
61.61
60
r8.92
19.62
28.43 29.46
30.42
6l
62
63
4t.46
42.16 42.86 43.55 44.21 44.90 45.60 46.2s
46.95
62.58 63.60
64.63
11.06
11.44
11.8
20.27
20.93
3t.4s
32.41
zt .oz
22.32
23.0r
23.71
33
34
35 36 38 39
24.36 25.06
2J.
t)
64 65 66 67 68 69 70
65.65 66.68
6'1.64
68.67 69.08
'70.66
71.69
72.65 73.68
'74.'10
7
7l
72
t4.44
14.81 15.19 15.56 15.94 16.31
40
41
39.4'l 40.50
50.38 51.04
51.73
5.6'l
4t.52
42.49 43.51
44.48
74
75 76 77 '18 '79
76.69
77.72
'78.'74
29.r9
29.89 30.54
42 43
52.43
53.13
53.78
54.48 55.17
'19.7'l
t6.69
17.06 17.44 17.81 18.19 18.56
45.50
46.53
44
45
3t.24
31.89 32.59
33.28
47.50
48.52 49.55 50.51
80
81
46 47
48 49 50
80.73 81.76
82.73
55.82 56.s2
57.22
83.75
84.'72
82
83
18.94
19.31
57.9r
5
85.74
86.77
51.54
52.56
84
85 86
32.06 32.44
32.81
8.57
59.26 59.96
87.79 88.76
84
d5
l)list(;N Olr
Tsble 5
Pt{(
x:Ess EQUTPMENT
F'LANC!: DESIGN
Nomlnal
Vessel Size
Pass Rlb
Arer (Conrinued)
Rr, in.2
Six Pass
E9.7E
SOLUTION
ln this case we will have two flanges bolted together but designed for diffcrent conditions. The required bolt load in the operating condition lbr the shell side will govern the design of both flanges because of lhe higher design pressure. Since the gaskets on both sides are of the same nraterial, the required bolt load for gasket seating will be greater for the low pressure flange. Since such a high design pressure is involved, gasket scating probably will not control the design. Tberefore, the shell side llange will be the independent flange while the channel side will be the
dcpendent flange. Independent flange has to be designed first so that we can carry over the bolt load for the design ofthe dependent flange. Both the flanges will bc designed here in detail, but the attached calculation sheets can be used
in.
Et
88 89
Four
Pass
0u.65 61.35
90.81
62.W
62.'70 63.35 64.05 64.74 65.44 66.09
66.79
90
9l
92
93
94
95
36.t9
36.56 36.94
37.31
96 97 98 99
100
37.69 38.06
91.83 92.80 93.83 94.85 95.82 96.84 97.87 98.83 99.86 100.82
101.85 102.87
to
will be
Refer to Figure and design steps on Weld Neck Independent Flange Design Calculation Sheet. Now we have,
p:460
psi
EXAMPLE NO.
Sa:25,000 Psi
1
S":25,000 Psi
Sr'
to be used to contain a tubesheet ofa TEMA BKU type of exchanger. The 4l in. I.D. two pass channel designed for 150 psi at 500.F is built ofI in. thick A_515_70 piate inclusive offin. corrosion allowance. Theshell sideflangeis to be welded to a 41 in. I.D. x 75 in. LD. cone designed for 460 psi at 650.F. The cone
consists
Sr":
Also in uncorroded condition
B
:41 in'
of
l;
go:t^:l'25ln'
Assume
9
t:
1.25(s
o\:
1.25(1.251:1.5625 in.
r:1.4375 in.
86
87
FLANOB DESION
Now
,t
n =f,tu.t
sF +oo =
23,4s2.t tb
stope
' =!9r:sd: h
$431s!r25)
1.6875
W: lf
in. dia.
123,492.1 +
Fig. la Now assune (48) 1 in. dia. bolts. From Table
bolts. we have
R
3,
for
.4.:Greareror'##
3, the root area gives which in.2 is 0.728
*
:
t*,ltl't=rr.tri".'
1.5 in.
From Table
ofa
l
E = 1.125
in.
Now c
and
A
B + 2(s ) + 2(R) :
48 (0'7 28l,
34'9 44 in'2
47
.125
io.
Since
74,
> .4., therefore (48)lI in. dia. bolts are adequate. Now
W:0.5(33.79 + 349,14)25,000
C + 2(E)
47.12s +
2(t.t25l :
859,1 75
49.37
s in.
lb
and
r^,,:ffi,=0.4088in.
Since N > N,ir", therefore chosen gasket width is adequate.
m:5 I)
and
v=76W
Assume N
:0.5 r!.
D:;@l.2512
460
=614,745.9 lb
Hc:HP121,255.7 lb
H
h
u.:!=!=o.zsn;
Therefore
r:723A92.1
614,745.9
1O8,746.21b
D:
1.5
Now
o= 6t4,7
45.9(2.21 88)
:
:
1,363998 in lb
224 289
M e =121,255.7
inlb
H, '
See note
lb
Therefore,
r2r,25 s.7 tb
on page 58
88
ITLANCI DDSICN
tnd
U
W:859,175 lb
Now
ll9'75
Therefore Mo
859,175(1.187s)
:
=
1,020,270
inlb
:3.0843 in.
gr
n48
r(l)
r{4J125t
9o
ho:
:1
4375
.125
t.2l'Ie
Assume
t:2.75
251
Jqtzs(trzr:o.stzz
in.
in.
ft
ho
From Fig. 4, for
sJ
9o
1.687s
6.8122
^...
Normal bolt
spacin
Since, Actual bolt spacing<maximum bolt spacing, the chosen bolt spacing is O.K. and also actual bolt spacing <normal bolt spacing, the
M:u21J(1):a1,se5
and
V:O.441
I:1.0
M:l'020'270(l)14714
41.25
Now
0 894
*The value of r/., should be taken from the low pressure dependent flange ifit results In greater value there because ofrib area or dilTerent gasket miterial. ln tf,i. c"se operadng condilion is controlling the gasket seating is of insignificant value_ "in""ir," However, wnen rwo matrng tianges are designed to hold a tubesht between them with the sam pressurf oneachside ol the tubsheet lhe llangeresullingin a grealer value of l,y) due ro nD area or gasket materjal should be considered as the independenl flange and lhe other
as the dependent flange.
NOTE
'::u',,"
and
d
ffi
5
1.3608
.. 49.375 K: _* :
41.2s
:$)z:
s to.ttrz) + I
r.48 I
t.197
K:
l.l9?
,:{ff:ozrro
a:ffi:o.osta
t :0.7396 +0.0888 =0.8284
T: 1.84 z:5.625
y:10.9
90
91
lllAN()lt l)tisl(iN rldcpcndent flange, the values of Sr, S', Now, in the uncorroded condition
S7,,
9o:
t,:0
in'
^ t":
.s^
(41.995)
O.S.Zao1,.43
75lz:24.532
Assume
s'
1.31
5(g'\
1.375(0.5)
:0'687s in'
":
1.481 I {41.995)'
o.8284t2.75r
:
s.62s (e.e28)
t:0
5625
in'
Sr, therefore,
0.5124,532 +
Assume
o.K.
Gasket Seating Condition
fi:1.5
Slope:
rz=
14'449 psi < 26'250 psi
in O'K'
0.37s)
l.)
^ :9 s' ^ s":
Jr
Since
 (24,7 34)
ffi.+:ts
t.481
in Fig. la.
17.500 psi
124,7 341
O.tZt+tZrSl
:5.848 psi<
O.K.
,.*,, t)r v.
S^ >
Sr,
to be bolted together, the number and B, C, G and .4 will be the same as for the sizc of bolts, and diameters independent flange. Also, the values of m and y will remain unchanged since the gasket material is the same. The value of radial clearance R will be greater than the minimum rcquired for this flange, because its bolt circle dia. C has to match the bolt circle dia. of the independent flange and its g1 is smaller than ,r of the independent flange. So in this case
Since, both the flanges are
therefore,
0.5(14,449 + 5,848): 10,149 psi < 17,500 psi O.K.
All stresses in both the operating as well as the gasket seatlng condition are within allowables. Thus, the independent flange design is o.K.
Next we will discuss the design oftbe channel side or the dependenl
flange.
We must also include the effect of rib area R,r, since the channel has
z2
".". R,
lwo
passes.
two
pass
4l in. nominal
size shell,
15.94 in'2
fhe width and the effective width of th gasket will be same as for the independent flang. Now w^, 10.25(n144.15 + 0.s(1 5.94)1 7600 32't,686 tb
p:
Since, the flange and
H,:
150 psi
the
:X(4.7 s)'
50
23
5,s21.3 tb
92
93
FLANOB DESIGN
W^tr =844'747'8lb which will result in the same ,,{n as earlier, thus llzwill be the same also.
Flenge Moments Calculatiots
HD=
ofK is the same as in the independent flange the values of remain unchanged. U will T, Z, Y and
Now
gt
;(r.2sl2
t
so:
200,460.6 rb
ho
'go05625 0.375:l)
: \t 4t .25 (0.3'15) : .933 ''^. 1.5 ft _ _i_:0.3814 _
3
fto
3.933
Irr:0.5(2.375 + Now
M
1.5
F:0.867
Similarly from Fig.
5
: Mc : 608,826.5(1.1 87 5) :
o= 2A0160.6(2.6563)
M
V:0.343
and from Fig. 8
f=t.0
Now
Therefore.
M o:532A84 + 722'982 +73'138 = r,328,604 in
lb
ano
a
Hc=W=859,1'15lb
Therefore, Mo
Assurne
t
ffi
:
o.rlltto.37sF
le.3oe4
:43125 in.
Normal bolt spacing will be greater than the actual bolt spacing,
thus Cr =
1.0.
4.3125 0.22041 + l
r
1.9505
:
Q)+.t
zs to.zzo4t + 
2.2673
u:t'3?Y0):tz.zov
and
,={ff=r.ooo'
u:t'v!oi?#(t) :z+,tz+
rThe valuc of lvnl is taken from high pressu.e independent flange.
a:ffi=r.rsrs
i:1.0601 +4.1535 = 5.2136
94
95
t.
trt.AN(;li Drisl(;N
\..
"
_
I r12.209
5.2  36(0.5625,1
K.
(:IJANN
E
St>S^,
therfore,
0.5119,525
(:Y
i;IDE
L
INDER TUBESHEET
EXAMPLE NO.2
Gasket Seating Condition
5n:5.2tlo,'Jo2s
1\24,134)
rz=
psi O.K
Design a ring flange to be used on a 60 in. O.D., A240TP304L ylinder designed for 140 psi at 425"F. The cylinder is I in. thick and no ,rrlrosion allowance is allowed. Assume TP304jacketed asbestos filled ilsket and use an A105 flange with A19387 bolts. Allow *3 in. for , otrnterbore and in. for TP304L overlay. I
r
{Since
I 1,245 psi
SOLUTION
llclcr to Figure and design steps on ring flange design calculation sheet. Now ys 13y9,
St > S^,
therefore,
p:
0.5(14,994+ 11,245): 13,120 psi < 17,500 psi O.K.
stresses in both the operating as well as the gasket seating condition are within allowables, thus the dependent flange design is O.K. Additionaldesired thickness for raised face, counterbore, tongue or
All the
Sr:25,000 S":25,000
sr,:
Sr'
1l)c ring flange we get
17,500 psi
groove should be added to the calculated thickness r to obtain the final total thickness ofthe flange. ln the above example we added rt in. to the thickness ofeach flange for counterbore. The toral final thicknesses and the arrangement ofuse ofabove designed flanges is shown in the Fig. 10.
l7'500 Psi
Allowing I in. clearance between the O.D. of the shell and the I.D. of
B:60
+ 0.125:60.125 in.
96
97
t.
DESICN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT
Assume (56)
$
FLANOE DBSION
R:1.25 in.
E = 0.9375 in.
Since ,4, > .4., therefore (56) $ in. dia. bolts are adequate. Now
tv:0.5(18.8077+23.464)25,000:528,396.3
0nd
lb
Allowing for
cylinder, we get
C=B
and
A:
From Table
have
C
1,
+2(E) =
63.625 +2(0937
5):65.5 in.
^:n
(60.125l'l4o:3g'7,4g1.'t lb
n:3'75
y = 9000
Assume
N:0.5
in.
. ll'=
63.625
r":f:f
therefore,
:o.zsiu
Now
fto:9.5163.Urt
1.75):0.9375 in.
ir:0.5(
:
1.75
b:0.25 in.
Now
G
M o:397,491.7 (r.7
=C
 a
2(O.25) W^z
H
0.5
2(0.25):61.75 in.
Therefore,
Mo :
M
436,485 lb
r = 2(n)0.25(61.7 5)3.75(140):50,923.3 lb
=!(j.l
sl, t +o
:4
9,268.
lb
M o:695,610.5
"=
W= 529,396.3
16
/,=Creater
From Table
gives
Mo:
Now,
528,396.3(0.9375) = 495'371'5
inlb
3, the
:77]^6r?12
t2,850. r 322
23'464 in''z
r=ffi:r.oar
99
98
FLANCE DESICN
1.089
Y:22.68
thus
12,850.r322(22.68)
17,500
'litblc
For
4.
K:
Y and
U ftom
culate ha, g r lgoand ft/hq and from Fig. 4, determine the value of constant F corresponding to the calculated values of 9t/ go and hlhs' Similarly, lind the values of tzand/from Fig. 5 and 8 respectively'
Bolt sPacing:
"\"' *1:3
lrtA1 6? 5l
Now calculate e and d. Also using the thickness of the flange t cxclusive of any counterbore, overlay, raised face, tongue or groove'
calculate stress factors a, p, 1, 6 and ,i. If bolt spacing exceeds (24 + t), calculate correction factor
in'
2a + t :2(0.8'7 5\ + 4. 125
tt:t/
stays the same and the thickness calculated above is adequate. Adding ]j in. for counterbore and ; in. for stainless steel overlay' we have the total minimum thickness of the flange as
t:4
!25 + 0.18'15
+0
125
:4
43'15
tn'
Otherwise, assume Cr: l. Also, if the flange is not designed for any nrultipass cylinder, the rib area, Rr, can be assumed equal to zero' Now, calculate the lever arms ho, ho and fir for integral type flange lnd determine the MAWP as follows:
P AaSu
(1)
R
;G2
M
+l2nbc'n +
^(m))
(2) (3)
2S s" :n16+tF2B1t;z
(4)
lr^
9D,f
(5) (6)
^8r
and
therefore Mo:
M^"*=
lsallqlr4le
"!I!!Pls!l!I4 CF
(7) (8)
to Figure and calculation steps on the calculation sheet. For a newly designed flange all the shape constants and other stress
Refer
!p' 4
thus MArWP: Smaller of (1) or (8)
 a' 11t ,.
calculation factors can be taken directly from the design calculations. However, while evaluating an existing flange which does not have any
design calculations available, the applicabl shape constants and other stress calculations factors may have to be determined
Calculating MAWP for Ring Flange Refer to Figure and calculation stps on the calculation sheet' For yfrom Table 4' .4/8. find out the value of shape constant
100
l0l
IILANCE DESICN
F:0.894 V:0.441
Otherwise, assume Cr:1. AIso, if the flange is not to be used in a multipass cylinder, the rib area, Rr, can be assumed equzl to zero. Now, calculate the lever arms io, in and fir for ring type flange and determine MAWP as follows:
P
AoS u
e:O.l3l2 d:234.r15r
r:
1.3608
(l)
Rn@ll also
f = 1.481 I l:0.7396
d:0.0888
,;"
f,G'z+l2rcbGm+
=0.8284
,^^":+
therefore,
(2t
,":ry
Mo
Cr:l
R,n:0
Sr:25,000
Sr,
(3)
'
Psi
17,500 Psi
(4)
(nt')r,*r2nbGm+ Rn(m)lho*frrc,
MAWP:
smaller of
ntfn,
thus
(l) or (4)
EXAMPLE NO.3
Calculate MAWP for the weld neck indepndent flange designed in
example l. and
SOLUTION
t:2.75 in.
In this
case, since the flange design calculations are available, the
shape constants and stress calculation factors are already known. We have
Now
p
34.94(25,000)
T:
t.84
Z:5.625
Y= 10.9
f,{ul
+ 0) (1)
U:1r.975
r02
103
F'LANOE DESI(iN
(i:61.75
m= 3.75
in.
I
ol.zg4rl.a3zit,
h:0.25
rttl
:50,312.4596 inlb
2(17,500)
:4.125 in.
0.8284(I.4375t' 0.8284(2.75)' 
+t
t.481 I
:42,652.0419 inlb
(3)
:

174.6607 psi
n.8ru1!1.7sf =
1.s(17.500)
ul4'e35 inlb
4
tt6l.75), + l2(z)0.25(61.75)3.?5 + 0l
174 psi
, ,=,r  = ,. t481u.8284(2.75)z
also
t1:t=9
(l)
(2\
74.021
i^tb
(4.t25\'z
r'7
22.68
(2.7s)2
therefor,
;: _ r0.9
17j5,9,,
5.62s(r.481r)
(6)
therefore,
.8284(2.712
Mo
13129.3403(60.125)
:789,401.5855
789,40 r.5855
74
o 42'652
0419(41'25)
t,759.396.7i
a)
!f,O.tZSl'
t.t
+ lzn(0.25)61.7s(3.75) + 010.9375 +
f,@.ts'
(4)
 ,7 59 ,396.'7 3
f,{u.zs)'
z.xat + l2(n)0.2s(44.7
psi
s)3.7 s
+ olt.t v s +Eg4.j s,
(8)
60.r2s'?).l1.3438
t42.4ss psi
I42 psi
thus MAWP
142 psi
467 psi
thus
MAWP:467
psi
EXAMPLE NO.4
Calculate MAWP for the ring flange designed in example 2.
SOLUTION
ln this
case we have
Y=22.68 Cr=l
Re:0
56:25,000 psi
tQ4
105
IILANCB DDSICN
wilh thc cxception that th sum of the inside and outside gasket moments cclual zero, and accordingly the total applied moment becomes:
M"= M 1t). M7
In addition, for flange design with narrow face gasket, the moment rcmains ofthe same sign throughout, while in the case ofa full face gasket ir moment reversal occurs. The moment due to gasket reaction is given by
Mc= Hehc:
wH
Since the gasket moment M6 may be greater than the resultant rupplied moment M,, the following additional check of the radial bending stress at the bolt centerline will be required:
.s^.:6Mc "r'C
The ring effect and the reduction in section caused by the bolt holes have been neglected inthe above formula. However, the given value of the $tress is quite conservative, since the moment at this location may be
Ha:Ha 1 la 1 \ h"' )
and
Ho,=H, 1 la 1 \h", )
EXAMPLE NO.5
Evaluate the design of standard 24 inches Taylor Forge Class 125LW (Light Weight) flange as shovr'n on page 101 of Thylor Forge catalog 571for use with full face 75A Durometer Elastomer gasket. Design conditions can be assumed to be 75 psi design pressure at 300'F Use sA181 class 60 flange material with SA307B bolting. There is no corrosion allowance and assume g, equal to gr in evaluation.
Where ft6 and ftc1 represent the moment arms of the resultant
gasket reactions with respect to the bolt circle.
Assuming uniform gasket pressure distributed over annular surfaces, these distances may be expressed as:
6(B+C)
and
The minirnum required bolt load then is obtained as the greater of the folloY/ing two values:
SOLUTION
The dimensions of the flange as obtained from Taylor Forge catalog
571 are shown in the sketch on the calculation form for flange design with
W^t=H
and
Hp+He1=H+
H, ( 1, 9\ nct I \
+
full face gaskets. Refer to this form for calculations of flange evaluation.
(see page 132 )
W^z=
Ho* Hat Ha ( t
!q
ho,)
t,
The botting requirement can be checked using the applicable bolt load calculated above. The flange can now be designed like other flanges
The calculations show that 1 inch thickness of the standard flange is not adequate for the desired design conditions of 75 psig at 300'F as the calculated tangential stress in the flange, Sn is greater than the allowable. Thus, the thickness ofthe flange must be increased to 1.125 inches in order to bdns all the stresses within allowables.
106
107
l'l
AN(;11 l)lrSI(;N
It, l)illclcncc
Nomenclature
c ,4 .4, .4. b bo B C CF e
E
Actual total crosssectional area of bolts, in.2 Total required crosssectional area of bolts, in.2 Effective gasket seating width. in.
Basic gasket seating width, in.
K ,n Gasket factor M Calculation factor for operating condition: M oC t l B M Cafculation factor for gasket seatrng= l14ogo1U MD Component of moment due to HD, in lb Md Component of moment due to Ho, in lb Mo Total moment acting upon the flange for the operating
condition, inlb
hctwccn total hydrostatic cnd lbrce and the : H Hr, lb Ratio of outside to inside diameter of flange: ,{/B
hydrostatic cnd lorcc on area insidc of flange
Mo Mr. n N P R
Total moment acting upon the flange for the gasket seating, in
lb
Component of moment due to Hr, in lb Number of bolts Gasket width, in.
Design pressure, psi
f
F
FL
9o
Hub stress correction factor Factor for integral type flanges Factor for loose type flanges
Thickness of hub at small end, in. Thickness of hub at back of flange. in.
gr
G
h
R,r Rib area, in.2 S. Allowable bolt stress at atmospheric temperature, psl S, Allowable bolt strss at design temprature, psr. 57, Allowable stress for flange material at almospheric
temperalule, psl.
fi, hc
Diameter at location of gasket load reaction, in. Hub length, in. Radial distance from bolt circle to circle on which llo acts, in. Radial distance from gasket load reaction to the bolt circle : (C
Sy,
c
/167 Radial distance from outer gasket load reaction to the bolt
circle. in.
G\l2,tn.
fio hr H HD Ha ilc, Hp
Hpt
Calculated longitudinal stress in hub, psi. s Calculated radial slress in flange. psi. S^t Radial bending stress at the bolt centerline, psi sr Calculated tangential stress in flange, psi
acts, in.
t tr
U V
VL
,lb
Total jointcontact surface compression load, lb 'lolal outer joint contact sudace cornpression load, lb 108
Factor for loose type flanges W Flange design bolt load for the operating condition or gasket seating, as may apply, lb W, Required bolt load for operating condition, lb
109
W, y Y Z
VIII,
"Pressure Ves
sels," Division 1, ASME, New York, N.Y., 1983. "Moclem Flange Design, " G&W Taylor Bonney Division, Bulletin No. 502, Seventh Edition. 3 Design of Flanges for Full Face Gaskets, Bulletin No. 45, Thylor Forye
and Pipe \!brks, Chicago,
DESIGN FORMS
Ill.
ll0
lll
z
rtt
t, a, x
tll u)
s
z
F & lI]
E
tl
v v2
tl
z
li t{ V aa
Fi
TA
ut{
z
4qr
an
za
s
3
()
F.
tl
i,
q +
,d
HJ
I \
]. I
ta
F
+
tl tl
z
\
rl'l
.E
tl
+
tl
lt,
t
v,
5z
F]
z z
F V
q.t
a \l s
9b 96 69 Ebo ,9
t4 :s
tl
z
>J
N
I
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S
'E9 gl
tr
tl
tl
)
tl
t4
F
!o .A
=:
:
+
v,
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I q
14
vt
v,
S =r;' : 9o t oo?
t4
P
<r,
a9
93
.Eg
4a
F
+
+
U)
v)
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+
ll
t
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a
tl
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t1
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al
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t)
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11
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tv lrr I il,
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t'{
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tl
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tl
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irl
n
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2,'.,
t
(J
v\
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Fr
() >9
lt\
CA
'43
3
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v v,
rl
qJ
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s
o
T a
7 ,
tl
= II
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+
tl
a(
ll
I
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7
v, ul
I
bol ':i ^
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ta Fi
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a
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tl
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tf:
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tl
tl
+
tl
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z
vt a,
p z
z
t
z
F
F F
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ord
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+
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5o a6
t{ &
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s.l
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4e
jd
.;
v
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ll
v1
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s.
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tl
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fl
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(,)
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tl l.
fJ
ll
z
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{i
t4 Fi
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Y
rrl
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F
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ll
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eir
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E
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ts
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(a
l t
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cj
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qEl
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ll
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lll
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te
tl
v
=
+
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II
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I
+ S
I
Ft
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t
tl
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I bol
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il
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l3i?
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ol=
z
z
F qJ
z
(J v)
I
I
001
rrl I =
rl l
t? tA i; it>
tl
lqlc ill +
rt
t/ ra
tl
LJ
fl
s*{ ;I siE
;EU
*.,
x
,i
+
E(J
tl tl
rr
ll
z
F
aa
+
A
s
p
(J
z
.u1
(a
II
z
F ltu
,\i v)
'1 tA (J
7.
:Er
?,, z4
J
3
C)
tl
F z + ql
F
z
ti
I
\<
U N
U'
aa
l4
z
;J
Pz tJ
u2<
z
ti
z
F
F.t
tl
N
I
z
d
tl
.;
ta
s
at
+ 2,/roo?
Y'
,l
z
EI
S EE
'n3
tat
F .l
C)
!o a,
=;
:n e!
t4
v v)
&
F
vt
N
Q 4e 93 U) =E o v, :a
F
\ :s
tl
+
:s
\E :t
+
E
t ,.
F
\l
',1
I I
tl
+
l
tl
al
I
U
tl
+
tl
U
tl
z
v,
ll 1
EI
v,
Ft
v vt
tl
F tJ,l
:l
l!!
a , t
tl
Ft'
T
;i o
ll
z J
Eeq
;l:c
:60
;9n !"3
+
ll tl
+
tl
IJ
.;
z
z aa
,l
F
z
p
..t1
iz
ZA
F=
z J D
3
Q
*
+ e
v)
z
J ta
z< 3
!l
z
F r/t
+
co
z
JI l l&l
2<
D =
z ::
z
O
z
F
vt
ts
ltt.
(
ct
a{
!
tr
ll
ll
c.l
ca.
+ el 6
II
l'it1 laa SN %l
)
I
+
f
ls
li
tl
(t
Elt
130
131
(t)
z J
U 'J U
frl
FJ
\ q)
F frl
7. v) i;4
(/) frl rr) .. Jl d r'z
tr
+
a o
tl tl
\o
e
r\l
Fr
(\ (r.) \
\$ \o \l
\r
t; q
q
sr fo \J N N $ h S\ \+ N \o \ \ \l. \l
lo
\ \) N \o
$l fo
\9
sn
\i
z Lrl
.b \s \' \.\
!r
\'
F
\.
a0
rl rr
z<q
'6
\h'
Tn;
\i
N h $t \ N
itl t,
il
F.
in
* N \o (n \ R h
Sl
co
\
t
lf)
St $H s
F.
TD
a l.i. ao $ St p \t
u.l
\h raJ
\.
z R J \j
F
z
L)
z \ti
p
U
\r
sr
!
JI
\l N i
N \ ,N \c}
CO sr\ s \FT s \l {o \s s
t
I
U) rI']
"s
t\ Fl
tr (l, fn
C\t
\o
f
t h \K)
U
tr.l
\
@
N N \ 6 { :.. \ 6
\o
vt
ir
F
U
I
5i
< X
r'r'!
JI
(J
N \o
w'
h
N
{.}
a \{
oi
E
3l vl zl il 'a ol cal ol to zl \c. \, a lO (\ (,1 l{ (\ N <l Fl lrt N I\' ,.q tdl I
<l :
+
''Fg
6 E
i
v)
I
6d
.a
gr
h'.. +
s
t!
s
{
tl
\{ \
+
I
o!
F*
.J
3r! gE
ptrlol
z o+ z
;.; '.)
E J I
F
*
c9
+
tl
tl
89 ;t
i3 E?
,
^l (/t?Jv.,I
'fq"
'jl
\
+
z
E
l^ \)
m
L)
\
I
z
(.)
\ \
'tr
%' tt)
"l
I I
I
2l
iE
l
\ci tr) cn
z (,
gJ
t
E
UIN fi lrl .o I\ t
I
I
s o R\ \i. \o \ \a to tlQ
+
(.)
!o \ \9 \l r{\
t"t .r) m
D\i
kl
5
U? tl
Lr
t. 5
tl
c\
R rt
q;
l
N q) ., \t \' (t."
.rl
ls
\
A.r
I I
U
! o O
o'
\l vt>'l
(Y'
c\
o
E
sl\D
N
aot
o + 9S a<
<A
F
G.
I
+ U
+r {{_r
I
t' I
F
r)
I
"l
s
I
s
loo
I
l'a
I ,5
tr
(J
.s
(!
2e :; 9A
.E
t I I I
U
II
s
o
()
o
c.l
ts
*
*^
s
I
\
l ol
.t
.r:
F
$ x \
.E
132
132.1
3
ROTATION OF HUB FLANGES
It was known, and reported, in 1957 that lhe ASMEr Ilange design nrcthod was liable to be unsatislactory for large diameter llanges and eould lead to designs that could not be made leaktight. Following are some of the deficiencies2 of the ASME method of
flange design:
l.
