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DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT


SELECTED TOPICS

KANTI K. MAHAJAN P' E.

SECOND EDITTON

PRESSURE VESSEL HANDBOOK


PUBUSHING, INC.
P.O. Box 35355 Tulsa, OK 74153

t)tist(iN otr t,tt(x'tiss tiQUt pMtiNT,


Scc() (l Ir.(lilion

ERRATA
PREFACE
Page 27

Fig. 11 the illegible word should read: Grooves


Page 88

reference at the bottom should read; *See note on page 90


Page 113,
1

'fhc design of process equipment such as shell-and-tube heat exrlrlrrgcrs, pressure vessels and storage tanks requires a familiarity with a virr icty of sources of design data and procedures. The purpose ofthis book i$ to oonsolidate the scattered literature and present the material in simplilro(l li)rm so that it can be easily applied to design problems. Typical exirrrrplcs have been included to illustrate the application of the relationships
rrrrtl procedures presented in the text. Therefore, the designer should find tlris book to be a convenient and useful rcference. This book is based upon the author's several years of design exper-

t5,

117 and 129

Equations should read:

d=te+t p=14/ te+l


Page I 19

Equation #2 should read:

M^".:^sn#-zpt u
Page 125

Equation should read:

V S,;

IMY

and extensive researchinto previously published literature. The topics l)r'cscnted were selected based upon t}le problems most frequently encrountered by the author. Every effort has been made to eliminate effors during the develop0r0r1t of this book. However, should any euors be noted, the reader is enoouraged to bring them to the attention of the author. In addition any comments or questions related to the topics within this book are invited l)y the author. Neither the author nor the publisher, however, can assume tcsponsibility for the results of designers using values or procedures contained in this book since so many variables affect every design. The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to Frank R. llollig for editorial work and to Eugene F. Megyesy for his help in preparce

ic

ing this book for publication.

The author also wishes to express his appreciation to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Gulf Publishing Company, Chemical Engineering, The James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation, Institution of Mechanical Engineers, The Intemational Conference of Building Officials,

Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, Inc., Eneryy Products


Group, Chemical Engineering Progress, McGraw-Hill Book Company and to other publishers who generously permitted the author to include material from their Dublications.

Kanti K. Mahajan
Printed in the United States of America

PREFACE to the Second Edition

ln this second edition several new topics have been incorpofatcd. The additions are as follows: Solved examples have been included for design of major components in the chaptet of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers'
Chapter on Flange Deslgn has been expanded to cover design of llanges with full face gaskets. A new chapter, entitled Air Cooled Heat Exchangers has been irrcluded in three parts. It covers fully the design method of Air
(

ixrlers. At the request of users of the first edition sevenAppendices have bccn added to Dresent the derivation of various formulas. Chapter on Deslg n of Tall Stacks has been enlarged and rewritfcn under the title: Mechanical Design of Self-Supported Steel Stacks. lt covers more detailed design methods of wide variety of stacks. And finally, two chapters: Vessel Codes of Various Countries antl Equivalent Materials ofVarious Countries havebeen deleted due to the lack of information necessary for updating the data of those
(

llapters. The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance of those, who

carefully checked the material of the first edition and called hrs irttcntion to errors and omissions. Kanti K. Mahajan

CONTENTS

l,

Shell-and-Tube Heat

Exchangers

...
.......

.... .. ..
.......

2, Flange

Design

59

. 4. Stress Analysis of Floating Heads 5, Fixed Tubeslreet DesUn. . . 6. Flanged and Flued Expansion Joints 7. Pipe Segment Expansion foints. E, Vertical Vessels Supported bylugs.. 9, Vertical Vessel l-eg DeslSn .
3, Rotauon of Hub Flhnges . .
10. ASME Code, Section

...........133 . .......t47 . .... .......161


. . . . . .159

....

.....185

. . . . . . . . . . . . .195

..... .......207
................

VIII, Division

2 and Its Comparison to

Division

1..

.227

ll.

Mechanical Design of Self-supported Steel Stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

.......259 *,y 12. Vibration Analysis of Tbll Tbwers . . . . . . . . . . .' > [3. Design of Rectangular 'Ibnks . : . . . . . . . . . . . . .267 .

14.

Air Cooled Heat Exchangers Co4structional Details.. Part A

Part B Fdrt C Appendix

.... ..,281 Header Box Design.... ,....,...290 Coverplate and Flange Design For Header 3s1 . . . . . .302
.

I-

Appendix 2

Derivation of ASME code formulas for shell and head thicknesses of cylindrical vessels for intemal pressure 313 Derivation of fornulas for checking thicloesss at various levels of vertical vessels. . . . . . . . . , . . . .317

Appcndix

Appendix 4

Dcriv$tion of formulas for anchor boh chair dcsign for ve ical vessels .. . .. . . . . .321 Derivation of TEMA equation for non-fixed tubesheet thickness or ASME equation for flat unstayed circular
larSe heads

in

bending

......327

Appendix

Appendix 6 Appendix 7

Derivation of TEMA equation for pressure due to differential thermal expansion for lixed tubesheets . .. .. .333 Derivation of TEMA equation for flat channel cover thickness . ...............337 Derivation of formulas for calculating allowable buckling stress in tall cylindrical towers... ......341

I
SHELL-AND.TUBf, HEAT EXCHANGERS

lntroduction

to another. This type of equipment is mostly used in petroehemical plants and petroleum refineries. Proper selection of such equipment cannot only minimize the initial plant cost but can also reduce the daily operating and maintenance costs' The project or process engineer
does not have to be familiar with the complete design aspects since these exchangers are generally designed by the manufacturer' The project or process engineer, however, must understand the methods ol designing and labricating heat exchangers in order to obtain the best suited unit liom the manulacturer. By knowing these methods, he can cooperate more closely with the manulacturer and this can save them both time and money in exchanger applications. Several types ol heat exchangers are available but only lhe major types along with their design leatures will be discussed in this chapter. Applications of Heat Exchangers

A heat exchanger

is a device used to transfer heat from one

fluid

Heat exchangers are used in a wide variety of applications ln petrochemicai plants and petroleum relineries. The functions of the
major types are:'

Chiller
The chiller cools a process stream by evaporating a rel'rigerant. lt ls tusually employed where required process temperatures are lower than those attainable with cooling waler.

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SHELL-AND.TUBE HTJAT IjXCHANCERS

Sterm Generator The steam generator generates stam lbr use elsewhere in th plant by using high level heat from any available Iuel.
Superheatel

l'hc condenser condenses vapors by rcmoving heat to cooling water,


atmospheric air or other media.

Partial Condenser

The partial condenser condenses vapors at a point high enough to provide a temperature dillerence great enough to preheat a cold stream oi process Uuid. lt saves heat and eliminates the need lbr providing a
separate preheater using a Iurnace or steam.

The superheater heats a vapor above the saturation or condensation


temPerature.

!hporizer
The vaporizer is a heater which vaporizes part of the liquid led to it'
Wast Heat Boilel

Final Condenser The linal condenser condenses vapors to a linal storage temperature ol around l00oF. It generally uses water cooling which means that the translerred heat is lost to the process.
Cooler

generator' The waste heat boiler produces steam and is similar to a steam

The cooler cools process streams by removing heat to cooling water, atmospheric air or other media.
Exchanger The exchanger exchanges heat from a hot to a cold process stream. Heatr The heater heats a process stream by condensing steam. Reboiler

except that the heating medium is a hot waste gas or hot liquid byproduct produced within the plant. To perform these applications, many types of heat exchangers are available. However, their design and materials of construction must be suitable for the desired operating conditions. The selection of matrials of construction is mainly influenced by the operating temPerature, and the corrosive nature of the fluid being handled. In each case seleclion must be both economical and practical.

CLASSIFICATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS


The classification oI heat exchangers is primarily defined by their type of construction of which the most common is the shell-and-tube type. Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are built of round tubes mounted in cylindrical shells with their axis parallel to that ofthe shell. These have extreme versatility in thermal design, and can be built in practically any size or length. Tbe majority ofliquid-toJiquid heat exchangers fall in this typ of construction. These are employed as heaters or coolers for a vaiiety of applications that include oil coolers in power plants and the process heat exchangers in the petroleum refining and chemical industries. This type of construction is also well suited to special applications in which the heat exchanger must be made ofglass toresist the attack of highly corrosive liquid, to avoid alfecting the flavor offood products, or the like. Figure I shows some of the various kinds of most iommonly used shell-and+ube heat exchangers.2 The general construction features of common shell-and-tube type exchangers as well as the nomenclature involved is illustrated in Figure
.r2

The reboiler connects to the bottom of a distillation column to boil bottoms liquids and supply heat to the column. The heating media can be steam, hot water or hot process stream.
Thermosiphon Reboiler

With the thermosiphon rboiler the natural circulation ol the boiling medium is obtained by maintaining sufficient liquid head to provide lbr circulation of the fluid material.
Forced Circulation Reboiler The lbrced circulation reboiler uses a pump to lorcc liquid through thc

reboiler ol

distillation column.

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SHELL.AND.TUEE HI]AI' TJXCHANCERS STIELL TYPES

igurc 2 shows sections ol typical exchangers. The tube bundle is up made of tubes, tubshets and cross baflles. The channel at the front end of the exchanger serves as a header to feed the fluid into the tubes. The tloating head at the back end ofthe tube bundle is the return header. It moves freely with the thermal expansion of the tubes in the bundle. The shell unit is essentially a cylinder with a bolting flange at each end. The channel bolts to th front flange, and the shell cover bolts to the rear flange. Figure 2 also shows some ofthe variations available in shelland-tub designs. Each variation has certain advantages, and also has some disadvantages. The major types of shell-and-tube heat exchangrs depending on their mechanical conliguration are discussed below.r
FRONT END STATIONARY HEAD TYPES N

ti

ONE PASS SHELL

SPLIT FLOW

TWO PASS SHELL WITH LONGITUDINAL BAFFLE

DOUBLE SPLIT FLOW

nr--l----n
DIVIDED FLOW

LfLr_____ilJ
X
CHANNEL AND REMOVABLE COVER KETTLE TYPE REBOILER

cRoss FLow
CHANNEL INTEGRAL WTTH TUBESHEET AND REMOVABLE COVER

REAR END HEAD TYPES

BONNET (INTEGRAL COVER) FIXED TUBESHEET

I
FLOATING HEAD
WTTH BACKING DEVICE

LIKE "A'' STATIONARY HEAD

CHANNEL INTEGRAL WITH TUBE_ SHEET AND REMOVABLE COVER

SPECIAL HIGH PRESSURE CLOSURE

FIXED TUBESHEET

LtKE "B" STATIONARY HEAD

PULL THROUGH FLOATING HEAD

FIG.T. SHELL.AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

(Courresy

of Tubular

Exchanger Manlfacturers A$ociation-)

FIG.r. SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXcHANGERS (Continued) (Courtesy of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Asociation.)
IJ

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SHELL.AND.TUBI] HI.IA'I' IIX(IIIAN(iIJRS

FIXED TUBESHEET

LIKE "N" STATIONARY HEAD

U_iUBE BUNDLE

OUTSIDE PACKED FLOATING HEAD

EXTERNALLY SEALED FLOATING TUBESHEET

FIG.I. SHELL-AND.TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS (CONtiNUEd)


NOMENCLATURE OF HEAT EXCHANCER COMPONENTS

l. Stationary Head-Channel 2. Stationary Head-Bonnet 3. Stationary Head Flange-Channel Bonnet


4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
11. 12. 13.

or

Channel Cover

20. Slip-on Backing Flange 21. Floating Head Cover-External 22. Floatine Tubesheet Skirt 23. Packing Box 24. Packrr'g 25. Packing Gland

Stationary Head Nozzle Stationary Tubesheet


Tubes Shell Shell Cover Shell Flange-Stationary Head End Shell Flange-Rear Head End Shell Nozzle Shell Cover Flange Expansion Joint Floating Tubesheet Floating Head Cover Floating Head Flange Floating Head Backing Device

26.

kntern Ring

27. Tierods and Spacers 28. Transverse Baffles or Suppod Plates 29. Impingement Plate

30. Longitudinal Baffle


31. Pass Partition 32. Vent Connection 33. Drain Connection

14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

34. Instrument Connection 35. Support Saddle 36. Lifting Lug 37. Support Bracket
38. Weir

AJW

19. Split Shear Ring

39. Liquid I-evel Connection

(Courtesy

of Tubular

Exchanaer Manufacturers Association.) 14

FIG.2. HEAT EXCHANCER CONSTRUCTION TYPES

(Courtesy

of

Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association.)

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Iil,t.-ANl)

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l.'ixed-'l'ubeshcca l.loul llxchangeni


F ixcd-tubcshecl oxcbatrgcrs ilrc [scd n]()rc (ttcn thatr r)y otllcf lyltc. -fhcy have stlaight tubes sccured at botlt onds in tubcshccts wcldcd to the shell. Usually, the tubesheets extend beyond the shell and scrve ers

CFU

llanges lbr bolting tubeside headers. This construction requires t hat shcll and tubesheet materials must be weldable to each other. are no gasketed joints on the shellside, fixed_ _ Because -there exchangers provide maxrmum protection against leakage of lgbesheet fluid to the outside. Since clearance betwe; th; oui..rn.r, 5Sellside lgbes and the shell is only the minimum required for fabrication, tubes may completely fill the exchanger shell. However, this type has lirnitations such as: (a) the shell side cannor be mechanically cleaned or inspected, and (bl t hereis no provision for dillerential therrnut ot rne ruDes and the shell. An expansionjoint may be installed in "iounrron ihe shell 1e provide lbr difl'erential thermal expansion, but this req;ir;;;;retul design and high quality fabrication, which for large sizes."rufi.,n o substantial cost increase. Tubeside headers, channel covers, gaskets erc., are accessible lbr maintenance and replacement, and tu-bes can be replaced.and cleaned internally. The shellside can be cleaned onll oy 6sckwashing or circulating a cleaning fluid. Fixed-tubesheet exchangers tjnd use primarily in services where the _. 56ellside fluids are nonfouling, such as steam, refrigerants, gases, certain heat transfer nuids, some cooling waters and clean process streams.

g-Tube Heat Exchangers

In this type, both ends of U-shaped tubes are fastened to a single stationary tube-sheet, thus eliminating the problem ot aifiereitiat llermal expansion because the tubes are free to expand unJ The tube bundle can be removed from the heat ixchanger "o"i.u",. shell foi
inspectron and cleaning or replacement.

The U-tube bundles provide aboul the same minimum clearance between the outermost tubes and the inside ofthe shell as fixed_tubesheet exchangers. The number of tube holes in the tubesheet for anv sivcn 5hell, however, is less than for the fixed_tubesheet kind becau,ie of lirnitations on bending tubes. The number of tubeside passes must always be an even number, the maximum is limited only by ft" nu.U". of return bends.

AKT
(Courtesy
FIG.2. HEAT EXCHANCER CONSTRUCTION TYPES of Tubular Exchanger Manufactuiers Association,) 16

maintenance and replacement. BundG tube replacement i" ifr" rows presents no problems. Tlrc others can be replaced only when "r,rt" sDeclal tube supports are used, which allow the U _ tu bes to be spread apart so as

. Tubeside headers, channels, gaskets etc., are accessible lbr

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to gain acccss to tubcs insi<lc thc bundlc The insidc of thc tubcs may be cleaned only with special tools and then only when the bending radius of the tubes is fairly generous. Because of this, U{ube exchangers are usually found in non-fouling service, or where chemical cleaning s effective. This construction is widely used for high-pressure applications' Floating-Head TyPe Exchangers
The floating-head type exchanger is generally preferred in the petroleum industry because both the tube and shell sides may be inspected and

SHELL-AND.TUBE HEAT EXCHANOERS

Outside-packcd, lantern ring units are generally limited to 150 pst. and 500 F. This construction cannot be used when leakage ofeither fluid to the outside is not acceptable, or when possible mixing oftubeside and shellside fluids cannot be tolerated. Pull-Through Bundle Fig. 3(c)
This type ofexchanger has a separate head bolted directly to the floating tubeshiet. Both lhe assembled tubeshet and head are small enough to

mechanically cleaned. Also the floating head is free to move, thus compensating for any di{ferential expansion between tubes and shell without costly expansion joint provisions. This type is qulte expensrve' The basic variations are:
Outside-Packed Stuffing Box Fig. 3(a)

In this type,

shellside 0uid is sealed by rings of packing comprssed within a stufling box by a packing'follower ring. The packing allows the floating tubesheet to move back and forth. Since the stufling box only contacts shllside fluid, shellside and tubeside fluids do not mix, should leakage occur through the packing. The number of tubeside passes rs limited only by the number of tubes in the bundle Since the outer tube Iimit approaches the inside of the floating tubesheet skirt, clearances between outermost tubes and shell are dictatd by skirt thickness'
exchangers are not applicable when leakage of the shellside fluid to the outside cannot be tolerated.

slide through the shell, and the tube bundle can be removed without breaking anyjoints at the floating nd. Although this feature can reduce shellside mainlenance, it increases tubeside maintenance. Clearance requirements (the largest for any typ of shell-and'tube exchanger) beiween the outermost tubes and the inside ofthe shell must provide for both the gasket and the bolting at the floating tubeshet. The number of tubeside passes is limited only by the numbr of tubes. With an odd number of passes, a nozzle must extend from the floating-head coYer through the shell cover. Provision for both dilferential thermal expansion and tube-bundle removal must be made by such methods as packed joints or internal bellows. Since this type of exchanger requires an internal gasket between the floating tubesheet and its head, applications are usually restricted to services where never visible failures of the internal gasket are not intolerable.
Inside Split Backing-Ring Fig. 3(d) In this design, the floating cover is secured against the floating tubesheet by bolting to a strong, well-secured split backing-ring This closure, located beyond the end of the shell, is enclosed by a shell cover of large diameter. Shell cover, split backing-ring and floating-head cover must be removed [or the tube bundle to slide through the shell. Clearances between the outermost tubes and the inside of the shell (which are about the same as those lbr outside-packed stulling box exchangers) approach the inside diameter of the gasket at the lloating tubesheet. This type of construction has the same limitation on the number of tubeside passes as the pull-through bundle, but is more suitable lbr higher shellside temperatures and pressures

Used

for shellside services up to 600 psi. and 600"F,

these

Outside-Packed Lantern Ring Fig. 3(b)

rinls of weep provided with ring packings (or O-rings) separated by a lantrn
Here. the shellside and tubeside fluids are each sealed by separate iroles, so that leakage through either packing will be to the outside The width of the tubesheet must be suflicient to allow for the two packings,

the lantern ring and for differential thermal expansion A small skirt is sometimes attached to the floating tubesheet to provide bearing surface for packings and lantern ring. Since there can be no partition at the floating end' the number of tubeside passes is limited to one or two. Slightly larger than required for U-tube eichangers, the clearance between the outermost tubes and the inside of the shell must prevent tub-hole distortion during tube rolling ncar the outside edge of th tubesheet.

l8

19

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SItIil,I,-ANI).TUBL I It]AT EXCHANCERS

FABRICATION OF SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS


Standards J

The TEMA'? (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association)

has

1& _!. Q
9Z

published detailed standards for the design and construction of.shelland-tube heat exchangers. The mechanical standard has been divided into three parts rePresenting the following three diflerent classes of heat
exchangers:

^x
e
p
(,

l.

Class

requirements of petroleum and related processing applications' Equipment fabricated pr this class is designed for safety and
such applications.

"R" Exchangers

This type is specified for the generally severe

duraLi[ty under the rigoroirs service and maintenance conditions rn

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F

2. Class "C" Exchrngers This is specified for the generally moderate requirements of commercial and general process applications'

Equipment fabricated in accordance with this class isdesigned for the economy and ove.all compactness consistent with safety and service requirements in such applications. 3. Class "B" Exchangers This cl4ss is specified for chemical process service. The equipment is designed for the maximum economy and overall compactness consistent with safety and service requirements in such applications. Fabrication Procedure''s
Shells The shell portion ofthe heat exchanger is made ofeither seamless pipe or rolled and welded cylinder. These are fabricated from pipe with nominal pipe diameters up to 12" as given in Table 1. Above 12" and including 24" the actual outside diameter and the nominal pipe diameter are the same. Shells above 24" in diameter are fabricated by rolling and welding steel

c0>

oo

plates in accordance with the ASME Code Section VIII, Division l, for Fressure Vessels. Automatic welding is used almost exclusively on the longitudinal sams and also on most of the circumferential seams.

20

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SIl11t,l,-AND-'I L.lllli HEAT ITXCHAN(;ERS

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Flanges

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Flanges are designed and fabricated in accordance with the ASME code. Forgings are mostly used to make these flanges. The channel and shell

ro! 6-c) loorao l!(|N lon cj--'l-.j-'l;ci lol..\ v)c).o lofl q19 t('.o \q F(r --crour jOoc{ c^-t\

body flanges require careful facing operations. Flanges made to recognized standards can also be used at the assigned pressuretemperature ratlngs.
Tubesheets and Tube Hole Pattern

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Tubesheets are cut either mechanically or with welding torches from plates or forgings ofdesired materials. Tube holes cannot be drilled very close together, since too small a width of inetal between adjacent tubes structurally weakens the tubesheet. The shortest distance between two adjacent tube holes is th clearance or ligament, and these are now fairly

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standard. Four principal tube arrays employed in shell-and-tube heat exchangers are triangular, rotated triangular, square and rotated square as shown in Figure 4. The triangular arrangement gives the strongest tubesheet for a given shell-side flow passage area, whereas the square

3
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z 3
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arrangement simplifies some fabrication and some maintenance


operations such as tubes being accessible for external cleaning. Square pitch also causes a lower pressure drop when fluid flows in the direction shown in Fig. 4(c). The tube pitch is the shortest center-to-center distance between adjacent tubes. The common pitchesfor square layouts are i" O.D. on l" square pitch and l" O.D. on 1|" square pitch. For triangular layouts these are l" O.D. on i*" triangular pitch. In Fig.4(d) square pitch has been rotated 45", yet it is essentially the same as Fig. 4lct. After being laid out in their proper pitch and orientation the tube holes are drilled in the tubesheet with a slightly greater diameter than outside diameter of the tube and then lwo or more slooves are milled in the wall of the hole. Baflles
is apparent that higher heat hansfer coefficients result when a liquid is maintained in a state of turbulence. Outside the tubes it is customary to employ ba{Iles which cause the liquid to flow through the shell at right angles to the axis ofthe tubs. This causes considerable turbulence even when a small quantity of liquid flows through the shell. The center-tocenter distance btween balfles is called the baflle pitch or bame spacing. Since the ballles may be spaced close together or far apart, the mass

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velocity is not entirely dependent upon the diameter of th shell. Tierods

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(d)
Shell flange

are screwed into the tubesheets placcd secttrcly at thc eorrect spacing lor the given exchanger. Baffles are then slipped onto the tie rods and Iirmly located in their proper place by use ol spacers between I hem as shou n in

Fig.5. There are several types of baffles which are employed in heat as exchangers, but by far the most common are the segmnt baffles generalplates are which are drilled baffles shown in Fig. 6. Segmental be ly cut to some percentage of the shell inside diameter' Baffles may 90o be rotated or may flow for "up-and-down" arranged, ur rho*rr, to prJuid" "side-to-side" flow, the later being desirable when a mixture of liquid and gas flows through the shell' The baffle pitch not the percentage cut detlrmines the effective velocity of the shell fluid'
Other types of bames are the disc or donut, and the orifice baflles as in Figs.7 and 8 respectively. Although additional types are sometimes employed, they are not of general importance.

(b)

(c)

FIG. 4 - TUBE HOLE PATTERNS

shown
Tubes

Heat-exchanger tubes are also referred to as condenser tubes and should


Channel flange

not be confused with steel pipes or other types of pipes which are extruded to iron pipe sizes. The outside diameter of heat exchanger or condenser tubes is the actual outside diameter in inches within a very
strict tolerance. Heat exchanger tubes are available in a variety ofmetals which include steel,copper, admiralty, muntz metal, brass, 70-30 copper-

FIG. s ' BAFFLE SPACER DETAIL (Enlarsed)

nickel, aluminium bronze, alurninium and stainless steel. They are obtainable in a number of wall thicknesses defined by the Birmingham Wire Gage, which is usually referred to as the BWG or gage of the tube.
These tubes are available in various sizes, of which are most common in heat exchanger design.

i"

O.D. and 1" O.D.

ffi*ss-$
Fs88888?

6gm

\oooooo/ ./
N9-,/-o'ittihg

*,*ttj

The choice of a tube material for any particular application may at all in many cases but may be a dilficult and complex problem in severely corrosive envitonments. All the known
presnt no problem

factors which influence or contribut to corrosion such as past performance of materials under similar service condition, type of corrosion experienced in similar units, etc. would aid an engineer materially in selection of most economical and most serviceable tube material for the job.
Duplex Tubes

FIC. 6 - SEGMENTAL BAFFLE DETAIL"

It
(l,r')rI "l'ft'c{ss l-lcnt Transfer" rv Donald Q. Kern - Copvdghr r9s0 I'v Mfl irnw llill ll.x)k Cornprny)
24

outside the tubs are extremely corrosive, and in addition require a dilferent amount of corrosion on each side. Tubes which combine two

is not uncommon to find conditions where the fluids both inside and

25

r)rlsl(;N ()lr Pl{(x;liss lxll.J IPML|NT

SI

IELI,.AND.'TUBE HtsAT I]XCHANCERS

orific\[l

r------l

r--1 nl
(a)
Detail (b) * FIG. ? - ORIFICE BAFFLE

ir

O. D. of tubes

problem' differrent metals called duplex tubes can be used to meet this of two tubes. bonding mechanically by Duplex tubes are manufactured way In this contact' in intimate are they that so different metals or alloys non-ferrous or ferrous of combinations it is possible to choose various alloys to combat successfully a certain type of corrosion at the^outside surface and entirely different type of corrosion at the inside surface'
Ferrules passing Where contact of the ends of th outer tube with the fluid replaced tfriough tlt" toUe isconsidered objectionable, these ends may be ferrules with flrrules of the same alloy as that of the inside tube' These the place when need be only long enough to ensure their bing held in have distinct advantage to tube ends are rollid into the tubesheets' It is a furnished as an integral part of the tube to facilitate

iil."-1".tut".

ir,.Lttutiott. The construction of duplex tubes with attached ferrules shown in Fig. 9 and 10 before and after installation respectively'

is

Tube Rolling
Doughnut

FIG. 8 , DISC AND DOUGHNUT BAFFLE

'

fixed in Tubes are passed through the tubeshets and baffles, and are preliminary.fashion in a place by an expanding operation. They are set from Ly forcing u piog ug"intt the tubes. The plug preYents the tube

FERRULE
(Same material
as

inner tube)

rotatrng turning when the roller expander is inserted' The roller is a limit of elastic the mandr-il having a slight taper. It is capable ofexceeding that it so the tube metai and transforms it into a semiplastic condition and A simple seal flows into the grooves and forms an extremely tight a tube is shown in Fig. 11. Tube rolling is a skill,since ""u.ll. "ornrnon by rolling too thin and leaving a seal with little Ou-og"O U. -rvstructural strength.

Turning Slot \

Tube wall

FIG.9 I)UPLEX TUBE

FIG.

TO

DUPLEX TUBE AND TUBESHEET JOINT Donald Q. Kern

(lr,'rn

hv M, (;rxw llill lr,xrk (l)mpany)

'11rxrcss

lltl't Transfer"

- Copyrisht

1950

FI6. 1T . TUBE ROLL (From "Process He.t Transfer"


by Mccraw-Hill Book ComPany)

FIG. I2 - FERRULE Donald Q. Kern

'

Copyright r95O

27 26

l)lisl(;N olr

Plt.(

)(il'lss llQtrlPMuN'l

sllDl,l--ANl)-ltJttli

llliAl lix(

l{AN(il:Rs

ln some industrial uses it is desirable to install tubes in a tubesheet so that they can be removed easily as shown in Fig. 12. The tubes are actually packed in the tubesheet by means of ferrules using a soft metal packing ring. After completion ofthe bundle assembly, it is brought to a test rack where a hydrotest is applied. Bundles are then lowered vertically into the exchanger shells and linal hydrotest of the exchanger is made. After the outside ofthe shell is painted with a rust-preventive paint and all flanges are covered to prevent damage, the unit is ready for shipment.

DESIGN CAI,CULATIONS
Shell Cylinder
Reference: ASME Section

VIII, Division 1'

Paragraph UG-27(c)

Design of rnajor shell and tube heat exchanger components is illustrated in the examples given below.

P = Design Pressure, Psig : 50 PSig n = C..t A"i inside radius, in. = 28 125 in' temperature' psi = J : eilo*uuf" stress at design : 85 E = Welcl joint efficiencY C.A.: Corrosion allowance, in : .125 in'

13'800 psi

Now

t = Minimum cylinder (hickness' : >* PR C.A. SE _ ,6P _


EXAMPLE NO.
1

in'

50(28.125) _i .125
13s00(.85)

.6(50)

=
Usinghand calculation method, mechanically design all the components ofa carbon steel, 56 inch inside diameter having 16 feet long tubes, TEMA 'AET" type of shell and tube heat exchanger for the following conditions.

.1202

.125

'2452

in , use

72" (SA-285-C)

Shell Cover CYlinder Reference: same as shell cylinder

SHELL
Design Pressure, Psig Design Temper'ature,'F Corrosion Allowance, In. Number of Passes

SIDE 50 400 Va l4

TUBE SIDE
420

5O(28.t25) + .25
13300(.85)

.6(s0)

250
'/a

.1202

-125

'2452

in , use /2" (SA-285-C)

Shell Cover Head (2:1 ElliPsoidal)


Provide solid soft steel gasket at the floating head and steel j acketed asbestos gaskets at all otherjoints. Use ASME Section VIII, Division l6 and TEMA "R" design criteria in calculations. Also, check the reinforcement requirenrcnt for an 8 inch 300# R.F. nozzle on the tubeside. Reference: ASME Section

VIII, Division

l'

kragraph UG-32(d)

S : Allowable stess at design temPeratue' psi E = Weld joint efficiency = '85 C.A. = Corroiion allowance, in = 125 in'

P : Design Pressure, Psig : 50 Psig R : Corr;ded inside radius, in = 28 125 in'

13'800 psi

28

l)liSl(;N ( )lr I'l{(XilrSS lQtJlPMIN'l'


Now
itn(l

SHTJI,I--AND"TUBE HEA'I' T.:XCTIAN(itJRS

r = Nominal head thickness,


PR

in.

8r
Now

l '375 in

st

.lP

50(28.125\

: 1.3125 in. (min'), use 2'25 in' k, - 2^l (1.375 - R75) = o.2222 < 0.333 (rone =E h ---:------------2.25
h

1.5(eo)

1.5( 875)

13800(.85)

.1(s0)

-F .125

.u025

Therefore, the flange can be designed as an integral type as shown in Fig. 1a of Chapter 2. Now assume (64) lVt in. dia. bolts. From Table 3. in

i 199

.125

.0625

.3O'14

in.,

use

26" nom. (SA-285-C)

Chapter2, for lVq in. dia. bolts, we

have

Channl Cylinder
Reference: Same as shell cylinder

R : 1.75 in. E = 1.25 in.


2(1.375)

Now C.A.
and

t = :

420(28.125\

c=B+

2(g

t) + 2(R'):56.25 +

2(1.75)

62.s in-

17500(.8s) .8078

.6(420)

A:

C + 2(E) = 62.5 + 2(r.25) = 65 in.

.125

.9328 in., use 1" (54-516-70)

Channel Flanges at Cover and Thbesheet


Reference: ASME Section

Gasket and Bolting Calculations From lhble


and

VIII, Division 1, Paragraph UA-48

in

Chapter

Welding neck flanges are used in design. Both channel flanges will be

-+

2, for an iron jacketed m = 3.75

asbestos filled gasket

identical as they are independent because tube side design pressure is conffolling the design. Referring to the nomenclature, figures, tables and design steps for
independent hub flange in chapter 2 and using SA- 105 flanges and SA-193-

v
Assume

7600

N=
Fig. la.

0.625 in.

87 bolts, we

have

p: S' : S" =
Sr" Sr"

420 psi

25'000 Psi
25,000 Psi

A/ 6 =:::: 22

of Table 2 in Chapter 2,applies to our situation. So, n 6t5 = 0.3125 in.

Therefore

= 17,500 psi = 17,500 psi

Also in uncorroded condition

: Vb^ h -22 -:Now

Vc.:t
a

U.L|YJ

n.
2(2195)

8:56in. 80: t': l0in'


=
1.5(1.0)

G
1.5in.

Assume

gr

1.5(go)

Thus in corroded condition

B: 8" :

- 2(b) : 62.s - 1.2s - 2(0.2s) = 60.191 in. Assume rib area : RA : '{0.7018 in.2 Therefore W.r: 10.2795 (n) 60.191 + .5(40.7018)l 7600 : 556,344 lb. :
C

2(0.25)

56.25 in. 875 in'

Ho

= 12 (n) 0.279s(60.19r) + = 230'590 lb.


3t

40.70181 3.7s(420)

l)lisl(;N ( )tr plt(x:liss uQUlpMtrNT

SHELL.AND.TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

It
W^,
thus

1t

= -(60.1910), 42o

t,t95,097 tb

'l'hcrclurc,

|,195,097

230,590

Mo =
1,425,68l. tb

1,456,044 (1.1545)

1,681,003

inlb

Actual bolt spacing

. r,425.687 ". =J5poo = 57.0275 in.z


From Table 3 in Chapter 2, the root area of a per inch is .929 in.2 which gives
1 ya

t(O =-:

tr(62.5\

64 = :.00S in. *9 ^: (J. /J + U.)'


+
5.0625

Assumet:5.0625in.
g

in. dia. bolt having

threads

Miximum bolt spacing

2(1

.25) +

g.e+l in.
7.5625 in.

Ao
Since

64(.929)

59.456 tn.2

Normal bolt spacing


Since, Actual bolt spacing (

2(1.25)

A,

)
W

A-,

therefore (64) lVq tn. dia. bolts are adequate. Now

0.5 (57.02'15

59.4s6) 25,000

r,456,044 rb

is O.K. and also actual bolt spacing lactor CF = 1.0.

maximum bolt spacing, the chosen bolt spacing < normal bolt spacing, the correction

and

'I'hus, the calculation factors are

'"-t
Since

..

=zrr?oooioo.rsl = o5l7l

(59.456) 2s.000

in

N>

N-r,

therefore chosen gasket width is adequate.

" ='u#-=
tu
t.681.003 ( t.0)
56.25

55.ite

Flange Moments Calculations

29,884

HD:4

\56.25)2 42O

1.043.j23 tb

Deiermining Shape Constants

H6 = Ho

= 230,590 lb Hr= 1,195,097 - |,043,723 = t5t,3j4 tb hp:1.75 + .5(1.375) = 2.4375 n. hc= .5 (62.5 - 60.191) : t.1545 in. hr=.5 (r.75 + 1.375 + 1.1545) : 2.1398
Mo=

: _ --:l= l.t))o ^ )b.zi


From Table 4 in Chapter 2, for rK

fr\

1.1556

in.

Now 1,043,723 (2.4375) 2,544,07 5 in-tb Mc = 230,590 (1.154s) = 266,216 in-Ib Mr:151,374 (2.1398) 323,910 inlb

Z:1.8565 z = 6.9647
Y and

13.487

U:14.8209
Now

Therefore,

Mo = 2,544,0'15 + 266,216 + 323,910

3,134,201 in-lb

L
8o

= r.57l4

Now, for the gasket seating condition

Hc:

1,456,044lb.

ho

:\6r.25.r;, = 7.0156
33

l)Hst(;N ( )tr PR()cEss EQUIPMENT

SHELL.AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANOERS r.84( 55.719) ---(5 | .4467

h=2.25: ho 7.0 t56


From Fig. 4 in Chapter 2, for

^rn

.S,, =

.0625)2

2,765 psi <17,500 Psi O.K.

8o
we have

P, "

1.51

t4

and

ho

- = .320i

s,. ''

=-#(5.0625)'
> S^,

ss Trorl? aRTl\
6.9647(2,765)

10,064 psi <17,500 psi O.K.

Sincc S, o. K.

there fore, 0. 5(24,484

10,064)

17,274 psi < 17'500 psi

F=
Similarly from Fig. 5 in Chapter 2,

0.8736

(;sskt Seating Condition

V = 0.3488
and ftom Fig. 8 in Chapter 2,

s- == .446'1 ( | .37 5\2


1

1.20r9{ 29.884)

l3.l32Psi >26.250

Psi O.K.

f = r.20r9
p - =-:
and

S-

= 1.483 Psi <17.500 =-1.4467(5.0625\2


l)

1.84(29.884)

Psi O.K.

0.8736 7.0156

l)A\

s.,, =::j:=-: :: ''' (5.0625t2


Since

29.884(13 .487

6.964i (1,483)

5,398 psi <17,500 psi o.K.

14.8209

s.
(7.0156t (.875)2

s.,

laRR

228.2333

therefore,

Calculating Other Stress Factors

0.5(13,132

5,398)

9,265 psi <17,500 psi O'K.

c=

5.0625 (.1245)

+|:

1.63

B =14 \ \s.oozsr.l245)

3/

t=

All stresses in both the operating as well as the gasket seating conditions within allowables. Thus, the inde_pendent flange design is O.K. are Next we will discuss the design of the shell side or the dependent
flange.

l.E4

^, ' =-= 5.062s


(5.0625)3 - =-= d

I .63

R7R,

Shell Flange at Tubesheet


Refer to Figure and design steps on weld neck dependent flange design calculation sheet in Chapter 2. Here we have

.5685

i:
Calculating Stresses Operating Condition

.8782

P=
.5685

50 psi

1.4467

Since, the flange and bolt materials are the same as for the independent flange, the values of Sr, S- S" and St remain unchanged. Noq in the uncorroded condition

1.2019(55.719) ^ :lZOt,r:tsr, ,"

^ -r 60 - ',

<i-n - v.J 'u.


0.8125 in'

24,484 psi <26,250 psi O.K.

Assume

8r =

l)tist(;N oF Pt{o(iEss EQUTPMENT


Thus, in the coroded condition
and

SHELL.AND.TUBE HEAT EXCHANCERS

8r
Assume

0.6875 in.
Nrtw

H<;=W^t-H=l'425,691 - 142'273: l '283 '411 Ib Hr = 142,273 - 124,252 = 18,021 lb ho : 2.4315 + .5(.6875) : 2.7813 in' hc : .5(62.50 - 60.191) = 1.1545 in. hr= .5(2.4375 + 6875 + 1.1545) :2.1398 in
Mp

h=
Slope

2.0 in.

>

1.5 Go)> 0.5625 in. O.K. .1563 <.J33 O.K.

'

ro 6R?5 :--:
2.O

n 17sl

Mc

Mr

124,252(2.7813) = 345'577 in-lb l'481'718 inib r,283,4r7 (1. 1545) inlb 1398) 38'561 r8,02r(2 = =

Therefore, the flange can be designed as an integral flange as shown in

Fig. la of Chapter 2.
Since, both the flanges are to be bolted together, the number and size of bolts, and diameten B, C, G and A will be the same as for the independent flange. Also, the values ofn and y will remain unchanged since thi gasket

'l'hcrcfore,

Mo

345,577

1,481,718

38,561

1,865,854

inlb

Now, for the gasket seating condition

material is the same. The value of radial clearance R will be greater than the minimum required for this flange, because its bolt circle dia. C has to match the bolt circle dia. of the independent flange and its g, is smaller than g, of the independent flange. So in this case

Hc=W:
'l'hcrcfore,

l'456'045 in-lb

Mo
A$sume

1,456,M5( 1.1545)

l'681'019

inlb

c + 2(8 )l 156.25 + 2(0.6875t1 R _ - lB =A5 ----;= z


Gasket and Bolting Calculations

2 4315

in'
t.0.

4.8125 in.

Normal bolt spacing will be greater than the actual bolt sPacing , thus

Cr

Thus, the calculation factors are

The width and the effective width of the gasket will be the same as for

the independent flange. Now

Ho

W^za :

u:ffff=zz,nr
lnd

556'344 Ib

2n (.2795) 60.191(3.75) 50

19,820 lb

H = 160.191.t, 50

142,273

r'r

={Se:

zr,tss

W^r* = l'425 '691lb'


which will result in the same

I)etermining Shape Constants

A.

as earlier, thus I7

will

also be the same.

Flang Moments Calculations

l,
(so)

since the value of is the same as in the independent flange the values of Y and U will remain unchanged. Now

H" =X66.zs)2
*The values of
Wu

124,zszrb

L=@:
Lo
0.375

r.srrs
ho =\/s6.2s(0.37

I and W-2 are taken ftom independent flanse

s) = 4.s928

r)Esl(;N oF PR(rcESS EQUIPMENT

SHELL.AND"TUBE HEAT EXCHANOERS

ho

h:2'o : 4.5928
=
F
V

o.+zss

s, -1U{114!D (4.8125)2

6.s647(7s7)

14,047 psi <17,500 psi

o.K'

From Fig. 4 in Chapter 2 for grl80

1.8333 and hlho

0.4355 we have

Sincc

: :

S. > S^'
o.5 (20,720 +14,047):17 ,383 psi< 17,500 psi O'K

0.8442

llrcrclbre.

Similarly from Fig. 5 in Chapter 2


0.2671

and from Fig. 8 in Chapter 2

(;o8ket Seating Condition

f = 1'2179
Now

t,,
0.1838

=4H9= .1251( 5\2


4

.687

8,667 Psi <26,25oPsioK'

e
and

=-= 4.5928

0.8442

. 2.1794(29,88s) -^^ psr <17,500 psi O.K. S.. = ___________- _: 6EZ ' ^ 4.125'(4.8t25)2 . 29,885(r3.4871) .\... = ----------------- - o.vo,+r(682) : (4.8125\2 '
s.
lhcrefore,
12,655 psi <17,500 psi O'K'

d=

14.8209

0.26j 1@.5928)

(0.375)'z

35.8386

Since

s^,

Calculating Other Stress Factors


cr

0.5(18,667

12,655)

4 8125(0.1838)

+I=

15,661 psi <17,500psi

oK'

1.8846

p :( r

)a.8l2s(0.1838)

+ I :2.t794

r' =@: 1.8565 ; =-: 35.8386 I:


Calculating Stresses Operating Condition
,S.. = 1.0151

t.ot:t

conditions are within allowables, thus the dependent flange design is O'K' Additional desired thickness for raised face, counterbore, tongue or lroove should be added to the calculated thickness / to obtain the final total thickness of the flange In the above example we added %o in. to the thickness of each flange Jor counterbore.

All the stresses in both the operating

as well as the gasket seating

(4.8125)l

J.ii
4.1251

(lhannel Cover
Rcference: TEMA hragraph R-8.2, ASME Section

VIII, Division l,

Para-

+ 3.11 =

graph UG-34(c) Design pressure, psig = 420 Psig G = Mean gasket diametel in. = 60.191 in. Norninal bolt diameters, in. = 1.25 in. h" Radial distance betwen mean gasket diameter and bolt circle, in' 1.1545 in.

P:

|.2t79(33,17t) =
.1251(.687 5)2 t251(4 .8125)2

^ 20.720 psi <26.750 psi O.K.

^ = ,s^

2.1794(33,171)
4 .

d,: : = A,: Actual total cross-sectional area of bolts, in.z = 59.456 \n'2 i : Required channel cover thickness at the bottom of the pass partition
groove, as determined by the TEMA equation or the appropnate ASME code equation. whichever is greater, in.

^ /57 psi <17.500 psi O.K.

38

-:

)tjtit(;N ()tr t,R(xIiss ti.ltJ ,MINT


'lbbesheet

sHttlL-ANt),',t

ulrlt

IiAI Ix(]]tAN(]trRs

('.r'1. - Cornrsion allowancc or dcpth ol pass partition groove, whichever is greater, :

w-,

: 17,500 psi ^ : Allowable J"o stess for cover material at design temperature' psi : 17,500 psi E : Elastic modulus of cover material at design temperature, psi : 28.4s(10)6 psi lV : Design bolt load for sasket rb

.1975 in. C = A factor for method of cover attachment = .3 S., = Allowable stress for cover materi2l ar-^.^r.-,;^ ,---^-^...-_ naterial ar at atmospheric temperature, psi

in.

l{cference: TEMA Paragraph R-7.1 P = Design pressure, psig = 420 psig S Allowable stress for tubesheet material at design temperature, psi = 17,500 psi G: Mean gasket diametet in. = 60.191 in. Tirbesheet constant 1.0 (for tubesheets having straight tubes) C.A. Shell side corrosion allowance plus tube side corrosion allowance or depth ofpass partition groove, whichever is greater, in. = .3125 in.

= 1,425,687 tb
TEMA Equation

legu_,r9g

bort road ror

r,4s6,044 rb

F: : :

"0"#l';":"::?fl,i:'

Now 7

,=l*y".r#y1,,
_lt
=
7

+ cA

:iv;*
FG Tp
_
1.0(60. 191)
2

Effective thickness of tubesheet, in.


C.A.

-422-$0.l9l)4 420+0.5(t.1545) 59.456(60.t91)


28.45(

10)6

28.45( t0)6

t/i$

l06

.1744 in.

j,,t + J

,^

.3125

l87s

= 4.6624

0.3125

4.9749 in.