Satisfactory
2. Hoop stress due to internal pressure is neglected. l. Does not consider separately the deformation characteristics of the
4.
gasket under effects of pressure and temperature. Designs with selfenergizing seals not covered other than elastomer O rings.
5. Thermal elfects neglected. 6. Designs with radial slotted holes not covered. 7. Stress concentration at fillets and holes neglected. 8. Does not give rotation offlange.
Therefore, it is recommended that the large diameter low pressure flanges should be evaluated by methods other than ASME. This chapter describes a technique to check the amdunt of flange rotation as discussed by Dudly.3 Rotation due to the following factors ts included:
(a) Initial bolt tightening (b) Internal pressure (c) Unequal radial expansion ofthe flange and shell
133
)ris
li()(I
'MltN.t
discussctl
RoTATION OF HUI} FIANGES Distance of C.G. (centcr of gravity) of flange section from Xaxis
Timoshenkoa
or
Wesstorm
methods to calculate flange rotation due to initial bott tightening. In his comments in Wesstorm and Bergh's paper Mr. E. C. Rodabaugh has also recommended a technique to determine the amount of flange rotation due to hoop expansion.
l long
Yaxis is
Y:lA,kl12)+ Ar(sol2)+
il)us ls
A3@o+@ 
Sdl3)llAF
Also, distance of C.G. of flange section from small end of hub along X
Analyzing Tecbnique
The resulting forces and momnls on the flange cross section are shown
in Fis.
1.
Now
d:(A therefore,
By2
nd
At:t(d) A z: h(g o)
and
r.:
Bl2+ sol2
Ar:
h(g
r_ g)/2
dftt3 s^thlJ ls,s^lh)! .1, r \' ,::jjj +Yil +"' 36 :: +Atlh+^zI '' '\2/ t2 12
r'
.........T
"B
(lnless the bolt stress is controlled to some value by using special tools, rhe maximum bolt stress attained due to bolt tightening will beo
Sb:4s,MlJ4
Now
rrnd therefore,
SoAu
zTro
Mr:F"ho
CENTER LINE
__l
be
determined by using
'*#ftcry.#)",
r35
134
Where
: t.285 _ ro0o
t/
for steel
vo , ^ l2(l p2) 
'j{
I
3
,. X:l+"
(Z r"r.ZI\(  ! r^r"l r^r"ZI \ /  r^r^Zl\2 w' ll": + \p I, /\2prz' zAt ' "' r,ll) \2p' r, )
I
CENTER LINE
\
Internal pressure is usually assumed to act out to the centerline of the gasket. If the nange with hub in Fig. I is taken as a free body, with unit
circumferential dimension at radius ro, the three forces due to internal
pressure P are:
,,c
PBx
2ro
gao
2nroL
The resultant
F,will
act at a radius of
I.or simple joint with two flanges the eflective length of bolt assigned to cach flange will be the flange thickness plus one half bolt diameter plus
G2
+ GB+ 82
3(c+B)
These lorces will cause furthr rotation of the flange. Because the bolts and the gaskets are elastic, these movements will change the
stresses in them. Thus they can be considered as a pair ofunequal springs attached to the free body as shown in Fig. 2.
one half thickness of the gasket. For a tubesheet joint with different pressures on shell and tube sides, and flanges of approximately equal stillness, the total eltbctive bolt length should be apportioned between l he llanges in proportion to their respective pressures. Pointz can be located such that
,o:j!l
and ,u
koho
kB+ ke
136
137
l{oTA'110N
free body to move axially without any rotation. Also, application of a couple will cause the free body to rotate around:. The equivalent
I his point ha$ thc propcrty that, il thc lioc bocly is rcstraincd orrry . by the springs l, and Ao, application of an axiel force at z will cause thc
irnd thc total dilTcrcnti.rl movcmcnt to be counteracted by elastic action ol thc shell and flange is
k Bkc(hdz kB+ kc
is
Dudly is
p Frtr"r.tl+ ,. Mr ' gB
FDlt"t,14
\\ L.t
be caused by
E6ol
ll
)
II':g'g
 \
H+
\
)
pt,
(r.r,l
\a+pD)
i*
op't
Since the flange is in contact with the gaskets and bolts, the actual
r:
The dishing
0":0
&oi e,
olthe flange
as
shown in Fig.
3, is
ar,(ATl
given by
d.(./)
The outward expansion of the shell due to internal pressure is o RS pr? :::: Lgo The corresponding expansion of the flange is
for steel
Recommendations
l.
The rotation of the hubbed flange may be reduced by (a) Increasing the ring thickness (b) Increasing th ring outer diameter (c) Increasing the hub length
138
139
I{OTATIoN OF HLJI] tIIANCES l)ctcrnrinc thc n]xxilllum atnount of angle of rotation of the flange irssuming thcrc is no lcmperaturc differential between the shell and the
llange.
lncreasing the hub lcngth has bccn ftrunrl to be thc most cll.icicn( solution liom a standpoint ol increased weight. Howcver, a cost checx has indicated the increased ring thickness to be the most elTicient. 2. The relative motion at the gasket tace and the rotation of the channcl flange may be reduced very efficiently by the addition of a verticat dummy pass plate.
SOLUTION
will be no rotation due to unequal radial expansion ol the flange and shell, the maximum rotation of the flange will occur
Since there
pass
during hydrostatic test rather than at the operating condition. Referring to Fig. 1, we have
C: 173.875 in., G: l7l.'7928 in., t: 1.125 in., lt: 1.125 in., ao = I it.
A:1'75.'75 in.,
169 in.,
8:
and
dr:1
Now,
FIG. 3. SECTION OF A ROTATED FLANGE
1875 in
d:1175.75
therefore,
A
169)12
= 1.375 in.
EXAMPLE
169 in. inside diameter steel flange is to be used as a joint with another flange having in. thick steel jacketed compressed asbestos
.t25 \3.37
5J
3.79
69 in.2
gasket.
is designed at atmospheric temperature for l5 psi. internal pressure in accordance with ASME code and has the followrng
Outside diameter:
l'7
It
Az=
and
l.l25ll):
.125 in.'z
dimensions:
5.75 in.
/.r
thus
A
)/2 =0.1054
in.'
Bolt circle diameter   71.875 in. Gasket O.D. : 172.5 in. Diameter at gasket load reaction Gasket I.D.
5.0273
in.l
L I 25{0.5}+ 0.1054{'.0025,
5.02'73
_,.0,,n.
=
l
I7
.7929
in.
170.5 in.
in.
_ "
3.7q69(1.6875)
'
+1r)I ln.
1.125 in.
ro
169  , +,  85 in.
I
end: I
and
. /r
l7r.E75
 11 .79
28 ..... ltr4ll
t41
ln.
140
3."1969 (0.27
56 lb
in.
j5 rbrin.
.421
:n(851
:6,794 lb/in.
,__
1111.7928)' + 1'71.79281169)
'
3(17l.'7928 + 169l
+ 169' _85.2 n.
6,794(1.041 
l:
7,073
inlb/in.
1,
psi.
p:
285
)
Ec:48(10)apsi. Er:29(10)'Psi.
J85(l
L:
there[ore
and
thus
:0.0625 in.
t.?4?.783 lb7in. per lrnear rn.
tc
t1"]111'19!,02n(85)0.0625
_. f t.4t6t
10.r
394 I
1.6721 I (s.0271)
I
r.
ano
o"=:to^1"?',t:: d
2'T(85X 1.625)
Now
2,520,r 8s(1.041 1)
(2,s20,1 85 +'7,7 47,'t 83t
:0.2555 in.
85.8964 + 0.2555
86.l5l9
in.
xa:1.04110.2555:0.7856in.
.
r
r,
rr59 inrb1in.
MP:3s(86
I
r9
8s
a+
1050(86l sl
n.or?'
r.rr,:
3
^ 1,07 cr:ffi:667'264
(2,061,rs3 + 66't ,264)
therefore
142
143
F
l)ESt(;N ()F PROCESS EQUIPMENT ROTATION OF HUB FLANGES
radians =0.63370
Therefore
Conclusion
S:0.01t06(3.325) :0.0173in.
Amount ol maximum allowable rotation is to be decided by the designer British Standard No. 1515, part l, 1965 ,."orn"nd, m"xiiu_ allowable rotation ol lhe order of 0.75.. However, the example flange considered above represents an actual case in which leakage was observed around the periphery of the flange during the hydrostjic tesr. The most probable cause for the leakage was considered to be rotation of the llange. The llange design was modified and the leakage was stopped. It would appear therefore, that a maximum flange rotarion angl. more conservative than 0.75" should be considered.
llI 9o g, C I lr.
Force due to internal pressure,lb/in. Thickness of hub at small end, in. Thickness of hub at large end, in.
Diameter at location ofgasket load reaction, in. Hub length, in. Radial distance from gasket load reaction to the boh circle, in.
t
kB
sill2(t  p"):e;/10.92
for steel
k(
L M.
Mo
Nomenclature
,4 At A2 A3
,46
Outside diameter of flange. in. Area ofsection l. in.2 Area of section 2, in.2 Area of section 3, in.2
M,, M,r
Qo
Moment of inertia of area u4, about lTaxis, in.a Spring conslant ol bolts, lb/in. per linear in. Spring constant of gasket, lb/in. per linear in. Effective length of bolt per flange, in. Moments acting on flange, inlb7 in. Moments acting on flange, inlb7in. Moments acting on flange,inlb7in. Moments acting on flange, inlb7in.
,4" Total area offlange and hub section, in.2 Ac Face area ofgasket, in.2 I Inside diameter offlange, in. C Bolt circle diameter, in. C. Torsionalspring constant of bolts and gasket Cr Torsionalspring constant offlange and hub d Thickness offlange in radial direction, in. d, Diameter of bolt, in. D Plars constant ' E Modulus ofelasticity offlange material, psi
Eb
rT
s si
I
T Thickness of gasket assigned to flange, in. Outward radial displacement at small end of hub, in.
Constant
z
a
lJ
U
Ec Modulus of elasticity ofgasket material, osi FB Bolt force, lb7in. F, Force due to internal pressure,lbTin. fo Gasket force,lb/in. F R Force due to internal pressure,lbTin.
144
t45
)tist(;N
oI
I,l{()(itiss ljQtjIl,MLiNl'
RUt'URf,NCES
VIII.
"Pressurc
l, ASME, New York, N.Y., 1983. "A 2. Review of Present Methods for Design of Bolted Flanges for Pressure Vessels." British Standard Institution Document No.
8D6438, Ocrober. 1969.
4
STRESS ANALYSE OF FLOATING HEADS
3. Dudly, W. M., "Deflection of Heat Exchanger Flanged Joints as Affected by Barreling and Warping," ASME Trans., 1960, Paper 60wA70. 4. Timoshenko, S., "Strength of Materials," D. Van Nostrand Company Inc., New York, N.Y., 1941,Part II, Art.34. 5. Wesstrom, D. B., and S. E. Bergh, "Effect of lnternal Pressure on Stresses and Strains in Boltd Flanged Connections," TRANS. ASME. Vol. 73. 1951. 6. Petrie, E. C., "The Ring Joint, lts Relative Merit and Application," Heating, Piping and Air Conditioning, Vol. 9, April, 1937.
The floating head is an essential part of certain types of shellandtube heat exchangers, It consists of a segment of a spherical shell attached to a ring shaped flange. A crosssection of a typical floating head is shown in Fig. l,
wH
FIC. I.
CROSS SECTION OF
r46
147
l)ESl(;N 0r, PllocEss EQUTPMENT Floating beads can be built of forgings or castings. They can also be fabricated from formed heads welded into rolled and welded plate flanges or machined forged flanges. Regardless of the material or the method of fabrication, the floating head must be designed to withstand the combined effects of pressure and boltload.
technique for designing floating heads is discussed in UA6, Section VIII, Division I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code.' However, the formulas given are approximate and do not take into account continuity between the flange ring and the dished head.
Lst Pr be the tube side pressure or the pressure insid the floating head,
then, the force H is H
:PtrB2
4
,:r_i(r_""*)
Now,
In this stress analysisl the flange is assumed to be cut loose from the head. A ring moment, M, and a ring load, V, are applied to both the head and the flange at their junction. These represent the total moment and the total force acting over the junction surface between the head and flange. M and V are computed assuming that the radial and angular displacements of the flange are equal to those of the head at their line of junction. Forces and moments acting on the head and flange are shown in Fig. 2. The total bolt load has been treated as a continuous ring load.
)t:1.29
xt:l  sl
cot o
ln(K)
Kr
e
rr: ^
BKr
rGl
B
./T
^'
+ z \^'*x,/+ni x,
.,:f(''?)
H<Therefore,
crc6c3c4 c2c4ctcs
r49
148
_P,R ,
V cos
6M
Now,
\_ ::
P,R
2t
. t
Vcos
rp 6M nBt nBt2
rc6 c 3c 4 c2c4c rc 5
c
Head Stresses
":w?ry)
Flange Stresses
 P"R Vcosa 6M ^ \.:+]2t tBt rBt2 ' + Vcos o 6M s..: PR 2t nBt TtBt'
=
. r r,:
"':
O.525n
arK,
\n;i
e
. 4Mi\
v
Sa
_ Sr
:Sa+56
: 51 56
Sliz:Sa*So
Stresses with Full Gssket Restnint
Let P" be the shell side pressure or the pressure outside floating head, the force II will be
In lhis
case also, C
, : '.:t'
C t, C 2, C 4 and C, will be the same as worked out earlier for inlernal pressure. C. can be worked out from the relationship
r,
2, C 4 and
Also,
cr=;
and c u=
+ntt
Now
150
151
STITESS ANALYSIS
,,
and
c2c4ctcs
2(:6
(' 3c
EXAMPLE
clesigned
^ \.:tand
V cos
e nBt
6M rBt2 6M tBt2
Analyze the stresses in the floating head of a kettle type reboiler for 310 psi shell side and 100 psi tube side pressure both at 650"F. The flange material is A105 and had is made of A51570. The head is 0.9375 in. total minimum thick and has inside dish radius of 3l.09375 inches. The inside and outside diameters of flange are 34.75 in. and 3'7.':'5 in. respectively and it is 5.5 in. thick in longitudinal direction cxclusive ofcounterbore. The inside depth offlange is 3.8554 inches. The diameter at the gasket load reaction is 35.125 in. and bolt circle diametr is 36.5 in. The shell and tube side corrosion allowance can be assumed to be 0.0625 inches. The total bolt Ioad is 255,443 pounds.
^ Vcos(p
ftBt
Flange Stresses
SOLUTION
Referring to Fig. l, we have
A
3'7.'7 5
/ .. ^ " BrKr\ B/
0.525n
4M)\
2{0.0625)
37.625 in.
B =34.'15
+20.0625):34.875 in.
I\ ^" /l  /\/K2+ ll
\'rBIl\K' l /

t :Q.93'75
2(0.0625):0.8125 in.
(37 .625
, (A_ B) u2
T:
and
5.5
34.8't
s)
51_ Sr
Syr::Sa*56
The force F is given by the negatiye quotient ofthe values of Sr,, or Sy;2 due to intrnal or external pressure (whichever is higher) and the value of Sr,, due to the unit force as determined above.
0.0625
5.4375 in.
q:3
Now,
rr
8554 in'
tl :(c 2t tl
c):
:(36.5
35.1
25):0.6875 in.
:;(35.125
34.875)
:0.
25 in.
152
153
I'I,oATINC HEADS =
(rr)r
(6.6923)r
299.7272
K=
77
6)5
43,26',7
lb
r:ao*rr::t'ozss
/14
R7s
r5?.026)
7e.892(8.5695)
*:.,n'(urrr)
Pr:
100 Psi
:sin'
r{o.s52s):33.s4"
5.8668(8.5695)
3.651s(5.2698)
40,562 inlb
Head Stresses
.s.
":
r.828 psr.
100(2X14.875)
+
3.85s4
:9)')lo
lb
t.62 {l ln.
(43,267)0.8115
6( 40,562)
n(34.875tt0.8125),
:4vuz
psl
Flange Sarsses
;
psr.
'
/''
r.,
r^r,ll216"\
l\0.r638J
Kz: t 0
1.5085
tr***:0'8499
0.962s
v2
.t (8.040t
(0.8125)0.07585
1,299 ( 755):  544 Psi : 1,299 +(  755): * 2'054 Psi s711 
Sr): 
34.875 (0.9625)
r :5.8668
o.
s,s26lt.624l
(1.5085)
P":310 psi.
125]
255,443(0.6875)
:79,892 inlb
8i1910!525r(s34es+t
.. (  310)n(34.875)'z : H: 4
c3:
296.129lb
296J291 1.6241(1.5085)
+: 34.8.7s
,(:.sss+)l.s!4_o.rrrl
I
'o
:8.5695
t^ s =0.8r2s10.9025)
1
u1*]=o'u'"'
":v:':zol
^ ^_[4(3.8ss4)34.875(1.5085) 0.]5
157.026 lb
Now
155
,,
and
atrtl 256,M0 tb
:{Ilgrs47.sl ?f
31.0223
1875(&5621
_0.63e4 inlb
M: 3.6535
Head Stresses
31.0223
:324,639 inlb
'hererore'
r,.:0*#ffi*.;offiffi33rr : 0'055?
6{
psi'
S,,
(310)31.5625 .
2(0.812s)
256,440(0.833s)
t(34
8?510^8
t25
6(324,639)

0.6394)
_0.0504 psi.
r (34.875)(0.81 25)'
n(34J75X08
25f
0.s2s{6.6e23) [_o.rrr_0,0.^u?1?t.oootl:o.oreop,i. \, .^:34875(0.8t ""34.8'15 J 25)0.9625 L
"J
:23,310 psi.
t,.:l
310) 31.5625
2s6,440(0.8335)
6(324,639)
2(0.8125)
z(34.875)0.8125 z(34.875)(0.812s)'?
:  30,550 psi.
Flange Stresses
Psi
: _jj?!1623) 'u:34i75(0J
s.
125
t _106 Iror _ /r 6rR\l s :_  t.066J)_256.4401..'.:: I l:1.315 psi, ' '' nt34.8'75)5.43'7s L \0 1638/l
r
I 
Now
,.^
5'530psi'
two values ofSJi' The force F is given by the negative quotient of the
Sr":1315
Sri,
Stresses with
(+(
1315
p: 
0.068
Ib
In this
case
o: 1a2ls):ot.sts \ 0.068 /
ntb
Stresses Due to lnternal Pressure and with Full Gssket Restrsint
tu
c,=seI:21187s
and
34.875 4(6.6923) 1 .37 s
:0.94'15lb
by the Multiplying the stresses determined above due to the unit force to due stresses the with these .orr".pinOlng force F and combining
internal pressure
as
Now
5.8668(0.9475)
0.0557(30,206)
0.282 lb
srr
1828: 3,510Psi'
0.0504(30,206) + 4902
6'424 psi.
882 Psi'
156
r57
S'TI{ESS ANALYSIS
oT TLOATIN(; HEADS
Repeating the above procedure and subtracting the external pressurc [(]
:
:
19,547 psi.
:  0.01 12(61,985) + 6,845  310:5,841 psi. S/r :0.068(61,985) 4,215  3lO:  310 psi.
30,550 _
3 I0
_ 27,7 36 psi.
I T / w E
Corroded head thickness, in. Corroded longitudinal thickness offlange, in. Ringload between flange and head,lb
: sin
'
(B/2R )
REFERENCES
l. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, "Pressure Vessels," Division l, ASME, New York, N.Y., 1983. Soherns, J. E., "The Design of Floating Heads for Heat Exchangers," ASME Paper 57A247.
AII the stresss determined above due to internal or external pressure and with or without full gasket constraint are within thc allowable of 30,400 psi (0.8 yield) stress, rherefore, our design is safe.
Nomenclature
Corroded outside diameter offlange, rn. Corroded inside diameter offlange, rn. Bolt circle diameter, in. Corroded radiai thickness offlange, in.
Mean gaskel diameter, in.
c
d
G h
:(c  G)12
K
m
Radial distance from corroded inside diameter to the gasket load reaction :(G  B)/2 A/B
n3
M
n
P.
inlb
T/t
Inside pressure on the floating head, psi. Outside pressure on the floating head, psi. Inside depth offlange, in. Mean corroded head radius, in. Stress on the outside offlange, psi.
Stress on the inside offlange, psi. Stress on the outside of head, psi. Stress on the inside offlange, psi.
q R
e
C
S,,
Jl,i
158
159
5
FIXED TUBESHEET DESIGN
In the chemical industry, heat exchangers are frequently required to be fabricated of expensive corrosionresistant materials, and to avoid waste of such materials it is desirable that tubesheet thicknesses should be no greater than are required to withstand the design conditions involved. This chapter discusses the design offixed tubesheets in accordance with the method proposed by Dr. K. A. G. Miller.r It takes into account the support given to the tubesheets by th tubes and also the weakening effects of different tube hole spacings. The tubesheet designed by thrs method results in thickness much less than as given by the method proposed by TEMA'? (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association). The Miller method is generally preferred over the TEMA method for economical purposest especially for large diameter alloy tubesheets
designed for low internal pressure. There, will not only be a saving rn material but, more important, a saving in the machining time for drilling the holes in the tubesheet. Discussion is limited to the box type ofexchanger as shown in Fig. I, since thiscovers almost all types of fixed tubesheet exchangers used these days. The tubesheet has been assumed to be simply supported because rn almost all cases, gaskets are neither full faced nor extended inside bolt holes. In any case, if the type ofexchanger or the boundary condition is different than discussed, one should refer to Miller's paper for analysis. A detailed example follows the short discussion ofdesign procedure in order to present the application of this method for design problems.
t6l
t)ltst(;N ( )tr
Design Procedure
l{( x
jtjss
LQTJTPMENT
I)ifferential exPansion
is
y
= d10t d"0"
liflective pressure diflerence due to the combined pressure difference P and the differential exPansion i' is
P":P+y*+
Determine the value ofdimensionless factor
E,na ^ rn:tot[tP;,1eo
]"
D ^
The values of Gr, G2, G3 and Ga corresponding to the factor l(R can be read from Table 1.
KR Gr
c2
0.800 0.810 +1.000 +0.998 +0.966 +0.836 +0.546
+0.121
G.
1.000 1 .002
0
0.5 1.0
"
A:lpz
4
0.844
o.993
t.)
2.0
2.5
t.o29 t.14
I .40
t.012
t.34
1.88
t.412
2.40 4.24 6.36 8.53
10.7 5
t;79
2.25
c:a,,
Crosssectional area ofshell plate is found using the formula
3.0
J.)
4.0
4.5 5.0 5.5
2.36
2.75
2.69 3.10
3.47 3.83
B:
3.10
3.43
n(D +
t)t
13.1
6.0
4:P:(AC) A
Determine
7.O
8.0 9.0
10.0 12.o 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.o
15.8 18.7
2s.3
33.1
4.529
0.5 64
41.8
a:E!: E"B
Working Conditions
Calculate equivalent pressure difference by
)l.t)
74.3
101.1
9.88
11.33
132.0 t67 .2
i2.80
14.25
206.4
163
IlxDl)'ruBBsHtit1,r D[slcN
,,
t^^A^l  t'
e
c,u
oy'
,i :
r/'
l),:580
in.
70:510"F
2(0.083)
ri:1.5
P,r^u*1
:(
_oct
l, ",
(,;*,
:
:
1.5
t)]
1.334 in.
ti,
ZZ.52,tOru Ott.
a,:
,ir:27.52(10)6 psi.
Assuming the total thickness of tubesheet as 3 in. therefor,
rlu''Astl
Similarly, the stresses in tube plate and tubes should be determined for different combinations of shell and tube design pressures, if any are required. If, either of the stresses in any of the cases is found moreihan the allowable, the tube plate thickness should be modified unless the stresses within allowable limits are obtained.
".@,T31]
allowance
EXAMPLE
Design 58162 Ni 200 tubesheets in accordance with K. A. G. Miller method for a fixed tubesheet exchanger having an expansron joint. The A51670 shell has an uncorroded inside diameter of I10.5 inches and is designed for 150 psi internal pressure at 580"F. The shell
plate is 0.625 inches thick inclusive of0.0625 inches corrosion allowance. There arc 2436,22leet long, 1.5 inches outside diameter and 0.083 inches thick SB163 Ni 200 tubes. Tube side design conditions are 50 psi at 580"F. Shell and tube metal temperatures can be assumed to be 580"F. Total corrosion allowance for tubesheet should be 0.0625 inches.
i :'"":'
<\2
ecttt:4304.8
in.2
t96.5 in.,
 C:s6ll.6 
4304.8:5306.8 in.'
^ ^. 4:It=:u.))21
5306.8
a: 27.52(10)6 26.08(10)6(196.5
(900.1)
r
:4.8336
SOLUTION
Pr
":,50_50H#:er.5psi
Sinc the exchanger has an expansion joint the differential thermal
expansion will be
150 psi.
0"=58070=510.F
D:
r 10.5
t :0.625
?:0
164
to)
pti(xjljss tjQUtpMINT
psi.
p.: p:91.5
ruoesneet, whtch gtves
Nomenclature
a
Crosssectional area of metal in one tube, in.2 Crosssectional area of bore of shell, in.2 Crosssectional area of shell plate, in.2 Crosssectional area of tub holes in the tubesheet, in.2
L :22(12)
2(3) _ 2(0.125)
:257.7s in.
a
d'
D
5 9203
and
P,(max): [91.5 
6r:  0 5841
Gt:6.3450
50(
z:31
6953
h
Outside diameter of tubes, in. Inside diameter of tubes, in. Bore ofshell, in. Modulus ofelasticity for tubesheet material, psi. Modulus ofelasticity for shell rnaterial, psi. Modulus ofelasticity for tube material, psi. Thickness of the tubesheet, in.
of the tubes, in.
L Ellective length
n
l.8l l2)4.8jj6]
I10.625
4 14.8336
(s.9203) + 37.69
:p,(max)
zws
psi.
O.K.
p
P,(max) P,(max)
l85l
to
combined pressure
:#1r.5
:433 psi
( 0
5s4r/1####{l.l
1
Maximum radial stress in tubesheet, psi. Maximum longitudinal stress in tubes, psi.
91 5
16.34591
:1698 psi (Tension)< 15,520 psi, O.K. Since all the stresses are within allowable limits, a 3 inch thick tubeshet is sufficient for this exchanger. Thickness .outa U" iu.it", reduced but seems to be quite reasonable for such a large "*"nung"..
Q t r" z, 7 4 p 0" 0,
l.
E,nalE,B
Corroded thickness ofshell, in. Coeflicient of thermal expansion of shell, in./in. F Coeflicient of thermal expansion of tubes, in./in. 'F Differential expansion per unit length, in./in. Deflexion efliciency Ligament efficiency
Temperature ofthe shell,
'F
REFERENCES
Miller, K. A. G., "The Design of Tube Plates in Heat Exchangers," Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. lB, t952 53, pp.2l523t. 2. Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, Sixth
Edition. New York. N.Y.. 1978.
166
t67
6
FLANGED AND FLUED EXPANSION JOINTS
btween tubes and shell offixed tubesheet exchangers, when making an expansion joint selection. Temperature differences between shell and tuie side fluids cause differential expansion oftubes and shell Asaresult the tubes are subjected to stress unless suitable provision is made to accommodate the differential expansion. Expansion joints are installed, when required, to accommodate differential expansion' Tubisheet thickness design formulas of the TEMA STANDARDS' are relatively simple for all construction other than fixed tubesheet desien. In this desisn a factor "J" has a value of 1.0 for shells without expa'nsion joints, and mostly zero for shells with expansionjoints, except foi designs which require special consideration. Among these are those expansion joints which require considerable axial load to produce movement and are known as "ring expansion joints." There are several types of ring expansion joints. They have been successfully used where small movements are to be accommodated and whre the frequency of movement is minimum. They offer significant advantages over the more flexible thin wall bellows type joints in fixed tubesheet heat exchanger
applications.
The procedure as recommended by Kopp and Sayre2 for designing these typis ofjoints is discussed briefly. This computation method takes into account joint flexibility of the shell plates and of the circular ring' The following three types of ring expansion joints can be analyzed with
this technique: L FIat plates with ring Thisconsists of two concentric flat plates with a circumferential bar at the outer edges. Tbe flat plates can flex to make some allowance for differential expansion. This design is genrally
169
for vacuum
are subject to severe stress during differential 2. Flenged only herds Inthistv The curved shape tends to reduce the Flanged and flued herds Thi expansion
expensive because of the
;_;;i;"."'