Use 5" thick tubesheet (5,4-516-70)

ASME Equations
Operating Condition

Notes:

(l)

Ihbesheet thickness

for bending only is calculated and it

is

assumed that shear does not control the desisn.

t=G
=
60.191

r-

cP r.9lw_,) h*.;;*

(2) Floating tubesheet

to'

will

have sma er valui of G but both

tubesheets of the same thickness are used.

17.s00 (60.191)3

Floating Head
Reference: ASME Section

5.5177 in.

VIII, Division l, hragraph l-6 & Appendix

Gasket Seating Condition

t=U.,
=

/t.9twhl a+aA s.,


|

(ct,

- "'
C.A.

60.191 1.9288 in.

.9fl,456.044) 1.ts45
17,s00 (60.19t)3

TEMA F4uation Conhols: Use 7.25 in. thk. (5A-516-70)

Intemal design pressure, psig = 420 psig Pc = Extemal design pressure, psig = 59 nrit S" = Allowable bolt stress at atrnospheric temperature, psi = 25,000 psi Sr: Allowable bolt stress at design temperature, psi = 25,000 psi Sra = Allowable stress for flange material at atmospheric temperature, psi 25.000 osi Sn: Allowable stress for flange material at design temperature, psi = 25,000 psi Srr = Allowable stress for head material at design temperature, psi = 17,500 psi C.A. = Shell or tube side corrosion allowance, in. = .125 in.

P:

41

DESIGN OF PR@ESS BQUIPMBNT Materials of Consnuction SA-193-87


SA-105 5^4-516-70

SHELL.AND.TUBE HEAT BXCHANOENS

Bolts Flange Head Gasket

L = Inside radius fo( dished only head, in' =.8(B) = '8(51.25) = a1.0 in. Rr = Rib area, in.2 = 19.22 in.2
Flange and head will be designed using corroded dimensions becguse conoded condition results in greaier thickness. Thus in corroded condition

Solid Soft Steel Use 7r in. x 7a in. single nubbin for gasket facing. trlange Design Allolving % in. clearance between the LD. of the shell and the O.D. of the
flange, we get

A = Outside diameter of flange,

in. = 56

.375

55.625 in.

2(.125) = 55.375 in' A = 55.625 B = 51.25 + 2.\.125') = 51.5 in. L= 41 + .125 = 41.125 rn. W., = Minimum required bolt load for gasket seating, lb = (bnG + .5Ra)) = [.12s(tt) 51.625 +.5(19.22, 18000

Assume (56) I % in. dia. bolts. TEMA recommended minimum wrench and nut clearances are not used for the flange design since this is an intemal joint

Il,

and exchanger design does not require to comply with


requirements. C

ApI

660

Bolt circle diameter, in. =A - Nut dimension across comers

Il

= 537.896 lb = Total joint-contact surface compression load, lb = (2ttbG + R)mP :12(tr) .r2s(51.62s) + 9.nls.s@n) = 138,060 lb = Total hydrostatic end load, lb

:55.625
From Table

2.0

53.625 in.

=loct p
= -.(5r.625)2 420
psi

of Chapter 2, for solid soft stel gasket, we have

n = Gasket factor : 5.5 ) = Gasket seating stress, psi = 18,000 Assume N = Gasket width. in. = .375 in. also w = Nubbin width, in. = .125 in.
bo

= 879,143 lb. W-r = Required bolt load for operating condition, lb

Fig. (2) of Table 2 in Chapter 2 applies to this situation, so = Basic gasket seating width, in.

w+N
D

.125

.375

.125 in,

: 879,143 + 138,060 = 1,017.203 lb A,, : Total required cross-sectional W^r ^ ^W,a : Urearcr -:-or-;oI
J" J,
= Greatr

=H+HP

area of bolts, in.2

= Effective gasket seating width, in.

bo

.125

n.

Also
G = Diameter at location of gasket load reaction, in.

d_537,896 ztmo -

t,Ot7 203

zsooo

Bolt hole dia. - .375 - N = 53.625 - 1.25 - .375 - .375 = 51.625 in. = Inside diameter of flange, in.

=C

= 40.6881 in.2
From Table 3 in Chapier 2, the root area ofa I % in. dia. bolt having 8 threads per inch is .728 in.2 which gives Aa = Actual total ooss-sectional area of bolts, in2

:G_N

= 51.625

.3?5

= 56(.728)
51.25 in.
Since

40.768 in.2

A,

A-,

therefore (56) l% in. dia. bolts are adequate. Now

l'

DEStcN oF PROCESS BQUTPMBNT


W

SHBLL-AND.TUBE HBAT EXCHANOERS


seat_

= .5(A^ + A) S" = .5(40.6881 + 40.768) 25,000 = r,018,201 lb


and

= Flange design bolt load for the operating condition or gasket ing, as may apply, lb

.lf-,

Minimum required width of gasket, in.

Radial distance ftom the bolt circle to the inside of the flange ring, m, =.5(C a) = .5(53.62s 51.5) = 1.0625 in. ic = Radial distance from gasket load reaction to the bolt circle, in. 51.625) = 1.0 in. = .5(C G) = .5(53.62s frr = Radial distance from bolt circle to circle on which acts, in. =,s(hD + he) = .5(1.0625 + 1.0) = 1.0313 in. hn = I-ever arm of force 11^ about centroid of flange ring, in.

io =

Ii.

:Aus"
_ :
Since

=0
Now

in.

2ryG
40.768(2s,000)

Ma = Moment due to

I/r,

in-lb

2r(18,000) 51.625
.1746 in. therefore chosen gasket width is adequate.

N) N,,r,

flange Moments Calculations


11o

=Hoho = 874,890 (1.0625) = 929,571 in-lb Mc = Moment due to llc, in-lb 138,060 in-lb = He hc = 138,060(1.0) Mr Moment due to I1r, in-lb = Hr hr = 4,253(1.0313) = 4,386 inlb Mn = Moment due to llR, in-lb

:
: :

= Axial component ofmembrane load in at the inside of the flange ring, lb

Hn hn lb

the spherical segment acting

1,089,471(0)

0 in-lb

Mo

Total moment acting upon the flange for the operating condition, in-

:!8,
4
1T

= -(51 .5)2 420 = 874,890 lb = Gasket load in operating condition, lb

=MolM6+Mr+MR =929571 + 138,060 + 4,386 + 0 : |,072,017 in-lb Mt:Mal moment acting upon the flange for the gasket seating, in-lb
:WC

1,018,201(1.0)

1,018,201 in-lb

Ilc

:Ho

Flange Thickness Calculations Intemal hessure

= 138,060 lb 1{. = Difference between total hydrostatic end force and hydrostatic end force on area inside of flange, lb

P8\,6I;-;
8S&(A

:H-Ho

:879,143

Ilr

= 4,253 lb = Radial component of the membrane load in the spherical segment,


tb

A)

874,8m

4206r.s\v4(4r.125)2 8(17s00) (55.37s =2.557

- 1.5)2 - 5l.s)
(5

_f v_4L, - B'r=874,8e0L--=;:J :""La I _ _^^f vai.nf=,7;rv1


:
I,089,471 lb
44

M.o/A+B :"+(^-" ) =;iff#ft(


= 32.81
45

55.375 55.375

51.5 51.5

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUTPMENT , = Rcquilgg_qEe thickness for opcrating condition, in.

SHELL.AND.TUBE HEAT EXCHANOERS

+\/F7 =2.557 +\EmTffir


=F

Mr= H, hr"
:129,698(0) = 0 in-lb Moe = Ibtal moment acting upon the flange due to extemal pressure, psi

8.83 in.

, = Required flange thickness for gasket seating condition, in.

Mp:

= 507(.0313) Ho h^

16

inlb

#;"r->
1,018,20r,,55.375
5l

=Mo*M,rM*
=6,510

16

p.B\/trL 8 Sf" (A

+ 0 = 6,526in-lb
B,
B)

i(lr5oo)(553?5

50(51.5) v4(41.12s\2 = 5.5821 in.


Extemal hessure 8(17500) (55.375

51.52

51.5)

= .3044
J

p :YoG, p,

=Moe1e B S/"\A
=

+n

:f,u.azsl,5o =
no:!SP

ru,66o lb

- B 6.526 .,55.375 + 51.5

r"
t

J(r?Joor(5si?s :0.20
sr

sl.s
in.

=itsr.sy so : Hr=H =
Ho
104,660

lo4,l53 rb

: Required flange thickness for extemal pressure, :F +!F2 + l


= 30da f/(304o2 + .?I

.8454 in.

104,153

507 lb

Thus the flange thickness for operating condition controls. Adding %o in. counterbore and ys in. for shell side corrosion allowance, we get,

for

Total thickness of flange= 8.83 + .1875 + .125 = 9.1425 in., Use 9.25 in.

Ilead Thickness Calculations

t*,'slfV{4#l 5t.5 L
:
.0625 in.

Intemal Pressure r2e,6e8 rb


/azr = Minimum required thickness of head plate, in.

hp"= ho - h6 = 1.0625 - 1.0

_ .833 PL sl{
.833(420) (41.125)
17,500

= 1.0313 - 1.0 = .0313 in. ha=o Mo= Ho ho, : 104,153(.062s) = 6,510 in-lb
46

hre: hr -

hc

0.8222 in.. sav 0.875 in.

Extemal Pressure

tno = 0'875 in' L = 41.125 in.


47

t)t.:st(;N ( )tr t,t((xltjss lt(lrJ ,MtjN,t.

sHIit-1.-ANI)-ltJBli

I tAt lixcltAN(itsRs

Lltt , = 41.1251.875 =

47

A = Code factor to obtain B

(max

, .125 .. .l2s :{* l= * =.0021


\LnHD/ +r From ASME Section

= 1.0):-:1.0 17,500
in.

17.500

a = Outward nozzle weld leg size, F Correction factor = 1.0

VIII, Division l, Appendix 5, Fig. UCS-28.2

: t,:

375 in.

Required cylinder thickness, in.


PR

B = 13,900 P" Maximum allowable external pressure for bead, psi

: / B . 13.900 =l* l_-=2e5psi +r \LlrHD/

sEt

.6P

_
/,,-

420(28.r2s)
17500(1.0)

:0.6849 in.

.6(420)

P" of 50 psi thus the head thickness is adequate.


Total.head thickness

Maximum allowable pressure Po is greater than the extemal design pressure

Required nozzle neck thickness. in.

=,r/D +

shell side C.A.

tube side C.A.

or thinning allowance : .875 + .125 + .125 : 1.25 \n. nominal thk.

forming

PR"

s"E

.6P

.125

420(3.931s)

15000(1.0)

.6(420)

u. r rZr rn.

Calculation of Reinforcement for Thbe Side Nozzle


Reference: ASME Section

A = Area of reinforcement required, in.2

VIII, Division l,

dix L

paragraph UG-37 and Appen_

P = Design pressure, psig = 420 psig C.A. : Corrosion allowance, in. = .125 in. R : Conoded inside cylinder radius, in. - 28.125 in.

R,: d:

Corroded inside nozzle radius, in. = 3.9375 in. Corroded inside nozzle diameter, in. = 7.g75 in. Er = Channel cylinder joint efficiency 1.0 E: Nozzle neck joint efficiency 1.0 S: Allowable cylinder stress at design temperature, psi = 17,500 psi S": Allowable nozzle stress at design temperature, psi = 15,000 psi Corroded cylinder thickness, in. = 0.875 in. Corroded nozzle thickness, in. 0.375 in. S, Allowable reinforcing pad stress at design temperature, psi :17,500 psi

:7.87s(.6849) (1.0) + 2(.375) (.6849) (1.0) (l = 5.467 in.z A, = Excess area in cylindet in.2 : Larger of the following : d(EJ - Ft,) - 2t, (EJ Ft,) (.1 - f,) = 7.875 {l(.875) - l(.6849)} - 2(.375){l(.875)

:dt,F + Zt"t,F (1 -

f,r)

.8571)

l(.6849r(l

.8571)

1.4767 in.z

t: t,: :

:2(t + t.) (Ert - Ft.) - zt"(EJ - Ft)(l - f,) = 2(.875 + .37s) {l(.875) - l(.6849)} - 2(.375) U(.875) l(.6849)) (l - .8s71) : .3369 'n.2
42:
Excess arca in nozzle, in,2 Smaller of the following :5(t" t,") f1 t .1121) .8571(.875) = 5(.375 = .9858 in.2

of

s- (max 15.000 = 1.0)=-=.8571 "/,, = J 17,500


f..r = (lesser of S, or Sp)/S (max

1.0, =

I /,)UU -!f,

- ttt'

:5(t"- t,")fit, =5(.375 - .1121) .8571 (.375)


49

or

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

SHELL-AND.TUBE HEAT EXCHANOERS

.4225 in.z

Ar = Area of outward nozzle weld = (a)2 fa = (.375)2 (.8571) : .1205 in.2


Total available area of reinforcement

EXAMPLE NO.2
Ao

: A, -t A, !

Since

Ar + Az+ A4<A,

:1.4767+.4225+.1205 = 2.0197 in.2


A4)

Using hand calculation method, design a fixed tube sheet for a TEMA "NEN" type of shell and tube heat exchanger for the following data: Shell
20 in. O.D., Carbon Steel (4-106-8), % in. thick Mean Shell metal temperature = 298"F
Tbbs

use additional reinforcement

Additional arearequired

: A=

(At + A2 +

5.467

2.O197

3.M3

Try 15.5 in. O.D., .5 in. thick SA-516-70 pad thus , Dp outside diameter ot 15.5 in. and, t, reinforcing pad thickness, in. = .5 reinforcing pad, in.

rn,-z

in. Check with rtinforcing pad added

( 284,

3/4

in. O.D., 14 BWG min. wall, 12 ft. long

:
=

Area of reinforcement required, in.2 5.467 in.2


Excess area in cylinder, in.2

Carbon Steel (A-214) Mean tube wall metal temperature

288'F

Ar : :

lhbe Sheet
Carbon Stel (A-516-70) Mean tube sheet metal temperature Design Conditions

|.4767 in.z

A, = Excess area in nozzle, in.2 = Smaller of the following

= 2147
SHELL SIDE TUBE SIDE
130

s(t" :5(.37s
=.9858

: A., : : :

:2(t" - t,") (2.5t" + t") f,l = 2(.37s _ .rt2t) {2.5(.37st +


ta)z

in.2

t,")

f^ t
.1121) .8571(.875)

or

.5} .8s71

.6478 in." Area of outward nozzle-to-pad fillet weld (.375)2

Design Pressure, Psig Design Temperature, 'F Corrosion Allowance, In. Number of hsses

75 360
Y8

200
Y8 1

fa

(.857l)

.1205 in.2

Let c =

hd

Aor:

to cylinder weld leg size, in. = .375 in. Area of pad to cylinder fillet weld

Use TEMA "R" and ASME Section VIII, Division 1 design criteria for calculations . Assume that there is no shell expansion joint and check to see if one is required.

= (c)z f,z = (.375)2 (1.0) = .1406 in.2 As : Area of reinforcing pad

DFSIGN CAI,CULATIONS
Fixed Thbesheet
Reference: TEMA Paragraph R-7

Total available area for reinforcement

:(DD_d_2t)tef5 : (15.s - 7.875 - .75) .5(1.0) :


= 1.4767

.6478 + .1205 Since area a\ailable for reinforcement is greater than area requircd, the opening is adequately reinforced.
50

= Ar + A2 + A4r + 442 + As + .1406 + 3.4375 = 5.8231 in.2

3.4375 in.z

ASME Section VIII, Division 1, UG-23(b) & Appendix

Ps = Shell side design pressure, psig P, = lhbe side design pressure, psig

75 psig
130 Psig

Do = Outside diameter of shell,

in. =
)l

20 in.

ff1

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

SHELL-AND.TUBB HEAT EXCHANOBRS

= Outside diameter of tubes, in. = 0.75 in. ," = Corroded shell thickness, in. = 0.25 in. ,r ='IUbe wall thickness, in. 0.083 in. G: Corroded shell I.D., in. = l9.5in. N = Number of tubes = 284 E": Elastic modulus of shell material at metal temperature, psi 28.21(10)6 psi 4= Elastic modulus of tube material at metal temperature, psi = 28.26(10)6 psi E Elastic modulus of tubesheet malerial at metal temperature, psi = 28.63(10)6 psi d" Coefficient ofthermal expansion of shell material at metal temperature, in./in. "F 6.596(10)-6 in./in "F a, Coefficient of thermal expansion of tube material at metal temperado

4(r) 28.21(10)6 (.2s) [6.s96(10)-6 (228) - 6. [20 - 3(0.25t [1 + (1) .3135 (3.82)]
=
216.89 psi

: :

Pr, =

Equivalent bolting pressure when tube side is under pressure' psi u

?= (n2 ',t (G)3

= o (since

M, =

g;

Pr"

Equivalent bolting pressure when tube side prcssuro is zero' psi

: :

= (n2 (G)3

6'?

M"-:

o (since

M" =

g;

ture, in./in.

'F =

6.576(10f6 in./in. "F

O" = Shell metal temperature - 70"F = 228'F O, = Tub" metal temperature - 70"F = 218"F Mr = Total flange moments in operating condition, in- lb = 0 M2 = Total flange moments in gasket seating condition, in - lb= 0 F = Thbesheet factor I (for tubesheets with straight tubes) Rctor I (for shell without expansion joint) S = Allowable tubesheet stress at design temperature, psi = 17,500psi ?= Assumed thickness of tubesheet, in. 1.25 in. Z = lbbe length between inner tubesheet faces, in. = 141 in. D; = Expansionjoint inside diameter, in. = 0 (since there is no expansion joint)

f"=t-"fo)'
:1-2s4(4,J2:.Siee
P! = P forir,s
_

J:

,L-

* rrr.t +/")) +
.3135 (1.5

:J(e'
.5799)l

(t + .lKF q\

75r.4(1) u.5

-L

- 5 29.379 osi 1+l(.3135)(3.82) I =


+
46.89)

Now

,,

=@=.,.. 28.26fl0)6 (.083) 284 (.75 F.=


.25

- t") Et\N (4 - t)
+ (F

E" t" (Do

P = Effective shell side design pressure, psi (will be the greater absolute value of the follorings)

P=.5(P"'
P
.083)

,G, 31tta .6) l=:-{;l L KLE \t/ JI


1300 r. E-

" ?rn/ ?s) 28.21(10)6 zl9.5ri-lt/a ^^ :^ :.25+t-.6t1-3'62


P,

P=Pas=0 P=.5(P! - Pa- Pns) = .5(29'379 - 46.89 - 0) = P = .S(Pas + P7) : .5(0 + 46.89) = 23.45 psi P : P"' - Pes = 29.379 - 0 : 29.379Psi
29.319 psi.

=P: =

- P) = .5(29.379 29.379 psi

: -

8.76psi

8.76 psi

l.rrsrr+rr-e-orffi

(,*) I

The maximum absolute value of effective shell side design pressue will be

Equivalent differential expansion pressure, psi


(oc"

Now

_ 4./ E, t"

O"

(Do_3t")(t+JKFq)

a, O,)

f,=1-*(+'
)J

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

SHELL.AND"TUBE HEAT EXCHANCEN,S Cs

r.75 - 2 =l-284l-ler

(.083Ir

'z

=.74s

Ss

1.0 (from TEMA kragraph R-7.22) = Maximum effective longitudinal shell sness

_ (D. _ (20

r") (C" P"'*)

4t"
.25)

(l)

(83.5)

=
Since

''[uffiffi@]:zs'sznsr
P,' is positive
will be 75.87 psi

4(.2s)

I,649 psi (tensile)

P P P

= Effective tub side design pressure, psi (will be the greater absolute value of the followings) =.s(Pi + PE, + P) = .5(75.87 + 0 + 46.89) = 6l.38psi = Pt! + Pat : 75.87 + o = 75.87psi

S" (allowable) = 15,000 psi (tensile) S" < S, (allowable), shell is O.K. in tension Using rnaximum negative value of

P"t we have

C. = 1.0 (from TEMA Paragraph R-7.22)

Thus the effective tube side pressure

T:

(20

.25\

//'6.89).

Requircd tubesheet thickness

FC
Where

2y

IF
s
gxeater

4(.25'l

:
of effective shell or
tube side design pressure

926 psi (compressive) .125

A= .r25 | (DJzt")

P is tlle

(2O1.5)

.003l

r(rg.5\ V

EE
l75oo

From ASME Section B 14,900

VIII, Division l, Fig. UCS-28.2


14,9000 psi (compressive)

S" (allowable)

=B=

.642 in., use 1.25 in

(min.) + shell

side

C.A. +

greater of tube side C.A.

S, <S, (allowable), shell is O.K. in compression

or groove depth
or use r = 1.25 + .125 + .125 : 1.5 in. (54-516-70)

It is O.K. to \se ly2 in. thick since

.9is") = .9(35,ooo) : Ls(E) : L5(1649) :


1.5(S,)

S.:

shell material yield stress

35,000 psi

31,5oopsi
2,474 psi at hydrostatic test

tubesheets thicker than computed are permissible provided neither sheU nor tubes are overloaded.

<.9(s'), shell is O.K.

She[ Longitudind Stnecs Calculations

Tube Longttudlnal Stress Calculatlon

P,* = Pr = 54.13 Psi I - 29.379 psi or P,* =p orPr+= - Pa = - 46.89psi or Pj* = Pr + P"' = 54.13 + 29.379 = 83.5 psi orPr*:Pr - Pa = 54.13 - 46.89 = 7.24 psi
or Ps:* or Prt

Pr -Pr

- P,'=

130

75.87

54.13 psi

p, = p,' -+@) = Fq '


P.

7s.87

= 50.52 psi -#(130) 1.8:.

=Ps'

=Pr + P"'

Pa

29.379

Pd

46.89 : - 17.511 psi 54.13 + 29.379 - 46.89 = 36.62 psi

Using maximurn positive value of P"* we have

zg.37g -ft99 = 17'99 nsi -Lrr-, Fq " = ';(75) P,* = Pr. : 50.52 Psi or Pr* = - Pr: - 17.99 Psi or P,a : Po = 46.89 Psi or P,* : P, - Pg : 50.52 - 17.99 : 32.53 Psr

P-'

54

55

r
DBSIGN OF PROCESS BQUTPMENT
SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANOERS

Po = 59.52 + 46.89 = 97.41 psi ot P,4 =-P3+Pd: -17.99 + 46.89 = i8.9psi or P,* = p, - P3 + Pd = 50.52 - 17.99 + 46.89 =
Using maximum positive \alue of P,* we have C, = 0.5 (From TEMA hragraph it-7.23) S, = Maximum effective longitudinal tube stess

ot P,r = p, +

Since 79.42 psi

c"

J
3'417 Psi in tension or

S. = Allowable tube compressive stress

Fo G2 Ct Pt+

tP E, _tr2 (28.26)106 _ : =r@y= ,eoLory \r,


S, (allowable)

4N4@o- t)
3.82 (19.5)2 .5 07.4tl 4(284) (.083) (.7s - .083)

= smaller of S, (allowable) = 3,417 psi

Sc

S, <S, (allorvable). tubes are O.K. in compression.