Let E be the modulus of elasticity at design temperature and m be the Poisson's ratio of expansion joint material. Now,
d;il;G";;;,ffi'ji"Hl!lii":tl.,1T,1x,.fl fi ]hlill
,"*,
3.
""
,f,"
*"fi#;iiiir.
^Ro
Tq.: f,.ra,
iri" "urii
.:ffi(I)
hf b:t +t
L
"* Jr,;d;;&"r,
#il, ," paragraph 7.tel of riMA" St;$ffi;;'"r., :::::d** .with having_ these type of expansion
rnlalirionl predicting the value of ,,J" factor for designing fi;;;;.;;;;;
unuryrir.
discussed applies directly to type I above. However, provrsron ^^..Ll._,::ll'?": ls made to convert the actual cross_section oftyp" iu"J an equivalent of type I (i.e., square cornered ring, with the same total leng.th of plare along the centerline)for
ll",o
zla +
F,J
l1
oJ
to demonstrate
D:nffi)
At:(2bLIC
Br:(2a+ L)C
a,:lttrtc
n,:lta+Dc
v,:L]+oa,Le,
TYPE
I
FIG.
v,: lo.a,+L;,
TYPE
TYPE
I.
^:ffl
Moments Drc to Internal Pressure
Let P be tho internal pressure and x be the distance above point is shown in Fig. 1, then
joint of Type 2 or 3 is desired, the dimensions of ..Il "*p1ori:l tnese types should be converted to an equivalent oi Type f ioffo*r, ", For Tyrr 2, L:G _O.2t5r
For Type 3, t: c O.215(r tr,) For Type 2 or 3, lr : H _0.43r
as
':(+)"
t7l
170
F=KW
Ft=LWF
Mt:
M
AzW ArF
B1F _ B2lU
as Sr.
j:
It4:7,4, p,r
1!2 rz
(i.e.
S=Sr*Sz
Thus, the resultant stress at each location from I to B can be determined by adding S, and S, at the same location Care should be taken to use the proper sign while adding these stresses. The resultant stress will be compressive if positive and tensile ifnegative. The pressure, deflection or combined stresses should be less than the corresponding allowable stresses, otherwise, the design should be modified.
Allowable Stresses
Moments Due to Differential Thermal Movement Using the proper sign for dillerential movement A
opens and
if
the
+ if thejoint
',4 t=,
\Lrr'/ Mn'=A'F' Mu'=B'F' Mr=M^r*Frx
Determining Section Modulus of Exprnsion Joint Section
 /D\ ly rr:l;;
The movement with respect to each other of the shell plates at the joint
be determined by the elastic changes in the shell and tubes. This may cause high stresses locally in thejoint and therefore some plastic yielding,
will
but any yield in the joint will not cause further movement of the shell plates, and so will be selflimiting in nature. The portion undergoing plastic deformation is small in comparison with the portion undergoing
elastic deformation. Therefore the residual strain will be imperceptible. Thus the prevention of significant plastic deformation does not require all calculated elaslic stresses to b below the yield point, since appreciable plastic deformation can occur only if the material yields across the entire area. Thus, ifthe exchanger service is to be a steady one, the local stresses with this type of loading should always be lower than twice the yield stress in order to avoid failure by brittle fracture as stated by Brownell and Young.3 Similarly, internal pressure acting on the flat plates in thejoint may B at an interval of
cause them to bulge, but as they bulge. catenary or cupping stresses as well as bending stresses are introduced, and unless the plates are very heavily loaded, the bulging will also be selflimiting in nature. Therefore, the stresses of the following order can be allowed
z:+(!f,+t\ 6\ r ' /
Strss6 Due to Internal pressure
s,
=M 'z
should be determined at x 0 i.e. at /4, ro .S, = one inch by changing the values of M and Z.
x:
s,:
Stresses Due to
Maximum s,
(p)
r.s
Pressure Strcsses
Dilfcrcntid Moveme
M,
'z
172
173
r'
Detlectlon Strsss
EXAMPLE
with a flanged and inches in order. to 125 0 flued expansion joint to be designed to open internal design The tlie dilferential thermal expansion' A 15.25 inches I.D. exchanger is to
be equipped
u""ornoa"t"
inches total minimum thick fressure is 100 psi and the shell is 0.375 joint inclusive of 0.0625 inches corosion allowance' The expansion material has the following properties: psi Code allowable stress at design temperalure: 17'500 Yield stress at design temprature:38'000 psi (10)6 Modulus ofelasticity at design temperature = 27'6 pci Poisson's
in"i.
ratio:0.3
,:
where
, (f.r+r")__,
Fr
fixed tubesheet Also, calculate the value of factor '/ for designing feet' 16 to equal be to shell of assumingthe overall length
*&
be
SOLUTION
is assumed to be the The minimum expansion joint plate thickness equal to J llmes made are radii same as the shell thickness' Both corner be..1.inch (shouldinches A straisht flange of 0'875
F" the force to move the shell by one inch can readily determined from ..Hooks
Law"
as:
r'":/!(rd=z(Do=49u
Therefore,
;l;;;;l;k"".t.
shown in Fig. 2.
as
,*opF#L
Mettods of Calculating F,
Bsides the Kopp and Sayre technique Gardnera and Samoiloff have also stated methods of calculating _Fr. fr.**"r, .rrf y"t"n""_"iirra and Sayre is disiussed here, accoioirg,. :*::T:T^1 ll.Ko?p i., can oe determlned as:
s',
t
i
*iir,
rr:0.375L
Fr=2(F,)(R,)n
in accordance with TEMA .I can be assumed to be equal to zero shells with expansion joints, where Fr But,
for
<(Dot)tEs/loLl
=r;Jlrs.2vlD
FIG. 2. EXPANSION JOINT IN EXAMPLE CALCULATION
t74
t75
[)ESI(;N OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT The expansion joint calculation sheet can also be used for design. joint should be analyzed in the corroded condition only. Referring to type 3 joint in Fig. I and determining the data for analysis in corrodcd
The
condition:
G
e,
a,
:4!p1t.zs02):
6.I231I(0.38e
12.4236 in.'z
t =0.375
r:
I.125 + 0.0625 +
oltrs '';
{1
t.3438 in.
,, :(u
ttit)'
in.'?
rt:1.125 +
o lt?s ':
:1.2813 in.
lsrs
r,:
in.
n?rr<
(6'l2tlt)'o.6o9ooz.a:r,6'ya!E\
=
16.9125 in.r
rll
+ 0.i75 + 6.6251q.g62510
14.8438
25
':l+ff] :2,5tzin
= 14.8438 in.
Now, P:
therefore,
100 psi.
 R" 1(:d:
7J43s
8924
in'
w:ry1!@l :
F
rr+4.62
tb lin.
2.95 12(144.62)
426.8025 lb
6.r231 in.
E:(27.6)106 psi
and
will
A:0.125 in.
m:0.3
Calculating
,/7.8438(0.3 _:F::I a:r
Now,
t2)J3tt
03'z
:0.0625
in.
and
7't 132.3 F,: . =:(o.o62s): ' 6.1231(5.7307)
137.38a3 lb.
Cdculating Strsscs The magnitude of stresses due to internal pressure and differential move. ment and also the resultant stresses at different locations are determined and tabulated as follows assuming tle positive stresses to be compressive
and the negative being tensile:
6.1231 ^ L:)a;ono*rr*
:o'389s
176
177
DES(;N oF
l{ocEss EQUTPMENT
2t^ NF
Sa;
S,:24785(
Allowable Stresses
I)
1.5:37178
Psi.
Maximum allowable sr
1.5(17500):26250 psi.
Maximum allowable Sr:2.25(17500): 39375 psi. Maximum allowable 52 or S:smaller of 2(3800) or 4(17500)
h90g?..roo 'll
:
z
70000 psi.
Since all the actual stresses at differcnt locations are less than the corresponding maximum allowable stresses, the design is considered safe.
z
E
d, v)
q 3 G: F gh I = E R 3 R R  E ..TTTI
jE oo o,, $.ll H ertt t^ v N qr F sr ...r Fr .? a' . .d i
0.375)0.375(27.6)106 10(1e2)
>a :
N
g P+ ii H ll :
o
F
:84,228.5156 lb.
Since
t,
z?
(/)E
g : q $ c NR q E q q qc c H:
oQ * qi
Nomenclature
()
c.r
rf
,n
o Fi Y
c Factor, in. Ar Factor, in. A2 Factor, in.2 ,4" Crosssectional 6 Factor, in. Br Factor, in. B2 Factor, in.2
r78
t79
l)L.sl(;N
ol, PRoctiss
UQUTPMENI'
(' D Do E Es F Fr FA Fr Fs C fi H ./
K
Constant Flexural rigidity of expansion joint, lbin. Outside diameter of shell, in. Modulus of elasticity of expansion joint material at design
temperature, psl.
S Sr 52 S.,.
Combined stress in thc expansion joint, psi. Stress in the expansion joint due to internal pressure, psi. Stress in the expansion joint due to differential movement, psi. Allowable stress in expansion joint material at atmospheric
temperature, psi.
Sr." Allowable
rFmharar',rc
strss
nei
in
expansion
joint material at
design
Vertical force at B due to intrnal pressure, lb. Vertical force at B due tojoint moyement, lb. Vertical force at I due to internal pressure, lb. Force required to move the expansion joint one inch, lb. Force required to move the shell one inch, lb.
Sl S",
t
Maximum
DSi.
stress in
tr
w
Y,
Total inside width of expansion joint, in. Ratio of the force to move the expansion joint one inch to the force to move the shell and the expansion joint together one inch Factor, in.
Lateral load on span L, lb./in. Vertical distance from corner 1{, in. Factor, in.2 Factor, in.3 Section modulus of expansion joint plate at distance x from ,4, in."
of shell to
inside of
1.
REFERENCES
"Standards ofTubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association j' Sixth
Ll
m
M Mr
MA
Overall length of shell, in. Poisson's ratio ofexpansion joint material Moments at distance x from ,4 due to internal pressure, inlb. Moments at distance x from 1 due to joint movement, inlb. Moments at ,4 due to internal pressur, inJb. Moments at .4 due to joint movement, inlb. Momnts at I due to inlrnal pressure, inlb. Moments at B due to joint movement, inlb.
Kopp, S., and M. F. Sayre, "Expansion Joints for Heat Exchangers," ASME Misc. Paper VoL 6, No. 211 (1950, ASME annual meeting)
3.
M^
MB
Brownell, L. E., and E. H. Young, "Process Equipment Design," John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1959. Gardner, K. A., Report to TEMA on Fixed Tubesheet Exchanger Design Background for TEMA Par. 3.3 and Par.7.15. December 14,
1963, pp. 7 and 8.
M",
p
5.
Samoiloff, A., "Evaluation of Expansion Joint Behavior," Power, Design and Equipment Application section, January, 1961.
ri
R
Ri Ro
180
181
Il
z
tn
I I
,;
...1
C'
X= rIJF a\<
<z
ll
r4
\.l lN
:^< z z
'JY
a: +
ll
tl
lG.
o ;
ca
NI F\
l..l
U rr l(\
t_
I
>': kr
L, 's
ll
z trl
ti
t.
k: !
>lN
v)
I
tl
:
I
l.o
I
rl,
ll
< l..l
{l
tl
t: lr
l.]
ra
t.\
l',ol^L
lolt
I
J
vt z
T&
+ *l
F
z
()
z
lI]
aa
.,<
tl
rq
tl
Q
I
ll
*t
U
1
F]
F.l
II
a:
.c
I
ll
Ht
i
I
= +
I
; ,ttl
e ;
l1
*l
z
F
:s
*1
l \
I
":il .o
N
z \
x
@
7
PIPE SEGMENT EXPANSION JOINTS
The fluedhead design has given good service in a number of the applications, but occupies considerable space and is expensive for joints made which it provides. Thus, in some cases expansion
movement
ring lt
is
designed'
fabricated and installed much cheaper than bellows or flanged and flued joinrs are rugged and expansion joints. In addition, ringtype expansion They heavy walled. thus, they do not require any additional protection' joints on exchangers are also a good substitute for bellows expansion where corrosion maY occur.l for This chapter along with a solved example discusses a technique 2 "J" analyzing these type of expansion joints A method of calculating 7'191 factor for designing fixed tubesheets in accordance with paragraph
Analyzing Technique
joint' Choose size and schedule of pipe to be used as an expansion Determine the corroded pipe wall thickness exclustve of mill tolerance'
which is
r:(Nominal wall
thickness)(0.875)
185
In
general,
should not be
less
thickness.
movement due to differential thermal expansion or contraction can be calculated by using the following relationship:
tr:
(0,a, _ 0,a")
;$E
FIG. I. DEI,INITION OF SYMBOLS _tgxchanger__ size or schedule should be altered
dicated by positive and negative signs respectively. Thus, if, there are an equal number of inner and outer corrugations, the resulting movement due to internal pressure will be zero. This will also be the case when we use expansion joints made of pipe segments,
In order to usethis analy$is tneratio r/b should be less than 0.1. prpe
Total end force required to obtain the desired movement can be determined as follows: For 4 <g <40, the relationship for maximum movement is
a:0.s(d)+(bc\
Determine
^ ^:
force B we get
0.s7'7
PbnJt  m'
Er' Rearranging the above equation to get the relationship for axial
LEt2
u:;J12(1z.2l
Saresses
Now, th value ofA can be plugged in the above equation to obtain For p <4, maximum movement is given by
si :o.e55p(t
^ A:;;
where
CPb3n
4uD
4A,aD
Chsn
s,:(Greater of si or
Stresss Due to
s;r(fu)r.s
interpolated from Table
1.
D: _ tzvm)
and C is a constant which varies with the value of p and should be
Et3
Axial Movement
If
186
187
Maximum allowable Si or S;: 1.5(Sd.") Maximum allowable Sr : 2.25(S.,) Dellection Stresses Maximum allowable S'i or Si:smaller of 2(Sno)
TABLE r,  vARtATIoN
or
wtn
or 4(Sr"")
Combined Stresses
in the expansion joint resulting from the desird axial movement can be determined using the following relationships: Maximum meridian bending stress can be calculated from
stresses
Now, the
smaller of 2(Srr)
l.$Pf
ab ltrr
joint one inctr to the force to move the shell and th expansion joint
2"", L___V_
iogether one inch ./ is one when no expansion joint is used and ismostly joints are used But' the type eq"ual to zero when bellows type expansion under consideration requires considerable axial loads to produce follows: required movement and J in such cases should be calculated as
Bv definition
"rr
due to internal pressure and axial movement can be Stresses combined algebraically to obtain the resultant stresses as follows: Resultant meridian bending stress is
st
Where F", the force to move the shell by one inch, can readily be determined from "Hooks Law" as:
:si +si
F":41?. t
_r(Do _tltE"
and
s'?:si+'li
If the pressure, deflection or combined stresses as determined above are within the corresponding maximum allowable, the design is safe, otherwise, modifications in design are required.
f,
For
4<
p<40,
Ft=
Et2
0.577bn
Allorrble
Saresss
This type of loading will not result in plastic lelding of expansion joint material since the portion undergoing plastic deformation is small in comparison to the portion undergoing elastic deformation. This has already been discussed in detail in the chapter on ttanged and flued expansion joints. Thus, strcsses of the following order can be allowed while designing such expansion joints:
<(Dot)tEslloL
188
189
EXAMPLE
Design carbon steel expansionjoint . accommodate to the movement
and
oftubesheets i, iiz.zs and uncorroded inside shell diameter is 110.5 tnches. Shefipf"i" in. thick inclusive of 0.0625 in. corrosion allowance. " nir. value of lactor J for designing fixed tubesheet for this
between shell and tubes in a heat exchanger. naateriU r", shell is carbon steel and tubes are made oinickel. The shefLi" a"J"""i f". 150 psi. inrernal pressure at 580.F. Meral liiir.n.ff and tubes are 530'F. Length offace to face "rnp.r"ur*r'i*
at\
:2:tsts
oil"".iXr"
ir"n.,
6.OZS
si si
:
:
0.e55(r50x1
o.r,l',.[ffiffi]""
  0.3'
1"0
r4roo n.i
i"il"rl" e;;;;:;.*
tn.
0.e55( I soX
[60 (u.)b)
i4f!1tl'''
/)r I
= t+,zr t p'i
SOLUTION
Try a l0 inch schedule
100 (0.718
s,:
l,
we have
O: ).J /J tn
t:0.718(0.875) thus
[(s l0)7.96(10)
o.r0s2 tn
0.56575
,:JJ?5:0.1052>0.1
But..since rhis ratio is very close to 0.1, it is assumed ro satisfy the requtrement ol using the technique discussed. uslng two expansion joints i.e. one near to each tubesheet,
we have
'D__  Cb3n
where
4LaD
D: 26.08(10)6(0.56575)3 12(l
0.3'.)
and C can be interpolated from Table
1,
= 432A'73 lbin.
for p:1.7835 we get
n:4
AIso
in.
I nerelore
3l ^, ^ P:':ffi#:24'6tstb
4(0. 1052)60.625(432,47
'F 'F
Now
.63(24,615)/
4:580
70:510"F
6
2r(60.625)0.56575 and
'l',.
l,eot pri
=26.08(10)6 psi
si
o.s25t24,6tsl [(60.625X5.375X10.3')]"'
2zr(60.625)0.5657s
(0.56575f I
1.030
o.i
190
t91
E"
14,960
Fr F" J
L
Maximum allowable Si or Si : 1.5(15000) = 225q0 t.1 Maximum allowable S,:2.25(15000):33750 psi Maxirnum allowable S'i or 51:smaller of 2(30000) or 4(15000) : 60000 psi Maximum allowable S, or S,
Ratio of the force to move the expansion joint one inch to the force to move the shell and the expansion joint together one
inch
m n
D
Length of face to face of tubesheets, in. Poisson's ratio of expansion joint material Number of semicircular corrugations
:60,ffi
p5i
Internal design pressure, psi. Axial force required for expansion joint movement, lb.
Maximum meridian bending stress due to internal pressure, psi. Maximum circumferential membrane strss due to internal
pressure, psi.
Since, all the calculated stresses are within the corresponding maximum allowable, thus the design is safe.
si
s'i
Calcuhting J Factor
Since 4 <4. Therefore
si
si
Maximum meridian bending stress due to axial force, psi. Maximurn circumferential membrane stress due to axial force,
psi.
o,:ffi##:233,e80rb.
(D,r")r"4
10L
(11r.75
0.625)0.625(26.08) 106
Sr 52
S",.
Resultant meridian bending stress in expansion joint, psi. Resultant circumferential membrane stress in expansion joint,
psi.
10(2s7.75)
:702,749.7575 tb.'
Since F, < Do
zeto.
in
expansion
joint material at
design
Nomenclature
a
,4"
b c C d D D, E
Mean radius of expansion joint, in. Crosssectional area ofshell metal, in.2 Outside radius ofexpansion joint pipe, in. Shell corrosion allowance in.
t r" a" r,
g
Constant Corroded inside diameter ofshell, in. Flexural rigidity of expansion joint,lbin.
Outside diameter of shell, in.
Uncorroded thickness ofshell plate, in. Coefficient of thermal expansion of shell material at metal
metal
tl
p
A
192
r93
IiQT.JtPMENT
REFERENCES
t. Rubin, F. L., "Choose Heat Exchanger Expansion Joints Carelully," The Oil and Gas Journal, November 3, 1975. Roark, R. J., and W. C. Young, "Formulas for Stress and Strain," Fifth Edition, McGrawHill Book Company, 1975. 3. Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, Sixth Edition, New York. N.Y.. l9?8.
8
YERTICAL VESSELS SUPPORTED BY LUGS
The choice of the type of supports for vertical vessels depends on the available floor space, the convenience of location of the vessel according to operating variables such as the size, the operating temperature and pressure and the materials of construction. Various kinds of supports for vertical vessels have been discussed by Brownell and Young' in detail. Lugs offer many advantages over other types of supports. They are inexpensive, can absorb diametral expansions, are easily attached to the cylinder by minimum amounts of welding, and are easily leveled and shimmed in the field. However, a footnote after paragraph UG29(e) in Division I of ASME Code for Pressure Vesselsz cautions against supporting of vessels through the medium of lugs unless they are properly reinforced. In other words, each case should be analyzed thoroughly to insure that the shell is not overstressed. Vertical shlls supported on lugs require consideration of two important factors: 1. The additional stress of the support forces when combined with the working stress of the shell must not increase the stress in the shell above the allowable limit. 2. The support should not restrain the stressed shell so it becomes too
rigid to flex under normal changes in working pressure or loads, The following types of stresses are developed in the shell supported on
lugs: 1. The internal or external pressure on the shell, along with its weight, causes tangential and longitudinal stresses in the shell. 2. Eccentricity of this type of support results in a radial force on the shell which causes bending stresses in the ring ofthe shell (from the bending moment) as well as axial tensile sresses (from the tensile
t94
195
3.
often disregarded. After the proper analysis of the forces involved, the various stresrGl must be combined to detemine the maximum normal and shear stressot,
The radial force causes radial shear stresses in the shell, and $a longitudinal force causes longitudinal shear stresses, bothadJscont to the lug. However, these strcsses are so small that thcy rrt
will
If
tchnique discussed by Blodgett., It allows us to calculate stresses in thc shell at the location of lugs and also gives the procedure for sizing stiffeners,
be strengthened. For example, the bending stresses may be excessive inficating thst some type of stiffener ring.should be attached to the shell between supporte to substantially increase the moment of inertia of the shell section thereby decreasing the bending stress. The method of analysis presented in this chapter is based on the
the resulting stresses are excessive a simple study of the indiyidual stressor indicate what portion the lug is underdesigned and should
of
Now, only a portion of the shell beyond the lug is assumed to withstand the flexural stresses due to moment M. This assumption results in conse ative stresses since it disregards the reinforcing effect of the remainder of the shell as well as of the heads of the vessel. A rigorous determination of the effective width of shell that resists these stresses, requircs a laborious mathematical analysis. For simplicity, the shell with stiffeners can be compared to a curved beam with an extremely wide flange. Von Karman4 suggests that an effective width of the flange on each side of the stiffening
web is approximately
\lin 'T
The value of '?" should be limited to a maximum of 12 ts. The moment M applies radial forces to the shell having a distribution similar to that of bending forces, i. e. maximum at the outer fibers and zero along the neutral axis. It is assumed that the radial force applied to effective shell width g would decrease linearly to almost zero at its outer limits. Total horizontal force /2 on the shell will be as shown in Fig. 1(a). The resulting distribution of radial forcefi on a unit wide shell ring is indicated in Fig. 1(b). Now, momnt Mcan be expressed in terms of moment of areas of force distdbution diagram about t}Ie neutral axis, which gives:
if
required.
Analyzing Technique
M=
f,
(+)r(+ t\,
r,
I rI.+)
+frc(3h:2s ) =fth2 bo
={{nz
(a)
(
+zsn+zsz)
h)
=!Ur*rxo*u)l
Therefore, radial force can be expressed as
I,](;, I , RADIAL I:ORC!] DISTRItsUTION ON SH!]LL DUE TO LUC LOAD Let F be tlle nraxirnunl lotd on each lug then thc resulting logitudinal moDlnl on thc shell duc to eccentricity will be
fi,
applied
lV=FL
AIso
lt'
TF+T67ETr97
6M
196
l)DSl(;N
)lj
PR( )(i
uss LQUIPMENT
M,=K2f1r"
Section modutus of the unit shell dng is given by
s=
I
tl
FIG. 2  RADTAL FORCES ON UNIT SHELL RING HAVING FOUR LUGS
b ftJ2 =
Therefore,
o"6
Slresses
M'lS
Using a one inch wide shell ring, the radial forces for four lugs will be as shown in Fig. 2.
Stres6e6
a vessel having
The bending stress in the shell halfway between lugs will be compressive and much less than the bending stress at the lugs which will be
tensile in nature. On the other hand, circumferential tensile stress will be in magnitude halfway between lugs rather than at the lugs. However, circumferential tensile stress is small and when combined with compressive bending stress halfway between lugs, will further reduce the resulting stress at that location. Therefore, for simplicity, only stresses in the shell at the location of the lugs will be considered.
L
l.
Longitudinal
Stress.
and is given bY
mp
CircumferentialStress.
P r"
2
greater
to the circumference.
stress and is equal to
This is the stress in the direction of the tangent This is also referred to as hoop or tangential
o"p
=
P r"
Table I lists the multiplying coefficients rK1 and,l(2 for various lug configuratiom for determining circumferential tensile force and bending
moment respectively in the shell at the lugs. These coefficients have been tabulated by Blodgett and can also be derived by using formulas for circular rings in Roark and Young.s A complete table of coefficients for calculating bending moments in circular rings has also been developed by
will be tensile if the pressure is internal nd comstresses in the shell at the or"*iu" ii th. pr.rrur. is external' Since the lu", u.e onlv tinsile and these will be further reduced when combined *ir, unv .otnpt.tsive stress, only the stresses due to internal pressure
These stresses should be considered.
Samoiloff." Now, the tangential tensile force in the unit shell ring set up by the total radial force can be calculated by
Combined Stresses
at any Representing the resulting stresses in a cubic unit of shell taken in as shown other to each perPendicular planes point ofintersection of thlee
T=Krfr
Area of the unit shell rine is
Fig.3.
omp
A=bts
Therefore,
o4= TfA
FIG, 3.  SHELL STRESSES DUB TO LUG SUPPORT AND INTERNAL PRESSURE 199
198
)Sl(;N Olr Pl{O( j tjSS tjeutpMLNT Let or be one of the principal strcsses. Combining these stresses in the outer fiber of shell adjacent to the lug, where o. = o, we have Longitudinal tensile stress = o_ ". Circumlerential tensi]e stress j 6" = o"n + o", + o"o Maximum shear stress is equal to half the difference between two
Ar
calculate thus,
t,
lU, + ls
ts
o"o,
If
at the lugs should be stiffened. The following method of O"rignin; should be used in order to bring the excesstve stresses within limits.
any of the stresses calculated above exceed the allowables, the shell
n=Mr/Ar
r)2
,tiff.n.r,
Stresses
Designing Stiffeners F
is given
Total radial force acting on shell section resulting from maximum load
by
Tr=Ktfz
o",
o,jo=
+^ M = ,"= h
M,1=K2 f 2 r.
FL
h
s is
= T1fA,
and
M'1@)lI'
Stresses
SP
M='r
Longitudinal tensjle stress = om P reduced by Circumferential tensile stress (it"o) can be assumed to be section: the builtup of crosssection entiri the considedng it to be acting over
.odulus equal to or greater than 54 should be added to the shell at top and bottom of the lugs and the
So the stiffeners huuing the s"Jttion
""0=m
^
o"p(l'
resulting stresses should be checked as follows: Only the effect of the bottom ring should be considered since it applies radial tensile forces to the builtup ring and shell section. When rrngs made of flat bar are used the composite shell and bottom ring section will be as shown in Fig. 4.
t") =GilrTtt
Combined Stresses
Referdng +
tfr" ,tiii"n r, ifr"re 4  O "na in th" shell only and not in the outer portion of the stiffener)' .ir.r, *iff
we have
liber of
""i
ts
FIG. 4 . EFFECTIVE SHELL AND RING SECTION
o"o, 'mrx 2
200
20r
t)Est(;N oF Pt(ocESS EQUIPMENT are excessive, the stiffener size should be revisd until the stresses are within allowable limits.
Stresses Number of
Lugs 2
3
in Shell Due to Lug Support l, for shell having two lugs, we have Kr = 0'0 and Kz = 0'318 r=(0)(2111)=0 A =  ('62s) = '625 ir'2 n ct=O M=.318 (2111)
12.4375 = 8350 inlb
Values for
4
6 8
Now
and
TABLE I  MULTIPLYINC COEFFICIENTS FOR CIRCUMFERENTIAL TBNSILB FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT IN SHELL AT THE LUCS
s
o"b
t}Ierefore,
EXAMPLE
Stresses
in Shell Due to
Analyze the stresses at the lugs on an A515?0 shell of a 24 in. I.D. Vertical exchanger designed for 640 psi. internal pressure at 660o F and having .75 in. thick shell inclusive of .125 in. corrosion allowance. The exchanger is to be supported by two I ft. high lugs, and the total weight of the exchanger is 16910 pounds. The bolt hole in each base plate is located at a distance of 8.25 in. from the outside of the shell. If the shell is found to be overstressed, provide th stiffeners to adequately reinforce it so that the stresses are within allowable limits.
^ ""p
j/JO
psl
Combined Stresses
Longitudinal tensile stress = omp = 6368 psi Circumferential tensile stress = oc
(O'K' )
SOLUTION
=12736+O+128260
Maximum Shear
F=
1691012= 8455lb
Stress
ts = .75
140996
L = 8.25 in.
Now
'
r.. = 12.125
r .3125=
12.4375 in.
bdng the Since the stresses are excessive, stiffeners should be added to limits. allowable shell stresses witlin
shown in Fig.
Designing Stiffeners
84ss (8.T) f , ,, = ___1;
= serr ru
203
Using 451570 stiffeners, the allowable tensile stress for stiffener material at 6600 F is l?320 psi. Therefore, the approximate section modulus of the stiffener is
Combined Streeses
Referring to Fig. 3, and combining these stresses in the outer fiber of the stiffener we have
S*
ltoo? *n32o
1.32?5 in.3
o.
=0
o_p =0
Let us provide 3 5/8 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick stiffeners at the top and of lugs around the circumferenc of exchanger and check the magnitude of resulting stresses in builtup section as follows:
bottom
='7442 'osi.
o.K.
ts= .625
in.,\=
.625 in.,
ll
Since
= 3.625 in.,
1.8125 in' and
all the
stresses are
acceptable.
ts=.625+2(1.4)=3.425in.," r = x z = 3'9375ln'
Now
NOMENCLATURE
Area of unit shell ring, in.z
3.937
5 = 12.5352ir..3
Ar
b
t = .62s (3.625)
12.5352 +,+uoJ
Ir
lz
F
s
3 4251.625)3 h
Therefore
.625 ,"=ff
(3.625t
=:::::::
Moment
axis, in.a
=0(5813)=0
thus, oct=0
and
Stresses
in Builtup Section
omp = 6368 psi
Due
to hessure
KL Mdtiplying coefficient for circumferential tension in shell at lugs Kz Multiplying coefficeint for ben&ng moment in shell at lugs /, Effective shell length, in. , Distance of centerline of bolt hole from outside of shell' in' M Maximum moment on shell due to eccentric loading, in lb M, Sum of the moments of areas of effective composite section about the ' outside of stiffener, in.3 Mt Bending moment on unit shell ring, in lb Mr, Maximum bending moment on sltell, in lb l1 Distarce of centroid of composite section from the outside of stiffener, P
ln. Maximum internal Pressure. Psi
bl6/
Psi
204
205
/c S
s
Approximate section modulus of the stiffener, in.3 Uncorroded lhickness of shell plate, in.
Thickness of stiffener, in.
t
tr
/"
T t1
w
udt
shell dng, lb
Tangential tensile force on shell, lb Width of Stiffener, in. Dstance of centroid of sliffener from outside
9
{L,
), n.
xr x2
Distance
o. o"b
ocp
. t( ttr + +,
of
centroid
tn.
of
Resultant circumferential tensile stress, psi Tensile bending stress due to lug support, psi
Circumferential tensile stress in shell due to internal pressure, psi
Tangential tensile stress due to lug support, psi tensile stress in shell due to internal pressure, psi
o"t o, ot r",
1.
omp Longitudinal
Legs are most commonly used to support small tanks and vessels. vessels are located out of doors, the wind or earthquake load as well as the dead weight load should be considered in the calculation. However,
lf
Principal stress at principal plane, psi Allowable tensile stress for stiffener material at shell design temperature,
psi
as leg supported vessels are usually of much smaller height than skirt supported vessels, the wind loads may sometimes be a minor
REFERENCES
Brownell, L E., and E. H. Young, "Process Equipment Design," First Corrected Printing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., April, 1968.
..r,SME
Div.
l,
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, "Pressure Vessels," ASME, New York, N. Y., 1983.
consideration. The wind or earthquake load tends to overturn the vessel, particularly when the vessel is empty. The wcight ofthe vessel when Iilled with liquid tends to stabilize it. This chapter discusses the complete design analysis oflhese types of suppods. It gives the method of calculation for forces and moments due to ;ind and earthquake based on the criteria presented in the Uniform Building Code.r These forces and moments can also be calculated in accordance with the ANSI Standard A  58.1'?, ifdesired. After the size o[ the required legs to withstand the greater ofthe wind or earthquake force is established, the stiength ofthe selected leg support should be checked, in accordance with the technique presented herein and as also has been s explained by Brownell and Young
4.
Karman, Von, "Analysis of Some ThinWalled Structures," ASME Paper AER5519C, Aer. Eng., Vol. 5, No.4, 1933.
5.
Roark, R. J., and W. C. Young, "Formulas for Stress and Strain." Fifth Edition, McGrawHill Book Company, 1975.
shear and
Samoiloff, Alexander, "Investigation of Stress in Circular Rings," Petroleum Refiner, Vol. 26, No. 7, July 1947, pp 99103.
moment should be determined. After the wind pressure zone for the location of vessel is established from Fig. 1, the wind pressures' p, for various heights can be determined from Table l. The effect of shell and legs should be considered separately.
206
207
TABLE I.
WIND PRESSURE FOR VARIOUS HEIGHT ZONES ABOVE GROUND Shell
Wind force should be determined by applying the factor for cylindrical structure excluding appendages to the vessel and then adding the forces due to the attached elements, if any. S., the wind shap factor for cylindrical structure excluding
appendages is 0.6. Now
A":
therefote
Legs
Dh
F":
.4"(s,)p
:
F
2.0(constant
t:
t(S r\P
Mw:F'.(hl2+D+FL(12)
Wind force and moment due to platforms (if any)should beadded tothe ones calculated above to get the resulting shear and moment due to wind.
Selecting Approximate [,eg Size
horizontal force { can be chosen from Figure 2. This size can be further checked for its adequacy for earthquake force' if the geographical location of the vessel requires such.
208
209
)llst(;N
)t
2W(t)'
3NE(/,_+
r...
Now, the first mode natural period of vibration of the vessel can be determined by using the following formula for one mass structure:
I: Zn
Base Shear
F
5.0
Iv
I
vs
5.5
C:=,, (r,
1:
1.0
o 067
for vessels
If It
T>2.s,
T:2.5, S: l.s
0.048(T)'z
(S should not be less
S:r.2+ 0.24(n
than
1.0)
Now
Z 0.1875 for zone l, 0.75forzonel, K=2.0foru.rr.l, 0.375 for zone 2, 1.0 forzone4,
thus
v:
LENGTH OF LECS
be rechosen for
I/
using Figure 2.
Overturni[g Moment
For vessels having T> 0.7 a portion of t he total eart hquake lbrce, 4 shall bc applied at the top of the vessel, the magnitude of which is given by
210
ltl
PACtFtC OCtN
ie
( :i ..'l t'.
XAUA I
a::_q i=_
= @ :: i: I E::t
H t': b Er!;
E
;=5
!
E
#,,oP
; P
E
/)
;;
!_:
! i 5
r(* 4)
M0L0m
!:i
; I 5 i
Eri9li ;= E'.;; s !1!= :; i
9 9!E!:
" :
I
.\\=;; B ee
E E
FIG,5.  SEISMIC ZONE MAP OF HAWAII (Reproduced from the Uniform Building Code, 1976, with the permission of The International Conferenc of Buildins Ofiicisls)
213
212
l)Esl(;N
o
PRoc[ss IQUIPMEN'I'
be limited to
T!0.7)
Thus,
(AE
Considering the weight, l{ uniforrnly distributed along the shell length, the remainder of the earthquake torce {VF) resolves to a ttapezoid, the extended nonparallel sides of which intersect at the base as is shown in Figure 6. For this iype of load distribution the base overturning moment can be determined by the formula:
Y=4sin 0
The period of vibration can be deternined by using the relationship
i
ME:Flrlr+l(vF)(H3 ti)l@,  Pl
The rest of the calculations to determine the earthquake force and moment will be the same as discussed for unbraced legs.
Checking Strength of the Legs
F
column and allowable fiber stress under concentric axial load is given by
t8ffn _ '"r+(f13666"2,
F
fr ratio should not exceed 120 and also the fiber stress should be limited to 15000 psi. maximum allowable
The maximum
FIG. 6.  DISTRIBUTION OF EARTHQUAKE FORCE ALONG THE VESSEL LENGTH
Wind Forces for Vescels with Braced Legs The technique discussed earlier can be used to determine the wind force and moment except that the projecied area of the bracing exposed to the wind should also be taken into consideration with legs.
Earthquake Forces for Vessels with Braced Legs
The required crosssectional area of each leg for axial compression can be found from
A,: pt/F"
Ifthe value of .4,,
strength of the leg.
Designing Legs for Eccentric Loading
as
of selected leg, ,4, choose the one with higher area and recheck the
The static deflection, { is found by determining the change in length of the bracing resulting from a total lateral load equal to the weight of the
vessel.
When the legs are attached to the vessel with distance 'a' between the centerline of the leg and the centerline ofthe yessel plate, this produces an eccentric loading and an additional stress in the leg supports. This stress
is siven as
":(#):
214
2t5
I)tisI(;N
f"":P:: sr
The effect ofeccentricity ofleg supports which are welded directly to the vessel is almost negligible. However, this should not be neglected if the legs are attached dilferently.
in two
is presented for four angle supports with F acting directions. The moment due to eccentric load is assumed to be negligible. A typical crosssection of the angle along its various axis is shown in Fisure 7.
Designing
The legs for this type of loading have to resist the greater of wind or earthquake force as well as the moment about base. This moment eventually is converted to direct load on the legs, the magnitude of which depends on leg location corresponding to the direction of force. This load should be added to lhe dead load while calculating direct
stress. Analysis of most generally used cases are discussed in figures 8 and 9.
The force F (greater of F* and /) at the base produces bending moment which is comparable to considering the leg as a beam fixed at one end but guided at the other end with a concentrated load at the guided end. This type of loading produces the same bending moment at both ends and the magnitude of maximum bending stress in leg is given
by
Let
M:Grealet of Mn or ME
Now select the configuration of supPorts corresponding to the
direction of force
fbG
lN)t/2
sr
below.
Direction of "F"
as shown in Fig. 8.
However, to obtain more conservative results in actual analysis in figures 8 and 9, the leg is considered as a cantilever with the load F
concentrated at the free end. Designing
WM Pt:i' P': ot 
":zrt^*
When leg supports are subjected both to direct loads and bending produced by wind, earthquake or eccentric loads, the sum of the axial compressive stresses divided by the allowable column stress, plus the
bending stresses divided by the allowable flexural stress shall not exceed
/*,.'F
I=, F
r",
t
unlty, or
Sum of direct stresses Sum of bendine stresses
tec't* 1.:Pt
<l
where Fr, the maximum allowable bending stress in the column should
Dsi.
Irg"
216
oL:#,
,=ti::'
217
'2
t
P1
I
\
nr ?t L
\(
.171"s"u'
DP
ti
"rl
LJ".,*o'
".i,1 p
"l n]",
lP. IP'
,rtJ ".17
P,
Legs 7 feet or greater should be braced. The recommended bractng sysiemconsists ofcrossbracingconnecting adjacent pairs of legs Braces should be stitched together at their point of intersection' Knowing the maximum shear per leg, the maximum tensile load in each brace can be calculated by multiplying the maximum shear by the ratio of the length ofthe brace io the h;rizontal distance between two legs Using allowable stress of 22,000 psi for the tension member the required area of the brace the can be easily determined by dividing the maximum tensile load by
tl
IJ
JI
tJ
tl tl
allowable stress. However, the ratio of the length to the radius of 4 g;ratlon of Uracing members, ifother than rods,should not exceed 300
"fl
<> 19t
Direction of "F"
\y'*r
FIG.8
S.n (P*'
as shown in Fig. 9.
'FrE r'rn n,
tu'h4
lr' rl.
F
[1L
fr I uF4
flrh
rYl
tsil4
FIG. TO. . TYPICAL BASE PLATE DETAIL
FIG.9
WMF pr:V,
,r:rU t
Fr=O
Base Plate Dsign
Refer to Fig. l0 and lel 0 be the larger of the dimension '/ or O, the base Dlate thickness can be calculated by using the relationship;"
.w ^ J.:4A+2DiA.h:+s*
In any
case,
F.t
if
f.,fo F, h
columns.
exceeds unity, the design should be modilied till the above equation becomes equal to or less than 1. Figure 9 also applies to other types of
1. The legs should be used on small vessels in general 2. Legs lhould not be used on vessels where severe pulsations will make the vessel vibrate.
218
219
EXAMPLE
in. tangent to tangenl carbon steel vertical vessel having ellipsoidal heads, is 0.375 in. thick. The biggest overhead
6
les,
A,:
maxlmum operating weight is 16,000 lbs. and the vessel is to be supported on four 7 ft. high legs. Neglecting the elfect of earthquake,
design the leg suppods
nozzel size is 8 in., and the vessel has 4.5 in. thick insulation. The therelore
Pt:
tu*g:oo*
q
,o
zone.
SOLUTION
Shear for the vessel and legs can be calculated separately and then combined in order to come up with the maximum shear at the base. However,for simplicity and to be on the conservative side, the maximum base shear can be calculated by assuming the vessel as a cylinder of diameter d throughout its length including legs. The wind diameter in feet is given by D: [vessel I.D.+2 (vessel thickness)+2 (insulation thickness) +overhead line size+2 (insulation thickness) 1 (extra for external
fF#=
Check Leg for Wind
4rrx)
The bending sfess in each leg due to base shear can be calculated from
r.
8t4)8412
case is
5)
ls4 + 2(0.37
12
7.'t 3
tr.
Total length ofthe vessel:tangent to tangent lngth +inside depth of head +top head thickness + height of the tegs:(126 + 5414 + 0.3j5 + 84)/12: 18.6563 ft. Therefore
Bracing of Legs
12865
f :(Wind diameter)0.6(Wind force)total length of vessel : 7.73(0.6)30(18.6563) :2595.8 lbs =2.5958 kips
From Figure 2, for a vessel with a wind force of2.595g kips, choose
the leg size as
I,Y4
x!"
Then
+692:74 ir'.
13.
l:84
in. Therefore
:A:,rr.roo,o.*.
t "T :
uon
t :
leg:
b
tu
vace:o+sffi): nlal
220
221
VEI{TICAL VISSEL
LE,G
I)ISIGN
"
brace:
1778
22000
a .4
,4s
Distance between the centerline olthe leg and the centerline of the vessel plate, in.
.4,
Notch to clar
wind, ft.2
SECTION X.X
Length ofthe brace, in. Width of base plate, in. Distance as shown in Fig.7, in.
The
lr
fleiibility factor
Effective wind diameter, ft. Modulus ofelasticity of leg or brace material, psi Maximum direct stress in the leg, psi
Section "x
 x"
J:O:I in.,
therefor Q
psi
=I
in.
F" F, F" F, F. g lr H
legs,
lb
p: ^ 4000 ... _ t. ol o,
The thickness of the base plate is given by
Wind
I'
20000
Acceleration due to gravity, inches/sec'/sec. (386 inches/sec'/sec') Shell length from bottom tangent line to top head, ft'
l1
=0.1291
in., therefore j
222
vessel, ft.
l'
223
l1
I
/ Occupancy importance factor (1.0 for vessels) 1",. Moment of inertia of angle about WW axis, tn.a 1,, 1,,
1""
11,,+1lI1"")
Moment of inertia of angle about XX axis, in.a Moment ofinertia ofangle about YY axis, in.a Moment of inertia of angle about ZZ axis, in.4 (r2,4) Distance as shown in Figure 10, in.
Structure coefficient (2.0 for vessels)
Z A 0
REFERENCES
t. "Uniform Building Code," International Conference of Building Officials. Whittier, California,l982. "Minimum Design Loads in Buildings and Other Structures," ANSI A58.1, 1982 Brownell, L. E.,and E. H. Young, "Process Equipment Design," First Corrected Printing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., April 1968. "Manual otsteel Construction," Eighth Edition, American Institute of Stel Construction, New York, N.Y.,1980.
J K I I M
Length of legs from base to shll attachment, in. Length of base plate, in. Greater of wind or earthquake moment at base ofthe vessel, intb
ME Earthquake moment at base, in lb MWind moment at base, in Jb N Number of legs O Distance as shown in Figure 10, in. p Wind pressure at the height under consideration, psf P Bearing pressure on foundation, psi. (maximum load on each
Maximum compression load per leg, lb (4N) Larger of base plate dimension ./ or O, in.
Least radius ofgyration ofeach leg, in. Numerical coefficient ior sitestructure resonance Section modulus ofeach leg, in.3 Wind shape factor for legs Wind shape factor for shell Section modulus of angle about 17 tlzaxis, in Section modulus of angle about X  X axis, in.3 Section modulus of angle about Y Yaxis, in.3 Section modulus of angle Base plate thickness, in.
! (I*.
lcl
S,, r T / l/ x Y
abolt Z  Z axis,in.3
lb
22s
10
2 ASME CODE SECTION VlrI, DrvIsIoN 1 I,ICU TTS COMPARISON TO DIYISION
History of Division 2 and rir" nSft4g code committee has continually modified' revised' fi$t it was since ever code vessel pressure exoanded the Section VIII of the workilis. the oti6na criterion was a factor of 5 between ;;;;;; American ioJrtr"r, *O ultimate tensile strength Back in the 1930'sthe wrtn a
vessel code Peiroleum lnstitute and ASME developed a pressure during World War materials to conserve ,"i",V f"* of 4' In an attempt factor' ASME adopted the code with the lowest safety *nii"t U, *' the committee and the APIASME ah ift" *1tt' in the eally 1950's, VIII on pressure vessels main committee ageeil that the revised Section the ASME Boiler and 1955 earlv In lhe"continuing code' ;;;;;;; committee to review and Pressure Vessel Committee orgaruzed a special VIII of the pressure vessel Section existing .uulout" th" following in the l): qode (now designated as Division 1. Basis of the allowable stresses' of i. Experimental ancl analyticat investigations of the influence performance ot pressure design and other factors on the Research Committee vessels as conducted by the Pressure Vessel Council' of the Welding Research
mierials,
stress values' 3. Practices used by other countries in setting allowable which recommendations make to was ift" rnul" purpose of all this to techniques design analytical latest *oUJotiti". modem technology's or rcduction of safety' afiive at higher allowable stresses without sacrific an urgent need of the realized committee fr, iSf8, }t"o*"""r, the special issued a code for nuclear pressure vessels' Therefore' they
uI tto*.tp*did to t*o Dvisions) in 1958 and published and after tlle first edition in i963' Retumhg to their original assignment
227.
ASMII ('Ol)li,
sli(l
l()N
vlll' l)lvlsloN
lll,
initial draft of Division 2 of Section VIII in January of 1967 and rrublished the first edition in December of 1968. Both Division 2 of Section VIII.
and Section
rucllts o1'tlle detailed strcss aDd I'atiguc analysis can be evaluated and perlbnned if required, as discussed below. Stress Analysis Code contains a series of design rules in which the analysis has been carried out for a series of specific configurations. If the desi$er stays within the limits of these configurations, a detailed stress analysis is not required. Thus, the cdteria for determining whether a stress analysis is to be made on a particular vessel are left to the judgement of the vessel designer.
III
Introduction
Division 2 of Section VIII for pressure vessels entitled .,Alternarrye Rules" covers minimum requirements for the design, fabrication, inspection and certification of pressure vessels that are prohibited by the Dvision l. Consequences ofthese rules may be summarized as follows:
1. Pressure vessels above 3000 psi can be designed and manufactured to comply with these rules and can thus be code stamped. This extension of pressure limits encompasses a large number of vessels that were previously constructed as specials, or in many srares constructed without reference or comparison to an established and recognized code. 2. The need for special state regulations for such vessels has been
significantly reduced.
3. More economical
result of advances
vessels can
in technology with
After it has been determined that a stress analysis is required, all loadings on the vessel must be analyzed in accordance with Appendix 4 to determine their effects on the vessel, It is a stepbystep process of stress analysis in accordance with the maximum shear theory. Items such as wind, earthquake, piping, support loads, intemal or extemal pressure and thermal loads etc. must be considered. Stresses developed by various loads must be calculated separately and then combined with shell or head stresses caused by internal pressure at their point of application. These requirements must be met whether or not a fatigue analysis is required. Fatigue Analysis
Paragraph
4, Restrictions and imposed on the use and initallation of vessels made under Division 2, since the basis for the vessel design de_ pends on a specific service for a fixed location and thus are par_ ticularly applicable to the vessels used by the chemical and other
process industries.
ADl60 of
Design Criteria of Division 2 Division 2 permits higher working stress levels at the expense of a significantly more detailed stress analysis, which is based on maximum
shear theory, on more stdngent material testing and more careful quality control. Equivalent margins of safety are maintained despite the higher working stress leyels. It permits application within the ASME code, of technology that was previously applied only to pressure vessels designed outside the scope of Section VIIL This division depends on a detailed indentification of those stress
ditions to establish the need of a vessel fatigue analysis. In general this paragraph deals with the cyclic conditions of the vessel and is divided into two parts, Condition A and Condition B, covedng the integral parts of vessels including integrally reinforced type nozzles or attachments. It is further subdivided into Corditions AP and BP, which cover nonintegral (i.e. pad type) nozzles or attachments. Condition A is an evaluation based stdctly on pressure and tempera
conditions that actually exist, rather than on simplified rules and arbitrary stress limits. Tresca's ma.:rimum shear theory is used as the analytical principle, so that limits are based on actual stress intensity rather than on arbitrary stress.
In addition to detaited
tant for
yessels
to
be
stress analysis fatigue analysis is very impor_ manufactured in accordance with Division 2. Requtre_
ture cycles. There is no limit to the pressure cycles where the pressure variation stays withirl 20% of the design pressure. Cycles rangtng over 207o of the design pressure are to be included with the cycles of differential temperature between adjacent points, as described by the code, with a limit of t,000 cycles for the life span of the vesseL. Condition B is evaluated if requirements of Condition A are not satisfied. Condition B compares cycles, determined in Condition A, with fatigue allowables as discussed in Appendix 5. In regard to pressure, temperature or joined materials of different coefficient of thermal expansion, if either Condition A or B are met, a fatigue analysis is not required. Conditions AP and BP evaluate nonintegral (i.e. pad type) nozzles or attachments only. Condition AP is related to Condition A except that the pressure cycles are unlimited if the pressure variation does not exceed 15%
228
229
vlll, l)lVlSloN
of tlle design pressure. Condition Bp is related to Condition B except lbr some required value adjustment as discussed in code. If either Ap or tsp satisfies the requirements, a fatigue analysis for these type of nozzies or attachments is not mandatory.
strcss analysis plus drawillgs showing compliance with the code requlremcnts. Both the design report and the stress report must be prepared and ccrtified by a Registered Professional Engineer experienced in the field of
pressure vessels.
If
Article 5l (Appendix 5) for vessels and Article 4_6 (Apfendix 4) for fatigue evaluation of pressure stresses in openings.
Comparison
Drurjion 1 utilizes safety factor of 4 on the tensile strength whereas .. ^. Division 2 uses a safety factor of 3 on the tensile ,tr"ngtL
For high alloy materials two sets of stress values are not given for the sam material at the same temperature, as in Division 1. Therefore, under Division 2 rules, the vessel engineers cannot make a choice of stress Yalues.
of Division 2 to Division
multiplied by 1.25 for hydrostatic test and 1.15 for pneumatic test instead
limits of application. Some materials used in vessels operati"g i"'_ib" to qualify by impact testing, as opposed to the ruies given yl
in Division I do not meet the Structural quality plate such as SA_2g3 has been omitted, and 5A36 is not permitted for pressure part use per Olvision Z. In regard to testing the materials, Division 2 more specifically _ defines lo.cations from which test coupons may be taken Ultrasonic e*"_inurron or plates and torgings over 4 inches in thickress is mandatory. Many of the carbon steels in Diyision 2 have stricter l# temperature
intent of Division
f;'"I_ort df
of
1.5.
2.
Applications of Division 2
Division 2 can be used economically for vessels with internal pressures exceeding 3000 psi, vessels with lesser pressures where exceptional savings in material costs can be realized, or vessels with fluctuation temperature cycles. ln other words. it is used for vessels which are of sufficiently rigorous duty or are sufficiently complex so as to require more
comprehensive calculations and more sophisticated procedures with which to construct safe as well as economical vessels. Design in accordance to Division 2 results in thinnervessel walls, thus besides saving material cost it permits the use of larger vessels whose use
conditionThere are several design differences between the two codes. Division _  rules.are^ I formulated on the principle stress theory, which has simplicity as its chief attribute. The Division 2 rules by contrast, are for_utui"O on Tresca's maximum shear theory, which giu., fu, U"tt", ," bending effects, secondary stress effects, fatigue, and so forth, whereas Oiuirion i ignore,
such considerations,
by
"fnr""i_",i"" but require more" complex computations. th,.,.::p"r]T.tl .resutts, aqorrlon, the Division
2 rules take into account all of
In
the so called fully radiographic vessels. ln those "ifo*, "rly cases *t is not used, there are requirements for other "re,aOiograpty method of examinatioln s'ucn ,r, *: of ultrasonics, dye penetranr or magnetrc particle. The yarious ll: aoqlrronat requirements or restrictions that appear in Division 2 relative ro fabrication are all directed toward the prevention of brittle fracture and on the existence of structural or metallurgical notches or discontinuities. 2 requires a complete design report t" p."p"rJ iy irr" ur"r. ?rloto" lnrs desrgn report musl include operating informarion including cvclic duty and materials of construcrion. on rhe orher rland. irr" iJri?"'", required to submit a stuess report which contains complete cal"ulutionrlnO
i",
has been precluded earlier by transportation or installation limitations. Thinner wall usually results in the reduced temperature gradiant, and thus in lower thermal stresses, and an economical design in application that might otherwise defy the designer's ingenuity and surpass the capabilities of materials currently available for pressure vessels. Uniform strength can be easily attained throughout the metal thickness after proper heattreatment for thin wall vessels. This also results in improved mechanical properties such as ductility and toughness Thus, design in accordance to Division 2 leads to much safer vessels even though the ratio of ultimate tensile strength to working stress may have been reduced.
vessels operating at elevated temperatures. At present the break off point is where creep begins to con
_.,
"
Vessels whose pressures are low enough to require a thickness governed by fabrication minimums do not justify Division 2 requirements, unless the nature of thefu operation requires attention to pulsating pressure causing fatigue or some othr peculiar problem relative to the safety of
230
tllese vessels.
rules of Division 2 cover vessels, only to be installed at a fixed location for a specific service. Thus neither the location nor the servrce
can be altered during the useful life of the vessel.
The
l1
MECTIANICAL DESIGN OF SELF'SUPPORTED STEEI.' STACKS
REFERENCES
1. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, ,,pressure Vessels,,, Division l, ASME, New York, N. y., 1983. 2. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, ..pressure Vessels", Division Z, Alternative Rules, ASME, New york, N. y.. 19g3. 3. LeCoff, J., "Safer Pressure Vessels Using the New ASME Code,,. Svmposium on Loss Prevention, part VI, pressure Vesels, AICHE iixty_ . Seventh National Meeting, AICHE, New york, N. y., 1970. 4. Macleod, L. M., "Comments on Division 2 Vessel Design,,, Hydrocarbon Processing, December 1969, pp. 125126. 5. Witkin, D. E., *A New Code Worth its Weight in Metal,,, Chemical En_ gineering, August 26, 1968, pp. 124130.
Introduction The demand for stacks of greater heights to conform to increasingly rigid air pollution control standards has emphasized the need forJmore thorough understanding oftheirdesign criteria Guyed stacks are cheapcr but the main disadvantages of guyed stacks are the amount of land required and the interference of the guy wires Thus, in rcfineries and pelrlchcmical plants, selfsupporting stacks are desired from thc slandpoinl of plant appearance and safety' Design Crlteria Assuming the slack has been sized on stack draft requirements,
rvind and earthquake moments should be calculated at various levelsThe greater of the wind or earthquake moments should be used for desig;. The stack then should be checked for wind induced vibratior It shoJd be pointed out thal stackvibrations induced by earthquake are infrequent in occurcnce but the wind induced vibrations can occur every day or more and many times during the day depending upon the location. Wtnd Loads Winds apply force to the lallvertical shcks causingthe stackto be loaded as a canlile'vcr beam which is fixed at the base' In this case, the bcnding stress induccd by the cantileverbeam action is zero at the top of thc stack and a maximum at the base. The bending stress produces a
comDressivc axial slress on the downwind side of the stack and a corrcsponding lensile stress on lhe upwind side
Static forcc, rcpresenting the wind load due to drag may be obtaincd using thc standard wind pressures on the vertical projected arcas of the stack for various height zones as recommended by the applicablc building codesr'2 Wind pressures must be multiplied by a drag cocflicient (shape factor) associated with the exposed crosssectional shape 6f the stack
232
ZJJ
dramctL'r Iimes height) may be considered to act at the average height of a distancc. This force times lever arm gives the bendine
rcsult in conservative results, thus the applicable codes should be re[crrcd to, if accuratc results are desired. l o.^urrfo.*lrrJ tolai"" thc lurcc L,f tht wind on the prqiected surface of rhe .1".k (.f;;;;;?
riome"nt
fol a rrrugh cylinder (smooth cylinder with ladder und plat[ulms. crc.), and 1.2 fora cylinderwith spoilers (verric"L"il"ll"f "ae'".