=
S,

1,125 psi (tensile)

.9(S,)
1.5(,9)
1.5(S,)

= .9(26,000) : 23.400 psL = 1.51a161 = 624psi

S, (allowable)

10,000 psi (tensile)

<.9(SJ, tubes are O.K. at hydrostatic test

<

S, (allowable), tubes are O.K. in tension

Calculatlons of TubeToTubesheet Jotnt Loadg

Using maximum negative value of P,+ we have

C,:1.0

(from TEMA kragraph R-7.23)

("08ilJ5:ls3): .s, : lhbe maierial yield stress : r : Radius of glration of tube : 0.25Vdo2 + (do - 2r)z
+,2g4)

^ ''

3.82 (19.5\2

(17.99\
416 psi (compressive) 26,000 psi

P,* = Pt: 50.52 Psi orPr*=-Ps=-17.99psi or P,* = P, - Pz = 5O.52 - 17.99 =


Pr*
Now

32.53 psi

50.52 psi (Greater absolute value of the above)

W; = Maximum

effective tube-io-tubesheet joint load

= 0.25 V.75)2 + t .75 - .t66)2 : .2376 in. = Maximum unsupported tube span = 60 in. (span between two baffles)
K

= ;;

1l Fo

P,* (G)2
so.sz eg.5t2

: ar3.82l
4(284')'

kt

: :

1.0 (For unsupported span between two baffles) Equivalent unsupported buckling length of the tubes 1(60) = 60 in.

A, :

:203 lb
Nominal transverse cross-sectional area of tube wall
do2 f L-l

vs.
kl r
60 .2376

IGFE.
2(n)2 28.26(10)6
26,000
,(

= .7854

(do

u,)21

:.78s41

LJ

.7s2

(.15

.166)2)

I = .1739 in.z

Allowable tensile stress for tube material at design temperatue , psi

= 10,000 psi = hctor for the length of the roller expanded portion of the tube = 1,0 (For joints made with roller expanded tubes in grooved tube
holes)

56

57

)rist(;N ( )tr t,l{( x:lis:i ltlutPMtN't

/;. : Pactor for reliability ofjoint = 0.70 (for rolled joints having two or more grooves) : 4, Ratio of tubesheet yield stress at metal temperature to the tube yield
stress at metal temperature

or 1.0,

whichever

is less, for roller

=
17,

expanded 1.0

joirts
Maximum allowable tube-lo-tubesheet joint load

2
FLANGE DESIGN
l
(0.70) I

(allowable)

= A, (s") f" (f) fy

:
17,

.1739 (10,000) | ,217 lb

<lV, (allowable), tube-to-tubesheet joint is O.K.

All the

stresses are within allowables therefore, the tube sheet design is adequate and expansion joint is not required.

The flange is the most essential part of pressure vessels, heat cxchangers and storage tanks. Flanges are used on the shell ofa vessel or
i|n exchanger to permit disassembly and removal or cleaning of internal parts. Flanges are also used for making piping connections and any other nozzle attachments at openings. The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code permits, and even cncourages, the use of flanges made to recognized standards such as "Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings," ANSI 816.5, 1973 or 19'11
ii

REFERENCES
Morton, Donald S., "Heat Exchangers Dominate Process Heat Transfer," Chemical Engineering, June ll,1962, pp. 170-176. 2. Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, 6th Edition. 1978. New York. 3. Lord R. C., Minton P. E., and Slusser, R. P, "Design of Heat Exchangers," Chemical Engineering, J anruary 26,1970, pp. 96 -l18. 4. Rase, Howard F., and Barrow, M. H., "Project Engineering of Process Plants," John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1957. 5. Kern, Donald Q., "Process Heat Transfer", lst Edition, McGrawHill Book Company, New York, N.Y., 1950. 6. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, "Pressure Vessels," Division I, ASME, New York, N.Y., 1983.

l.

cdition. Flanges conforming to this standard can be used without calculation at the pressure-temperature ratings assigned in 1977 edition. Certain other standards, however, that are not nearly as well known, also provide designs which may be lound acceptable, particularly in the sizes above 24" which is the upper size limit of the ANSI 816.5 standard. Thus, it is often possible to find in a recognized standard the exact flange type, size and material neded for a particular
application.
The following are typical flange standards:

MSS SP-44 was developed to establish uniform flange dimensions for use with high pressure pipe lines of26" through 36" size, and classes 300 through 900. It is now revised to include class 150 and sizes 12" through 60'. API (American Petroleum Institute) Standard 605, Large Diameter Carbon Steel Flanges, 75, 150 and 300Ib rating in sizes 26" through 60"
inclusive.

Taylor Forge Standard, classes 75, 175 and 350 in sizes 26" through 72"'
92" and 96" respetively.

58

59

t)tist(;N ( )t t,t{(xjiss l1(?lIIt,MIrNI.

Irl.AN(il; l)rlsl(;N

AWWA (Anrcricarr Watcr Works Association) Standard C207-55.


classcs B, D and E, in sizes 6" through 96".

l-ig. lc shows the original application of this type. The hub can
ho made of any length or omitted entirely. Bsides lapjoint, slip on, threaded and socket type flangs are also classed as loose typ. For hubbed flanges ofthis type, there is no minimum limitation on i or go.

The flanges included in the API Standard and the several Taylor Forge Standards are designed in accordance with the requirements of
thecode. When flanges to other standards are considered, only allowable ratings in accordance with the code need to be checked instead of the development of an individual design.

I{owever, values oI go less than 1.5t, and

lcss than go are not

Taylor Forge Catalog No. 722 lists all of the above and also other large diameter flanges. A lot of unnecessary flange design time can be saved by choosing the appropriate flange from this catalog. Howevcr, due to the variety of sizes and pressure and temperature combinations required for process equipment, manual designing ofthese flanges is not very uncommon. The design analysis of various types of flanges along with the sample design calculations for eash kind are included in this chapter.
We will cover the design ofcircular flanges under internal pressure with gaskets entirely within the inrer edges of the bolt holes and with the outer

recommended. Ifthe hub is too small to meet these limits, it is best to design it as in Fig. 1f, but ofintegral type, using hub thickness equal to (t r + t,) at large end, t, at small end and B as the inside diameter ofthe
vessel or nozzle.

While designing loose type flanges, B should be taken as the inside dianeter of the flange but not the vessel or nozzle.

Optional Type Flanges. This type covers designs where the attachment of the flange to the vessel or nozzle wall is such that the
assembly is considered to act as a unit which should be calculated as

rims of the flanges not touching under the applied loading as discussed rn ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel coder and EPG Bulletin No. 502,2 Thesc are classified as circular flanges as illustrated in Appendix 2 of 1983 edition of the ASME code Section VIII, Div l, Paragraph 2-4 and Fig. 2-4. The following are types of such flanges: 1 Intgral Type Flanges. This type covers designs where the flange rs integral with the neck or vessel wall, butt-welded to the neck or vessel wall, or attached to the neck or vessel walt by any other type of welded joint that is considered to be the equivalent to an integral structure. In welded construction, the neck or vessel wall is considered to act as a hub.

an integral flange, with the vessel wall taking on the functions of the hub. This obviously includes welded construction with no apparent hub, as shown in Fig. 1g and lh, or constructions with such small hubs that do not merit inclusion in the loose typ group. The term "optional" is used because the designer may calculate the construction as a loose type flange provided none of the following
values is exceeded:

B .^^ ,o:i Incn. ..i :J(^J


Design pressure

:300 psi

Operating temperature

700"F

Fig. la through ld represent flanges of this type. For flangcs having tapered hubs, the dimension 9o is defined in the code as the
hub thickness at the small end, but for calculation purposes it is more convenient to let go equal the wall thickness of the attached cylinder. Also, th hub length I extends exactly to the point where its slopeline meets the O.D. of the vessel or nozzle and thus ft may actually be shorter or longer than the hub length as manufactured. The dimension B in this case will be the inside diameter of both the flange and the vessel or nozzle. 2- Loose Type Flanges. This type covers designs where the flange has no dirct attachment between the vessel or nozzle and those where

Thus the integral flanges that come within the above restrictions can also be designed as loose type flanges. This simplifies the calculations and may result in som economy.

BOLT LOAD AND GASKET REACTION


In bolt-up condition the bolt load is balanced only by the gasket reaction as shown in Fig. 2a. As internal pressure is applied, the bolt load is balanced by lhe sum of gasket reaction and the hydrostatic end force due to pressure as shown in Fig' 2b. Thus, while designing a flange, both the above conditions should be analyzed separately.

the method of attachment is not considered to be equivalent ro


integral structure.

60

6l

lrl.AN(ili l)l1Sl(;N

Itr.qrir(d llolt Lords


INTEGFAL TYPE FLANGES
TOOSE TYPE FLANGES

{rl

lflet Disc-Type Gaskets: Operatirg Conditions

llrt: r'cquired bolt load, tIl.r, shall be sufficient to resist the hydrostatic r'|l(l li)rcc, H, exerted by the internal pressure on the area bounded by the ,lrrrrrrctcr of gasket reaction G, and, to maintain on the gasket or joint, {,ntircl surface a compression load. tl, Thus'

w^t:H+He::G2P+2bncn?
f. 8. tu1., At Nii-p.irt Ot Carocr B.1..., n@0. Ard Lop t.d.p.nd.nt Of

(l)

llolt-up or Gasket Sating Condition


ro!nt-contact surface properly by applying a minimum initial load, l/,r, wr tlrout the presence of internal pressure. This load is a function of the prrskct material and the effective gasket area to be seated and can be
r'U)rcSSed aS:

whete Hub Stope Adiacen! To Flange E ceeds 1:3 Use Dataits (1b) ot (1c)

lkrlilrc a tight joint can be obtained it is necessary to seat the gasket or

W^z:brGY
tk.w

(2)

OPTIONAL TYPE FLANGES

FIG.2a

|
FIG.

Fu

Pcr.r.o

Loodlnt And Dlhutto.s

^=-,4
;A
Ba.k.hle SoD.

At. fha

As

. TYPES OF FLANGES FIG' 2b

(Courtesy of Energy Produds croup)

FIG. 2-BOLT LOAD AND CASKET REACTION


(Courtesy of Energy Products Group)

62

63

)lisr(;N olr Pl{(xtLss LQUTPMEN'I'

l.t.AN(iti Dl1st(;N

ts
o
F

F
3i'^ ^

,:
'd

=I;
-a zt
4a <rr 21
z1

-^*:i

.Y

!o yc7 E
-9'Z

$M
g

mftum

5a$#'

R?RC9 83338

E 5i+;, *r
;I

s
E

iE
>iE
.;

E *

<E
<F

:Ei i s :tj. E?.i

iis d'j:

;ts

E:{:i rz
i i+
;h.:::'
- !.n
cc.

-3FE i ; iE.s I

I, I

<t
FC .9

Errij I
A

z=E !.= 5!E ti


F='d: - >,+!:
ii

-;36s? coo ,a : c o\o e:a.


q,

! Ed : ;

=7.

<! F

o i9
.iJ

J -o
.=

3i
-'
3P

3, h u-.:>e

::5 i.ti.:=i

o- d

" oir:? o ::5 5'! ::5 5 (! ::6 ,i.,i.:>6i +i .i.d,:> e i.,i:>6


6

! -o : ;

:o,Y3 E*.i=3

> =

,r.

): ti
E7i-, = i *!! :E:'9n

= F

F';

=i,i.

;: i;;

c
F
ar

]. 6

Ya .:=

!g=t= 1'r' vE I ;;E+


F d } OF

<
E

33

=9:-.
: O;:E

;r,,ib

o o-< !l

ai

Jo

tE:6
rr1

93
!l

E;-E9 -1 i:

f $E!! ;
U

iE

?.a
Fv

c z

64

65

l)lrsl(;N ()F PI{O(ILSS tiQUIPMENT

FLANGE DESI(]N

--\
al
+

/:
b

-l

{:..sj"

l'+

-l

*:=+i+t {'s
dj o:<

+ 16l

E
!!:

r;: ; 1"s"{
!r, t o L-E

i.9 E=

r! ce

5>
:5 .-E
.:

i;

Ei;*:i[;
FT

EI

F r{
E]

g^l

=l

M
l^r

F H
El

,i

a
Iv

'] i
< -l

I cl
l-"'lc

*' |
I

l-';.$ (,*

vll

l.r
vtl

3
F

\z$
T+

$z

{Ff

Ftil

IN
-{1tzN '|| rt
iNNRB lrl _'t]*1.r_
,=

a>

ZF

laF 3N
ZN
z

2A
;= ?: T:
a^
L
E
r,t

rt

z7

oo

67

t)list(;N ( )tr pR(xitiss l]Q(itpMI]NT


For flange pairs having a tubesheet in the middle as in exchanger application or for any other similar application wher the flanges and or gaskets are not the same, W^, shall be the larger of the values obtained from above formula as individually calculated for each flange and gasket, and that value shall be used for both flanges. Code suggested values of gasket factor ,|| and minimum design seating stress / for various gaskei materials are tabulated in Table I and effective gasket seating widths for different contact facings are given in Table 2. (b) Self-energizing Gaskets: Operating Conditions

trt.AN(;li I)|]st(;N

lk)lts must

be spaced close

enough to assure adequate gasket pressure

l)clwcen bolts.

Seltction of Bolt Spacing

lhc minimum bolt

spacing based on wrench clearances limits the

rrrrrrrbcr of bolts that can be placed in a given bolt circle. The maximum

lil'(i Bulletin 502 "Modern Flange Design" recommends the following frrrpirical relationship for maximum bolt spacing:
Bolt spacing (maximum):2a '
l,lstsblishing Bolt Circl
I lrc thickness of hub at back of flange Ir)llows:
g

lxrll spacing is limited by the permissible deflection that would exist lr('twocn flanges. If the deflection is excessive, the gasket joint will leak.

The required bolt load for the oprating conditions, t/,,, shall be sufficient to resist the hydrostatic end force, H, exerted by the internal
pressure on the area bounded by the outside diameter ofthe gasket. H, is

6-L +. (m + 0.5)
be calculated as

to be considred as zero for all self-energizing gasket except certain seal configurations which generate axial loads which must be considered.

g, should first
2.590

Bolt-up or Gasket Seating Condition Self-energizing gaskets may be considered to require an inconsequential amount of bolting force to produce a seal. So ttl.2 can be assumed equal to zero. Bolting, however, must be pretightened to provide a bolt load sufficient to withstand the hydrostatic end force I/. Determination of Bolt Area

L:

1.25

o to

Table 3 lists the root area, minimum bolt spacing, radial distance ofbolt size. The minimum bolt-circle tliirnreter will be either the diameter necessary to satisfy the radial ' lcirrances,i.e. B * 2(tr + R) or the diameter necessary to satisfy the boltrpircing requirement,i.e. N(Bolt spacing)/z, whichever is greater. The

rrd

edge distance etc. as functions

,rptimum design is usually obtained when these two controllirrg (lr meters are approximately equal.
l,'lange Design Bolt Load, W

If S, denotes the allowable bolt stress at the operating temperature, and S, the allowable bolt stress at atmospheric temperature, then the minimum required total bolt area,4- is obtained as follows:

. w^, A.: !' or


Jn

lhc bolt loads used in the


For operating conditions

design of the flange shall be the values

w^ J,

'2. whicherer

is greater

()btained from the following forrnulas:

cross-sectional area of bolts, lr, will not be less than 1.. Excessrve bolting may have to be provided while designing relatively thin flanges for low pressure service because of the following,

Selection oibolts to be used shall be made such that the actual total

W:W^,
For gasket seating
t 4,-r u,:. .^ Ab\5.

(3)

l.

Due to the danger of over-stressing smaller size bolts during tightening, a minimum bolt size of /z " is usual in most piping and
pressure vessel work,

g)

2. For practical construction reasons, bolting is mostly provided in multioles of four.

ln formula (4) S, shall not be less than that tabulated in Subsection C of thc ASME Section VIII, Division t code. In addition to the minimum fcquirements for safety formula (4) provides e margin against abuse of thc flange from overbolting since margin against such abuse is needed

plirnarily for the initial, bolting-up operation which is done at

68

69

|)tist(;N otr PR(xtuss tiQtjlt,MUN'I'

lrl.AN(;li I)l1Sl(;N
| || rr rrl)llcric tcnrpcta(t||c ltrd bcforc applicatiott tlf intcrnal pressure, the llrrrrgc tlcsigrr is rcquircd to satisfy this loading only under such ( ll (lrll()lls. Whcrc additional safety against abuse is desired, or where it ts r( ( cssirt y that the flange be suitable to withstand the lull available bolt
.r

! sN{ 5E

i3
a

sNs ssN

ss sss s

.E!

ioJ
o

- s*s sss

SSs

ssx

s:s;s

s5

l,

rrrrl. t hc llange may be designed on the basis of .4r(S,).

,!.E
t

& Er,r

ssF 5ss sss sss

ss xs

lilurge Moments
I lrc various axial forces on the flange produce bending moments. The rrrorlcnt ol a load is the product of the load and its moment arm. The Ir()l|tcnt arm is determined by the relative position ofthe bolt circle with I rsllcct to that of the load producing the moment. The forces and the I vcr arms for a typical integral-type flange for operating condition are ',lrown in Fig. 3. The total moment must be equal to the sum of the nr()u)cnts acting on the flange:

z2 55s sss ss sss sxs sx !!a E6


o

3l

sss Sss 5Ss


na9

SN

sNs

NS

lrr

nge Loads

Lever Arms

Moments

tr

FI

!j
o t z

ci ct

rt atc,t{

rt,,:9.195432 o

hr:n+i
, "r,
R+ gt+
2

Mr:
hc

Hoh,
L

(5)

J F

iE

EE

sss sxs

ss sN5 sss ss
nqc?

i.: s-

a.

ll,:H-11o Il,:ltY-g

i/, -u

(6)

CG

(1)

! !ro tsi; d<;'

!Ei

c.i

t't .q

kt <t 6

z: <i 6(,

Thus the total moment will bc

EEi d<;'
;.P I
o

Mo:

M D+

Mr+ Mo

(8)

qqc! 9\q

a?c\ 99

i.:
=o 3#"

t\94

ss ss x

:.

5d FE] E*

ln the case of loose-type flanges in which the flange bears directly on rhc gasket, the force Il, is considered to act on the inside diameter ofthe llange and the gasket load at the center line of the gasket face. The lever irrms for the moments are:

sxs

ss

, C.B "2
t" _hp+
2

(e)

sxs xxs

hc

(10)

70

'71

I)llsl(;N ()lr l,l{(xil-ss li(.ltJll'MliN f

trt.ANCll l)tisl(;N

h.:=

(ll)

These lever arms also apply to optional type flanges when they are designed as loose-type flanges. However, exception to the above is taken in the case of lapjoint flange Fig. 1e in which the lever arm ho is given by

equation (9) and lever arms lrr and lo are identical and are given by equation (11). For gasket seating, the total flange moment Mo is based on the flange design bolt load of formula (4), which is opposed only by the gasket load in which case

Mo:I'Yq:G)
bolts are spaced sufliciently close to produce a reasonably

ir2)

The moments obtained by the above formulas are valid only if the
even

distribution of gasket load. This spacing can be called normal spacing and is assumed to be equal to (2d+ t). Thus, ifthe actual spacing exceeds the normal bolt spacing, the flange thickness must be increased in order to maintain an even distribution ofgasket load. This necessary increase in thickness can be determined by giving the total moments a corresponding increase, the thickness increase being proportional to the square root of the moment increase as derived from formulas for
calculation of S^ and St, the radial and tangential stresses in the flange respectively. So the total moment can be multiplied by a correctron factor as derived from the above relationship and given by:

ii t
-o l.E" I - ;tr i 3 'rP <! 'a
...'

^ tr:

/ actual bolt spacing a/ 116rmar uort .spacins

FIG. 3 - FORCES AND LEVER ARMS FOR INTEGRAL FLANGE IN OPERATINC CONDITION

'ra

73

Itl:Sl(,N

()l l,ltrx:l

SS

tirlll ,MtlNt

lrl

-AN(;li I)liSl(;N

,1
'.q

u)

ci
E
6

SB ci 3 3 oOo
,no

3E

'-i
PE

.3 :g - o
E

35 ^ >d
: cas

3 5

o ''oooo 'co@sc) N

o.o(o dr N -J

_qq9c? ooooo

33 3E :33 -do c; ci oo

E
3

>r .:

.rI

!-

,u

d
E

o
o

P9 -

!5 o vE
!+

6i

<9 >9 ,'i


o

o
A

74

75

)list(;N otr pt{(xjliss IiQtJtpMuN'1.


it

trl.AN(iu l)lisl(;N ||(l

Mocr
B

Factors T. Z. y and U can be determined from Table 4 as a function ol K, the ratio of the outside to inside diameter of the flange. Factors F, \ Fr,Vrandf canbe obtained from Figures 4 through 8. l,irctors F and Iz apply in designing integral type flanges while F" and I/, rrlc used for loose flange calculations. The hub stress correction factor jf is of significance only when tapered hubs are involved, as its value is I for hu bs of uniform thickness. Flange thickness t must be initially assumed. Using the assumed value of r, the various factors c, B, y, d and ,t can now be determined (see thc attached calculation sheets) and used in the formulas for calculating lhc flange stresses.

For integral fype flanges &s well as for optional type flanges ctlculated as integral type and for loose type with a hub which is considered in the design, the stresses in the flange for the operating
condition are: l.onsitudinal hub stress sI| : .-2
^gr l{adial flange stress

fM

VALUES OF/(UA-51.6) (Hub Stress Correction Factor) (Reproduced from ASME CODE Section VIII, Div. t)

Frc.

,-:0! -" fu2


E _

'I

angential flange stress

.MY-^_ ZSj 5-: '1 .,


For loose type flanges without hubs or with hubs which are not considered in design and for optional type flanges calculated as loose type without hubs or with hubs which are not considered in the design' the flange stresses in operating condition are:

Calculation of Flange Strsses

condition and gasket seating condition, whichever controls. In order to simplify calculations, the following factors are introduced in operating as well as gasket seating conditions bydividing their respective moments
by the flange inside diameter B:

.The

stresses in the flange shall be determined for both the operating

Sa:0

Sr:0
B

and

S": 't'

MY
,

M:Mocr

The stresses for gasket seating condition in either case can be found by substituting M in place of M in the above equations.