1.0
Horjzontal arca of platform (Wind pressure based on location of plltlorrn) (Actual hcighl of platform above base) (.5) Alle l ltrc momcnls duc to all the platforms are calculated' these shoulclbc adclcd toM*,dclcrmined above, to get the total moment atthe bzrsc. Similarlv, lhc momenl at any point above base can also be
Da =
MOMENT@BASE: M,
(For values of P. see map and table on pages 12 and 13')
M*:
Xx
Xx
xx
x_
X
x_
X
x
PFt
PF"
X
xxx
xX
xX
.5 .5 .5
'.Pr
PFz
xx
x x
FL LB. TOTAL =
FIC
shows the typical wind loading for a stack The effective diarrctcr of stack can be obtained as follows:
Fieurc
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Natural Frequency of Vlbration Thc oeriod of vibration I is thL. time necessary to complete one cycle o[ oscillation and is the reciprocal of the natural frequency of vibration/. Thc nalural frequcncy is equal lo the circular frequency o dividcd bv 2n. The circular frequency of a single degree of freedom slr'r.rclure is proponional to the square root of the stiffness divided by lhc mass. Thc equation is:
D6 : =
Effective diameter of stack, ft. Outside diameter of stack + insulation + allowance for ladders, platforms, and piping, etc. (allow 1 to 2 ft)
Fol st:rcks wilh strakes or spoilers, the effective diamerer should bc cqual 1o slack diameter plus twice the spoiler projectio[
Now, referring to Fig.
l,
we get
Mry
= Overturning moment at the base, ftJb. = (D,) (P,) (H) (h) + (Dd Qz) (H) (h,) + (D) (P) (H,) (hz)
234
, = ,lv^,
where
stiffness, and
'?
me$s
235
Erplcssing rruss
gcl
ars l,V/g
and stiffness
as
rlrc vibr rrlot.,r tlrolioll ilt otrc swing a{tcr frec vibralion stafls Thc firsl sm:rll pclccnlngcs ol dilmping greatly reduce peak responses because
pcirk espotscs arc gcncrally associated with shon response time clunrlions ;rnd, thcreforc, involve liule energy. Damping represenls cncrgy losscs Irom manv sourccs and' therefore, can be of a number of
tvpcs as rclzrled to vibration.
ofvibralion
alwavs thc samc for that slructure, regardless of the magnitude ofthe vibration. In othe words, though the amplitude of the displacement changcs with timq the relation between displacements throughout the heighl rcmains consrant The distribution of accelerations for a single
shapc and thc maximum vibralion al the top, the maximum vibration at anv levcl above the base can be directly obtained for fiat mode The
modcs. Thc modc with the longesr period is called the first, or fundamcntal, mode and the mode with shorter periods (higher frequcncics) are called the higher modes The typical shapes of first thrcc modcs ofvibration for canrilevered cfinder are shown in Fig 3.
modal displacements for a typical smoothed response spectrum will decrcasc as rhe modal period decreases from the lower to the hieher
Seismic Loads Anolher environmcntal factor that must be considered in the clcsign of tall stacks are seismic stresses produced by earlhquakes To pr"ri"nt tull .,u.k. from toppling underanticipated possible earrhquake it,rcc., a tall stack must bc designed to wilhstand these forces The cfftct o[ seismic forccs is somewhat similar to wind loads in that the slack again is loaded as a verlical cantilever beam fixed at the base' Therc is a difference in the load distribution in the case of wind loads as compared 10 seismic loads but in both cases the vertical column is cxposed to bending which produces axial tensile stresses on one side and thc axial compressive slresses on the other side There are both horizontal and vcfiical shifts of the eadh crust Juling th,' carlhquakc. Vt'rrical shihs arc oI small imponanct i n large sllcks bccausc oi thcir stability to forces in the vertical direction The horironlal shifting of the earth's crust is the cause of major concern wilh lall slacks. This shifting might be compared to a sudden displaccment of thc foundation underneath the standing stack Bccausc of thc ineflia of thc staclq this produces bending similarto that produced by a [orce pushing against thc side ofthe stack and results in sending thc stack into a hannonic vibration. T"hc sway of thc stack will produce a maximum velocity as the stack passcs through vertical cenler. Also, the maximum velocity of As the s',vay will be at the top of thc stack with zero velocity al the base sta& rcaches the limit of its deflection, the kinetic energy of molion is
I
:,tr
I'I(
Vodu
lrd
Modc
i 1 \IODIi
Damping conlinuc
eulside'
A pcrfcctll' claslic systcm, set into vibralory motion, would 1() vibratc forcver if the vibrations were not stopped by an
forcs However,
no system is perfectly elastic, and the vibratorv
molion will die out due to loss ofenergy resulting from internal strains. This Ioss of cnergv is called damping Damping is generally expressed as a perccntage of "critical damping', the damping which would srop
slrain cnergy of thc shell causing reversal of direction and lhc slzrck rvill srvav back and forth unlil the energy is dissipated An cxprcssion for pcriod ofvibration I can be derived by equating the total strain cncrgy slorcd lo the kinclic encrgr of motion as the slack movcs Thc Jck thus will have a charactcrislic period of vibration and thc [requcncv ol vibration will be a function ofthe mass of the stack and rhc sla;k dimcnsions and thc modulus of elasticity of the material of cor.rslrLrclioll. It tlic period of vibralion o[ the stack is large, the stack cln bc corrsiclclcd to bc flcxiblc and although it may sway appreciably, \\'ill bc irblc lo rcsisl lhe scismic forccs much bctterlhan a stmcture with r srritlt pcriod o[ vibralion. Rigid structure havc short periods of vibr:rtior.r and are morc susceptible to seismic deslruction than flexible slruclures.
wrnsfcrrcd
1o
236
237
In thc casc of tall flexible stac( the force producing acceleratron oI the stack during rhe sway varies wirh the velociry at rh."n;";;;i;*r". Since this velocity increases from zero at the base to the maximum ar the 1op, tht: flexible stack should be considered to be load.a
a1
'Ihickncss l,can bc irssumecl lo bc lhickness at lhc top ofstack for Fig..1(b) irnclin crirgc of thc t <tp a ncl bot tom thicknesses of stack for Fie.
l (
c).
the top ls re'strained and increase 10 a maximum at the base ofthe stack where thc accumulated forces are a maximum. Seismic Ioads forthe stackcan be calculated as follows:
resuhing stresses induced bythe sway from seisilic shifis u.", oi co,r."", in lhc revcrse order and are zero at the top of the stack because
u,
" sack
r.i.ngt"
The
Tlrc lundzrmcnlal Ircqucncv of a stack having varying cross scclion or ntulliple diamclors can;rlso be found by the RayleighRitz nrclhod of suntm;rlion. In lhis ci.rse', the slack height is divided inro a nunrl)cr of sccliorrs. II wl   , is thc rveight of each section and rr   is the lcsulting clcad loacl dcllcctit.rn at lht: center of each seclion produced whcn stack ncls irs horironlal cantilcver bearr! then6:
I
^
..
is given bya
Foracantilevered cylindrical structure of uniform crossFig 4(a), the fundamental period ofvibration
Thc first mode period [orall tvpcs of stacks can also be calculated by using the ;rpproximalc rclalionshipT:
T:
wIl
3.)Z
Where
! = rrr31t
_ nur'tr
8
T=
Substituting for
F, /,
and
we ger:
Dr
?=765(,0)6(#l
l+
i. of
the
cquivalcnt sriffness. The diameter D. and the hcight cquivalcnt cylinder are given by the following equationss:
Thc reciprocal of period Igives the natural frequcncv ofvibration staek in cps. Thc abovc equation can also be used to calculate the period for lapered slacksas shown in Fig. 4(b) and ( c) by using slraighr cylinder of
cr[
D.
H.
l?". u"(;?d)'
o" = o,tou
(a)
FIC.,r  COMMON
H.=Hm
238
voncx cxcitation a1 a frequency and wilh a mode shape associatedwiti the fundamcntal mode In addition, the shape of the dynamic force amplitude of nearly constant frequency over the height of the stack implies that the dynamic response will be almost enlirely due to the
239
conlribution ofthe first mode only. Thcrefore, itis recommended that all higher modes be neglected in thedynamic analysis and that
Base Shear
F
the
Thc cffccl of rhe following should be included in the de lcnninirtion ol thc fundamental frequency of the stack Gunite Lining Thc conrribution of gunite lining if used should be included rn thc crrlcul;rlion of both thc mass and stiffness 10 obtain an accurare cslimalion of thc fundamcntal frequency ofthe slack In calculations lbr lined stacks, the section properties ofan equivalent steel seclion mav bc calculated using a suilable value for lhe modular ratio e s.
c
V_F,
Diig,am
E:
."
FIC.5,
ofa
calculations. Linings dccrcasc lhe natural frequency and damp the ;rmplitudcs of vibration. But, the lined stack will be resonant at lower
wind r,clocitics.
Thc natural frequency of a stack lined with bricks or blocks is nor vcry diffcrenr than thc unlined shell, because the degree of composite aclion bclwcen rhe shcll and linine is small Base Flexibillty
Howevcr, if the gunile lining is not integrally compacled with the stack shcll, lhc nalural frequency for the unlined stack can be used in
stack The triangular loading pattem and the shape of the stack shear diagram duc to that loading are shown in Fig 5(a) and (b). A portion f, of lolal horizontal seismic force Vis assumed to be applied at the top of rhc stack per UBC (Uniform Buildihg Code). The remainder of the base shcar is distributcd throughout the len$h ofthe stack including the top
Thc UBC base shear formula is given by V:ZI KCSW
Wlrcre
7,:.187 5 for zonel, .37 5 for zone2, .7 5 for zone 3, and 1.0 for zone ,l (rcfer to Fig. 3,4 or 5 of Chapter 9 for determining the proper s{jismic zone)
can bc shown 1o reduce the fixed base fundamentaL f;";;;.; substantially.s Translational and rolational spring constants can be calculated using standard structural analysis procedures and incorporalcd into frequency calculation. For stacks supported on normal sprcad footings and pile foundations, an investigattn into the cffcct ofthebase flcxibility suggests that these types ofsupports are very nearly fixed. Approximate translational and rotational soil sprino constanrs can be calculared based upon methods currentt"";i;;i: using csrimates of the dynamic modulus of elasricity (obtained from a scismic sun,ey of the sitr:) and the poisson,s ratio of the soile Sincethe foundalion flexibility will gencrally affect the fixed base frequency by Iess lhan I 1<l 2 pcrcent, these tlpes of foundations can be treatei as Ilxccl, sincc this effect is relatively insignificant in comparison with olher cstimated parameters.
240
,For slacks supporled on structural members, many framrng con[iguralions, though designed to safely resist the static wind loadino
 = "
tS
.S:1.5
2.5
(.S should not be less than 1.0) Thc product of C.9 should nol exceed 014. Now; tht: total horizontal force 4 al top of the stack is given b3r F, = O.07TV (F, should not exceed 0.25n
:0,for?<0.7
(lverturnlng Moment at Base Thc ovcnuming moment is the algebraic sum of lhe moments of all t hc forccs above the base. The ovenuming moment at the base of stack duc to cadhquake in ftlb. can be expressed as:
241
ME = IFF + (v _ F) (2Ht3\) 1000 Allowable Shell Buckling $tress Thc axial loads and overturning moments are assumed to be rcsisted entircly by the steel shell Gunite lining if used is nor considered to bc structurally reliablq or to have any significant value in
prcventing shell buckling Initially, some thicknesses at each section arc assumed The maximum allowable compressive stress in theshellrs rlrcomn,cnded to be rhe smallest of the following:
Anchor Bolt Chalr Following calculations are based on the anchor bolt chair shown
in Fig
7.
{"
CUSSET OETWEEI{
(a)
(b)
L"
S.:
Y/2
\
'
TYP.
TOP
Thc allowablc compressive stress considerins local shcll buckling as dercrmined from rhe followins empirical relationshiplo
for t"/d ratios less than 0.00425
0.56 t"E
Ai{0
BOT.
s.=
d(r + .oa4E/Y
E
[,tusr
PILOT IN TOP
SOTTOM
For higher r"/d ratios, the allowable compression stress used is that calculated for t"ltl : .00425. Stack Weight
As SHO' N
BASE & TO
I
8AS
n.
RTNGS
40 PPE AIOToR
SOLT GUIDE.SEE CHART CONT. FILLE] WLD TO TOP A}IO 80TT0M RI.IGS
Corrosion allowance
thicknesses
LI
lining ifrequired) ar
Stack Plate Thickness Stack plate thickncss requircd to resist the greater of wind or
bolt
dia.
314
bolt
guide
Plate
washrs
b Min.
&718
ro 1 314
2
2
1l2x3112Sq.
2 r12
1 tolli4
Corrosion allowance (if required) is added to the thickness dctcrrrincd above and resulting thickness is rounded off to the hieher l/16 inch. This is actual srack rhickness al rhe level u;der
ll2x
ll2
Sq.
J
3
3 3 r12
)  l) 1 t l)
)
3
111
8 8 8 8 10
 
318 718
2 r12
3
1l2x4112Sq.
to 2
114
3l4x4ll2Sq.
314
) tl)
considcration. After required plate thicknesses are determined at each level they arc comparcd with corresponding assumed lhicknesses in uncorroded condilions. If therc is any deviatioq correct weighls are calculated bltsed on ncw thicknesses and procedure is repeated until the two thickncsscs coincide.
242
2 r12
2 314
3
J 112
5 112
5 314 x 6 314x6
x
1tl)
ll ll
243
Calculating Number and Size of Anchor Bolts The number o[ bohs is assumed initially, based on a multiple of lbur with about 18 inches o[ bolt spacing Total tension in each bolt is dctcrmined from the relationship:
Q
tya
'
: 48(M)_ wt N(DEd N
*l
'."
a
.:
If SB is the maximum allowable stress of anchor bolt material in psi, lhc rcquired boh arczr .r1 lhe root of the thread is given b5r
o^
=Y! sd
FIG. 8
Calculating Base and Top Plate Thicknesses Dimcnsions tt b. and c, in inches corresponding to actual bolt diamclcr arc dctermincd from Fig 7. Now, bearing pressure pb in psi on concrcte foundalion is calculated from the follov.ing formula:
' VON
_
"
r(D61)'c r(D6l1c
48(m
W,
The value of P, is limited to 750 psi maximum for 3000 lb concrete and 500 psi maximum for 2000 lb. concrete.
Pb exceeds the above limit, the value of c is modified so that P6 falls within the allowable limit.
I
+l
AI n
'*'*'*''*7
If the calculated
f, is calculated from the following relationship: / J'b ap \12 6 I t" = " \,ffi) whcre , :cr *b
@i'
I
,': 
Dynamic Wlnd Design
t(w")o \rtz
atu"L,
\4(2oJoo)r/
When a cantilevercd cylindcr is subjecled to steadywind there is a ccnain velocity al which the cylindcr begins to oscillale in the direction lransverse to that of the wind This phenomenon reportedly exists when eddies, created as wind contacls thc stack or flows close to it, are shed from the chimney sulface. Thc vortices commonly referred to as the Von Karman effecl, are similarlo thr: watereddies formed when we row a boar The flow is depicted diagrammatically in Fig 8. The effect of vonex shedding on a stack is shown in Fig 9. 244
pr"ssure drop across the cylinder as they are.released the bending momenl caused due to this change in r.,n".I* p."t""." distribution is shown in Fig 10' The a lateral force, which must be resisted bv the ;;;;;"'p;;t""s frequency of wind cantilevered columrl At resonance that ig when the the 1o the natural frequency of the cvlinder
which the resonance takes ot.." i" d""ienur"d as the critical wind velocity Equating the VonL"run uorrit ,hedding frequency at the top lo the nalural frequency and solving for the critical wind velocity we get:
The velocity
a1
fD
245
20
MUST be performcd
be performed
HD,'
25
<
w
VOz
If, lao = Wind velocity at 30 feet height' mph y' at the 1op of lhe slack itr"n irt. maxim,lm r'ind velocity
given by
Analysig
V* =
and the maximum gust velocity
Bending Mom.nl DiagEm FIC.
Vzo(Lt3D)o
to'
= 1'3V.
IO
PRESSURE DISTRIBUIION AND BENDINC MOMENI DIACRAM FOR A STACK DUE TO MDIAL WIND
for all Relnolds numbers be used for stack design plugging for
Strouhal number in the above equation and modifying the equation 10 get an expression for critical wind velocity in miles per houl we get
The value of Strouhal number N,, depends on the Reynolds number, however, il is recommended that a Strouhal number of 0.20
gusl Ifcritical wind velocity, % falls within range ofthe maximum stack corroded case' u"to"lty,th" rtu"t ust bec'he&ed further' In that *"ighi "* be equal to or greater than 15 times the wind force at u" a fotul4 the ratio' Kt should be less .riii.ut u"to"itv ot than 1/15.
""p."s."d
K,
=P,p,L. _ O.\Ulp,s E
.vv'"
For lined slacks l4l can be used in place of W" in order to reduce vibralion. Design modifications are required if K1. in the above
cquation exceeds 1,/15. Static Deflection pressure The computed d)'namic loading is applied as a slagnant 1op is at the amplitude 1o the stack Assuming it to be a cantileverbeam, approximated by,
Various orher relationships available to calculate the critical wind vclocity Yl in mph, are as followsT:
P"D,LL;(LD3 D" _
where Iz
: rr3t
resonant
",^(*)'
V" =
'
Dynamic Deflection
and
finally
'..,t
JE
(*)
f."q,r.'n.v,
CAI\MLEVER VIBRATION Analyzing Procedure Now, the following criteria as recommended by Zorrilla 1r can be uscd to establish need for vibration analysis of sracks wi th H^ /H ratio
not cxcecdins 0.50;
^tti which is a ratio of dynamic amplitude to static auri.i.1o"ffi"i"nt, the magnification factor' This is a function of the iaa", lt and "Af"d ^'of several other factors' The amount of iitil" tirir.*". of the soil
must be multiplied by the magnific^ation factor to magmncanon determine dlnamic deflection Approximate valueot by a.i".t i". iirf.*nt types of stacks as suggesred DeGheno and Longr2 are listed in Table l.
ri"tlJa.n"oio"
246
247
Ovalllng Vlbratlon
TABLE I  MAGNIFICATION FACTORS
SPREAD FOOTINGS ON SOFT SOIL (BEARING BELOW !.500 psl) SPREAD FOOTINC ON MEDIUM SOFT SOIL (BEARINC BETWEEN Li00 rnd 3,000 psl)
In addition
PILED FOUNDATIONS
AND SPREAD FOOTINCS ON STIFF SOIL AND ROCK
t<.r
^frr
li,,Ui..i"a
fiPE
OF STACK
""ra"*
,n"aai.g Thc
"ib.^ti,rn
frequcncy of rhe loweslmode, of flexural steel shell that oiovalling orbreathing for an unlined circular
tt
transvcrsc (cantilever) vibration' unlincd stacks are of ncxural vibration in the planc of the ring as a result
"'
30
l0
tt 
, .5gr,
J"
6OD2
90
if
1.
External atlachmenls (such as piping ladders and platforms) may be properly distributed around the stn.rcture which helps to reduce or nullifu the effect of pcriodic eddy shedding
2.
to an
given by Now lhc voncx shedding frequency is 0'2vr rv D is 66 fps as . where Vr, the wind velocity for vortex shedding most economical and for woodruff and bi"t"v tv ;;;;;;& ;;;i;"k design as far is vibration is concerned at each level using notn rn"."i."quencies should be calculated voftices form the .<,rrcsponding thickncsses and diameters Becausc thar the suggested been it has ;i;;,.d"t eitf,er side of thc stack frequency' shedding vortex of the or,^llin* fi.ou"n.y will bc rwice thar ii ;;; il J;ii.; /. < 2/" ovalling rings are required al that level thc stack is frce from ovalling vibration' uih"tit" "'be S".tiun modulus of thc rings' whenever required' can as follows: *''' dctcnnined c.iii"ot*i"a velocityV.in fpm,at the section under consideration ,, _ 60f,p
,
unlined
'" 
stmcture or the thickness or density of refractory of a lined structure increased which adds to the mass and consequently increases the structural damping
2N,
under
3.
If possible, modifying the dimensions of the structure can also help in damping by increasing the critical wind velocity above the maximum gust velocity.
The paltern of vortex shedding can be modified by winding helical strakes around the perimeter of the shell at a pitch of about five times the diameter of the chimney. The height of rhe strake should be abour onetenlh of the diameterand manvtimes, strakes are only required around the top one third of the slackr3 A patented device of this t5,pet't has been successfully used on stmclures to avoid the formation of vortices
and thus cxcessive vibration.
248
.r..li.']."ii."' "..
4.
grealer than S'' Stiffeners having section modulus equal 10 or of the section length lhe shoull bc provided at spacingl{' throughout
.rna", .ontia"*tlon.
.".ti.". Jiff"*",
possiblc.
stiffeners are required for more than one sizes and spacing should be used for economy' if
if
having Ahcrnalively, it is recommended3 that for unlined stacks' less or mph of60 vibration ovalling criticai wind vjocity for the shell stiffen provided to be should .ir.,rf"."ntiul sriffening rings ;;;;h"t raisc the ovalling vibration frequency Stiffening rings VIII' Jesiencd for a uniform external pressure of 1 5 psi using Section
249
Division I <rf thc ASME Codcts rules, arc rccomnlcnclcd to avoid thc occurence of ovalling vibration due to voncx shcdding Example Problem
Design a200foot high, free standing multilplcdiameter, unlined SA285 Grade C stack as shown in Fig I l. Corrosion allowance: 1/8 inch. Operating temperature of stack: 400"F.
scction:
12,046,570 ftlb
basc o[
@ basc of 6
Assuming corroded thicknesses as follows: 0.625 in. for 12 ft dia section 0.5 in. for lOft dia section 0.25 in. for 6 ft, 8 in. dia section
>l
F.3,.0"
BA.
t"ltl
0.6251L44
0.00434
>
0.00425, therefore
0.56 (0.00425) (27.6) Ltr (1 + 0.004(27.6)1f/30,000) Similarl5,, for the 10ft dia seclion
14,035
psi
t.ld =
6
0.51120
0.004167
S. = 13,761 Psi ft., 8inch. dia. section t"td = o.25t8o = 0.003125 S. = 1032a psi
Total Uncorroded stack weights Weighls at each level are calculated by adding the corrosion allowancc 1<.r lht'thickncsses assumed above After adding about l5 pcrcent of the calculated weight to account for piping plalformg
ladders, etc., we gel: W @ basc of l2ft dia section 178,000 lb W @ base of lOft dia section 86,000 lb l,1l @ base of 6 ft, 8in. dia section 23,000 Ib
: :
_ .,
=
I
178,000 (144)

+ >
48 (12,046,570)
14,035
r(r44)2
0.6605 inches
Thcrcforc, totalthickness:0.6605 40.125:0.7855 inchesoruse th ick plate for bottom 8 feet of l2foot diameter section Wind momcrrts al 8 fect above bottom of l2fL section : I 1,136,950 ft lb
3/16 inch
Moments Geographical location of the stack did not require moment calculations due to earthquake Total calculaled wind momenls are.
250
Total thickncss: 0.61l6 + 0.125 :0.7366 inches. Thcrcfon:, 3/4 inch plate is sufficient for rest of l2foot diameter
sccllon. 251
t,
0.6116 inches
l0ft. dia. section, r, = 0.4652 in. lbtal thickness = 0.4652 + .L25 = .59O2 in. Thereforq 5/8 inch thick plate as assumed is sufficient for the l0foor
diameter section.
Cantllever Vlbratlon
D, =
1.385
15
ft''
6 ft, 8in. dia section tt 0.2606 in. > 0.25 in. as assumedThereforc, use 7/16 inch plate for bottom 8 feet and 3,/g inch plate for rcst of 6frrot, 8inch diameter secrion.
Also, 3/8inch rhick plate is used for ropmosl3fool diameter sectiorl Sincc ther e is no apprcciable change in thicknesses, the weishts based
HD:
Iry,
w _
146,550 _
200(7.38sr
t3.44<20
on rcquir('d thicknesscs arc'almosl Ihc samc as assumed Anchor Bolt Chair Design
: T'
123,550
lb' L" =
185
L.648(192.5F
7.385 v27.6(lo)
117'574
 = 1.5?4 seconds :
14'08 mph
Assuming (40) 3inch diameter bolts, the total tension in each bolt
ts
f:
Vgo
0'6353 cPs
w_ '=
48,\1,?'0a7.,s7!l
98 mPh
40(1s3.62s\
178.000
40
__ Rq 64o rh
Sp 15,000 psi Thus, the bolt area required a1 the rool of the thread
89,649
v = e8l'+*l
\JUl
/rnn\0.143
129 mph
: Maximum gusr velocity : 129(1 3) 168 mph chcck tor K' Since y" fails within maximum gusl velocilv'
r5,000
5.9766 in.2
<
6.324 in.2
Thcrcfore, (40) 3inch diamercr bolts are suflicicnt From the chan on Fig. 7, corresponding to a 3inch diamererboll a:4 in., b: 3.5 in. and c: I I in. minimum, lhcrclore e: a * b: 7.5 in.
Now
. = nm]Fifl,soK'
0.00?7(7.38s)'21!09)
Trv
Thcrcfo rc,
824 psi
>
750 psi
r = 0.355 in, r :
44'3lin'
Therefore
I: :
n('l4
97
in''
P6
698
psi <
750 psi
D":
0.4153 in.
Dvnamic Deflection
and
""*i:il;;;niii"ttion factor of 30' we ge1 dvn;rmic deflection 0.4153(30) : 12 5 in. ).12 in' allowing
":
fu(8ri49)6 = Vqrqoooli=
64 in
'
li:nits when BuL il is assumed lo oe wtthin allowable ul stacr hcight aboul 7inch d.'flection per 100 fect o[
t45.625 +
2(7
.5\
203)
252
al 3li. dia.,
=
and
18.4361 cps
D. Dt l
f,
0.2(66\
3
4.4 cps,2f"
EL
Similarlv, thcse frequencies were calculated foreach thickness ar and/, at cvery level was compared 10 2te al the same lcvcl. It was found thar 21, excceds rhe t al 6fool g_inch diamerer section only, thcrcfore rings were required to stiffen thal section.
shown in Fig I
E2
lhc ring in. Modulus of clasticiry for stack material, psi (30 x 106 psi for carbon steel) Modulus of clasticity for stack material psf (43.2 10" psf for carbon slccl) Modulus of elasticity for lining material, psf. Natural frequ.'ncy o[ slack vibralion.cps
under considcration is
Using threc sliffeners in the 6foot, g_inch diameter sectiorr as 1, wc get fl, : I 7.5 ft Criricalwind velocity at the section
f,
F
F
v" _
s_ '
Use
@(3.7J14)9.6666
sideraliqn, cps Vortex shedding frequency al levcl under consideration, cps Force on slructurc', lb Total horizontal seismic force al lop of the slack lb Acccleration due to gravity, ft/ scc.'z (32.2 h/sec.'\
2(0.2\
3733.3627
fpn
0)$0f '(3733.{4):6.666)'z1'7.s
lR rSn
as
0.4158 in.3
circle AB
b
NOMENCI.ATTJRE Distance between the oulside of the stack at the base to the bolt
in
Z cr d
D
Dr Stack mean diametel ft Dac Bolt circle diameler, in. Dt' Outside diameter at bottom of stack fL Dot Oulside diameter at bottom of stack iIL D. Equivalent diameter for rapered or multilple diameter snck ft Dl Average internal diameter of top half of stack ft
Bolt area required at the root of the thread in.2 Distance between bolt circle to outside of base ring in Width of base ring in Numerical coefficient (should not be more than 0.12) Lift coelficienr (usually nken as 1.0) Internal stack diameter at level under consideration, in Inlemal stack diameter at level under consideration ft
Width of Von Karman Slrcel fL Lenglhs from centroid areas to point under consideration, fL H Total height of stac( fi Ht,z,z Hcight zoneg ft Hb Height of conical section(s) of stack ft H. Equivalcnt height for tapered or multiple diameter stack ft H Stiffening ring spacing ft. H" Height of slraight section(s) of stack ft 1 Occupancy imprtance coefficient (use l 0 for stacks) I1 Moment of inertia of stack fta t2 Moment of inertia of lop half of stac( in" Horizontal force factor (use 2.0 for stacks) K K1 Ratio of wind force al crilical wind velocity to weight of stack Effective lengh of stack ft (can be assumed equal 10 straight lengrh plus onehalf of conical length) nt Mass of struclure, Ibsecr/ftM Grealer of wind or eanhquake moment a1 level under conIt
ht,.,z
sideration, ftlb. Eafthquake moment at level under consideration, ftlh Wind moment at level under consideration" frlb. Number of bolts Strouhal number (0.2 over a wide range of Reynolds number) Pr,z,e Wind pressures for height zoneq psf Pb Bearing pressure on concrete foundation, psi P. Unit wind pressure al critical wind velocity, psf
Ms MN N,,
PF1,2
254
stac( in
r\
s
,ts
ft
REFERENCES l. "Minimum design loads in buildings and other
A58.1, 1982. structures," ANSI
s"
Numerical coefficient for site structure resonance Maximum allowable stress of anchor boh material psi Allowable compression stress in plate material at level under
consroerauon, psr Required section modulus of stiffeners, in.3 Allowable tensile stress of stack plate material psi Average corroded plate thickness of top half of stacl in. Stack plate uncorroded thickness, fL Assumed corroded plate thickness al level under consideratiort
S.Srr
t tr to, t6 I,
"Uniform building code," International Conference of Building Officials, Whittier, California 1982.
3.
Stalev, C.M. and Graven, G G, "The static and dynamic wind design of steel sracks,"ASME Paper No. 72Pet30.
in. Uncorroded plate thickness at bottom of stack, in. Required corroded plate thickness at level under consideratiorL
in.
Frecse, C.E., "Vibration o[ vertical prcssure vesselq" Journal of Engineering for Industry Series B, Trans ASME Vol 81' No l' Fcbnrary 1959, pp. 7786. Gaylord, 8.H., Gaylord, C.N, "structural Engineering Handboo(" and Woodruff G.8., "The Vibration of Steel Stacks," Procccdings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, VoL 80, Scparale No 540, Nov 1954 Moody, G.B., "Mechanical design of rall stacks," Hydrocarbon Processing 48, No 9, September 1969, pp, 173178' Marrone, A. "Vibrations of slacks suported on steel structures," Proceedings of the ASCE Vol 95, No. ST12, December 1969, pp'
Dickey,
T TB T7 y Vr
73e
% Y"1 V"
Fundamental period of vibratio4 seconds Base plate thickness, in. Top plate thickresq in Total seismic shear at base of stack lb. Wind velocity for vortex shedding fps Wind velocity at 30 fee! mph Critical wind velocity for cantilever vibratiorl mph Critical wind velocity for cantilever vibration, fps Critical wind velocity for ovalling at level under consideratiorl
WL
'1.
283t2844.
9.
10.
Wp W" Wt I Z P to ). A
fpm V. Maximum wind velocity at the top of stach mph w Stack weight per ft of height lb./ft. w1 2 Weight of individual section of stack lb. W Total corroded stack weight including lining lb. Wr Total operating weight of stach kips
Total tension in each boll lb. Corroded weight of shck excluding weight ofpans which do not contribute to stiffness, lb Total uncorroded stack weight, lb. Dead load deflection of individual section of stack ft Yield stress of plate material at design temperature, psi llBC seismic faclor Mass density o[ air (0.00238 lbsec']/fra) Circular frequency of stack vibratiorl cps Stiffness of structure. lb.,/fr
Parmaleg RA, " Buildingfoundation interaction effects," Pro ceedings of the ASCE VoL 93, NO. EM2, April 1967, pp 131152' DonnclL LH., "Results of experiments with very thin cylindrical shells under axial pressure," Transactions of the ASME Vol 56,
1934.
.rr.2
E.P., " Determination of aerodynamic behavior of cantilevered stacks and towers of circular cross sec1ion," Transactions of ASME, Paper No. 71Pel35 t2. Dechetto, K, and Long W' " Dlnamic stability design of stacks and towers," Journal of Engineering for Industry Series B, Trans ASME, Vol 88, 1966, p 462. 4076: 13. "British Standard Specifications for Steel Chimnels," B S' 2 Park House, Standards 1966, British Standard Institution, British Streel London, Wl. vorter 14. Scruton, C. "Note on a device for the suppression of the or nearcirculal of circular structures excited oscillations o[ flexible
lt. Zorrill4
Deflection of structure,
ft
section with special reference ro its application to tall stacks " National Physical Laboratory Teddington, Middlesex, England' Aero Note 1012, APril 1963.
256
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Seclion VIII, .,pressure vesselg" Division l, ASME New York N.y. 1983. 16 Tang S.S., "Shortcut method for calculating tower deflectio4,'
15. ASME
ll,
12
VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF TALL TOWERS
with shedding
towe$. The change in pressure associated these vortices can generate forces required to proiluce instability an<l can'even result in structural failures' Thus, after the selfbe suppoiting structure has been designed as a static structwe, it must also
of
i"vestlgated regaraling its possible behavior under vibration conditions' ihis chapter extends Zorrila'sl method by establishing simplified graphical data in relationships from his data. It also presents some of his tabular form for quick vibration invstigations of selfsupporting vertical cylindrical, cantilevered structures such as towers and stacks' Criteria' as If recommenied by Zorrila, is used to estiblish a need for such analysis'
the structure is foun<t to be susceptible to vibmtion, the amPlitude of vibration (maximum dynamic deflection at top of the structure) can also be easily determined. Methods of ilamping excessive vibmtion are recommentled. .l sample calculation is included to demonstrate the use and accuracy of the technique presenteal. Analvzing procedure.
lnatyiing
aU ttre towers and
plant or refinery for vibmtion would be time consuming process. The following criteria is used to investigate vibmtion possibility in a structure: stacls in
a
$
20< 25<
258
,outorurion
#<
ffi
 )t
/r,
(10)a can be read from Table 1 corresponding to ,6, the uncorroded thick_ ness at the base of the structure_ This table is an extension of a graphical presentation by Zontla based on the calculation of natural vibration lie_ quencies of several structures bry a computerized technique using the method proposed by Major.2
if required, should be carried out as described below. Natual frequency of vibration. The natural frequency of vibration, of a bare structure in its fundamental mode for unit uit e ot lOlLzj
Analysis,
fi,
Frequency, cps
0.37 5
frequency of vibration for a bare structure on actual value of (DlL2) (tO)a is given bf
0.3125
0.3 7s
o.4Q26
f = (ft)
_
(D lL2)
(1o)4
o.43'7s 0.5
9.4284 0.444
0.4642 o.474
to the ntioll/Wsfrom Table 2. Intermediate values shouldbe interiolated. The natural frequency of vibration is given by
lvhen refractory linings, insulation, ladders, piping, platforms, in_ ternal trays, operating liquids, etc. are considered to iontribuie to stiffness of.skucture (llws > 1), the frequency of yibration will be reduced con_ $oerably. tn that case, determine the correction factor CF,
corresponding
o.5625 o.62s
o.68'7 s
o.482r
0.494
0.5
0.75 0.8125
0.875
0.93',7 5
0.512
0.523 0.533
0.5 5
structural ability of the stack or tower to dissipate energy" during vibration. For a particular structure 6 depends on ih" typ. oi the lining used. The value of6 can be selected fromiable "onrtr"u"tion "na 3 as recommenO_ ed, byZorrila based on the reported average values of several ,t*atur"r. Stability investigation. The wind tunnel test3 shows the O.p"ni.n."  oscillations of on structural damping. Further staUitity lnvestigitions for structures can be made as follows: Calculate the damping factor
(10)a (c F) Logarithmic decrement, 6 is the log of the mtio of successive ampli_ tudes of a damped, freely vibrating structure and i, mearur" of the
(D lL2)
f = (ft)
1.0
Correction faclor Cp
l_0
1.12s
0.9
0.85
t.25
.3',7 5
Or=#
can be made according to the following criteria proposed by Zorrila on the basis ofactual behavior of several casehistories
t_)
1,
0.8 o.79
0.'135
.7
2.O
0.69
0.6
0.5 5
2.5
considred:
3.0
3.5
4.O
0.5
0.465
Q.435
0.95
<DF
tt" =
Stable
o.4
0.3 85
6.0
o.37
f D,
261
260
Ij(ltJ
,MtrN.t
vll!l{Afl()N
4.'llrc prttcrn
ANAI.YSIS
ol'vortcxslrcddirlS canbe modit'iod by winding lrelicrl a pitch of about five times the strake should be about oneof the height The the chimney. of diarnoter are only required around strakes times, and many the diameter of teoth of this types hasbeen patented device A stack.4 of the top onethird the ,u""arifully used on structures to avoid the formation of vortices and thus
cxcessive vibration.
Limitations of the technique. The application of the technique to cylindrical steel cantilevered structures lraving fairly uniform distribution of nonstiffness masses and wrtn L"lL ratios less than 0.50 ,(DlL2) (lO)4less than eight, Illl/s ratios not exceedpresented should be restdcted lng srx.
trom "
EXAMPLE
Analyze the stuucture shown in Fig. 2 (Chapter 13) for cantilever vibration. Calculate the maximum dynamic amplitude at the top of the structure, if instability is expected.
V* =
V3o (Ll3o)o.r43
Using a gust factor of l_3, themaximum gust velocity = l.3ll, cantilever yibration, the instability is usuitty inifiaiei at a winO . .In velocity at or near the cdtical wind u"to"ity of tneitru","* ,", O,r,. cdtical wind Zc, is greater than the maximum g"r, ^yelocity, r,rru..,lt" it free from vibration; otherwise, the amphtlude "af""ny,,na of villtron should be calculated as described below. dynamic deflection Z at the top of tne ,tru"tur" the following relationship; ""n
Calculations.
The example under consideration has been described in Chapter 13' Complete analysis for cantilever vibration was also performed It is repeatedhere to compare the results and check the accuracy of the technique
presented.
t""..i."f
",fr"fr".
):t'"'
w
6 D00)6
(o oo243)
vibration possibility. D, = 7.385 ft' w = 146,550 Ib, L = 2oQ fr' and.L" = l5 ft., L"lL = I 5/200 = 0.075 < 0.s. w _ 146,550  rJ ta rr LL \ z. 4u nn LD.' = zoo0.385Y 
If
to lhemass and consequently increases the structural damping. ,iu.?ur" possible, modifying the dimensions or ir.. .r. ]t hlp in damping by increasing the cdtical wind verocity auou" tr,e mum gust velocity.
around the structure which t.,"fp, to ,"0,i". _ nulJify the effect of periodic eddy shedding. z. .,. . Ketractory lining may be added to an unlined structure or the thickness or density of refractory of a lin"d,trr"t; i;;;;;, ;;;*,
, be__properly distributed
t.
External
Natural
0.512 cps
Therefore, vibration analysis MUST be performed. frequency of vibration. 16 = 0.8125 in , from Table l,11 =
piping,ladd"J;;;;j;,;;;:;;"y
Also,D = 9.36?5 ft., therefore (Dp2) (10)a = (9.367 sl20o2) (r})a = 2.34t9 18 tlls = 123,s50 lb ,Wlll"= (146,5501123,5s0) = .1862 < 6
From Table
Therefore
2,C"
= (f1)
= 9.9155
(D lL2)
(r])a
,.
._
urro
ml*i
zoz
263
_ w6 _ n = u" TL, =
Vc =
V. Critical wind velocity, mPh ,/1, Maximum wind velocity at th top of structure, mph l,/ Total corroded weight of structure, lb Ws Corroded $,eight of structure excluding weight ofparts
contribute to stiffness, lb
whlch do no1
fL
ho
= 3(1
.0498) 7 .38s =
23
.2583 mph
Z 6
Z3s = 98 mph
vu, =
REFERENCES
l. Zorrita. E. P.. "Determination of Aerodynamic Behavior of Cantilevered Stacks and Towers of Circular Cross Section," Transactions of ASME
2.
determined.
Maximum gust velocity = 1.3(129) = 168 Inpil Since I/" ( maximum gust velocity, the dynamic amplitude must be
is
L=
_
f 5l/
Wt(l0fo
(0.00243)
)
Paper No. 71Pet35. Major, A., "Vibration Analysis and Design of Foundations for Machines and Turbines," Collet's Holdings Ltd., London, and Akaddmiai Kiadd, Budapest, 1962. 3. Scruton, C., "Wind Effects on Structures," Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1970?1, Vol. 185 23/71, February 1971. 4. "British Standard Specifications for Steel Chimneys." B. S. 4076: 1966, British Standard Institution, British Standards House, 2 Park Street,
ft. of
structure
London, W.1.
5.Scruton. C.. "Note on a Device for the Suppression of the VortxExcited Oscillations of Flexible Structures of Circular or Near{ircular Section with Special Reference to its Application to Tall Stacks." National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, England, Aero Note 1012,
Comparison of results. There is an appreciable difference in natural frequency of vibration and thus the critical wind velocity as compared to the earlier method. However, the dynamic deflection of 12.96 in. seems to be reasonably accurale as compared to I2.5 in. calculaled earlier, tt may be concluded that this technique is quite accurate and much less time consuming when compared to other conventional methods.
Aoril 1963.
NOMENCLATURE
DD,
(10)4,
Correction factor for frequency Average internal diameter of structure, ft. Damping factor Ayerage internal diameter of top half of structure, ft. Natural frequency of vibration of strucrure, cps Natural frequency of bare structure based on unit vafue of (DlL2)
cps
Z Lc t6 I/rs
Total length of structure, ft. Total length of conical section(s) of structure. ft. Uncorroded plate thickness at the bottom of structure. in. Wind velocity al jO feet, mph
author's srudv: Analyze To*er vibration Quicker" dfii 'ilii" "tigtttty modified version of Processin1 volume 56. Nb. 5 {May. 1977) Copyrighted Culf ilft"liai ny&*itrton with permission.
264
26s
13
DESIGN OF RECTANGULAR TANKS
sizes
The chemical plocess industries use vessels of various to store, accumulate or process gases, liquicls and solids'
shaps and
While a cylindrical shape may be structurally best for tank construction, rectangular tanks frequenuy are preferredeven though these require laiger quantity of matedal for eonstruction than do cylintlrical tanks of " the same capacity. On occasion, special piocesses or operations may make cylinclrical tanks imPractical. When several separate cells are needed, rec' tangular tanks can be easily fabricated and arranged in less space than the cylinrirical ones of the sarne capacity. This is especially helpful when
tanks or vats are needed insirle a building' We will discuss the complete design technique* fol flat+urfaced rcctangular tanks that contain nonpressurizeilliquids. These exert a varying horizontal pressure against the sidewalls, as shown in Fig' 1' The walls of
free and supported). Such plates are analyzed under certain assumptions by using the theory of bending for thin plates.2 The data as originally presented by Wojtaszak" in glaPtucd rorm' for and later represented by Roark and Younga in tabular form are used made: are assumptions analysis. In oriler to apply these data,the following (l) iectangular plate has a uniform thickness, (2) allowable deflection of the plate is held to within about one half the ptat thickness, and (3)
Poisson's ratio
for the material is 0.3' To obtain the required rigidity for a lighterage plate, stiffenen are recommended. This can lower fabrication cost considerably' A sample oroblem will show how to use the technique.
*The currcnt Aflsrican Petroleum Institute Standaral fot tank designrdos not include a tchnlqu for snalyzing the rectangular confiSrtation'
267
_ We begin by calculating the maximum plessure against the side_wall due to the weight of the contents from:
p=
0.433Hs
(t)
Ratio,
a/b 0.5
0.667 1.0
.5
2,5
3.0
3.5
4.o
O37
Tanks without stiffeners have their top edge free, and the remaining three edges supported. Flatplate formulas can be directly applied for this edge condition to determine stresses and deflections. We calculate the ratio afb (that is, the height, a, of the tank to the larger of the length or width dimension, b), and read the correspondmg values of constants B and a from Table 1. Intermediate values should be interyolated. The maximum bending stress in the plate is given by:
Constsnt,
constanr,
0.070
TABLE
s^"" =
ppb2/Q)z
CONSTANTS FOR RECTANGULAR PLATES' SIMPLY SUPPORTED ALONG I'HREE EDGES (FREE ALONG TOP EDGE AND SUBJECT TO HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE)
1.
e.)
The thickness determined from Eq. (3) should be rounded off to the allo\Mance (if required) must be added to this value in order to get the minimum required total plate thickness. However, in no case shall the corroded thickness of tank plate be less than 3/16 inMaximum deflection of corroded plate is given by:
approximatety one third of the ultimate tensile strength of the steel. (This is a factor of safety of 3, which is also common for static structural lo;ds on steel) For :iTqli:ity, a more appropriate value of allowable bending stress, s_*, of 18,000 psi for plates and stiffeners is recommended by young.6 The. required corrodedplate thickness, tr, can be founJ by rearrarg_
Stresses as recommended by the ASME Code for pressure vessels5 may .be increased_rrhen used for designing tanks under hydrostatic pressure. I he r_naximlm allowable working stress is considered to be
Y^". 
aPba/E(t")3
to one half of
(4)
the
nPe
(3)
corrodedplate thickness. Ifthe final plate thickness seems uneconomical, or maximum plate deflection exceeds one half of the corrodedplate thickness, a topdge stiffener shouldbe added, and an analysis for this condition
made.
Design procedure with topedge stiffeners All edges of the tank may be considered supported
if a topdge stiffener ofsufficient size is added. For this type of beam(supported attop and bottom, and carying a varying load that increases uniformly to one end), the bending moment at top and bottom edges is zero. However, this type of loading results in reactions R 1 at the top edge and R 2 at the bottom edge, as shown in Fig. 2. The magnitudes of these reactions are:
R, = R, =
pan/6 patn/3
(5) (6)
Reaction R1 is assumed to be a uniformly distributed Ioad per unit length of top edge, and the beam alo4g that direction is considered to be fixed at both ends. The maximum deflection of the beam? with this type of loading is given by:
268
269
',TANKS
Rrbn . = 3B4EI^i.
(7)
Neglecting the moment of inertia of the plate itseli we find the minimum required moment of inertia of the top_dge stiffener by equating the deflection from Eq. (7) to the maximum pt"t" calculated defleclion, taf2, o( "ttowaUte
horizontal stiffeners Adding "*'i?iff"t." the ln",.ur. ttt. rigidity of the entire plate by increasittg momentofirlertiaofthecombinedsectionThus'theplatethlcknesscan be
l.
to
2
We get
Rlba
3g+El,'.i,
R.bn
(d'
A large stiffener can ,.Ou..O .onriO"rably by adding more stiffeners' f""*O " O \statce of.a/ added horizontally all around tne taJ, "J the minimum .OSilii', frorr the top of th tank in order to produce stiffener' the below in the plate, both above and i"rOint xcept Tiere is no simple iormula for analyzing such a configuration'
"
rt'
."rn*,
Inin by
width' m' of the plate The by using bbam formulas that consider a unit the stiffener' maximim bending moment is negative and occurs at
, tni" = lsrE;.
(e)
A stiffener having a moment of inertia greater than or equal to 1,nrn should be provided around the top edge of the tank. The size of stiffener should be recalculated if therc is any change in tank_plate thickness. How_ ever, angles less than 2 112 il. X 2 112 in. X ll4 in. should not be used. For plates, supported on all four edges. we determlne ttre rectangular v,lues of F and a (correspondin g to the ratio sf b) frorn T"bl" Z . We interpolate for intermediate yalues,
lntermedrare
stiffener
ah 025 0.286 0.333 0.4 0.5 0.667 0.024 0.031 0.041 0.056 O.O8O 0.1t6 B Constant, a 0.00027 0.00046 O.OOO83 0.0016 O.OO35 O.OO83
Rario,
constanr,
lMaximum Pressure, P
N4aximum Pressure, P
Aetio,ah 1.0 1.5 2.O 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 consrant,, 0.16 0.26 0.34 0.38 0.43 o.47 O,4g Constanr, a O,O22 0043 0.060 O.OZO 0.078 0.086 0,091
Sourcs: Modifiod from Bf.4
FIG,2.
FIG'
3'
OF TANK
INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS
TABLE
2. CONSTANTS FOR RECTANGULAR PLATES, SIMPLY SUPPORTED ALONG ALL EDGES (SUBJECT TO HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE)
M^a' =
O'O]l47Pa2m
(10)
simple
looks uneconomical (taking into consideration the cost of material ancl fabrication), more stiffeners should be added horizontally o, uo,i"uliy, .,
thickness and maximum deflection respectively. If the maximum deflection is greater than one half the corrodedplate thickness, or if final ptutu tti"t,""r, ,ttt
We
for horizontal
anO
verticaf
270
2'.1
It
also results in an additional reaction, R3, at this in Fig. 3. The magnitudes of these reactions are:
the toP tNrk. 'l'ltc resultant stilfening eflecl should not bc uscd to resize analysis' of this r,rlgc stillbner, due to the extreme complexity
(12)
(13)
(
14)
The intermediate stiffener can be sized from Eq. (9) by usingR3 rl place of Rr. The top+dges stiffner can also be resized,if desired, by using the newvalue ofRlas given by Eq. (12) in Eq. (9).
analysis for the tank lh.rriurr "' 'Tft" the plate utl'i"f method of analysis is to consider a section of ln stiffeners the of centers between llrving a width equal to the distance The comanalysis in the be included if,ir rlo"*t, only one stiffener is to for this it,,'.J t..,t"" *iil b" u, shown in Fig' 4' The moment of inertia
rcction can be found from:
,_,
Dimensions
(18)
is:
V*, = 0.l59pab
Cl
(1s)
The method of considering unitwidth of ptate produces a slightly greater stress value than actually exists. For a more efficient design, vertical stiffene$ are recommended wherever possible.
^
C":
AjQ,,/2) + Alh\+
\!./2tl
A1+
C
(1e)
(20)
;ti
A2
tq
of I I  (8/ l5) Maximum deflection in the plate occurs at a distance ili)"(t,, g.5193a) from the 1op of the tank' Its magnitude can be
Y
C,
of
Adding vertical stiffeners along the length and width of the tank b. We recalculate the /ztio afb (using the larger value if the stiffener spacing on length and width is different). From Table
({etermined from:
 = o.oo652pla4 / EI
(2r)
Maxi
il
tr
2, we find the constantsp and (r that correspond to the ratio a/r. We then calculate tr a'nd Ymax by using Eq. (3) and (4), respectively. If the maximum deflection is not within allowable limits, we repeat the procedure by changing the value of b, or by increasing panel thickness for the determined value of r, until the deflection is within limits. Size of the vertical stiffener can be approximated by neglecting the effect of the plate itself for the selected stiffener spacing. The plate sectron may be treated as a simply supported beam at both ends, with varying load increasing uniformly to one end. Maximum bending moment occurs at a distance of al(3)rl2 (or 0.5114a) from the top of the tank. Its magnitude is:
builtup section We now calculate the bending stresses in the plate is: the of fiber outer the Sr, in mum bending stress,
S, = M,,""Ct/ I fiber of the stiffener is: And maximum bending stress, 52, in the outer (23) S, = M^""C2/ I
The design should be modified
able value.
(22)
Ii
if
M*, = 0.0642qta2
be selected.
( 16)
By using the bending equation, we calculate the required section modulus, Z, of the stiffener fromi
(24) V,a, = pla/3 stiffener is stressed in horizontal The Theweld joining the plate and forces' The si"" of ttrir*etd c"n be determined from the shear ,h""r. join a stiffener to the plate l*rtnuous fillet weld required to
i"g
ri*
[ir
M^",
s,,",
0.0642p1a2
(2s) (17)
continuousintermittent fillet weld$ are required' we calculate the
as a
s,'",
If
fi
It
should run from the top edge to the bottom edge of the
it by the actual
leg srze
272
213
il
il
When expressed as a percentage, this will give the amount of intermittent weld per unit length.
store a liquid whose specific gravity is l'26. Material of construction for the tank is ASTM A285 Grade C steel Corrosion allowance equals zero. Let us assume that the entire surface of the bottom plate is supported. We begin by calculating the maximum liquid pressure on the tank
3.273 Psi
We then analyze the design for a tank without stiffeners. To do so, we note thata = 72 in., b = 84 in., and alb = 72184 = 0.851. FromTable 1, we determine the constants p and d by interyolation and find them to be:
\'. \'
C.G. or u.u. of sflrrner stiffner
(S,''o! = 18,000 psi), we calculate the corrodedplate thickness from Eq' (3) as:
= O.tg:
and a =
stress
l r
FIG.
4.
TERMINOLOGY FOR COMBINED SECTION OF PLATE AND STIFFENER TOR A TANK WALL
= 0.485 in. l8,000 Rounding 1,. to the next highest l/16 in., we get
Eq. (4), we obtain the maximum deflection:
'0. r 83(3.273)(84),
1a
thickness
1.608in. x 106(0.5)3 = Since Y,'i* should be <1l2ta ,I]ne deflection of 1.608 in. is excessive. Consequently, a toPedge stiffener must be added. To size the topedge stiffener, we must find,a,,i,? for it by determining R 1 from Eq. (5) and then 1;, from Eq. (9).
R
0.037(3.273x84_)4
Summary of design concepts Actual analysis of a tank panel having stiffenen is very complex. Several such tanl<s of various sizes have been successfully built, using stiffeners designed in accordance with the tecnhique described in this
chapter. The distance betn/een yertical stiffeners has been used as the reduced platewidth to detemine the panel thickness (this may not be exactly correct). Therefore, to be more conservative and for additional security, a horizontal stiffener is recommended, along with vertical stiffeners for tanks 7 ft. high or more. Theoretically, adding horizontal stiffeners would allow a reduction in size of the vertical stiffeners. For simplicity, a hodzontal stiffener of the same size as the vertica.l stiffeners may be used withour further calculations. The horizontal stiffener should be placed at a distance equal to 0.5774 of the total height from the top of the tank.
t=
3.27 3(7
2)(t) / 6
39.28 tb /
in.
in.4
We will select a structural member known as an equalleg angle from Ref. 7, and having a moment of inertia equal to or greater than the calcuIated value of 0.679 in.a The angle fitting these requirements has dimensions of 2 ll2 in. x 2 112 in. x 114 in., and is fitted around the top
perimeter of the tank. Now, we check our design for a tank having a topedge stiffener, by detrmining the constants p and a from Table 2 for the fttio ofb = 0 857. The values arep= 0.141 anda=0.016. Substituting these values into Eq. (3) and (4), we get:
18,000
0.425 in. to
0.4375
Fxample illustrates design method kt us design a rectangular tank 7 ft.long X 7 ft. wide X 6 ft. high to
v
0.016(3.273X84r 30 x 106(0.4375)3
1.038 in.
274
27s
The deflection of 1.038 in.is still excessive. Therefore, additional stiffeners are needed. Let us try adding vertical stiffene$ at a 42in. spac_ ing along the length and width of the tank. For rhis spacing, a/, becomes 72142 = 1.714. From Table 2,we now find thatfi=O.294and a= 0.050. Therefore:
18,000
0.307 in.
=
Y
30
x loloilr5F
0 556 in'
{11 dimensions are inches
to 28 in., and solve for a rcw afb = 72125 = 2.571. From Table2, we obtain new values forf = 0.387 anda = 0.071. Solving Eq. (3) and (4) for
this condition yields:
FIG.
5.
0.387(3.273)(28)'
to
0.235 in.
as:
From Eq. (17), we obtain the section modulus, Z, for this stiffener
z=
3o,5oo / l9,ooo
1.694in.'
.. r,,,, :
30
3.17J )(t8 rr
For vrtical stiffeners, we will select an appropriate channel from Ref. 7 to meet or xceed the calculated section modulus' The required channel has dimensions of 4 in. X I 5/8 in., and weighs 5'4 lb/ft' Its crosssection contains 1.56 in.2 We must now perform a design analysis for the combined section, as shown in Fig. 5, to dtermine whether the maximum deflection is exceeded. To find the area of the combined section, we add the area of the plate (28 X 0.3125) and the area of the channel (1 56) to get a total area of 10 31
The deflection is still excessive. Let us 0.3125 in.). Deflection now becomes:
in.2 By
The deflection is now almost equal to tal2, or 0.3125/2, and is suitable. Since corrosion allowance is zero, let us use 5/16in. plate for the tank, with veftical stiffeners having a 28in. spacing. We now resize the topdge stiffener. Neglecting the effect ofvertical stiffenem, we calculate the required moment of inertia for the new plate thickness from Eq. (9) as:
substituting into Eq. (18), we can calculate the combined moment of inertia as: 8.75(1.s6X2.1563)z 8.?5(0.3125)z 3.8 +
/=
t2
10.31
10.207 in.a
, r..=__
1.087in.{
where 3.8 is the moment of inertia for the selected channel about its major axis, as found from the appropriate table in Ref. 7' We calculate Cl and C2 from Eq. (19) and (20), respectively: 8.75(0.1s63)
From Ref. 7, we obtain the size of the equalJeg angle meeting or exaeedng Imin. Dimensions of the resized angle are: 2 1 12 in. x 2 I li in. X l12 in. To size the vertical stiffeners, we calculate maximum bendrng momenr by using Fq. (lO). Hence:
1.56(2.1563
10.31
0.1563)
C"
= =
0.4826 in.