76

77

l)l,Sl(;N

)l

l'R( X liSli ll(.!( Jll,MriN

l l AN( ilr l)l


"

Si( iN

TAI]LU 4 - T.'ACTOITS INVOLVING K

TAULU 4 - I.',\CTOlts INVOLVING K (Continucd) U


42.75 41.87 46.99 46.03

K
r.oo
I

T
r.9l r.9l | 9l

K
1.016

z
r.90 t.90
1.90
12.O5

Z
I 1.52 11.40
1 1

K
21.11

T
1.86 r .86 1.86
1.86

z
7.88 7.78 7.73 7.6a 15.26 r 5.15 15.05
r
1

U
16.77

|.002 l.oo3 |.004


r.005 r.006
1.OO7

r.9l 9l 9l 9l r.9l
9l 9l

r000.50 l91l.t6 2100.18 500.50 956.16 1050.72 333.83 637.85 700.93 250.50 178.71 526.05 200.50 383.22 a21.12 67.17 319.55 351.16 13.36 271.09 301.20 25.50 239.95 263.75 I t.6l 2 t 3.4C 231.12 00.50 r 92.1 9 2r r.l9

t.o17
1.0a8

l.or9
r.050

I.90
r.89
1.89 1.89 1.89

.79 21.35 20.92


21

at.o2
10-21

45.09
11.21

r.oer |.0e2 |.oe5


r.096 | .o97 r.0e8
r.093 r.oe4

I
ll l
1l

1.88
I

.88

t.88
1.88
1.88 1.88

?0.5 |

39.43

43.34 42.51

I.l6

l.2E

I 1.05
10.91 r 0.83 10.73 10.62 10.52

.99 21.76 21.54 21 .32


21

24.16
23.91

23.67
23.11

1.136 1.137 l.t 38 1.1 39 1.140

I6.65
16.54 16.43 16.35 16.22

4.95
4.86

L86
1.86 1.86
1.86

t.051
L05 2 1.053

r.008

r.009

r.ot0 l.0t
l.0l
I

t.054
1.055 1.056 1.057 1.058

t.89 t.89 t.89


1.89

20.12 19.71 19.38 r 9.03 r 8.69

38.68 37.96 37.27

tl | | ll

4t.73
40.96 40.23

2l.r

r.88

36.60
35.96
35.3 4 34.7 4

r.88
1.88

39.64
8.84 38.r 9 37.56 36.95
3

i?33
r.r 03 r.r04 r.t 05

20.91 20.71 20.51

23.20 22.97
22.39 22.14 22.12

l.l4l
1.142

7.62 7.57
7.53

l.l

| 4.76 | 4.66

t6.lI
6.01 15.91
r

43

L88
1.88

20.3t 20.15
19.94
19.7 6

1.144
1.145
1.t 46
'l

r.86

r.86
1.86

7.48 7.43
7.38

14.57 14.48 14.39


1 1

15.83
15.71 15.61

r.012

l.9l

9t.rl
8

171.A3

| 92.13
17

I8.38
I 8.06

r.0t 3
a

1.9 |

r.9l
r,91

r.015

3.81 160.38 77.13 148.06 71.9 3. 137.69 67.17 r28.61

6.?5

t62.81

I51.30 I { r.33
132.19
|

t.89
1.89 1.89
1.89 1.89 1.89

1.0s9
1.060

17.76 17.17 17.18


16.91

34.17
33.62

I l0l r.102

-x
ll
I

't0.43
10.33 10.23

4.29

33.04
2.55 32.04 31.55 31.08 30.61
3

36.34
35.78 31.64

ll ll

1.88 1.88 1.88

2l .92
21 21

I .1

47

t.86
1.86

7.34
7.29

4.20

l0.l

r.88
1.88

10.05

19.58 19.38 19.33 19.07


r

.72 .52

.l 48

| 4.12

15.5l
15.42

21.30
21.11 20.96

49 1.150
1.1

r.86
1.86

7.25 7.20
7.11

14.03 13.95 13.86 13.77 r 3.69


13.61

I5.34
15.23 l5.t 4 15.05 14.96 14.47 14.78 14.70
14.61

t.0 t6 t.0 t_0 t8 1.0 t9


1.0

t.90
1.90 1.90

lo

r.90 t.90 r.90


1.90 1.90

63.00 I 20.56 59.33 I r r.98 56.06 r 07.36 53. r,( tot.72


50.51 96.73
92.2 |

24.8l

1.06t 1 .062
.063 1.064
r

16.64

| | 8.00
I r 1.78 106.30

I6.40

r.r t.r r.t

---{ 06 07
I I ]

L89
1.89

l6.t
r
1

34.17
33.65

t.065
1.066
1

5.90 5.67

09 1.rr0

t.108

.87 1 .47 1 .87 1 .87


1

9.96 9.87 9.78 9.70 9.62 9.54 9.46


9.3 8

l.l 5l
1.152
1.153 1.154 l.t 55 1.156 1.157 l.l 58

1.86
1.86 1.86

s.90

20.77
20.59 20.38 20.25 20.08
t

7.07
7.O3

14.74 r 8.55 14.12 14.27 18.13 17.97


17.81

1.86 1.86

6.99 6.95
6.91

.021

18.t2
45.96
3.98 12.17 ,(0.5 |
4

r0t.33
96.75

.o22
.023

88.0t
81.30
80.8
|

r.89
1.89 1.89

30.17
29.7 4

33.17
32.69 32.22 31.79 31 .34 30.92

.o2a

r.90

|.90
|.026

77.61
7

92.6t 88.8l I5.29


82.09
79.O8
7

.067

1.068 1.069

15.45 1 5.22

29.32
28.91

|.o70
1.071

r.89 r.89

I5.02
14.s0
14.61 14.41

28.5r
28.13 27.76 27.39 27.04 26.69 26.36 26.03 25.72 25.40

t.o27
1.028 LO2 9

t.90 t.90
r.90

38.97

A.70

t.89
1.89

3/.51
36 22
3

.97 69.13
7 t

t.030
1.03 |

t.90 t.90
1.90

r.99

67.1|
61.9 |

6.30 73.75

1.072 1.073

1.89
1.88

I4.22

30.5r 30.1I 29.34


8.98 28.69 2A.27 27.92 27.59
2

'lLl l r.n6 Z
lr.
ll. 8 ll.u9 tl.l20
r.t 2l
.122 r.123
|

t.ll2 t.n3 1.114 |

r.rrr

.87 .87 | .47


1 1

r.86
1.86

13.45

9.91

1.87
'|

9.30
9.22
9.1 5

19.7 5

.a7

19.55 19.43 19.27 19.12 i 8.98 18.80


I 8.68

r.159 r.160

L86 L86
1.86

6.87
6.83

I3.30

6.79
6.71

I3.t5
13.07 13.00 12.92 12.85 12.78
12.71

14.53 14.45 4.36 14.24 14.20 14.12 14.04


1

1.87 1.87

t7.68
17.54 17.40
|

Ll61
1.162
1.1.63

t.85
1.85 1.85

t.o74
1.O75

I4.Ol
13.85 13.68 13.35

t.87
.87 1 .87
1 1

9.07 9.00
8.91 8.86 8.79 8.66 8.59 8.53

6.67
6.64

3 3_8,1

71.33
69.06 66.91 61.95 63.08

r.88

7.27

l.t

t7.13
| 7.OO

64 1.165 1.166 1.167 1.168 1.t 69 1.170 .171 1.172


1

r.85 r.85
1.85

6.60
6.56 6.53

r.032
1.03 3

r.034 r.035 r.036

|.90 t.90 |.90 r.90


1.90
1.90

31.7 6 30.8 |

62.85 60.9?
59. r I

1.076 LO77

t.88
1.88 1.88

29.92 29,08 24.29 27.51 26.83 26.15


25.51

57.11
5

5.80

6r.32
59.66
58.08 56.59 55.17

1.o78 1 .079

|
1 1

.a7 .87 .87


.57

16.87
'|

18.54
I

13.97

I.88
1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88

l3.t
r

1.87

6.74

8.40
I

r.080
1.081

3.02

25.10
24.81

1.124

Ll25

16.62 16.19
|

1.85
1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85

18.26

6.49
6.46 6.42 6.39 6.35 6.32 6.29 6.25 6.22 6.19 6.16 6.13

12.64 12.58
12.51

I3.89
| 3.a2 13.7 4
r

l8.l

12.43 12.38
12.31

3.66

51.29

12.87
| 2.43 12.29

27.27
26.9 5

t.o37 t.038
1.039

t.90
1.90 1.90 1.90

51.50
50.2 |

r.0r0

48.97
n7.81 16.71

53.82

t.082 r.083 t.084 t.085


1.086
1

24.52 24.21
24.0O

1.126 1.127

|
1

.a7 .87 .87

r.88

23.69 23.14 23.18 22.93 22.68

26.34 26.05

t.128
1

l.t

.129
30

1.87 1.87
1

8.17 8.40 8.31


8.2 8

6.37
4

16.25

17.99 17.46 17.60 17.48 17.35 17.21

l6.l

16.02
15.91
1

1.173 1 .174
1.175 1.176

8.22 8.16

t2.t0
12.06 12.00 I 1.93 11.87 11.79

t2.25 I2.18

13.60 r 3.53 13.46

I3.30 I3.25
13.18 l3.l l
'13.05
| 2.96

l-041 1.0a2

r.90

|.013
1.0a 4

l.9o
|.90
r.90

21.90 21.32 23.77 22.71

t.88
1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88

12.15
| 2.O2

25.77
25.48 25.20 24.93 24.66

.O87

l l3l

15,61
11.6A
,t

50.15

r9.05
14.O2

L088
1.089 1.090

I1.89
11
1

t.0t5

.76

3.69

1.63

22.44

t.132 t.133 t.134 t.135

1.87 | .87

5.79

8.1I 7.99 7.94

I 5.68
I

r.86 t.uo
1.86

J.a/
5.46

l7.t
r t

't.177 1.174
1.179 1.180

I5.36

6.99 6.90

6.10

(Courtesy of Energy Products Group)

78

79

)l,l.il(;N ( )tr t,t{( X:liSS

Ii(ltJ

)MtiN

I.

l l AN(;li l)lrSl( iN

'l

AllLlj
T

4 - IJAC'IOtts INVOLVING K (Continued)

'fAIJLIj 4 - ITACTOII.S INVOLVING K (Continucd)


U

K
Lt82
1.184 1.186 1.188

Z
6.04 5.98
5.92
J.60

Y
| 1.70
I 1.58

U
12.86 12.73
12.61

K
1.278

T
r.8l

z
4.t 6 8.05

t(
|.434
L438 t.412

T
1.74 1.7 4 1 .71 1.74
1.73 1.73 1.73 1.73 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.72
1

Y
2.89
2.A7

K
6.10 6.0s 6.0r 5.97 5.93
1.75 1.76 1.77 1.7e 1 .79
r

T
r.60 r.60
.60 I .59 1.59

z
1.97

Y
3.61
3.61

U
4.00
3.96 3.93

1.85

1.85
1.85

r.t90
1.192

t.85
1.84 1.84 1.84 1.84

I1.36
11.26 I l.l5 11.05 10.95 10.85 10.7 5
I 0.65

I.28t |.244
.287 1.290
1

t.8l
r.80
r.80
1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80

4.12
4.O8

8.85

7.98
7.9 |

5.8r
J./ J

2.19 | 2.37
t

4.05
4.01

8.77 8.69
8.61

5.52

r.95

7.81 7.70 7.57 7.50 7.41 7.38 7.32 7.26 7.20


7.1 1

t.446
r.450 t.454 t.458

2.85 2.83
2.81

8.s3 8.46

5.48 5.44 5.40


5.36

t.94
1.92

l.9l

3.89 3.47
3.44
3.41
3.3 8 3.3 5 3.3 3

1.194
96 l.l 98 1.200 1.202
1

l.t

s.70
J.O5

12.2 5

t2.t 4
I 2.03

t.a4
1.84
1.84 1.84

1.293 1.296 1 .299


1.302

3.98
3.9 4

5.60 5.50
5.45

11.92 I l.8l I l.6l I l.5l I l.4l 11.32


11 .71

r.305

r.80
1.80
1.79

3.9r

8.39
8.31

2.80 2.75
2.7 6

t.80

t.8l
5.80 5.76
5.71

L58
1.58 1.58

r.89 r.88
r

3.82 3.78
3.7 5

3.8I
3.84

8.24
8.18
8.1 I

t.462 t.466
t.470

2.7 4

5.21
5.1 6

1.82 1.83

.86

2.72

1.84

.57 1 ,57
1

1.85

1.84

3.72 3.69
3.6 5

.204

1.206 1.208

1.84
1.84

5.40

r.210
1 1

0.56 10.47 t 0.38


r
r

l.3l

1.308
I

3.8r
3.78
J./ J

1.79

1.84
1.83

0.30
2

1.314 1.317 1.320

t.79
1

8.05

|.475
L 480

2.70
2.68 2,66 2.64 2.62

5.66
5.61

.79 3.69

1.79

7.98 7.92 7.85 7.79 7.73


7.61

5.12 5.04 5.00 4.96


4.92

r.485 r.490

5.57
5.49

r.85 r.86
| .87

r.56
r.56

l.8l

t.83
1.79

3.62 3.27 3.24 3.22 3.19 3.17


3.1 4
3.5 9 3.5 6

r.56
1.55 1.55 1,54
|

t.80 t.78 t.77 |.75


1.74 1.73 1.72
1

,u7:
t.500
1.505 1.510

1.88

.71

1.89

3.s 4

.212
.21 4

5.27
5.18
5.1 4

I0.21

1.216
1.2t 8 1.220 1.222
| |

r.83 r.83 r.83 r.83 r.83 r.83


1.83

l0.r
I

ll.l2
I r.03

11.22

t.323
1

.326

.79 1 .79
1

5.t0
J.UJ
5.01

0.04 9.96 9.89 9.80 9.72 9.65 9.57 9.50

1.329

3.67 3.61
3.61 J.J6

1.7a

t0.94
10.87
I o.77 I 0.68

t.332
I.JJ5

t.7a

l.7a
|

3.56 3.53
3.5 |

7.09 7.03 6.98 6.92 6.87


6.A2

7.s5 7.50 7.41 7.39


7.33

r.515 r.520
1

.71 .71 1 .71 1 .71


1

2.60
2.5a 2.56

t.90
5.41

3.51

1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1 .69 I .69


1.69

2.s3
2.51

4.88 4.84 4.80 4.77


4.7 4

5.37
5.33

t.9l

1.92

.54

5.29
5.21
5.1 3

t.93
1.94

r.53 r.53

3.12 3.09

3.48 3.45 3.43

3.40
3.3 8 3.3 3

.224 L83
r.83
1.83 1 .82

r.338
r.341 1.311
1.317

.78

1.226

.22a 1 .230
1 .232 1.234 1.236 1

4.98

4.94 4.90
4.86 4.83

10.60 10.52 10.44


r

1.78 1.78

1.78

3.48 3.46
3.43

6.77 6.72
6.64

.525

r.95

r.350
1.354 1.358
1

|.78
1.77 1.77
1

6.63 6.57 6.50 6.44 6.38


6.32

t.530 t.535 r.540


t_545

2.49 2.47 2.46

4.70
4.66 4.63

t.53

.71

3.07
3.03 3.Ol 2.98
2.9 6 2.9 4

96 | .97 I .98

i.52
1

1.70

7.28
7.2
1

2.44
2.43

5.09 5.0s
4.99 4.92

I.99
2.00
2.01

r.5l r.5l

.52

t.69 t.68
I .68
1

3.30

3.2I
3,26
3.?1

4.79
4.7 6

.238

t.a2
1

9.43 9.36 9.29


9.22
9.1 5

0.36

1.240 1.242

.e2

4.72 4.69 4.65 1.62

10.28 10.20 10.13


t

3.40
3.3 4

t.55
1.56
|

.362

.77

7.t 1
7.O8
7.O l 6.9 5

r.69
1.68 1.68

2.40
2.37 2.31
2.31

4.60 4.54
4.48 4.12

t.5t
1.50 1.50 1.49
1.48

.67

t.66
I .65

0.05 9.98
9.91

1.366

.57

2.02
2.O4

1.370
1 .371 1.378

t.77 |,/6
1.76

3.2I

r.58

t.59
r.60

t.6/
1

4.36
4.31

4,86 4.79
1.73

2.06
2.O8

L63 t.62
1.60

2.92 2.88 2.85


2.81

3.17
3.t 3 3.09 3.05
3.01

1.241

t.246 |.24a
1.250 1.252

1.82 1.82
1

9.08
9.O2

6.27
6.21

.82 .82

8.95

1.82
|

4.59
4.56 4.52

8.89
8.83

9.81 9.77 9.70 9.64 9.57


9.51

t.3a2
1.386 1.390 1.394 1.398
1

1.76 1.76 1.76 1.75 1.75


1.75 1.75
t

3.20 3.17 3.15 3.10


3.O7

6.16
6.1 |

6.89 6.82 6.77 6.72


6.66

.67
2.26 2.23
2.21

L48
1

t.6l
1

4.25

4.67
4.56 1.50

.62 .64

t.65
1.65
l

4.20
4.15

r.63
r

6.06 6.0r 5.96


5.92

-65

2.18 2.16 2.14

4.10
4.05
4.01

2.10 2.12 2.14 2.16 2.18 2.20 2.22 2.24 2.26 2.28 2.30 2.32
2.3 4

,17 ,46

r.59
1

2.7I
2.7 4

1.46
1

.57

1.56

2.71

2.97
2.9 4

2.67
,44 1.44
1

1.82
1

1.254
1.256 1.258 1.260
1

8.77
8.71

.82

4.49
4.46 4.43

6.60
o.55

r.65
.66 | .67
I

r.65
1.64 1.64
1.63

l.8l L8l l.8l


r.81

1.82

8.65
8.59 8.53 8.45

.402

4.45 4.40 4.30 4.26


4.21

2.6 4
1

4.40
4.36 4.32 4.28

9.41 9.38
9.28 9.r 9

1.406
1.410 1.414

3.05
3.O2

5.47 5.82

6.49 6.44 6.39 6.34 6.29

t.68

2.10
2.08 2.06 2.04 2.02
2.OO

3.96 3.92

1.43
1

l.5l
1

.52 .49

2.61

.263
.272

]ot
1.70
1

t.oJ
1.63

3.47
3.83 3.79
3.7 5

t.4t

.42

t.50
1.48 1.46 1.45

2.58 2.56 2.53 2.50 2.48 2.45 2.43 2.40

2.90 2.87 2.84

2.8l
2.74 2.75
2.7 2

1.266

t.269
1

r.275

t.8l r.8l

r.8l

8.37
8.29
8.21 8.t 3

L418
1.422
|

-/5
5

3.00
2.94 2.96
2.9 4

t.4l
1.40

1.7

4.24
4.20

9.i I
9.O2

1.75

,71

.426

|,/4
|

8.93

1.430

.71

2.91

5.68 s.61 5.60

6.2 5

1.72

6.20 6.15

t.73
1.74

t.6l l.6l

.62 1 .62
1

1.17 4.12
4.08
4.O4

t.40
1.39

1.99

3.72 3.68

2.69 2.67
2.6 4

2.36

t.3B

1.44

80

8l

)list(;N otr pt{(x;tiss IiQtJ ,M[.N't.

III,ANGI DLSI(iN

'fAllLE

4 - F'ACTOIIS

INVOLVING K (Continued)

K
2.38 2.40 2.42 2.44 2.46 2.4a 2.50 2,53 2.56 2.59 2.62
2.6 5 2.6A 2.71
1

T
r.38
.37 1.36
1.35

z
l
1

U
2.3 8

K
3.5 0
3.5 4

T t.r0
t.o9
t.0B
1 1

z
l.t8
.17
1

U l.6l
.62
1.78

l.4l

43 .42

2.61

2.36
2.3 3

r.40

t.40 t.39 L38


1

2.29 2.27
2.2 5

2.59 2.56 2.54 2.52

3.58 3.62 3.66 3.70


3.7 4

.07

1,07
1.06

t.l6 t.t6
r

|,17

L59 t.57 t.)5


1.53

t./ J
1.73
1

.71

l l(;.

9a - TWO PASS

FIG,9b, FOUR

PASS

L35 L34 t.33


1.32

2.50 2.47
2.44
2.41

.37

r.3l
r.30
1.34

2.22 2.19

t.05
r.05 r.04
1

2.17
2.1 4

2.3I
2.3 5

3.78 3.82 3.86

.03
.O2

t.l5 t.t4

r.t5 l.r5

.16

.70

ARRANGEMENT

ARRANGEMENT

FlG. 9c - SIx PASS ARRANGEMENT

1.68
1

1.52 1.50 | .49 .48 1 .46 1.45


1

.67

FIG. 9 . MOST COMMON PASS ARRANGEMENTS FOR MULTIPASS CHANNEL Allowable Flange Dsign Stresses

r.64
1

r.30
r,29
1

r.33

3.90
3.9 4 3.9 8

1.03
1

2.12
2.O9

.28

2.74

L27
1.26 1.26

t.3l L3l

1.32

2.O7

2.04 2.02
2.O0

2.32 2.30 2.27 2.25

Lt4 t.t3 l.t3


1.1 3

.62

t.0l
t.009
1.002

1.r4

1.6 |

t.60

l hc flange stresses as calculated above shall not exceed the following


values:

4.00 4.05 4.t 0 4.15

i.59
t.43
1.42
|

.57

2.80
2.8 3

1.30 1 .29
1.28

2.20

t.25
1.24

1.98
I .96

2.17
2.15
2.1 1 2.O9 2.O7 2.O4

4.20
4.25 4.30

.996 .989 .982 .968 .962

1.13 1.12

t.l2
t.t

t.40
1.39

r.56 r.54

2.86 2.89 2.92 2.95 2.98


3.0 2

r.23
1

.28 1 .27
r
1

t.l2
I

t.38

l,5i
1.50 1.48

1.94
1.92

.22
.21

.27

1.22
r
'l

1.26

r.25
1.25 1.24
1

r.90 r.88
1.86 1.83
1.81

Ll l

4.40 4.45
4.5 0

.955

l.
r.

.94
.911

r.34
1.33

3.06
3.t 0

l.t9
l.t

.20
8

2.01

4.55 4.60 4.65 4.70


4.8 0
4.8 5

.9U

t.t0 l,t0 t.t0 l.t0


1.09

I.46
1,44

r.31

t.30
|
1

L43
1

Longitudinal hub stress Sr should not be greater than 1'5 S/" in the operating condition and 1.5 S/" in the gasket seating condition. l. Radial flange stress SR shall not exceed S/, in the oprating condition and S/. in the gasket seating condition. I. Tangential flange stress Sr shall not be greater than S/" in the operating condition and S/, in the gasket seating condition. 4. The greater of 0.5(srf + Sr) or 0.5(Sr, * Sr ) shall not exceed Sr" in the operating condition and S/" in the gasket seating condition.

l.