M^* = 0.0642(3.273)(28)(742 =
276
30,500 intb
277
I)US
tXlSl(;N
oI
RLICTANCUt.AR lANKS
(2r):
0.00652(3.273)(28X72)r
30
106(
10.027)
0.0534 in.
,2u2in, X 21t2in. X
1/2 in.
Top angle
Therefore, wc will use a 3/ l(rnr. minimum llllet weld for attaching the stiffeners to the tank wall. Since the entire surface of the bottom plate is supported and since the corrosion allowance is zero, a bottom plale ll4 iI'. thick will be sufficient for this tank. The final arrangement of stiffeners is shown in Fig. 6. It is important to note that the weight of the tank and its contents must be transferred to an adequate support structure (if elevated), and ultimately
to a foundation.
NOMENCLATURE
d ,4 Ar b C Cr C2
Elevation
FIG.
Side
Height of tank, in. Area of uncorrodedplate section of width /, in.2 Area of corrodedplat section of width /, in.2 Larger dimension for length or width of tank, in. Distance from outer fiber ofplate to outer fiber of stiffener, in. Distance from neutral axis of combined sectionto outer fiberofplate, in. Distanc from neutral axis of combined section to outer fiber of
6.
E ht h2
Since the maximum deflection is considerably less than one half of the plate thickness (0.312512),the design is satisfactory. Finally, we check the maximum bending stress, S1, in the outer fiber of the plate from Eq. (22), and S, in the outer fiber of the stiffener from Eq. (23). These stresses are:
.5'r
J',
= =
30,500(0.482 6) / 10.0'27
30,500(3.8299)/ 10.02'r
: =
h3 I/ 1 1, ./2
lnrz
1,468 psi
ll,650psi
stiffener, in.a
Distance between sliffeners, in. Unit width of plate, in. M,n ajr Maximum bending moment in the plate, in lb r Number of continuous welds joining the stiffener to the plate. p Maximum pressure against sidewalls of tank due to weight of contents, psi Rl Reaction at top edge of tank, lb/in. R2 Reaction at bottom edge of tank, lb/in. R3 Reaction at intermediate horizontal stiffener, lb/in. s Specific gravity of tank contents Sr Maximum bending stress in outer fiber of plate, psi ,S2 Maximum bending stress in outer fiber of stiffener, psi
Since the allowable value is 18,000 psi, both bending stresses are well within the limit. We calculate the maximum vertical shear for our configuration from Eq. (24), and find it to be:
/ m
v^", = 3.273(28)(12)/3 =
2,200 tb
If we use a continuous fillet weld to attach the stiffeners to the plare, we can dtermine the weld size by substituting into Eq. (25) and assumrng that the filletweld shear, S*, is 10,000 psi,
W=
2,200(8. i5)(0.3263)
r
0,000(10.027X2)
0.0313 in.
278
279
S,, td // ll
I/o, Ior,
Z c B
Allowable shear stress of stiffenertoplate weld, psi Actual corrodedplate thickness, in. Required corrodedplare lhickness, in. Total shear on plate section, lb. Lng size of continuousfillet weld, in. Maximum deflecrion of plate. in. Section modulus ofvertical stiffener, in.3 Constant (se Table I and 2) Constant (see Table I and 2)
t4
AIR COOLED HEAT EXCIIANGERS
PART A
CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS
REFERENCES
1. "Welded Steel Thnks for Oil Storage, " 7th ed., API Standard 650, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C., November i980. 2. Timoshenko, S. and WoinowskyKrieger, S., "Theory of Plates and Shells," 2nd ed., McGrawHill, New York, N. Y., 1959. 3. Wojtaszak, I. A., "Stress and Deflection of Rectangular Plates," J. Appl. Mech., Vol. 3, No. 2 (1936). 4. Roark, R. J. and Young, W. C., "Formulas for Stress and Strain," 5th ed., MccrawHill, New York, N.Y., 1975. 5. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII. "Pressure Vcssels" Div. 1, American Soc. of Mechanical Engineers, New York, N.Y.,
1983.
Air cooled heal exchangers become altractive especially in Iocalions where water is scarce or expensive 1o treat Although the
initial installed cosl ofan aircooleris usually greaterthan that ofa waler cooler, the savings in operation and maintenance costs frequentlymake
the air cooler the more economical selection' Air cooled heat exchanger consists of a bundle of bare or finned tubes which are rolled or welded into headers Ambient air is moved across the tube bundle by an induced or forced draft fan The warm fluid circulating through the tubes, gives up paft of its heal to the air which is then eipelled lo the almosphere above or around the unil's circumference. Different tlpes of tubes, headers, and fans combine to form a wide varicty of overall designs The aim of each is to carry away unwanted heat as cfficiently as possible, with minimum maintenance' vibration. and noisc. Two main groups of these exchangers along with t the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed below
These are the types in which the lube bundles are located on the suction side of the fan as shown in Figure 1.
6. Young, D., 'lBending Moments in the Walls of Rectangular Tanks,,'proc. Am. Soc. Civil Engrs., Vol.67, 1683 (1941). 7. "Manual of Steel Consfucdon," 8th ed., American Institute of Steel Construction, New York, N.Y., 1980. 8. Blodgett, O. W., "Design of Welded Structures," The James F. Lincoln
Are Welding Foundation, Cleveland, August 1967.
Induced Draft
l}pe
Chapter l3 is a sligitly_nodified version ofauthor's study:'A method for Designing Rectangufar Storagr 'Ihnls' published in Chenical Eneineerine (March 28, 1977). Copyrightedby
MccrawHill. Inc.
Advantages l. Easier 10 shop assemble, ship, and install 2. The hoods offer prolection from weather' i. Easier to clean underside when covered with lin4 bugs, debris' 4. More efficient air distribution over the bundle 5. Less likely to be affected by hot air distribution Dlsadvantages 1. More difficult to remove bundles for maintenance' 2. High temperature service limited due to effect of hot air on the
fans
280
281
More difficult to work on thn assembly, heat from bundlc and their location.
i.
c., ad
.IG 2
Tubes
Forced Draft \pe In these tlpes, the tube bundlcs are located on the discharge ofthe fan as showr in Figurc 2. Advantages 1. Easy to remove and replace bundles. 2. Easier to mount motors or other drivers with shon shafts. 3. Lubrication, maintenance', etc. more accessible. 4. With reinforced straight sidc panels to form a rectangular box tlpe plenum, shipping and mounting is greatly simplified, permitting complete preassembled shoptested
units.
configuration But do not have surfaces round bare its applicalion is limited because and heat bundle tube larger A much sufficient heat rransfcr area expose can Fins duty same the handle to exchanger would be needed in result thus and sur{ace more tube from eighl 10 lwenty times of lube' given diameter a from dissipati,on of more hcat Selection of mosl economical exchanger requires careful
A bare tube is thc simplest and least expensive
consideration of many component variables. It is extremely imporlant to use standard designs ifat allpossible. Tube and fin sizeand materials D' are limited to what can bc manufactured economically' One inch O from varies height Fin most common '/2 and thirty feet long tubes arc inch to 7, i.r.h and fin pitch varics from 8 to I I fins per inch' Othertube sizes can also be used if found economical for any applicarion Bare rubes should be used where the process temperature ls very high and whcre thc heat lransfcr rate on the process side is very low' Where these conditions cxist, il is good practice to provide both bare and fin tubes in onc sewice'. When the process inlet temperature is loo high for the fin tubc, thc firsl pass may be bare tubes Likew]se, for rhe last pass, where thc coolcd stream has a lransfer rate in the viscous
region.
l.
2. More exposure to weather conditions. 3. Difficult to clcan from underside. 4. Less efficient air distribution over the bundle. 5. Greatly increased possibility of hot air recirculation.
Finned tubcs zrrc available in a wide range of shapes and materials. Some of thc most popular designs are discussed below' Each of these tlpes is dcsigned for a given temperature range
Finned Tubes
282
283
depending on materials used and operating conditions. Each will give maximum service for a given application when correctly used Tension Wrapped Embedded Flns This type of fin, as shown in Figure 3, is tighrly wound into th groove to produce an inlerference fit on both sides andbottom toinsure tight contact between fin and 1ube. This is good for design temperature of up to 750'F. It has the disadvantage of an exposed bimetal contact and provides no protection for the steel liner.
FIG,
5'SINGLE
Double Footed Tension Wrapped Flns  itrit typ", shown in Figure 6, is obtained in the same way
as
"in"rc}oot"a' ;;i"";;il;;";i"f
^,und fl"t
iltr'"d;;i;;;if.tr
ln is also good for the same temperature range fin' preceding ofrhe toe the one fin [iri directlv upon more posil ive shield berween the base tube and the
Extruded Flns  This is the most expensive tlpe. It is produced by slipping an aluminum tubeoverthe coretube, thealuminum fin is th"., ""id.dby rolling the muff Extrusion operation builds up an inlerference fit between the two tubes producing complete mechanical bond" This design actually consists of a tube within a tube and the fins Drotect the surface of the core tube as is shown in Figurc 4. Il is go;d through
Wound Tension WraPPed Flns Edee " ft i"..i^pf. tension wound type of fin and is shown in Figure 7(a) and(b). It is good for 300"F of maximum design temperature'
FIG. 4
EXTRUDED FINS
Single Footed Tension Wrapped Fins up to 350"F. Contact between fin and tube is obtained by applying tension during finning The heel of one fin fits snugly againsi rheioe of the preceding fin thus completely covering the base iube and shieldrns
against atmospheric corrosion.
This type, as shown in Figure 5, is good for design temperature
Hot Dtpped Solder Bonded Fins by soldering and then These tlpes offins are attached to thc tubes maximum design 250"F to is limited use Its aiop"attoi ln tot"tiorr. constmction their of because temperature
of
Headers 
t"b., t";;";
tuU".
H"^d".
i.i
"*f"
is important because they tie the exchanger "on"truction itilo a bundle. They alsoprovide accets to the,inside of in the removal and' occasionaliy' for replacing a tube
284
285
bundle. ln an air coolcd heat cxchanger, tubc ends are bare of fins in order that the rubes can be roller expanded and/orwelded into headers. Various t,?es of headers along with their applications are discussed
below.
Plug
gpe Header
This is the most common type ofheader. It has plugs opposite the tubes to allow for tube rolling and cleaning Box t5pe headers can be fabricated from side plates and two end plates using corner welds as shown in Figure8 (a). In applicarions(such as lethal service, etc) where extensive nondeslruclive testing is required, plates can be bent to,,C" shapes and buttwelded togetheras shown in Figure 8 (b). Box headers have been built with design pressures up to 3,000 psi
Manlfold \pe Header This typc utilizcs cylindrical hcadcrs with Utubcs as shown in Figure 10. iLese arc suirablc [orhigh prcssure applications' Chemical cleaning and flushing conncctions may be added to handle dirty streams in the cylindrical hcadcr This tJ,rpe cannot be used where periodic tube cleaning is ncccssary.
Billet lype Header This tlpe is shown in Figurc 1l and is also suitable for high pressure applications. In this, a solid metal billet is drilled with flow passages. The bored fluid passages are manifolded inlo pipe or machined collecting chamberu depcnding upon the pressure
Cover Plate 1}pe Header This type has bohed cover plate as shown in Figure 9 and thus does away with the need for screw plugs. This should be spc.cified for streams with fouling factor of.003 or more and where entrained solids may settle ou1 in the bundles. Because of gasketed joint at the coverplate, use of this type is limiled to design pressure oi350 osi and temperatu rc o[ 400'F.
286
287
Steam Coll Sleam coils are used 1o heat the fin tubes to prevenl fluids from solidification or freezing inside the tubes on stanup, shutdowrr, or operating conditions. Fans Moving air should be distributed as evenly as possible across the tube bundle. Poor distribution can create areas of very little air movemcnt resuhing in reduced cooling effectiveness ofthe finned tube bundle and an increase in power consumption. Axial flow, propeller tlpe fans are used to movc and distribute air across the air cooled heat exchangers. In forccd draft the fan forces the air across the bundle while in induced draft" it draws air across the bundle. Two fans arc usuallv provided forcach bay, This assurcs continuous operation wtrn
onc fan out ofservicc. Also, at reduced loads and during coolerweatner, it mav feasible to opcrale with one fan out of sewice as an aid to control and for economy. Fans may have fixed oradjustable pitch blades. However, most of the fans in the air cooled heat exchanger application have adjustable pitch blades. Adjustable pitch fans are either manually adjustable or automatically adjustable Most automatic adjuslable pitch fans cause fan pitch change by means of a pneumatically actuated diaphragm.
ground velocity. In oil rcfinerics and chcmical complexes' to conscrvc cxisling above mounted usually space, air cooled heat exchangers are oine.u"k, with other equipment occupying the space underncath the pip"auaL The piperack and air cooled heat exchanger structures are integrated
REFERENCES
1. API Standard
661
for
General
Mechanical Equipment
Plenum
The air plenum is completely enclosed space which provides for the smooth flow ofairbetween fans and bundles. plenums are desisned
as a transition type or box type. The lransition type givcs rhelesr distribution of air over the bundles but is usuallv used onlv on induced draft because o[ slrucrural difficuhies with forced drah
Structure
The structure consists ofthe columnq braces, and cross beams ro support the exchanger of a sufficient elevation above ground to allow the necessary volume of air to enter below al a reasonable approach
288
289
should bc used However, fbr tube and plug platcs, thc ligament clliciencies
stress calculations For simplicity and pitch diameter of conservative design, ligament efficiency based on the plug typeheader for in plugtnJ"t cai be used for both these plates diameter in tubesheet Uoxes. foicoierptate type of headers, the tube hole should be used for determining ligament efficiency' or Figure covers the design of the header box without Partition in located stiffener stiffenei. Figure 2 shows the boi with single partition or unequal two to ihe analysis of Figure 2 are also applicable itr"
iiJ.
Introduction
to intemal pressure for alr cooled heat ex.t uneaaa ,, discussed. The analysis is in accordance with Appendix f.}, ofSection'VIfl Code.
r
are based.on the compartments when ihe anatysis of both the compartments partitions or spaced larger size. Figure 3 represents the box with two equally can be analyzed stiifeners. Cases of three or more unequal compartments size of the the on is based *ith th" pro."du.". of Figure 3 provided the design
""*".
The technique for mechanical design analysis bolted cover and subject
largest comPartment.
The discussion is limited to very common configurations of a header box in which the opposite sides have the same wall thiikness. f*o opoo.it" sides may have a wall lhickness different than thar of the othe, i*" sides. The walls are considered fairly thick and there is no rounjiii'"i,rr" comers. The tubesheets and plugsheets are considered pertoratea Tor ttre tubes and removable cleaning plugs.
Air
*t
t
I I I
"ii"ri"
Nl
Design Criteria
The formulas given require solution by assuming a thickness or thick_ nesses f9f t9q and bottom plates and tube und plug plals and sotvlng fo. tfre shss which is then compared with an allowaLle;;ess value. The a"ssumeo thicknesses are used in the formulas to calculate both membran" una U""Olng stresses. Ail_membrane stresses generated by mechanical loads are limited ro rne alowatrte tensile stress values listed in the appropriate stress tables of the ASME Code. Any combination ofmechanicallyinduced."rnf.un"
_L_
I
I
iP
bending stress. should not be greater than one and a fratf times tfre Joae atiowable tensrle stressare designed in accordance with Uc_34(c), Fdragraph .^.of Tl" (3) the"llflg": ASME Secrion VIII, Division I Code. Comerjoint construction is mostly used for header boxes of air cooled exclrTC:js:The comerjoint weld efficiency can always U"urrurn"Ju, IrT 1.0 per ASME Code. For locations other than comers, ,rja ;oini cies as given in UW12 of ASME Code should be "ffi'"i"n used in Jr"r, _uiyri..
otu,
Let
Et = Ez=
weld joint efficiency (from Thble UW12 of ASME Code) Ligament efficiency = (P  d) i P
r) H_c=lK:(Irll,)o
h 291
I. ''
)r = :.):(t,
, L ' 
(t2)3
12
290
Stress Calculations
t, =
Ph
/ (2trEr)
allowable membrane stress allowable tensile stress for plate material at design temperature Allowable total stress = 1.5(S)
= =
(S)t2:
P}l/(2t2E2)
stresses Assumed thicknesses should be revised until all the calculated be added should fall within the allowables. Corrosion allowance, if required' to these thicknesses to determine the final plate thicknesses'
(s/N=
12
Pc
12
l1E1 c
fr.s
utt,t
(l +
q2 K)
Air
l+K
/.S,)O: +
Ph2
(l + a2K)
.:Lf
rr(l) c
(l + K)
(s.tM=r
"T__l__]
I
(s,)N
FJI]URE 2
(s,)M
(S) t2
+ (SJM,
(S,)O
(S)
t, +
:
=
Weld
Ligament efficiency
= (p 
d) / P
End Platos
Weld joint efficiency for Partition or stiffener (from Table UW12 of ASME Code)
= 0.33
',
(t')3 t2
H h
(L)l
t2
K
=
(12
I)q
292
293
Stress Calcutations
End Plates
Z
C
=(3.4
(s)tr
:
P11
Ph
=0.33,
b =H
V t""
Allowable Stresses
(S)t, =
Partidon or Stiffener
(s^)tt
:
2
en
tou"
allowable membrane sfess allorrable tensile saess for plate material at design temperature 1.5(S) Allowable total shess
= =
fz_frO_S11 L l+2K I
Assumed thicknesses should be revised until all the calculated stresses fall within the allorrables. Corrosion allowance, ifrequired, should be added to thes thicknesses to detennine the final plate thicknesses'
(s)N =a
(S)e
Analyzing
with T\vo
:+
l+2K
(SbM
(5,)e
Ibtal
=*
Ph'zc
12r2(l)
I + 2crK f L ll21<l 1
(sJO=(s)t,+(sJe
(sJC=(s_)t,+(sJe
Let E1
Stresses
(,s,)N:(S)tr+(sJN,
lirbe and Plug Plates (5,)M = (S^)q + (sb)M,
Partition or Stiffener S,
. FIGTJRE 3 
(S..X+
= E. = fi =
Weld joint efficiency (from Table IJW12 of ASME Code) (P d) / P Lieament efficiency joint efficiency for partition or stiffener Weta
294
t2
H
h Stress Calculations
: ()3 r, t2
K =(Ir/tr)u
19,)M=(S,")t2+(Sb)M'
Irortitions and/or Stiffenrs
(S,)O=(S)t2+(Sb)Q
z :(t.q \
6+
(
2.4H\, h/
ts
(maximum
z=
2'5)
a2) )
C :0.33,
.S
Allowable Stresses
(S^)tr = PH / (2t2E )
Partitions and/or Stiffeners
1.5(S)
f"[
io ihese
all the calculated stresses Assumed thicknesses should be revised until should be added if required' allowance *i;i;;;"u"*ables. Corrosion ' thicknesses' plate final the thicknesses to determine
EXAMPLE
/c l^r r ! tu b,r 
Pc
24
ItEl
f.,, 
zn' ( J i )c. l(
3+5K )l
(S)e =t
Ph'?c
12
r,(l) \
/ 3+5q2K \
ofa single pass plug type headerboxfor an air cooled Check the design 100 for psi intemal piessure at 400"F Allow 7re inch h"at exchange. for various The plates the for all material SA285C
.orr*in ufio*"".
t
Us;
3+5K
5K
JO'
(S)M:t
(SlQ = t:
Ph'?c 3+ K(6
12
I2Ea
f L
(
\
q")
c 12 Ir(l)
Ph2
follows: Uo* Parameters in uncorroded condition are as "uO"a .375 inches ToD and Bottom Plate Thickness 1.25 inches Tirbe and Plug Plate Thickness .5 inches End Plale Thickness 4 inches Inside Header Width
= =
J+JK
114.75 inches
2.375 inches
1.1875 inches
(sJQ=(s_)tr+(sJQ
in Plugsheet
296
297
SOLUTION
I
1z
:
=
(t )3 t2
.1395 in.a/in.
*{ "
q. :
I
!:
h
o.rrt
18.7879
12.25
.3367
fl tl
K :
Ir)ct
Stress Calculations
*TFIC. 4
(12.25) /2(.3125)1.0
:1,960
psi
100 (4.125)
tt = .375  .0625 = .3125 inches tz = 1.25  .0625 = t.1875 inches b = .S  .0625 = .4375 inches h : 12.125 + .0625 + .0625 = 12.25 inches 4 : 114.75 + .0625 + .0625 : 114.875 inches H = 4 + .0625 + .M25 : 4.125 inches
Materials of construction: SA285C Design conditions
Pc ,c ,a/ _ + I l.5Ht tr (l + a'zK)l (rN:= ta"E, l_'..' tK l tl + .33672 (18.7879))lf _ _+ 100(.rs625)  t.s,q.nsr, "' '', _ 12.252
12(.0025)r.0 L
(1
+ 18.?879) I
r 931 psi
(sr)Q
:!
Ph2
(1 +
ct2
K)
12rl1) l + K
r00(r2.2s)2 (.r562s)
12(.0025)r
Er
E2
:
=
(.1582)
: f 12,365 Psi
& bending
1, :
= (p d) / p =
(2.37s
1.1875)
t 2.375
.5
ts.tM : =
(tr)3
12
.0025 in.a/in.
__+
100(12.25\2
14,284 psi
12 (.1395) .5
298
299
(S)Q
(l +c2K) l2 120\ I + K
Ph2
NOMENCLATURE
t0[/(12.25)2 .59375
12 (.139s)
1
(.1582) =
'r
842 Psi
(onehalf of applicable Distance from neuFal axis to outside surface thickness), in. 6on.*i O","..ining end plate thickness ( 33 for header box end plate thickness) tft .ads in plugsheet for Plug tyPe header and tube Fi"f, "f in . hole diameter in tubesheet for coverplate type header' Code) ASME of IIW12 (From Table joint efficiency Weld
it
a#."t
931
2,891 psi
Lisament efficiencY
E3
12,365
14,325 psi
i;ld
l;il;iil;v
psi
End Plales
=Plpne parameter
(3.4
2.4
)' h'
=
ASME Code)
Conoded inside header height, in' Cormded inside header length, in' Conoded inside header width' in' plate' in a/in' i;rrrerrt of inertia of unit wide top or bofiom plaie' in "/m' Moment of inertia of unit wide tube or plug vessel Parameter Pitch of tube holes, in. Intemal design Pressure' Psr at design temperature' CoO" alowaile tensile stress for box material psi
:
C
0.33
"
t'Ji
n.,
hence O.K.
Maximum bending sness' Pst Maximum membrane stress' Psl Maximum total stress, Psl in Conooea thickness of top and bottom plates' in' Conoded thickness of tube and Plug plates' Conoded thickness of end plates, in' Conoded thickness of partition or stiffener, in' nnA pl?d! parameter (UG34' ASME Code) Rectangular box Parameter. in'
Nlouable Stresses
Allorable membrane stress
REFERENCES
=
Allowable total stress
13,80 psi
1.5 (alloxable tensile stress) 1.5 (13,800)
Boilers and Pressure Vessel Code' section VIIr' "Pressure 1. ' ASME V"*"ft", Division l, ASME, New York' N Y'' 1983'
10_,700
psi
are
300
301
per bolt pitch Minimum required bolt load for initial gasket seating
W^2
B"b
pitch Minimum required bolt load for operating condition per bolt
A =
This section discusses the complete design ofcoverplate and flange for box of air cooled heat exchangen. Th. dir"urrion i, U"*A.1n" leader
greater
of
w" 4 or
w,
l;
*i*tiJ!*a
be equal to or greater than The root area, Ar, of the chosen bolt size should
bolt spacing should not unUonn ioaO OistriUutiin on the gasket' However, the not U"i"o tft*,ft" rnl"imum required for wench clearance Also' it should
be greater than
2o
+ (n + .5)
6b'
W': Af"
FIG, I. DEFTNI ON OF SYMBOLS
Bolting Requirements
defines some of the svmbols fo he rced in rhi. tonsue and groove construction,
Figure
o * *
b
T.
, wl!
^t"
AuS"
/ 28"
Ve
Z+
inch
inch
tatW^be
b=
Ybo
*JLiHt" =ryt
303
302
Cover Plate
Refer to flange and end plate assembly in Figure 3, we have maximum bending moment at flange end due to bolt load' IV,
Z, is
M=WX
Z=3.4 {
GI
rt$eater
than 2.5)
t":
( = Iu br/z =
b3
The greater of the groove depth or the desired corrosion allowanco must be added to the calcula0ed cover thickness to obtain the final thickness.
Howeve4 the net coverplate thickness under the groove shall not be less than
A = 2bttr
Ft=MlS,"E
Fd=WIAE
ffiho
SP
"G'
304
305
.5 in.
50 psi 25,000 psi 25,000 psi 17,500 psi 1.5 in.
F,= Fu*Fo
Flange thickness is adequate if the resultant stress falls within the allowable
stress for flange material.
Example
Check the design of bolted coverplate and flange for header box of air crytgO exghg_Se1 Aesigned for 50 psi at 329'F. % inch thick Vz inch wide , , soft iron doublejacketed asbestos filled gasket with tongue and groove
of construction is used. The bolts are % inch diameter an d inches apart. Coverplate and flange material is 5.4_516_70 and Si193B7
type at{spaced 2%
T: x=
De.rign Calculations
2.0 in.
.125 in.
.5 in.
7ffi
.84375 in.
of corrosion allowance is allowed wherever applicable. Additional data required for evaluation is as follorvs:
Longitudinal thickness of flange to
plate weld Total longitudinal thickness of flange Height of gasket load reaction lffgth of gasket load reaction Radial distance from gasket load reaction to the bolt center
Total thickness of coverplate
bolts are used. The coverplate has %6 inch deep and %o inch wide groove and end; top and bottom plates have t% inch deep and /z inch wide tongue. /r inch
Cooled Exchangers
Bolting Requirements
Basic gasket seating width
b^ =
.5 +.t25 ''::=' (
: 5+
maximum)
b"
=
'25
'25
io'
in'
to the bolt
center
.g4375 inches
Minirnum required bolt load for ioitial gasket seating condition per bolt pitch W^z = B"b y
=
=
.4375 in. .375 in.
a = .75n.
bz bz
4:
Minirnum required bolt load for operating condition per bolt pitch G
W^r=18"P+2bB"mP
E=.8
=,'#
Q'75)50 + 2
50 =
Su
1,397 tb
A^ =
25
'W :
.2A9 in.2
306
307
Ab
'302 in'2
Header Flange Declgn Maximum bending moment at flange end due to bolt load, W
Since > A, therefore, the chosen boft size is adequaie. Maximum available load per bolt
M=W
W, = AuSo
Minimum rcquired gasket width
,=r++zr,q(f,+f,)'
N^,,=Wrl2B"y
=
Since
N > N.,r,
7,550  2 (2.7s) .1806 in. therefore, the selected gasket width is sufficient.
1ffi
5,225 tb
.3629 lll.'4
(A +AI
S" M^+w)t2
=
(s,225
'"
6,388 lb
+ 7,550)/2 =
Coverplatr Design
Coverplat parameter
=7,#?,'"
Crosssectional area of effective flange section
Z = 3.4
 (rt ^
2.4G
(Z
trc/.
2.4 (r6.s62s\
r53.9375
^
Maxirnum bending sfess in the flange section
=
Coverplate thickness
3.1418
Use
2.5
t"=G
=ii,:i,:t,
sp,c2
:3(2.5)50
r6.56?s
6(6,388) r.15625
17,500(2.7 5) (16.5625\2
(.8I =
4,563 psi
1.2283 in.
Mding
3Aa
inch for groove (includes % inch corrosion allomnce), t" = 1.2?,83 + .1875 = 1.4158 inch < hence O.K.
F"
Fr + Fa = ll,604 +
4,563
16'167 Psi
1.5,
Net coverplal thickness under the gmove .9596 inch, hence O.K.
1.5
.1875
= l.3l25inch>
shess Since, the resultant flange stress falls within the maximum allowable assumed the temperature, of 17;500 psi for flangi material at the design
308
NOMENCLATURE
a
A
Ab
b b"
br
b2 b3
Dianeter of bolts. in. Crosssectioual area of effective flange section, in.2 Actual crosssectional area of each bolt, in.2 Required crosssectional area of each bolt, in.2 Effective gasket seating width, in.