3.t 4
3.t 8 3.22 3.26

3.30
3.3 4 3.3 8

3.42 3.46

l.t I 1.lr

l.t7 l.t6 l.t6 t.l5 l t4 l.l3 l,t2

.23 .22

r.99
1

1.23
1

1.79
1

.97

.n8

l.2l
t.21
1

.77

1.75 1.73
1

1.94 1.92 1.90

.nl

.29

.42

t.2a
.27
,26
1

1.41

.911 .908

r.09
1.09 1.09 1.09 1.08 1.08

.9m
.893 .887 .880

I.39 t.3d

1.25

If any of the stresses other than S, exceeds the allowable' the flange hickness r can be revised till the stresibs are within allowable. However, if S,, xceeds the allowable, the increase in flange thickness will not help and it may be necessary to lengthen the hub, increase the 9r thickness or
I

alter both of them.


Considering Pass Rib Area in Flenge

.20 1 ,20

.71

l.t9

l.l8

l.l

r.69 1 .67
1.66

r.88 r.86

L24
1.23 1.22
1.21

1.61

t.84 r.82 r.80

4.90 4.95

Deign

5.00

.873

In certain application of

flanges, especially

in

shell-and-tube heat

cxchangers where multipass channels are specified, the area for pass ribs also contributes to required bolt load in the operating as well as in the gasket seating conditions. Its effect may be negligible in some cases but it is advisable to consider it in flange design wherever applicable. The most commonly used pass arrangements for two, four and six pass channels are indicated in Fig. 9. In order to simplify the calculations, the rib areas for each case and for exchanger sizes 6" through 100" inclusive are given in Table 5. Use ofrib area in llange design is illustrated in the calculation
sheet.

83 82

)lis t(;N

()|l Pl((xiliss riQUIpMl.iN't'

!.LANCE DBSICN

Table 5

Pass Rib Area

Table 5

Nomlnal
Vessel Size

Pass Rib Area,

Rr,

in.2

N omlna Six Pass


8.36
10.36 12.44 Vessel Size

Psss Rib Area (Continued) Pass Rib Area.

Rr,

in.2

Two Pass
6 8

Four

Pass

in.
51

Two

Pass

Four

Pass

Six Pass
53.59 54.55
55.58

10 12

2.84 3.59 4.36 5.10


5.53

5.27 o.oz 8.07 9.38


10.21

19.69

52
53

t4.43
15.60

20.06 20.44
20.81

36.02 36.68

5t-3t
38.07 38.77 39.42
40.11 40.81

l1
16

54
55

56.60
57.63

l8
20
22 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
JI

6.28 7.03 7.78 8.53 9.28 9.94


10.31 10.69

11.56 12.95 14.30

t't.59
19.58 21.63

21.t9
21.56 21.94
22.31

t).o)
16.99 18.23

zt.oz
25.61 27.41

56 57 58
59

58.60
59.62

60.59
61.61

60

r8.92
19.62

28.43 29.46
30.42

6l
62
63

22.69 23.06 23.44


23.81

4t.46
42.16 42.86 43.55 44.21 44.90 45.60 46.2s
46.95

62.58 63.60
64.63

11.06
11.44
11.8

20.27
20.93

3t.4s
32.41

zt .oz
22.32

12.19 12.56 12.94 13.31 13.69 14.06

23.0r
23.71

33

34
35 36 38 39

24.36 25.06
2J.

t)

33.44 34.46 35.43 36.46 37.48 38.45

64 65 66 67 68 69 70

24.19 24.56 24.94


25.31

65.65 66.68
6'1.64

25.69 26.06 26.44


26.81

68.67 69.08
'70.66

47.64 48.30 48.99


49.69

71.69
72.65 73.68
'74.'10
7

7l
72

t4.44
14.81 15.19 15.56 15.94 16.31

40
41

26.4s 27.15 27.80 28.49

39.4'l 40.50

27.19 27.56 27.94


28.31

50.38 51.04
51.73

5.6'l

4t.52
42.49 43.51
44.48

74
75 76 77 '18 '79

76.69
77.72
'78.'74

29.r9
29.89 30.54

42 43

28.69 29.06 29.44


29.81

52.43
53.13

53.78
54.48 55.17

'19.7'l

t6.69
17.06 17.44 17.81 18.19 18.56

45.50
46.53

44
45

3t.24
31.89 32.59
33.28

47.50
48.52 49.55 50.51

80
81

46 47
48 49 50

30.19 30.56 30.94


31.31 31.69

80.73 81.76
82.73

55.82 56.s2
57.22

83.75
84.'72

82
83

18.94
19.31

33.94 34.6't 35.33

57.9r
5

85.74
86.77

51.54
52.56

84
85 86

32.06 32.44
32.81

8.57

59.26 59.96

87.79 88.76

84

d5

l)list(;N Olr
Tsble 5

Pt{(

x:Ess EQUTPMENT

F'LANC!: DESIGN

Nomlnal
Vessel Size

Pass Rlb

Arer (Conrinued)
Rr, in.2
Six Pass
E9.7E

SOLUTION
ln this case we will have two flanges bolted together but designed for diffcrent conditions. The required bolt load in the operating condition lbr the shell side will govern the design of both flanges because of lhe higher design pressure. Since the gaskets on both sides are of the same nraterial, the required bolt load for gasket seating will be greater for the low pressure flange. Since such a high design pressure is involved, gasket scating probably will not control the design. Tberefore, the shell side llange will be the independent flange while the channel side will be the
dcpendent flange. Independent flange has to be designed first so that we can carry over the bolt load for the design ofthe dependent flange. Both the flanges will bc designed here in detail, but the attached calculation sheets can be used

Pass Rib Area.

in.
Et
88 89

Two Pass 33,l9


33.56 33.94
34.31

Four

Pass

0u.65 61.35

90.81

62.W
62.'70 63.35 64.05 64.74 65.44 66.09
66.79

90

9l
92
93

34.69 35.06 35.44


35.81

94
95

36.t9
36.56 36.94
37.31

96 97 98 99
100

37.69 38.06

67.49 68.18 68.84


69.53

91.83 92.80 93.83 94.85 95.82 96.84 97.87 98.83 99.86 100.82
101.85 102.87

to

save time. Both these flanges

will be

designed using corroded

dimensions because the corroded condition results in greater thicknels.


Design of Independent Flange

Refer to Figure and design steps on Weld Neck Independent Flange Design Calculation Sheet. Now we have,

p:460

psi

EXAMPLE NO.

Sa:25,000 Psi
1

S":25,000 Psi
Sr'

to be used to contain a tubesheet ofa TEMA BKU type of exchanger. The 4l in. I.D. two pass channel designed for 150 psi at 500.F is built ofI in. thick A_515_70 piate inclusive offin. corrosion allowance. Theshell sideflangeis to be welded to a 41 in. I.D. x 75 in. LD. cone designed for 460 psi at 650.F. The cone
consists

Design a pair of welding neck flanges

Sr":
Also in uncorroded condition
B

17'500 Psi 17,500 Psi

:41 in'

of

l;

use A-105 flanges

allowance. Assume ironjacketed asbestos filted gasket on'Uotf,.iO", unO

in. thick 4_515_20 plate inclusive of$ in. corrosion


with A-193-87
Bolts_

go:t^:l'25ln'
Assume
9

t:

1.25(s

o\:

1.25(1.251:1.5625 in.

Thus in corroded condition

B'41.25 in. 9o:1.125 in.


and
g

r:1.4375 in.

86

87

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

FLANOB DESION

Now
,t

= 1.s(gJ- 1.5(1.125)= 1.6875 in. (minimum)

n =f,tu.t

sF +oo =

23,4s2.t tb

stope

' =!9r:sd: h

$431s--!r25)
1.6875

-0.1852 < 0.333

W: lf
in. dia.

123,492.1 +

t2t 255.7 : 844,747.8 lb

Therefore, the flange can be designed as an integral type as shown in

Fig. la- Now assune (48) 1| in. dia. bolts. From Table
bolts. we have
R

3,

for

.4.:Greareror'##
3, the root area gives which in.2 is 0.728

*
:

t*,ltl't=rr.tri".'

1.5 in.

From Table

ofa

l|

in. dia. bolt having 8 threads per inch

E = 1.125

in.

Now c
and
A

B + 2(s ) + 2(R) :

48 (0'7 28l,

34'9 44 in'2

41.25 + 2(r.437 5) + 2(r.5)

47

.125

io.

Since

74,

> .4., therefore (48)lI in. dia. bolts are adequate. Now
W:0.5(33.79 + 349,14)25,000

C + 2(E)

47.12s +

2(t.t25l :

859,1 75

49.37

s in.

lb

and

Gaslet and Bolting C,alculatiom From Table


1,

for an iron jacketed asbestos lilled gasket

r^,,:ffi,=0.4088in.
Since N > N,ir", therefore chosen gasket width is adequate.

m:5- I)
and

v=76W
Assume N

Flange Moments Calculatiom


H

:0.5 r!.

D:;@l.2512

460

=614,745.9 lb

Fig. la. of Table 2.applies to our situation. So,

Hc:HP-121,255.7 lb
H
h

u.:!=!=o.zsn;
Therefore

r:723A92.1

614,745.9

1O8,746.21b

D:

1.5

+ 0.5(1.437 5) = 2.21 88 in.

D:0.25 in. Now

:0.5(47.r25 -44.75): 1.1375 in. fir:0.5(1.5 + 1.4375 + 1.1875) =2.0625 in'


he

Now

G:C - a-2(0.375)-2(Q:a7.p5 :44.75 in.


Therefore

1.rzs -2(0.375) -2(o.2s)

o= 6t4,7

45.9(2.21 88)

:
:

1,363998 in- lb
224 289

M e =121,255.7

(!.1875)= 143991 in-lb

M r = 1O8,7 46.2 (2.06251 W^z* :0.25(n)44.7 5(7600) = 267,1t4

in-lb

H, '
See note

2(n) 0.2s (44.7 5X3.7 5) 460

lb

Therefore,

r2r,25 s.7 tb

Mo= 1,363,998+ 1 43991 +224,289 :1,732,278 in-lb

on page 58

88

t)list(;N ()lr pt{(xjriss ltQUlpMIiNT


Now, for lhe gaskct seating condition
He

ITLANCI DDSICN

|tnd
U

W:859,175 lb
Now

ll9'75

Therefore Mo

859,175(1.187s)

:
=

1,020,270

in-lb
:3.0843 in.

gr

Actual borr spacing

-n48

r(l)

r{4J-125t

9o
ho:

:1

4375

|.125

t.2l'Ie

Assume

t:2.75
251

Jqtzs(trzr:o.stzz

in.
in.

ft
ho
From Fig. 4, for
sJ
9o

1.687s
6.8122

^..-.

Maximum bolt spacing:2(t.l

, {J. -6975L-:6.Ij2J /) +U.)l

Normal bolt

spacin

E:2(l.t25l +2.j5:5 in.


we have

correction factor Cr: 1.0. Thus, the calculation factors are

Since, Actual bolt spacing<maximum bolt spacing, the chosen bolt spacing is O.K. and also actual bolt spacing <normal bolt spacing, the

t.zllg and !:0.2477 no


F:0.894

Similarly from Fig.


and from Fig. 8

M:u21J(1):a1,se5
and

V:O.441

I:1.0
M:l'020'270(l)-14714
41.25

Now
0 894

*The value of r|/., should be taken from the low pressure dependent flange ifit results In greater value there because ofrib area or dilTerent gasket miterial. ln tf,i. c"se operadng condilion is controlling the gasket seating is of insignificant value_ "in""ir," However, wnen rwo matrng tianges are designed to hold a tubesht between them with the sam pressurf oneachside ol the tubsheet lhe llangeresullingin a grealer value of l,y-) due ro nD area or gasket materjal should be considered as the independenl flange and lhe other
as the dependent flange.

NOTE

':-:u',,"
and
d

:' rto75 to'trzzltt' t2512 : 234

ffi

|5|

Cslculating Other Stress Frctors a:2.75(0.1312) +


a
1

Deaermining Shape Constants

1.3608

.. 49.375 K: _* :
41.2s

:$)z:

s to.ttrz) + I

r.48 I

t.197

From Table 4, for

K:

l.l9?

,:{ff:ozrro
a:ffi:o.osta
t :0.7396 +0.0888 =0.8284

T: 1.84 z:5.625
y:10.9

90

91

)list(;N ()tr pRO(jtjss tjQtJtpMIjNT

lll-AN()lt l)tisl(iN rldcpcndent flange, the values of Sr, S', Now, in the uncorroded condition
S7,,

Calculating Stresses Operating Condition

and 57, remain unchanged'

9o:

t,:0

in'

^ t":
.s^

(41.995)

O.S.Zao1,.43

75lz:24.532

psi <26.250 psi O.K.

Assume

s'

1.31

5(g'\

1.375(0.5)

:0'687s in'

":

1.481 I {41.995)'

o.8284t2.75r

-----:

= 9.928 psi < I 7.500 psi O.K.

lhus, in the corroded condition

go:O 375 in'


lrrrd
9

s,:4tp-e:!192 12.7 5)2


Since S^ >

s.62s (e.e28)

:4.683 psi < r 7,500 psi o.K.


9,928): I 7,230 psi < I 7,500 psi

t:0

5625

in'

Sr, therefore,

0.5124,532 +

Assume

o.K.
Gasket Seating Condition

fi:1.5
Slope:
rz=
14'449 psi < 26'250 psi

in. > 1.5(so)>0 5625 (0.s625

in O'K'

0.37s)

l.)

:0.125 < 0.333

^ :9 s' ^ s":
Jr
Since

| (24,7 34)

ffi.+:ts
t.481|

Therefore, the flange can be designed as an integral flange as shown

in Fig. la.
17.500 psi

124,7 341

O.tZt+tZrSl

:5.848 psi<

O.K.

24.1 34t 10.9 |

,.-*,, t)r v.

-5.625(5.848):2,755 psi<17.500psi O.K.

S^ >

Sr,

to be bolted together, the number and B, C, G and .4 will be the same as for the sizc of bolts, and diameters independent flange. Also, the values of m and y will remain unchanged since the gasket material is the same. The value of radial clearance R will be greater than the minimum rcquired for this flange, because its bolt circle dia. C has to match the bolt circle dia. of the independent flange and its g1 is smaller than ,r of the independent flange. So in this case
Since, both the flanges are

therefore,
0.5(14,449 + 5,848): 10,149 psi < 17,500 psi O.K.

-- 1:: :::' ',' p- c-tB+2(q,)l

All stresses in both the operating as well as the gasket seatlng condition are within allowables. Thus, the independent flange design is o.K.
Next we will discuss the design oftbe channel side or the dependenl
flange.

We must also include the effect of rib area R,r, since the channel has

z2

47.125- 141.25'r 2(0.5625)l

".". R,

lwo

passes.

From Table 5,Ior

two

pass

4l in. nominal

size shell,

15.94 in'2

(;asket and Bolting Calculations

Design of Dependent Flange


Refer to Figure and design steps on weld neck dependenl flange design calculation sheet. Here we have

fhe width and the effective width of th gasket will be same as for the independent flang. Now w^, 10.25(n144.15 + 0.s(1 5.94)1 7600 32't,686 tb

p:
Since, the flange and

H,:

:48'506 lb l2(nl1.2s(44.75) + 1 5.9413.75(150)


H

150 psi

bolt materials are the same as for

the

:X(4.7 s)'

50

23

5,s21.3 tb

92

93

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

FLANOB DESIGN

W^tr =844'747'8lb which will result in the same ,,{n as earlier, thus llzwill be the same also.
Flenge Moments Calculatiots
HD=

Determining ShaPe Conslants


Since the value

ofK is the same as in the independent flange the values of remain unchanged. U will T, Z, Y and
Now

gt
;(r.2sl2
t

so:

200,460.6 rb
ho

'go-05625 0.375:l)
: \t 4t .25 (0.3'15) : .933 ''^. 1.5 ft _ _i_:0.3814 _
3

Hc:w - H =844,74'1.8 -235,921.3:608,826.5 lb


H

r:235,921.3 -200 460.6:35,460.7 lb lro:2.375 + 0.5(0.5625) =2.6563 in.

fto

3.933

Irr:0.5(2.375 + Now
M

ha:0.5(47.125 -44.75)= 1.1875 in. 0.5 625 + 1.1875\:2.0625 in.

From Fig. 4 for grlgo =

1.5

and ft/io =0.3814, we have

F:0.867
Similarly from Fig.
5

: Mc : 608,826.5(1.1 87 5) :
o= 2A0160.6(2.6563)
M

532,484 in- lb 722,982 rn- lb


tO

V:0.343
and from Fig. 8

r:35A60.7 (2.0625):23,133 ;n-

f=t.0
Now

Therefore.
M o:532A84 + 722'982 +73'138 = r,328,604 in-

lb
ano
a

0.867 - ---. e:i5i=0.2204

Now, for the gasket seating condition

Hc=W=859,1'15lb
Therefore, Mo
Assurne
t

ffi
:

o.rlltto.37sF

le.3oe4

859,175(1.1875): 1,02O270 in-lb

:43125 in.

Calculating Other Stress Fsctors


1.

Normal bolt spacing will be greater than the actual bolt spacing,
thus Cr =
1.0.

4.3125 0.22041 + l
r

1.9505

Thus, the calculation factors are

:
Q)+.t

zs to.zzo4t + |

2.2673

u:t'3?Y0):tz.zov
and

,={ff=-r.ooo'

u:t'v!oi?#(t) :z+,tz+
rThe valuc of lvnl is taken from high pressu.e independent flange.

a:ffi=r.rsrs
i:1.0601 +4.1535 = 5.2136

94

95

l)l1Sl(;N ( )lr l,t{( X;tiSS ti(ltJtpMltN Calculating Slrcsscs Operating Condition

t.

trt.AN(;li Drisl(;N

\..

"

_-

I r12.209

5.2 | 36(0.5625,1

3t32.2091 \^: 2.267 " 5.2 t36(4.3 t25),

-753 psi <17.500psi O.K.


14.642 psi < l7.500 psi

s'= J2.209 t10.91 -5625{753): t.l:l:st'


Since

K.
(:IJANN
E

St>S^,
therfore,
0.5119,525

(:Y

i;IDE
L

INDER TUBESHEET

+ 14,642): I 7,084 psi < 17,500 psi O.K.


Fis. l0 - EXAMPLE FLANGES

EXAMPLE NO.2
Gasket Seating Condition

5n:5.2tlo,'Jo2s

1\24,134)

rz=

|4,994 psi <26.250 psi O K

^ s"-S.:r:oajl25,r:578 psi< 17.500


2.26'7 3 (24,'134)

psi O.K

Design a ring flange to be used on a 60 in. O.D., A-240-TP304L ylinder designed for 140 psi at 425"F. The cylinder is I in. thick and no ,rrlrosion allowance is allowed. Assume TP-304jacketed asbestos filled |ilsket and use an A-105 flange with A-193-87 bolts. Allow *3 in. for , otrnterbore and in. for TP-304L overlay. I
r

{Since

)4114t1n51 " " -' s K)sr{'78} : : --'-t4.3t 25t,

I 1,245 psi

< | 7.500 psi O.K.

SOLUTION
llclcr to Figure and design steps on ring flange design calculation sheet. Now ys 13y9,

St > S^,
therefore,

p:
0.5(14,994+ 11,245): 13,120 psi < 17,500 psi O.K.

140 psi Psi Psi

stresses in both the operating as well as the gasket seating condition are within allowables, thus the dependent flange design is O.K. Additionaldesired thickness for raised face, counterbore, tongue or

All the

Sr:25,000 S":25,000

sr,:
Sr'
1l)c ring flange we get

17,500 psi

groove should be added to the calculated thickness r to obtain the final total thickness ofthe flange. ln the above example we added rt in. to the thickness ofeach flange for counterbore. The toral final thicknesses and the arrangement ofuse ofabove designed flanges is shown in the Fig. 10.

l7'500 Psi

Allowing I in. clearance between the O.D. of the shell and the I.D. of

B:60

+ 0.125:60.125 in.

96

97

t.
DESICN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT
Assume (56)
$

FLANOE DBSION

in. dia. bolts. FromTable 3, for

]in.dia. bolts,we havc

R:1.25 in.
E = 0.9375 in.

Since ,4, > .4., therefore (56) $ in. dia. bolts are adequate. Now

tv:0.5(18.8077+23.464)25,000:528,396.3
0nd

lb

Allowing for
cylinder, we get
C=B

in. weld all around for securing the flange to tho

2(weld size)+ 2(R):60.125 + 2(0.51+ 2(t.25):63.625 tn.

1.1-6=a=(-2ry :o.168oin. 'N-": 2(z)9000(61.75) ''"


Since N > N,nin, therefore the chosen gasket width is adequate.

and

A:
From Table
have

C
1,

+2(E) =

63.625 +2(0937

5):65.5 in.

FlNnge Moments Crlculatiors


H

for stainless steel jacketed asbestos filled gasket, we

^:n

(60.125l'l4o:3g'7,4g1.'t lb

n:3'75
y = 9000

Assume

N:0.5

in.

HG: H P=50'923'3 lb Hr:4t9,268.t -397 =21'776.4 tb


'491.7

Fig. (1a)ofTable 2 applies to this situation, so,

. ll'=

63.625

-60.125 . -- tn' t'ts


.

r":f:f
therefore,

:o.zsiu
Now

fto:9.5163.Urt

1.75):0.9375 in.

ir:0.5(
-:

1.75

+ 0.9375) = 1.3438 in.

b:0.25 in.
Now
G

M o:397,491.7 (r.7

=C

- a-

2(O.25) W^z
H

2(b)= 63.625 -9.875


0.25(n\6r.'t 5(9000)

0.5

2(0.25):61.75 in.
Therefore,

Mo :
M

5):695'610.5 in' lb 5Q923.3(0.93751 = 47,7 40.6 in' lb

436,485 lb

r:21,77 6.4(1.3438): Z9'263.t tn-tO


+
47,74O.6

r = 2(n)0.25(61.7 5)3.75(140):50,923.3 lb

=!(j.l

sl, t +o

:4

9,268.

lb

M o:695,610.5

+ 29,263.1 :772,614 2 in- lb

Now, for the gasket seating condition


H

wa:419,268.t + 50,923.3 :470,191.4 lb


thus
Therefore,

"=

W= 529,396.3

16

/,=Creater
From Table
gives

" 436,485 ol or 2S,OOO


:
(0'419)

470,t91.4 ,6 -^-- 1n.:, u :lr.rurr 25p66

Mo:
Now,

528,396.3(0.9375) = 495'371'5

in-lb

3, the

root area of a { in. dia. bolt is 0.419 in.2, which


t
56

:77]^6r?12

t2,850. r 322

23'464 in''z

r=ffi:r.oar
99

98

I)tsSI(;N oII PR(XJESS EQUIPMENT From Table 4, for K

FLANCE DESICN

1.089

Y:22.68
thus
12,850.r322(22.68)
17,500

'litblc

For
4.