Basic gasket seating width, in. Longitudinal thickness of flange to plate weld, in. Inngitudinal thickness of unwelded flange, in. Total longitudinal thickness of flange, in. Bolt spacing, in. Constant (.3 for coverpla0e thickness) Flange !o plate joint efficiency Maxirum bending stress in the flange section, psi Maximum direct shess in the flange section, psi Maximum rcsultant sffess in the flange section, psi Height of gasket load reaction, in. Ingth of gasket load reaction, in. Radial distance ftom gasket load reaction to the bolt center, in. Moment of inertia of effective flange section about vertical cen_
W, X ) Z
l.
Minimum required bolt load for gasket seating per bolt piich' lb Radial distance from outside of Plate to the bolt center, in'
Gasket seating shess, Psi Coverylalg parameter (UG34' ASME Code)
RETERENCES
ASME Boilers and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VItr, "Pressure Vessels", Division 1, ASME, New York, N.Y'' 1983'
4
c
E
Fb
Fd
F,
G Gr
hc
ff
P
N^t,
s"
terline. in.a Gaskt facior Maximum bending moment at flange end due io bolt load, Width of gasket, in. Mnimum required gasket width, in.
inlb
s,
,t"
s_
tc
ln,,
Internal design pressure, psi Allorrable stress for bolt material at atrnospheric temperatue, psi Allowable shess for bolt material at design temperature, psi Allwable stess for cover material at design temperature, psi Section modulus ofeffective flange section ;bout vertical ce;terline,
.f
T
w
w
wr
w
W^r
pitch, lb
Tbtal thickness of coverplate, in. Radial thickness of flange ring, in. Thickness of the gasket, in. Width of the tongue, in. Flange design bolt load per bolt, lb Maximum available load per bolt, lb Greater of the loads Wtdr and W_r, lb Minimum required bolt load for the operating conditions per bolt
310
APPENDIX 1 Head Derivation of ASME Coder Formulas for Shell and Pressure Internal for Thicknesses of CYlindrical Vessel
Consider
pressure' P' as unit shell leng$ of a thin wall vessel under intemal (D (2n) ( l) to equal force a exerts pressure Ji.*" i" rle"." r. m" Intemal of Z(t) 1(S) at the two cross and the wali thickness exerts a resisting force get: we sections. Equating these forces,
a
?'PR
thus,
2tS
,:PR
s
to modify the allowable If a longitudinal weld joint efficiency, E' is included stress, the formula becomes:
=PR
SE
or'
SEI R
313
This thin wall formula was used in the ASME Code until the 1942 Edition when it was modified to more accurately calculate results for thicker walls due to high pressures and/or temperatures. The modified formula is: PR
t =25E
PN
ol
t=
sE
SEt
.6P
o! R + .6t
This longitudinal stress formula was also modified in the 1942 Edition of the ASME Code for the same reasons as the circumferential stress fonnula, it became:
2SE
or,
0.4P
0.4,
circular shell,
PR 25E
The stress formulas for the longitudinal or axial direction are developed in the same way. Referring to Figure 2, in order to maintain equilibrium in the axial direction, the iniemal force exerted against the vessel end closures must be resisted by the strength ofthe metal in the crosssection of the vessel for seamless shells <ir by the circumferential weld joints for welded shells.
PL
2SE
.2P
t=
PR
2SE
.2P
The pressure force is nD'P while the resisting force is rDrS. Equating 4
these two forces, we get:
NOMENCLATURE
D
E
T
lnside diameter of shell or head' in. Joint efficiency Inside radius of dish, in.
Internal design pressure, Psi Inside shell or head radius, in.
P
R
D=
. _PR
25 Introducing E as the circumferential weldjoint efficiency, fte expression for welded shell is:
r
l.
ASME tsoiler ancl hessure Vessel Code, Section VIII, "Pressure Vessels," Division 1, ASME, New York, N'Y., 1983.
REFERENCES
314
3ls
Thid;;il;;
3.
Pressure
as vertical vessel acts in the same manner Assuming that the selfsupporting are moment u""4, *sultant stresses due to wind or earthquake
OR EARTHQUME MOMENT
iiil"t
i*Jti"; ;tn
i {:::y.1:l'dil:,i;n:'J#ffit:;,:lH: l: will
act
act in compressron.
317
DESI(;N Otj
I'tr(uss
IQUtPMENt.
s. =
r.5 (10)6
and sresses In any case, if S" (max) S., the value of r should be increased to S.' equal or rr,ouia U" recalculated until S. (max) becomes less than is given by the The maximum tensile stress at the point under consideration values greater of the following two Pp (3)
(^) = *t
S,(max)
or,
= 
4t
W
TO VESSEL WEIOHT
Sr(max)
FIG. 2. STRESS DISTRIBUTION FOR VESSEL DUE TO PRESSURE, WEIGHT, AND WIND OR EARTHQUAKE MOMENTS
48M PD rD2t 4t
nDt
of In no case, should S,(max) be greater than S,(E)' the product 1ax11um Irom detemrneobe S, can joint efficiency allowable tensile stress and the
The vessel must be designed for the most extreme condition. Therefore, the vessel
of the
;;;;;;;';;;r"r.
The.maximum compressive stress at the point under consideration is qrven by the greater of the following two values:
S.(max)
oI'
(l)
'SME and It appears that extemal pressure will control the compressive stress (2) equations by shown is int.'JJ pt"ttu." *ill control the tensile stress as the above equations' the following relaO i:) i"tp""tin"fv. Rearranging
tionships for thickness can be established: For extemallY Pressured vessels:
w J. rmax):
The maximum compressive shess must be less than S., the maximum '" allowable compressive stress,which can be computed ?"ffo*.,
1. Calculate the value of A using th formula
(2)
zrD S.
15.3
M
S.
P.D 45.
(5)
D,
'
w nD S,E'
(6)
A=
0.125
/ (R"/ t)
to the calculated Corrosion allowance, if any desired, should be added thickness' thickness in order to get the total minimum required
ture line.
chan in Appendix 5 of ASME code 1 section vrr, Rl",:i,ifol'::9h ulvrslon I at the value of A. Move vertically to the applicable tempera_
the intersection move horizontally to the right and read the value
NOMENCLATURE
Rctor for extemal pressure design from ASME Code Section VIII '
3. From
of B.
Division I
VIII'
Division I
D
F
The value ofS" will be equal to.B. The allowable compressive stress, S^, can app.::xiTlted byusing the following relatio;rlrtp ;, lsobe by Brownell and Youns2:
;;;#il.
Outside diameter of vessel at point under consideration, in' Joint efficiency ftMornent due to wind or earthquake at point under consideration'
lb
318
319
Intemal design prcssure, psi Outside radius of vessel at point under consideration, in. Maximum allowable compressive stress for vessel material at
design temperature, psi S"(max) Maximum compressive stress in vessel at the point under consideration, psi Maximum allowable tensile stress for vessel material at design temperature, psi Sr(max) Maximum tensile stress in vessel at the point under consideration, psi Corroded thickness of vessel at point under consideration, in. Empty weight of vessel at point under consideration, lb Yield stress of vessel material at design temperatue, psi
APPENDIX 3 Derivation of Formulas for Anchor Bolt Chair Design for Large Vertical Vesselsl'z
1; Base Plate Thickness The bottom part of the tower skirt is provided with a plate sufficiently wide for disnibuting direct loads to the supporting beams or concrcte foundation as sho\Mn in Figurc
t W Yp
l.
RETERENCES
1. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII. "Pressure Vessels," Division 1, ASME, New York, N.Y, 1983.
4
II
2. Brownell, L.E., and E.H. Young, "Ptocess Equipment Design," First Corrected Printing, John Wiely and Sons, Inc., April 1968.
load at the base The total compressive load acting on the base ring is the skirt and is given bY:
ws=
rz(M)
n D2 rD
y" :
4UM)
+w" trD2 rD
bearing area Assuming that the load is uniformly distibuted over its entire unit length of a (if seleting any)' for anchor bolt lugs tut *lttt no as: "i"ai "n be expressed can foundation base plate, the bearing pressue on concrcte
f=+
D
320
321
The value of/should be limited to 750 psi for 3000Ib concrere and 500 psr for 2000 lb concrete. The width of vessel base ring, D, should be modified until bearing pressure, falls within allorrvable lirnits.
a. Chalr
The beam in this case is considered as simply supported at the ends, in which case.
ltpe
Comprecslon Plate
Now, the base ring is trealed as a cantilever beam of span c, subjected 0o.the uniformly distributed bearing pressure/ The maximum bending moment for such a beam occurs at the junction of the skirt and base ring for unit circumferential length = I inch) and is equal to:
w.d d
(l
where
M*
I'et tB be the
base
= tlc
.c. fc
(for /
= l)
an
be the compression plate thickness, the maximumbending stress in the beam is given bY:
Lt
tr
\Substituting for
't2 6
"^= iw
Rearranging, we get:
M^",
3fc
,2
(for
I = l)
M
.S=or'4: t^.
rBL
b. Continuous Ring Tlpe Compression Plate The formula for determining this thickness can be derived in the
same
fashion as explained above, with the exception that the beam in this case can be considered as fixed at the ends because ofcontinuous ring. Therefore, in
this
case
M*=;
w.d
be used. Such a ring is preferred when the spacing of external chairs becomes so small that the compression plates approach a continuous ring.
As in the case of the compression plate, the maximum load on a continuous compression ring occurs on the upwind side of the vertical vessel where the reaction of the bolts produces a compression load on the ring. This load produces a bending stess in the compression ring. As in the case of external chairs, the vertical gusset plates hansfer this compression load to the base plate.
Now
" 
M* = c t,2
6
3u'4
4r
t,2
Rearranging, we get
In determining the thicknesses of these plates, the assumption is made that each section of the plate acts as a beam between two gusset plates with the bolt load acting as a concentrated load in the center. The thickness formulas for both types of compression plates are derived below.
the maximum allorrable bending stress in either tyPe of The value of compression plate, should not exceed 20'000 psi.
S*,
322
As can be seen from the design formulas, the top plate of chair type lugs must be approximately 1.4 times as thick as a complite lug ring. ftiil i, Ou" to fixedend beam action occuring in the coptete iug rlng"typea, ."r".aO wrm slmple beam action for the chair olate.
bolt will.bc Assuming that the number o[ bolts is represented by N' each reprcsented required io carry the stress over the portion ofthe circumference
as
follols:
TB"
',_48M trD2S,
By.multiplyingthe shess. S,, in psi by the shell thickness, r, rhe stress Incn oI cficun erence is obtained as follows:
Der
N NB. wE
48M
48M
'
ttD2
^ w" ^r_ Sa
be adequate The bolt of area equal to or greater than A, should However' bolt is made in order of anchor size determined in in"rease smalt iormaly a
The foundation or anchor bolts for a selfsupporting tower are required to resist the overtuming moment, M, resulting irom ti" *inO pr"rrii" uft", allowance has been made for the resistanci offered by tf,. '*"igit tower._Obviously the resistance offered by the tower,s weigtrr is tJast "iif," eifec_ tive wher theminimum weight is acting. The anchor boltJsnoutO thereior" De calcutated lor the condition existing when the tower is empty and without insulation, platforms, erc. This weight will be designateJ i;;
i;
"
NOMENCLATURE
^B b
In order to determine the bolt stress, bolt circle B. can be substituted in place of D in the above equation. The stress per inch of bolt can then be written:
circle;;";;;;"
B"
c
Bolt area required at root of thread, in Width of vessel base ring' in. Bolt circle diameter, in.
n(8.)2
tower is,
The compressive stress per inch of circumference due to the weight of the
fI
d D
wE
M M,,_,
s8
1".:1lll
tensile srress
n",
,Jl
Dlate. in. busset spacing, in. Outside diameter of vessel skirt. in' Bearing pressure on concrete foundation' psi Circumferential length of the skirt' in' Overtuming moment at the skirt base, ftlb Maximum bending moment at the base ring' inJb Number of foundation bolts psi maxAllowable bolt stress, psi (should be limited to 15,000 imum)
"
",.."*"rence
to be resisted by
s^(
t
tB
Maximum bending stress in the base ring. psi Maximum allowable tensile stress for vessel material at design
temperature, psl in' Sheil plate thickness required to resist bending moment only' Base ring thickness, in.
n(B)2
Wt TB"
324
325
rernoved)
Thickness of continuous ring type compression plate, in. Thickness of chair type compression plate, in. ^ Maximum tensile load per Uolt, Empty weight of vessel, lb (for vessels with removable trays the empty weight should be determined assuming all the trays are
tU
Operating weight of vessel, lb Compressive load at the base ring, lb/linear inch of circumference
REFERENCES
Brownell, L. 8., and E. H. young, .,process Equipment Design,. First Corrected Printing, John Wiely and Sons, tnc., ,Lprit 196g."Foundation Design Handbook for Stacks and Towers ,, Peholeum Refiner Supplement, Vot. 37, No. 5, Mav 195g.
O. ,
APPENDIX 4 Derivation of TEMA1 Equation for Non'Fixed Thbesheet Thickness or ASME Equation for Flat Unstayed Circular Heads in Bending
1. ASME Equation
a. Without Edge Bolting
2. Marshall, V.
Iet G be the inside diameter of the shell or the diameter of gasket load
reaction whichever is applicable and P be the intemal pressure on the plate. The tubesheet or flat cover is a flat circular plate of constant thickness with a
given by:
where
v=
Now. let
t:
Bendine Stess S
6M*
Section modulus,
/bc\ t, \6 /
a
(using unit width)
326
327
Plugging for
 = ll: + J
or, [; t:_
=
tz =
6PG2(3 + v)
645',
t=G
.3P
.3(6.2)WG
:G
t=G
P = 0, thus
"
then
t=
CP
t:G
2. TEMA Equation
a. Without Edge Bofting
For TEMA formula.
tt.sw
sG,
hL
let
tubesheet thickness multiplier based on, wall thickness / I.D. Ratio' tor integral vessel or gasketed tubesheet thickness multiplier for gasketed vessel (generally F = l 0 for floating head and fixed tubesheet exchangers and is equal to 1.25 for Utube exchangers).
,","=#(3+v)G2
for,
v=
0.28,
M^",
0,0512
pd
edge
No%
il
at the edge.
moment, the unit moment at the center should be eqiaied to th. unit mornen,
'=TVi
The same formula is used for fixed tubesheet thickness, wittr or without edge bolting, except P in that case, is the effective design pressure as derived in
FG IP
M*=
+
?TU
or,
o.o5r2
pG2:
6.2 M
F2 G3
L
ttG
o!
M
G3
FG
2
V;
lF*
erM
F,
s6p
1.0, we get
t=G
Utube xchangers
Plug
.25P
1.55
For ASME bolted channel cover or blind flange with edge bolting,
+:
f' =
1.25, we get
t=G
328
329
Edge moment needs not be considered when the tubesheet is sandwiched betwen flanges.
W u
I
TEMA recommends this equivalent bolting pressure for bolted fixed tubesheets only where the maximum value of F does not exceed.1.0. Horveve4 there is no mention of value ofF to calculate equivalent bolting pressure for Utube exchangen. IfF = 1.0 is used then the equation for thickness of the tubesheet for Utube exchangers with edge bolting will be:
Flange design bolt load for the operating condition or Sasket seating' as may apply, lb Poisson's ratio for tubesheet or cover material
REFERENCES
. Standads
of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, 6th Edition'
t=G
2.42
sG3
2. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VUI, "Pressure Vessels." Division 1, ASME, New York, N'Y', 1983' Fifth 3. Roark, R. J., and W. C' Young, "Formulas for Stress and Strain," 1975. Company, Book McGrawHill Edition,
However, for simplicity, it is recommended that the effect of edge bolting can be made the same for the flat cover equation of ASME, thus ive tave;
wi
t:G
Utube exchangers
'.25P
1.9
t:G
t39P
1.9
NOMENCLATURE
b
C
Unit width of the tubesheet, in. factor for flat heads depending upon the type of attachment,
F
G
hG
M M",",
P
dimensionless (see UG34 of ASME Code) Ttrbesheet constant Mean diarneter of gasket at tubesheet, in. Radial distance from gasket load reaction to the bolt circle, in. Tolal moment mting upon the flange for the gasket seating, inlb Maximum unit bending moment at the tubesheet due to intemal design pressure, inlb/in. of mean gasket circumference Iniernal design pressure, psi Code allowable tensile stress for tubesheet material at design tem_ peratue, psi Effective tubesheet thickness. in.
330
331
APPENDIX 5 Derivation of TEMA1 Equation for Pressure due to Differential lhermal Expansion for Fixed lbbesheets
Consider a fixed tubesheet exchanger without o9ansion joint and a non
41 = (o"e,
c" O' =
 qe)
and,
c, O. = olpansion of tubes
Let e and e, be the srains in the shell and tubes respectively. Notr, since the tubes are secued to the shell through tubesheets, therefore the total elongation of shell will be equal to th total elongaton of [tbes or
cr" O"+
s" = c, Or+ e,
(l)
Er
P,
A" E"
and,
Pz A, E,
Norr, for equilibrium
or'
Pt
* Pr=
Pr=Pz
JJJ
Then, Equation
(l)
oe+A: AE.
Substituting
a.
e +
Pz
This is the exact derivation for Pr, however, TEMA has simplified the above exprcssion by showing that the assumption
A, L,
Pr
: 
Pz, we get
t"
(D"
3t")
: o,g, +
or,
A, E,
Making the above substitution and introducing factor,/ and F4 in Equation (4), we get
l"=
cr"
o"
cr"
cr,
o,
o!
O"
= :+ A,E,
o' O,
*

:+ A" E,
e"
e')
^ '
4J E,rs(a"e"
 a,e,) (D"3t")(r+JKFq)
e,
which is the same as the TEMA equation. When there is no expansion joint,/ = l, and when the tubesheet is rigid, Fq =  .
Force
P,
4
tr (D
 2t.)z
^
NOMENCLATURE P,
: Pol
lD"
2t")z
Also, the shell crosssectional area, A,, can be expressed as: A" : qt" (D" t)
And tube crosssectional area is given by, A,= rN /, (d" 
A" At d"
Crosssectional areaof the shell, in.2 Crosssectional area of the tubes, in.2
D"
E" E,
t)
P, dD^  2r ))2 4i E" t" (Do  t")
Fq
,I
K N
Pr
P2
Pd
(cgc.e,)=
N E, tt G"  t)
t")
E" t (D
t"
0r c,
e"
P"
we have
e,
EJ
'= ".
r"
(D"
c,O,)
Et
2t")2 (1
+ r0
(4)
A1
Outside diameter of tubes, in. Outside diameter of shell, in. Elastic modulus of shell material at mean metal temperaturc, psi Elastic modulus of tube material at mean metal temperature, psi lbbesheet flexibility factor per TEMA Expansion joint factor per TEMA Factor per TEMA Total number of tubes in shell Longitudinal force on shell, lb Longitudinal force on tubes, lb Pressure due to differential thermal expansion. psi Shell wall thickness, in. Ttrbe wall thickness, in. Coefficient of thermal expansion of shell, in./in."F Coefficient of thermal expansion of tubes, in./in."F Shell mean metal temperature less 70"F Thbe mean metal temperature less 707 Snain in shell, in./in. of shell length Strain in tubes, in./in. of tube length Differential thermal expansion between tubes and shell, in./in.
334
335
REFERENCES
l.
Lt G be the diameter of gasket load raction and P be the uniform intemal prcssure on the plate.
From the 5th Edition ofRoark2, Table 24, Case 10a (simply supported)' the maximum deflection due to the unifonnly distributed load, P, at the center
will
be:
y" =
.Gj Ptj)
(5+u)
n+y)
_3PGa(lv)(5+v\
According to Appendix S of ASME Section VIII, Division 13, the maximum bolt stress anained due to manual bolt tighteligg will be,
sB
45
'm l\/dB
336
which gives,
therefore, total edge
w=Aa(s,MDt/ia
l_l \2 t
3
Gr
3MG2(l
v)
lt(r;t
=
AaSr.
%z inch for Ynn' we get
28ft
(r +
E(t
') :
l44rc where
The unit
moment
= M.
W the total
_ Mr
_ ttG
h"
t/d t"c)
(G2)
Allowing
1.98hcAB .98 hG A ( G \_
\tr
 l:
\r^^/100
2hcAB ./:
Vd"
(''J
(1
v)
\f$, 1nq
for,
zn1t,1t
v=.28
E=
25 (10)6 psi
we have,
3ds (45,000) hc
ol
t/$
1"1212s1
G) (72) tw 6,1
, = tp +
tM
=ls.lp
v" =
For we have,
3PG4
(l 
v)(5 + r)
,s6 Ey,
by r25(10)6lt/3.
v:0.28
y" =
E=
25 (10)6 psi
Vtz
LEI
we eet
inch
f ,=L,
1.425(G)4
tE\/h I
'"
f =
rco
(.72) (5.28)
,s6 (r5)
tor
32 I r/r
AB
.l
NOMENCLATIJRE
Total crosssectional area of bolts, in.2
dB
  c =Ls?P\
\o1"'
E
G
roo/I
hc M
MT P
sB
T
psi' Elastic modulus of the cover maierial at the design temperature, in. gasket diameter, Mean Radialdistance between mean gasket diameter and bolt circle, in' Unit edge moment due to bolt load, inlb/in. of mean gasket circumference' Total edge moment due to bolt load' inlb Design pressure, Psi Maxinum bolt stress attained due to manual bolt tightening' psi Total channel cover thickness, in.
Deflection due to Edge Moment Resulting from the Bolt Load Deflection at the center of the flat circular plate due to edge moment is,
338
339
w
YM Yp
Channel cover thickness due to edge moment, in. Channel cover thickness due to intemal pressure, in. Total bolt load, lb Maximum channel cover deflection due to edge moment, in. Maximum channel cover deflection due to intemal pressure, in. Poisson ratio for cover materia
RDFERENCES
1. Standards of
APPENDIX 7 Derivation of Formula for Calculating Nlowable Buckling Stress in Tall Cylindrical Towers
uniforrnly compressed in the axial direction, buckling value of the load' The critical unit compressive critical will occur at a certain bYr: stress is given theoreticallY If a cylindrical shell
is
Roark, R. J., and W. C. Young, "Formulas for Stress and Strain," Fifth Edition, McGrawHill Book Company, 1975.
3. ASME Boiler and hessure Vessel Code, Section VIII, "hessure Vessels," Division 1, ASME, New York, N.Y, 1983.
Et
,\,{r
_;t
However. theoretical formula should only be applied to very thin shells where buckling due to axial compression occurs within the elastic range' Experiments with very thin cylindrical shells under axial pressure showed tttat in at cases failure occurred at a shess much lower than the theory predicts. ln not one case was the ultimate stress more than 607o of the theoretical. The ratio of the ultimate stress to the theoretical decreases as the ratio r / t increases, i.e., the discrepancy between experiment and theory is larger for thinner shells.
To explain this discrepancy, L. H. Donnel2 advanced a theory which takes into account the initial displacernents from the ideal cylindrical surface and investigates bending of the shell due to this initial imperfection assuming that deflections are not small. He also assumed that the shells collapse when yielding of the material begins. Taking initial displacement in the form of waves of equal length in the axial and circumferential directions in combina
Vtz(t found that the ultimate load fora given value ofthe ratio, E/ can be presented as a function of the radius thickness ratio' r / t'
Tlr8ryL  'z)
cal formula for calculating the ultimate strength of cylindrical shells under axial compression. This formula takes into consideration the ratios r / randE / and gives ultimate buckling stress as:
3N
341
"
[o'u lt'oY'
I + 0.004
;l E,
,)
(l+
.N4 E rY)
TNDEX
Neglecting the second tern in the numerator since it's very small compared to .the first term, and using a factor of safety of 2. 14, we get the expression for allo$'able bucklins stress as:
s=
"
E+A
.oME tY)
Air coolers
steam
accessories
(t +
coil, 288
extruded finned, 284 hot dipped solder bonded finned, 285 single footed tension wrapped
structure.288
finned,284
tension wrapped embedded finned,
Air cooler's
NOMENCLATURE
d Intemal lower diameter, in.
Modulus of elasticity of tower material at operating temperarure , psi . lntmal radius of tower, in. Allowable buckling stress for iower material, psi. Tower plate thickness, in. Yield point stress of lower material at operating temperatue, psi. Theoretical value of compressive stress, psi. Ultimaie buckling stress of tower, psi. Poisson ratio of to\ver material
Air coolers
headers, ty'pes
s t oo
cuk
284 Allowable shell buckling stress, 242 Allowable stress in flange design in hub of tapered flange, 83 in loose type flange, 83 radial in ring of flange, 83 tangential in ring of flange, 83 Allowable stress in flanged and flued expansion joints
defection stress, 174
pressure stress, 173
AL cooled
induced draft, 281 forced draft. 282 Air coolers tubes, types
REFERENCF^S
1. Timoshenko, S., "Theory of Elastic Stability," McGrawHill Book Company Inc., New York, N.Y., 1936.
bare,283
double footed tension wrapped
finned,285
edge wound tension wrapped finned. 285
2. Donnel, L. H., "Results of Experirnents with Very Thin Cylindrical Shells Under Axial Plessure," ASME Tlans., Yol. 56, 1934.
342
ASME Code
lNl)l1X
tNt)tix
flange design, 59 types of circular flanges, 60,61,62 Checking strength ol'lcg support, 215
Class B heat exchanger, definition,
chillcr,9
condenseq
l0
10
2l
Class C heat exchanger, definition,
cooler, l0
final condenser,
2l
Class R heat exchanger, definition,
2l
Concrete, allowable compressive
stress, 244
l0
21
ll
l0
orifice,26
segmental,24
Base plate design for leg supPort,
Damping, definition, 236 Damping of excessive vibration, 262 Design of external bolting chairs for
stack support, 243 Dimensions of steel pipe, 22
vibration,238
Gaskets
2r9
Bracing of leg supPolt, 219 Bolt data, table, 70
waste heat boiler, I I Hub flange rotatton due to initial bolt tightening,
135
due to intemal Pressure, 136 due to unequal radial exPansion ot the flange and shell, 138 methods oi reduction, 139,140
formula,34l
C class heat exchanger, definition, 2l Calculation forms for flange design with full face gasket, 132
lap joint independent ring tYPe, 124 slip on independent ring tYPe, 120 slip on or lap joint independent
hub type, 128 weld neck dependent type, 114 weld neck independent tyPe, 116 weld neck with rib area, 112 Calculation forms for flange MAWP
lap joint independent ring 126
tYPe,
fhcings, for gaskets, 64,65 Fixed tubesheet design miller's method, 161 Flange, ASME circular types integral,60,62 Loose,60,62 optional, 61,62 Flange design, ASME method deficiencies, 133 with full face gaskets, 106
Flange sfiesses, maximum axial hub stress, 83 radial ring stress, 83 tangential ring stress, 83 Flanged and flued expansion joints, allowable stress deflection stress, 174 pressure stress, 173 total stress, 174
Flanged and flued expanison joints, stress analysis
classification fixed{ubesheet tYPe, 17 floatinghead tYPe, 18 inside iPlit backingring tYPe, l9 outsidePacked lantem nng lYPe'
outsidePacked stuffing box tYPe,
18
lntegral flange
example design, 86 Inrernal pressure formulas. derivation
ol
313
l8
19
uxial loading, 215 combined loading, 216 eccentric loading, 215 wind or earthquake loading,
216 Leg suppoil for vcrtical vessels 20T Lug rupp.,n for ertical vessels' 195 Map of seismic zones.
2
l,
28 51
fabdcation
l2
baffles, 24
duplex tubes, 25'26
ferrules, 27
flanges, 23 shells, 21
tube rolling, 27
Maximum allowable working pressure for flanges, 100 Miller's met[od for fixed tubesheet design, 161
Mode shapes for cantilevered
weld neck independent tYPe, 118 Calculation form for ring tYPe expansion joint design, 182
tubes, 25
cylinder,236
345
344
Seismic forces for stacks, 237 Seismic zone map of the United
States,2l2
Selection of approximate leg size,
2r0
Stack frequency, affecting factors
allowable stress deflection sffess, 189 pressure stress, 189 total stress, 189
Pipe segment expansion joints. stress analysis due to differential movement, 186 due to intemal pressure, 186
2l
,333
with horizontal stiffeners, 271 with vertical stiffenen, 272 Restrictions on using leg support,
219
Resultant stress
in floating head, 150,151,152 Ring expansion joint, types flanged and flued head, 170 flanged only head, 170 flat plated with ring, 169 Ring flange example design, 97 Rotation of hub flange
due to initial bolt tightening, 135 due to intemal pressure, 136 due to unequal radial expansion of the flange and shell, 138 methods of reduction, 139,140
Vibration analysis of tall stacks or towe$ Cantilever v ibrznon, 246,259 ovaling vibration, 249 Von Karman vortex street for a stack,
244 Vortex Shedding on a stack, 245
Wind forces for stacks, 233 Wind forces for vessels with braced legs, 214
346
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