K:

AlB, nnd out the values of constants T, Z'

Y and

U ftom

:4.0809, say 4i in.


5694

culate ha, g r lgoand ft/hq and from Fig. 4, determine the value of constant F corresponding to the calculated values of 9t/ go and hlhs' Similarly, lind the values of tzand/from Fig. 5 and 8 respectively'

Bolt sPacing:

"\"' *-1:3
lrtA1 6? 5l

Now calculate e and d. Also using the thickness of the flange t cxclusive of any counterbore, overlay, raised face, tongue or groove'
calculate stress factors a, p, 1, 6 and ,i. If bolt spacing exceeds (24 + t), calculate correction factor

in'

2a + t :2(0.8'7 5\ + 4. 125

Bolt spacing<(24+r). Therefore,

: 5.875 in. Cp :1.Q. The moment factor

tt:t/

/Bolt sPacing 1zc+rr

stays the same and the thickness calculated above is adequate. Adding ]j in. for counterbore and ; in. for stainless steel overlay' we have the total minimum thickness of the flange as

t:4

!25 + 0.18'15

+0

125

:4

43'15

tn'

Otherwise, assume Cr: l. Also, if the flange is not designed for any nrultipass cylinder, the rib area, Rr, can be assumed equal to zero' Now, calculate the lever arms ho, ho and fir for integral type flange lnd determine the MAWP as follows:
P AaSu

therefore, use 41f in. total thick flange.

(1)
R

Calculating Maximum Allowable


Pressures for Flanges

;G2
M

+l2nbc'n +

^(m))
(2) (3)

2S s" :n16+tF-2B1t;z

Maximum allowable working pressures are required either for


determining unit test pressure or for code stamping purposes. When the body flanges are designed by computer, MAWP, (maximum allowable working pressure hot and corroded) as well as MAB (maximum allowable pressure new and cold) are generally given in addition to flange and hub dimensions. These pressures if required, can be easily determined when the {lange is designed manually, or an existing flange is to be evaluated. Since, MAP is very rarely desired only the technique for determining MAWP will be discussed. However, the same technique can be repeated to determine MAP by using uncorroded flange dimensions and allowable stresses at atmospheric temperature. Calculating MAWP for Weld Neck Flange

M: ,, I 5.S" lvlnax= :::_:+!


II

(4)

lr^
9D,f

(5) (6)

^8r-

and
therefore Mo:

M^"*=

ls-allqlr4le

"!I!!Pls!l!I4 CF

(7) (8)

to Figure and calculation steps on the calculation sheet. For a newly designed flange all the shape constants and other stress
Refer

!p' 4
thus MArWP: Smaller of (1) or (8)

- a' 11t ,.

calculation factors can be taken directly from the design calculations. However, while evaluating an existing flange which does not have any
design calculations available, the applicabl shape constants and other stress calculations factors may have to be determined

Calculating MAWP for Ring Flange Refer to Figure and calculation stps on the calculation sheet' For yfrom Table 4' .4/8. find out the value of shape constant

100

l0l

r)Est(;N oF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

IILANCE DESICN

If bolt spacing exceeds (24 + l), calculate correction factor

F:0.894 V:0.441

Otherwise, assume Cr:1. AIso, if the flange is not to be used in a multipass cylinder, the rib area, Rr, can be assumed equzl to zero. Now, calculate the lever arms io, in and fir for ring type flange and determine MAWP as follows:
P
AoS u

e:O.l3l2 d:234.r15r

r:

1.3608

(l)
Rn@ll also

f = 1.481 I l:0.7396
d:0.0888
,;"

f,G'z+l2rcbGm+

=0.8284

,^^":+
therefore,

(2t

,":ry
Mo

Cr:l
R,n:0
Sr:25,000
Sr,

(3)

'

Psi

17,500 Psi

(4)

(nt')r,*r2nbGm+ Rn(m)lho*frrc,
MAWP:
smaller of

ntfn,

B:41.25 in. I t:1.4375 irt.


G =44.75 in. m:3.'75 in.

thus

(l) or (4)

EXAMPLE NO.3
Calculate MAWP for the weld neck indepndent flange designed in
example l. and

b:0.25 in. At:34.94in'2 ho:22188 in'


ftc:1.1875 in. hr:2.O625 in

SOLUTION
t:2.75 in.
In this
case, since the flange design calculations are available, the

shape constants and stress calculation factors are already known. We have

Now
p
34.94(25,000)

T:

t.84

Z:5.625
Y= 10.9

f,{ul

sF + 7z1"yo.2s (44.7 s)3.i

+ 0) (1)

U:1r.975

:475.6568 psi -475 psi

r02

103

DESI(;N OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT


2(17,500)

F'LANOE DESI(iN

(i:61.75
m= 3.75

in.

I
ol.zg4rl.a3zit,

10.9 5.625(1.481l) * tzlsy,- g.8zuo 1\',


(2)
rr

h:0.25
rttl

Ar:23.464 in.'1 hr= 1.75 in.


t

fiu:9.9375 'n. /rr:1.3438 in.

:50,312.4596 in-lb
2(17,500)

:4.125 in.

0.8284(I.4375t' 0.8284(2.75)' --

+-t

t.481 I

:42,652.0419 in-lb

(3)

23.464(2s,000) (4) (5)

:
-

174.6607 psi

n.8ru1!1-.-7sf =

1.s(17.500)

ul4'e35 in-lb

4-

tt6l.75), + l2(z)0.25(61.75)3.?5 + 0l
174 psi

, ,=,r - = ,. t-481u.8284(2.75)z
also

t1:t=9

(l)
(2\

74.021

i^-tb

(4.t25\'z

r'7

,s00 :13129.3403 in-lb

22.68

(2.7s)2
therefor,

;: _ r0.9

17j5,9-,,

5.62s(r.481r)

,=,,, = 156.984 in-lb

(6)

therefore,

.8284(2.712

Mo

13129.3403(60.125)

:789,401.5855

789,40 r.5855
74

o -42'652

0419(41'25)

t,759.396.7i

a)

!f,O.tZSl'

t.t

+ lzn(0.25)61.7s(3.75) + 010.9375 +

f,@.ts'
(4)

| ,7 59 ,396.'7 3

f,{u.zs)'

z.xat + l2(n)0.2s(44.7
psi

s)3.7 s

+ olt.t v s +Eg4.j s,
(8)

-60.r2s'?).l1.3438

t42.4ss psi

I42 psi

-41.25, 12.062s :467.20t2

thus MAWP

142 psi

467 psi

thus

MAWP:467

psi

EXAMPLE NO.4
Calculate MAWP for the ring flange designed in example 2.

SOLUTION
ln this
case we have

Y=22.68 Cr=l

Re:0
56:25,000 psi

S.r,: 17,500 Psi B:60.125 in.

tQ4

105

l)tist(;N ol, PR()cEss EQUIPMEN'I'


FLANGE DESIGN WITH FULL FACE GASKETS
The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code does not coverthe rules for designing flanges having the gasket beyond the bott holes. This section discusses a method of designing such flanges as recommended by Taylor Forge and Pipe Works3. This method follows the framework and the terminology of the code rules and provides for simplicity of calculations. It is assumed that full fixation at the bolt circle is produced during bolting up prior to the application of the internal pressure. The inner edge ofthe flange in this condition is assumed unrestrained so that the reaction of the outer gasket is determined from static equilibrium about the bolt circle. Design of flanges with full face gaskets is canied out using the ASME Section VIII Division 1 Rules for Bolted connections using narrow face gaskets with the following modifications: The gasket contact area shall be divided into two parts by the bolt circle. The inner gasket reaction shall be determined as the larger of llo or Ilo in accordance n'ith the Code and the outer gasket reaction shall be taken as the larger of flo, or llpr which are given by

IILANCB DDSICN

wilh thc cxception that th sum of the inside and outside gasket moments cclual zero, and accordingly the total applied moment becomes:

M"= M 1t). M7
In addition, for flange design with narrow face gasket, the moment rcmains ofthe same sign throughout, while in the case ofa full face gasket ir moment reversal occurs. The moment due to gasket reaction is given by

Mc= Hehc:

r1.1-l Lh" ho'J

w-H

Since the gasket moment M6 may be greater than the resultant rupplied moment M,, the following additional check of the radial bending stress at the bolt centerline will be required:

.s^.:6Mc "r'C
The ring effect and the reduction in section caused by the bolt holes have been neglected inthe above formula. However, the given value of the $tress is quite conservative, since the moment at this location may be

Ha:Ha 1 la 1 \ h"' )

and

Ho,=H, 1 la 1 \h", )

cxpected to be lower than calculated.

EXAMPLE NO.5
Evaluate the design of standard 24 inches Taylor Forge Class 125LW (Light Weight) flange as shovr'n on page 101 of Thylor Forge catalog 571for use with full face 75A Durometer Elastomer gasket. Design conditions can be assumed to be 75 psi design pressure at 300'F Use sA-181 class 60 flange material with SA-307-B bolting. There is no corrosion allowance and assume g, equal to gr in evaluation.

Where ft6 and ftc1 represent the moment arms of the resultant
gasket reactions with respect to the bolt circle.

Assuming uniform gasket pressure distributed over annular surfaces, these distances may be expressed as:

hG= (C-B) (28+c)

6(B+C)

and

hc1= 6-C) (2A+ c)


6(C+A)

The minirnum required bolt load then is obtained as the greater of the folloY/ing two values:

SOLUTION
The dimensions of the flange as obtained from Taylor Forge catalog
571 are shown in the sketch on the calculation form for flange design with

W^t=H
and

Hp+He1=H+

H, ( 1, 9\ nct I \
|+

full face gaskets. Refer to this form for calculations of flange evaluation.
(see page 132 )

W^z=

Ho* Hat- Ha -( t

!-q

ho,)

t,

The botting requirement can be checked using the applicable bolt load calculated above. The flange can now be designed like other flanges

The calculations show that 1 inch thickness of the standard flange is not adequate for the desired design conditions of 75 psig at 300'F as the calculated tangential stress in the flange, Sn is greater than the allowable. Thus, the thickness ofthe flange must be increased to 1.125 inches in order to bdns all the stresses within allowables.

106

107

l,l.Sl(,N ()l l,lt(n li\\ l.(llltl,MljNI

l'l

AN(;11 l)lrSI(;N

It, l)illclcncc
Nomenclature

c ,4 .4, .4. b bo B C CF e
E

Diameter of bolts, in.


Outside diameter of flange, in.

Actual total cross-sectional area of bolts, in.2 Total required cross-sectional area of bolts, in.2 Effective gasket seating width. in.
Basic gasket seating width, in.

K ,n Gasket factor M Calculation factor for operating condition: M oC t l B M Cafculation factor for gasket seatrng= l14ogo1U MD Component of moment due to HD, in- lb Md Component of moment due to Ho, in- lb Mo Total moment acting upon the flange for the operating
condition, in-lb

hctwccn total hydrostatic cnd lbrce and the : H Hr, lb Ratio of outside to inside diameter of flange: ,{/B
hydrostatic cnd lorcc on area insidc of flange

Mo Mr. n N P R

Total moment acting upon the flange for the gasket seating, in-

Inside diameter offlange, in.

lb
Component of moment due to Hr, in- lb Number of bolts Gasket width, in.
Design pressure, psi

Bolt circle diameter, in. Moment correction factor

Faclor f/fto for integral type flanges and


flanges

for loose type "lho

f
F
FL
9o

Radial distance from bolt circle to outside of flange, in.

Radial distance from bolt circle to point of intersection of hub


and back of flange, in.

Hub stress correction factor Factor for integral type flanges Factor for loose type flanges
Thickness of hub at small end, in. Thickness of hub at back of flange. in.

gr
G
h

R,r Rib area, in.2 S. Allowable bolt stress at atmospheric temperature, psl S, Allowable bolt strss at design temprature, psr. 57, Allowable stress for flange material at almospheric
temperalule, psl.

fi, hc

Diameter at location of gasket load reaction, in. Hub length, in. Radial distance from bolt circle to circle on which llo acts, in. Radial distance from gasket load reaction to the bolt circle : (C

Sy,
c

Allowable stress for flange material at operating temperature'


psr

/167 Radial distance from outer gasket load reaction to the bolt
circle. in.

G\l2,tn.

fio hr H HD Ha ilc, Hp
Hpt

Calculated longitudinal stress in hub, psi. s Calculated radial slress in flange. psi. S^t Radial bending stress at the bolt centerline, psi sr Calculated tangential stress in flange, psi

Factor JBgo, in.


Radial distance from bolt circle to circle on which Total hydrostatic end force, lb
F1?.

acts, in.

t tr
U V
VL

Flange thickness, in.


Vessel or nozzle wall thickness, in.

Hydrostatic end force on area inside of flange, lb


Gasket load: W^t - H Outer gasket load, lb

,lb

Factor involving K Factor involving K Factor for integral type flanges

Total joint-contact surface compression load, lb 'lolal outer joint contact sudace cornpression load, lb 108

Factor for loose type flanges W Flange design bolt load for the operating condition or gasket seating, as may apply, lb W, Required bolt load for operating condition, lb
109

DESI(;N OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

W, y Y Z

Minimum required bolt load for gasket seating, lb


Gasket or joint-contact-sudace unit seating load, psi.

Factor involving K Factor involving K

REFERENCES t. ASME Boiler


and hessure Vessel Code, Section

VIII,

"Pressure Ves-

sels," Division 1, ASME, New York, N.Y., 1983. "Moclem Flange Design, " G&W Taylor Bonney Division, Bulletin No. 502, Seventh Edition. 3- Design of Flanges for Full Face Gaskets, Bulletin No. 45, Thylor Forye
and Pipe \!brks, Chicago,

DESIGN FORMS

Ill.

ll0
lll

z
rtt

t, a, x

tll u)

s
z
F & lI]

E
tl

v v2
tl

z
li t{ V aa

Fi
TA

ut{
z
4qr

an

za

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3
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F.
tl

i,
q +
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HJ

I \
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ta

F
+
tl tl

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rl'l

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tl

+
tl

lt,

t-

v,

5z
F]

z z
F V
q.t

a \l s
9b 96 69 Ebo ,9
t4 :s
tl

z
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N
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tr

tl

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t4
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=:

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I q
14

vt

v,

S =r;' : 9o t- oo?
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\i

N h $t \ N

itl t,

il

F.

in

*| N \o (n \ R h
Sl
co

\
t-

lf)

St $H s
F.
TD

a l.i. ao $ St p \t

u.l

\h raJ

\.

z R J \j
F

z
L)

z \ti
p
U

\r

sr

!
JI

\l N i

N \ ,N \c}

CO sr\ s \FT s \l {o \s s

t
I
U) rI']

"s

t\ Fl
tr (l,| fn
C\t

J tll crr N s.t rl.j \

\o

f-

t h \K)

U
tr.l

\
@-

N N \ 6 { :.. \ 6
\o

vt
ir

F
U
I

5i
-< X
r'r'!

JI
(J

N \o
w'

h
N
{.}

a \{
oi
E

3l vl zl il 'a ol cal ol to zl \c. \, a lO (\ (,1 l{ (\ N <l F-l lrt N I\' ,.q tdl -I

<l :

+
''Fg

6 E

-i
v)
I

6d

.a
gr

h'.. +

s
t!

s
{
tl

\{ \

+
I

o!
F*
.J

3r! gE

ptrlol

z o+ z
;.; '.)

E J I
F

*
c9-

+
tl
tl

89 ;t

i3 E?

,-

^l (/t?Jv.,I

'fq"

'jl

\
+

z
E

l^ \)
m

L)

\
I

z
(.)

\ \
'tr

%' tt)

"l
I I
I

2l

iE
l

\ci tr) cn

z (,
gJ

t
E

UIN fi lrl .o I\ t
I
I

s o R\ \i.- \o \ \a to tlQ
+
(.)

!o \ \9 \l r{\

t"t .r) m

D\i

kl

5
U? tl

Lr

t. 5
tl

c\

R rt
q;

l-

N q) ., \t \' (t."
.rl

ls
\
A.r
I I

U
! o O

o'
\l vt>'l

(Y'

c\

o
E

sl\D

N
aot

o + 9S a<
<A
F
G.
I

+ U

+r {{_r
I

t' I
F
r)
I

o s\ $, \t- Iri eo F'' \$ -i tr') f\ t{

"l
s
I

s
loo

-I
l'a

I ,5

tr

(J

.s

(!

2e :|; 9A

.E

t I I I

U
II

s
o
()

o
c.l
ts

*
*^

s
I

\|

-l ol

.t

.r:

F-

$ x \

.E

132

132.1

3
ROTATION OF HUB FLANGES

It was known, and reported, in 1957 that lhe ASMEr Ilange design nrcthod was liable to be unsatislactory for large diameter llanges and eould lead to designs that could not be made leaktight. Following are some of the deficiencies2 of the ASME method of
flange design:

l.

Satisfactory

up to 60 inches diameter, progressively more

unsatisfactory abov this and inadequate above 120 inches diameter.

2. Hoop stress due to internal pressure is neglected. l. Does not consider separately the deformation characteristics of the

4.

gasket under effects of pressure and temperature. Designs with self-energizing seals not covered other than elastomer O rings.

5. Thermal elfects neglected. 6. Designs with radial slotted holes not covered. 7. Stress concentration at fillets and holes neglected. 8. Does not give rotation offlange.
Therefore, it is recommended that the large diameter low pressure flanges should be evaluated by methods other than ASME. This chapter describes a technique to check the amdunt of flange rotation as discussed by Dudly.3 Rotation due to the following factors ts included:

(a) Initial bolt tightening (b) Internal pressure (c) Unequal radial expansion ofthe flange and shell

133

)ris

t(;N ()t, l,t{(xjljss

li()(I

'MltN.t
discussctl

RoTATION OF HUI} FI-ANGES Distance of C.G. (centcr of gravity) of flange section from X-axis

Timoshenkoa

or

Wesstorm

and llcrgh5 have also

methods to calculate flange rotation due to initial bott tightening. In his comments in Wesstorm and Bergh's paper Mr. E. C. Rodabaugh has also recommended a technique to determine the amount of flange rotation due to hoop expansion.

l long

Y-axis is

Y:lA,kl12)+ Ar(sol2)+
il)us ls

A3@o+@ |

Sdl3)llAF

Also, distance of C.G. of flange section from small end of hub along X-

Analyzing Tecbnique
The resulting forces and momnls on the flange cross section are shown

z:tA lh+ t12)+ AzQl2l+ A|Qhl3)flAr


r,: Bl2+ y
ir

in Fis.

1.

Now

d:(A therefore,

By2
nd

At:t(d) A z: h(g o)
and

r.:

Bl2+ sol2

Moment of inertia of flange section along l'axis is given by

Ar:

h(g

r_ g)/2

dftt3 s^thlJ ls,-s^lh)! .1, r -\' ,::jjj +Yil +"' 36 :: +Atlh+^-zI '' '\2/ t2 12

therefore, total area offlange section rs

Ao: Ar+ Ar+ A,

r'
-.........T-

/ h\, / 2hY +A2lz-)l +A\z- 3)


Now, the amount ofrotation for ihe flangi can b6 worked out as follows:
\L/

Rotation Due to Initial Bolt Tightetring

"B

(lnless the bolt stress is controlled to some value by using special tools, rhe maximum bolt stress attained due to bolt tightening will beo

Sb:4s,MlJ4
Now

,4.=(Number ol boltsxRoot area ofeach bolt;


thus

rrnd therefore,

SoAu

zTro

Mr:F"ho

CENTER LINE

FIG. 1. DEFINITION OF SYMBOLS

__l

I.-lange rotation due to

initial bolt tightening can

be

determined by using

the following relationship:

'*#ftcry.#)",
r35

134

)l15l(;N ()lr Pl{( x.l:SS Ii(IUII,MLNT

ROTATION OF HUD F'LAN(;ES

Where

: t.285 _ ro0o
t/

for steel

vo , ^ l2(l p2) -

'j{
I

Yo- for steel - 10.92


and

-3

,. X:l-+-"

(Z r"r.ZI\( | ! r^r"l r^r"ZI \ / | r^r^Zl\2 w' ll"-: + \p I, /\2prz' zAt ' "' r,-l-l-) \2p' r, )
I

CENTER LINE

Rotation Due to Internal Pressure

--\

Internal pressure is usually assumed to act out to the centerline of the gasket. If the nange with hub in Fig. I is taken as a free body, with unit
circumferential dimension at radius ro, the three forces due to internal
pressure P are:

I I(;. 2. ELASTICITY OF BOLTS AND GASKET REPLACED BY EQUIVALENT SPRINGS

,,c

-4r-Lu "_ 2nroT

on_ . -B'P gro . ^


and
P{G2 r- T_

Where T is the thickness ol gasket lbr llanges having a tubesheet in


between and is one halfthe thickness ol gasket lbr joint with two llanges only. Also, Eo lbr compressed asbestos can be assumed as 480,000 psi and average value of 78,700 psi lbr spiral wound gasket can be used.

PBx
2ro

the spring rate lbr the bolt is 82)


k8
AaEo

gao

2nroL

The resultant

F,will

act at a radius of

I.-or simple joint with two flanges the eflective length of bolt assigned to cach flange will be the flange thickness plus one half bolt diameter plus

G2

+ GB+ 82

3(c+B)

These lorces will cause furthr rotation of the flange. Because the bolts and the gaskets are elastic, these movements will change the
stresses in them. Thus they can be considered as a pair ofunequal springs attached to the free body as shown in Fig. 2.

one half thickness of the gasket. For a tube-sheet joint with different pressures on shell and tube sides, and flanges of approximately equal stillness, the total eltbctive bolt length should be apportioned between l he llanges in proportion to their respective pressures. Pointz can be located such that

Equivalent spring rate for the gasket is

,o:j!l

and ,u

koho
kB+ ke

136

137

t)tjSl(;N ( )lr t,t(O(jliSS

j(.ltJ lpM LjN,l.

l{oTA'110N

()| tlul} |l,ANcIls

free body to move axially without any rotation. Also, application of a couple will cause the free body to rotate around:. The equivalent

I his point ha$ thc propcrty that, il thc lioc bocly is rcstraincd orrry . by the springs l, and Ao, application of an axiel force at z will cause thc

irnd thc total dilTcrcnti.rl movcmcnt to be counteracted by elastic action ol thc shell and flange is

torsional-spring constant of ltu and ko is

do: iil * dr: qro(AT) + wo - rrr


The amount of rotation lor a flange not attached to another flange
as developed by

k Bkc(hdz kB+ kc
is

Dudly is

The momenl exerted by internal pressure


M

-a4\ 'o_,."7tio( Xtt \2lJ'} ltl


,{t
\

p- Frtr"-r.tl+ ,. Mr ' gB

FDlt"-t,14

-\\ L.t

The same rotation could M./.to the flange, where

be caused by

applying an external moment

Now. the torsional-spring constant of the hubbed flange is given by EX


r,,r,.Z

E6ol

ll
)

II':g'g
| \

H+

\
)

pt,

(r.r,l

\a-+pD)

i*

op't

Since the flange is in contact with the gaskets and bolts, the actual

and thus the flange rotation due to internal pressure is MP

rotation of the flange due to unequal expansion will be CF+C"

Rotation Due to Unequal Radial Expamion of the Flange and Shell


Flanges are left uncovered in an insulated exchanger for several reasons. If the flange is colder than the shell by an amount AT and if the expansion coeflicient is z, the shell will tend to move radially from the flange by an amount
d

'Ibtal Rotation of the Flange


The total rotation of the flange due to initial bolt tightening, internal pressure and unequal radial expansion of the flange and shell will be

r:

The dishing

"* at the inner periphery


S:

0":0

&oi e,
olthe flange
as

shown in Fig.

3, is

ar,(ATl

given by
d.-(./)

The outward expansion of the shell due to internal pressure is o RS pr? --:::: Lgo The corresponding expansion of the flange is

Pr? ra'o : .;:(2 zEgo - t) =

for steel

If, the angle of rotation d or dishing S seems to be excessive' the


design should be modified.

,-=\\" ' ArE


So the outward shift of the shell relative to the {lanse is

Recommendations

l.

The rotation of the hubbed flange may be reduced by (a) Increasing the ring thickness (b) Increasing th ring outer diameter (c) Increasing the hub length

138

139

r)rist(;N otr t,l{(xiliss tit.lr.I 'MItN

I{OTATIoN OF HLJI] tII-ANCES l)ctcrnrinc thc n]xxilllum atnount of angle of rotation of the flange irssuming thcrc is no lcmperaturc differential between the shell and the
llange.

lncreasing the hub lcngth has bccn ftrunrl to be thc most cll.icicn( solution liom a standpoint ol increased weight. Howcver, a cost checx has indicated the increased ring thickness to be the most elTicient. 2. The relative motion at the gasket tace and the rotation of the channcl flange may be reduced very efficiently by the addition of a verticat dummy pass plate.

3. Additional bolting capacity is indicated when utilizing multiple


plate.

SOLUTION
will be no rotation due to unequal radial expansion ol the flange and shell, the maximum rotation of the flange will occur
Since there

pass

during hydrostatic test rather than at the operating condition. Referring to Fig. 1, we have

C: 173.875 in., G: l7l.'7928 in., t: 1.125 in., lt: 1.125 in., ao = I it.
A:1'75.'75 in.,
169 in.,

8:

and

dr:1
Now,
FIG. 3. SECTION OF A ROTATED FLANGE

1875 in

d:1175.75
therefore,
A|

169)12

= 1.375 in.

EXAMPLE
169 in. inside diameter steel flange is to be used as a joint with another flange having in. thick steel jacketed compressed asbestos

.t25 \3.37

5J

3.79

69 in.2

gasket.

is designed at atmospheric temperature for l5 psi. internal pressure in accordance with ASME code and has the followrng
Outside diameter:
l'7

It

Az=
and

l.l25ll):

|.125 in.'z

dimensions:
5.75 in.

/.r
thus
A

r.r25( t.l 875

)/2 =0.1054

in.'

Bolt circle diameter - | 71.875 in. Gasket O.D. : 172.5 in. Diameter at gasket load reaction Gasket I.D.

ts:3.'1969 + 1.125 + 0.1054


l.?9691 y_ '
1.b875)

5.0273

in.l

L I 25{0.5}+ 0.1054{'.0025,
5.02'73

_,.0,,n.
=
l

I7|

.7929

in.

170.5 in.

Width of the gasket

in.

_ "

3.7q69(1.6875)

I.125(0.5625) F0.1054(0.75) 5.0273

'

-+1r)I ln.

Diameter of bolts:0.875 in. Number of bolts:180


Flange thickness

1.125 in.

,, t69 ; - l.4l 85.91 in..


in.

ro

169 - , +, - 85 in.
I

Thickness ofhub at small

end: I

and

Hub length:1.125 in.


Thickness ofhub at back offlange:1.1875 in.

. /r

l7-r.E75

| 11 .79

28 ..... l-tr4ll
t41

ln.

140

l)lisl(;N Orr P R( X)tiSS EQUIPMENT


1.1875 - 1.0x t.125)r , 3.375(1.125)-].l(1.125)3 rr: * *--lf i2 36
(

IToTATION OF HUI} FLANGES Rotstion Due to Test Prssur


The flange will be subjected to test pressure of25 psi. (1.5 times the design pressure)and the resulting forces on the flange due to this pressure will
be as follows:

3."1969 (0.27

4), + L 125(0.8536)' + 0.1054(0.6661r: 1.6727 in.4

Rotation Dm to Initial Bolt Tightening

tt69t225 lbrin. r-:_G;^ 25(169\2.25 Fr:]sf -1050 1e1: e-:2!tnl!_!4 8(85)


Now

-56 lb

in.

s,:ff - J0.875 :48,t07 psi. Ao: t80(e.4t9t:7 5.42 in.,


- 48,107 t't lr:therefore,
Mr
5

j5 rbrin.

.421

:n(851

:6,794 lb/in.

,__

1111.7928)' + 1'71.79281169)

'

3(17l.'7928 + 169l

+ 169' _85.2 n.

6,794(1.041 |

l:

7,073

in-lb/in.
1,

l- -r li2.s'-lio.s'?) :538.7844 in.'z


:O.t:S+

For steel E:29{10)6

psi.

p:

285
)

Ec:48(10)apsi. Er:29(10)'Psi.

J85(l

L:
there[ore

t.I2s + 0.0625 +0.5(0.875) :1.625 in. T:0.5(0.


125)

and
thus

llrl '-'' :0.0916 /: to.92

:0.0625 in.
t.?4?.783 lb7in. per lrnear rn.

tc

t1"]111'19!,0-2n(85)0.0625

_. f t.4t6t
10.r

t.6j2't _t r _85(85.er)r.4l6t(0.0916)l' :,",.r, |.6127 I '""-'', | 2t0.t3e4l'


therefore,

,85(8s.91)0.0e16 .8s(85.91)1.4161(0.0916)l l2(0.1394111.4161 l.416l

394 I

85(85.e 1) r.4l6 t (0.0916)-l

1.6721 I (s.0271)
I
r.

ano

o"=:to^1"?',t:: d

2'T(85X 1.625)

=2.520.185 rb7in. per rrnear rn.

Now

2,520,r 8s(1.041 1)
(2,s20,1 85 +'7,7 47,'t 83t

:0.2555 in.

85.8964 + 0.2555

86.l5l9

in.

xa:1.0411-0.2555:0.7856in.

.
r

85(8jelrt.4l6t I _f "'Lzsa ofi 6.rJ.z7)o.r 3ea(l i72u rl


,,

_2.520.185(7,747,783X1.04tt, = r.OU,., (2,520.1 85 + 7.747.7831


15

r,
rr59 in-rb1in.

MP:3s(86
I

r9

8s

a+

1050(86l sl

n.o-r?'-

[85(85.91t0.09r6 I | t/anr? | I l.4l6r(5.0273) 4{0.1394)r(l.4l6t) l' " "'


:0.0106 radians :0.6073"

r.rr,:
3

^ 1,07 cr:ffi:667'264
(2,061,rs3 + 66't ,264)

therefore

:0.00046 radians =0.0264"

142

143

F
l)ESt(;N (-)F PROCESS EQUIPMENT ROTATION OF HUB FLANGES

Totd Rotraion of the Flange


trs

=0.0106 + 0.000+6 :0.01106

radians =0.63370

Therefore
Conclusion

S:0.01t06(3.325) :0.0173in.

Amount ol maximum allowable rotation is to be decided by the designer British Standard No. 1515, part l, 1965 ,."orn-"nd, m"xiiu_ allowable rotation ol lhe order of 0.75.. However, the example flange considered above represents an actual case in which leakage was observed around the periphery of the flange during the hydrostjic tesr. The most probable cause for the leakage was considered to be rotation of the llange. The llange design was modified and the leakage was stopped. It would appear therefore, that a maximum flange rotarion angl. more conservative than 0.75" should be considered.

llI 9o g, C I lr.

Force due to internal pressure,lb/in. Thickness of hub at small end, in. Thickness of hub at large end, in.

Diameter at location ofgasket load reaction, in. Hub length, in. Radial distance from gasket load reaction to the boh circle, in.

t
kB

sill2(t - p"):e;/10.92

for steel

k(-

L M.
Mo

Nomenclature

,4 At A2 A3
,46

Outside diameter of flange. in. Area ofsection l. in.2 Area of section 2, in.2 Area of section 3, in.2

M,, M,r
Qo

Moment of inertia of area u4, about lTaxis, in.a Spring conslant ol bolts, lb/in. per linear in. Spring constant of gasket, lb/in. per linear in. Effective length of bolt per flange, in. Moments acting on flange, in-lb7 in. Moments acting on flange, in-lb7in. Moments acting on flange,in-lb7in. Moments acting on flange, in-lb7in.

Maximum internal pressure, psi.


Radial shearing force at small end of hub,lb Radialdistance, in. Radial distance, in. Radial distance, in. Radial distance, in. Dishing al the inner periphery of flange, in. Maximum bolt stress afiained due to bolt tightening, psi. Flange thickness, in.

,4" Total area offlange and hub section, in.2 Ac Face area ofgasket, in.2 I Inside diameter offlange, in. C Bolt circle diameter, in. C. Torsional-spring constant of bolts and gasket Cr Torsional-spring constant offlange and hub d Thickness offlange in radial direction, in. d, Diameter of bolt, in. D Plars constant ' E Modulus ofelasticity offlange material, psi
Eb

Total thread root area ofbolts, in.2

rT

s si
I

T Thickness of gasket assigned to flange, in. Outward radial displacement at small end of hub, in.
Constant

z
a
lJ
U

Axial distance from C.G. to small end of hub, in.


Coefficient of thermal expansion of shell material in./in.' F Shell constant Angle of rotation offlange, radians. Poisson's ratio of flange material

Ec Modulus of elasticity ofgasket material, osi FB Bolt force, lb7in. F, Force due to internal pressure,lbTin. fo Gasket force,lb/in. F R Force due to internal pressure,lbTin.
144

Modulus of elasticity of boh material, psi

t45

)tist(;N

oI

I,l{()(itiss ljQtjIl,MLiNl'

RUt'URf,NCES

L ASME Boiler and


Vessels," Division

Pressure Vessel code, Section

VIII.

"Pressurc

l, ASME, New York, N.Y., 1983. "A 2. Review of Present Methods for Design of Bolted Flanges for Pressure Vessels." British Standard Institution Document No.
8D6438, Ocrober. 1969.

4
STRESS ANALYSE OF FLOATING HEADS

3. Dudly, W. M., "Deflection of Heat Exchanger Flanged Joints as Affected by Barreling and Warping," ASME Trans., 1960, Paper 60wA70. 4. Timoshenko, S., "Strength of Materials," D. Van Nostrand Company Inc., New York, N.Y., 1941,Part II, Art.34. 5. Wesstrom, D. B., and S. E. Bergh, "Effect of lnternal Pressure on Stresses and Strains in Boltd Flanged Connections," TRANS. ASME. Vol. 73. 1951. 6. Petrie, E. C., "The Ring Joint, lts Relative Merit and Application," Heating, Piping and Air Conditioning, Vol. 9, April, 1937.

The floating head is an essential part of certain types of shell-andtube heat exchangers, It consists of a segment of a spherical shell attached to a ring shaped flange. A cross-section of a typical floating head is shown in Fig. l,

w-H-

FIC. I.

CROSS SECTION OF

TYPICAL FLOATING HEAD

r46

147

l)ESl(;N 0r, PllocEss EQUTPMENT Floating beads can be built of forgings or castings. They can also be fabricated from formed heads welded into rolled and welded plate flanges or machined forged flanges. Regardless of the material or the method of fabrication, the floating head must be designed to withstand the combined effects of pressure and boltload.
technique for designing floating heads is discussed in UA-6, Section VIII, Division I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code.' However, the formulas given are approximate and do not take into account continuity between the flange ring and the dished head.

STI{ESS ANALYSIS OF FLOATINO HEADS Stress Analysis Due ao Intemal Prssure

Lst Pr be the tube side pressure or the pressure insid the floating head,
then, the force H is H

:PtrB2
4

The dislance e can be determined by

,:r_i(r_""*)
Now,

In this stress analysisl the flange is assumed to be cut loose from the head. A ring moment, M, and a ring load, V, are applied to both the head and the flange at their junction. These represent the total moment and the total force acting over the junction surface between the head and flange. M and V are computed assuming that the radial and angular displacements of the flange are equal to those of the head at their line of junction. Forces and moments acting on the head and flange are shown in Fig. 2. The total bolt load has been treated as a continuous ring load.

)t:1.29

xt:l - sl

cot o

o Kt:r- cot rzsi,


0.2'75mt

ln(K)

Kr

-e

rr: ^

l.llmt ln(K\ 'r\ ,,

BKr

r-Gl
B

e cot ,o+'q"--q'-il-wh c.:Hl "LIJJ ^ zsin al,, . t\. B 1.65e (

.-/T

^'

+- z \^'*x,/-+ni- x,

.,:f('-'?)
H<Therefore,

,-l 0.35 \ /- _ut /4q' - B cot <o '.-"\ 4nd sin,pf

c2c6-c3cs c2c4 ctc5


and
FIC. 2. FORCES AND MOMENTS ACTINC ON HEAD AND FLANCE

crc6-c3c4 c2c4-ctcs
r49

148

I)rjst(;N oF Pr{(x)ljss EQUIPMENT


Head Stresses
Stress on outside of the head is given by

STRESS ANALYSIS OF FLOATING HEADS

_.---.-|rp 0.15\ - ,,(4(t-Bcot (":nl 44.1 Stn q,,/ \


tp

" z, - oBt 'rst, '0.Stress on inside of the head is

_P,R ,

V cos

6M

Now,

c2c6- c3c 5 c2c4-c rcs


anq,

\_ ::

P,R

2t

. -t

Vcos

rp 6M nBt nBt2

rc6- c 3c 4 c2c4-c rc 5
c

Flange Stresses Bending stress in the flange is given by

Head Stresses

Direct stress in the flange is


s"

":w?-ry)
Flange Stresses

- P"R Vcosa 6M ^ \.:-+-]-2t tBt rBt2 ' + Vcos o- 6M s..: -P-R 2t nBt TtBt'
=

*' \ L__l n P ull*l -"'-l -' : nBrl" -"o,,\'l\K'zr/ \8


Resultant Flange Strsses Resultant stress on outside of the flange is
57,

. r r,:

"':

O.525n

arK,

\n-;i
e

-. 4Mi\
v

Sa

_ Sr

--. \ ,,]/K'z+l\ -Llr\8-col )- )\K4 )


1,,(+q
Slo

Resultanl stress on inside of the flange is


S.r;1

Resultant Flange Stresses

:Sa+56

: 51- 56

Stress Analysis Due to External Pressure

Sliz:Sa*So
Stresses with Full Gssket Restnint

Let P" be the shell side pressure or the pressure outside floating head, the force II will be

In lhis

case also, C

, : '.:t'
C t, C 2, C 4 and C, will be the same as worked out earlier for inlernal pressure. C. can be worked out from the relationship

r,

2, C 4 and

C, will remain unchanged.

Also,

cr=;
and c u=

\ '"--'-il-wh ^ .-/ecot a+2str-at Cr:H{


\I,/
and

+ntt

Now

150

151

l)l:Sl(;N ( )lr Pl{()(ILSS liQtJll,MINT

STITESS ANALYSIS

()F I LOATINC HEADS

,,
and

c2c4-ctcs

2(:6-

(' 3c

EXAMPLE
clesigned

tco- c rc4 c2c4*ctcs


c

With no pressure applied,

stresses in head and flange due to unit force

can be determined as follows: Head Stresses

^ \.:tand

V cos

e nBt

6M rBt2 6M tBt2

Analyze the stresses in the floating head of a kettle type reboiler for 310 psi shell side and 100 psi tube side pressure both at 650"F. The flange material is A-105 and had is made of A-515-70. The head is 0.9375 in. total minimum thick and has inside dish radius of 3l.09375 inches. The inside and outside diameters of flange are 34.75 in. and 3'7.':'5 in. respectively and it is 5.5 in. thick in longitudinal direction cxclusive ofcounterbore. The inside depth offlange is 3.8554 inches. The diameter at the gasket load reaction is 35.125 in. and bolt circle diametr is 36.5 in. The shell and tube side corrosion allowance can be assumed to be 0.0625 inches. The total bolt Ioad is 255,443 pounds.

^ Vcos(p
ftBt
Flange Stresses

SOLUTION
Referring to Fig. l, we have
A

3'7.'7 5

/ .. ^ " BrKr\ B/
0.525n

4M)\

2{0.0625)

37.625 in.

B =34.'15

+20.0625):34.875 in.

and J,:lResultant Flange Stresses


Sy,

C:36.5 in. c:35.125 in.


R

I\ ^" /l - /\/K2+ ll

\'rBIl\K'- l /
-

31.093?5 +0.0625 + (0.937 s -0.125]112 :31.s625 tn.

t :Q.93'75

2(0.0625):0.8125 in.
(37 .625

, (A_ B) u2
T:
and
5.5

34.8't

s)

51_ Sr

Syr::Sa*56
The force F is given by the negatiye quotient ofthe values of Sr,, or Sy;2 due to intrnal or external pressure (whichever is higher) and the value of Sr,, due to the unit force as determined above.

-0.0625

5.4375 in.

q:3
Now,
rr

8554 in'

F:-fl',\ ' \sr,. / ". -' -fL.\ \Sr'../


Multiplying the strsses due to unit force by F and combining these with the stresses previously computed for intrnal or external pressure
(whichever is higher) will give us the resultant outside and inside head and flange stresses in the floating head. If, the resultant stresses are not within allowable limits, modifications in design are required.

2Z T s 4175 ' =-^ n: t ;z;;:6.6923 u.6ll)


i = : (G B)

tl :(c 2t tl

c):

:(36.5

35.1

25):0.6875 in.

:;(35.125

34.875)

:0.

25 in.

152

153

l)r,st(;N orr pt{(xt[ss UQUtPMENT


nr

STI{ESS ANAI,YSIS ()1.

I'I,oATINC HEADS =

(rr)r

(6.6923)r

299.7272

K=

77

6)5

l 9!9i! f102!t -12{22tsj?9!l 5.8668(8.5695) - 3.6535(s.2698)


r.6535(

43,26',7

lb

r:ao*rr::t'ozss
/14
R7s

r5?.026)

7e.892(8.5695)

*:.,n'(urrr)
Pr:
100 Psi

:sin'

r{o.s52s):33.s4"

5.8668(8.5695)

3.651s(5.2698)

-40,562 in-lb

Chck Up for Internal Pressure

Head Stresses

.s.

-":

_r00(1.5b25r+, 1l.i.u],9.tLr:* or _alf9?l_ . : _ 2(0.8125) r(34.8?5)0.8125 r(34.8?5X0.8125)'


1.5625)

r.828 psr.

100(2X14.875)

+
3.85s4

:9)')lo

lb
t.62 {l ln.

|/ nRlt{\ :I s.437s - v.6JJJ ::= | : -z \

100(J s,'--2tgjt25) + n(:qj?5lgjtx -

(-43,267)0.8115

6( -40,562)

n(34.875tt0.8125),

:4vuz

psl

Flange Sarsses

;-

/rr s,<rs r.29 |-:::::::8.0401 v u.drz)


| 50R5 r-ffi:o.e62s

_ 755 \ _ 0.525(6.6e23) -- ( oa ro, _or- 40.s62)8.0401)_ "'-:+.srs(o.8rzsto.so2s 34.875

| | /41\85541 s' -n{34.815r5r37sle5'526(;8i5 -,"'.no.\-, : - 1,299 psi.


Resultant Flange Stresses

psr.

'

/''--

r.,

r^r,-ll216"\
l\0.r638J

Kz: t 0

1.5085

tr***:0'8499
0.962s

21121.??2)0!' 2ll,tg78!l _ 1.6241 :3.6535 in.


t299.'7 27
2

v2

|.t (8.040t

(0.8125)0.07585

1,299 -(- 755): - 544 Psi : 1,299 +( - 755): * 2'054 Psi s711 -

Sr): -

34.875 (0.9625)

r :5.8668
o.

Check Up for External Pressure

s,s26lt.624l

(1.5085)

2(3.8554) 1.5821 34.8'ts

P":310 psi.

125]-

255,443(0.6875)

:79,892 in-lb

8i1910!525r(s34es+-t

34.875 * I j!!f i41) \+ o.962s / 4(6.6923)1.t75 0.8t2s(0.9625)

.. ( - 310)n(34.875)'z : H: 4
c3:

-296.129lb

-296J291 1.6241(1.5085)

+: 34.8.7s

,(:.sss+)l.s!4_o.rrrl

I
'o

:8.5695

t^ s =0.8r2s10.9025)
1

r.65 f * 4{8.0401)1.624t I 34J7s l:s2698/in' Lr


a16Je21r.-i--osszsl: t54
|

s\: - 967'689 in-lb 4(3.8554) - 34.87s(1.5085) C6: -296,129l 4(6.6923)t .37 5


255,443 (0.687

-u1*]=o'u'"'

":v:':zol

^- -^_[4(3.8ss4)-34.875(1.5085) 0.]5

157.026 lb

Now

155

l)ttst(;N ()tr PR(x:liss tx)(JIPM EN'I'

S'I'I(USS ANAI,YSIS OF ITLOATIN(; HEADS

,,
and

5.8668(486.777 ) I 967,68e(5.2698) 31.0223

atrtl 256,M0 tb

:{Ilgrs47.sl ?f
31.0223

1875(&5621

_0.63e4 in-lb

M: 3.6535
Head Stresses

(486,7 77) + 96 7,689 ( 8.5 69 5 )

31.0223

:324,639 in-lb

'hererore'

r,.:0*#ffi*.;offiffi33rr : -0'055?
6{

psi'

S,,

(-310)31.5625 .
2(0.812s)

256,440(0.833s)
t(34
8?510^8

t25

6(324,639)
|

irnd - 0.282)0.8335 ( -o-! " ' n(34.875 )0.8125 ''ri


(

-0.6394)

_0.0504 psi.

r (34.875)(0.81 25)'

n(34J75X0-8

25f
0.s2s{6.6e23) [_o.rrr_0,-0.^u?1?-t.oootl:o.oreop,i. \, .^:34875(0.8t "-"34.8'15 J 25)0.9625 L
"J

:23,310 psi.
t,.:--l-

310) 31.5625

2s6,440(0.8335)

6(324,639)

2(0.8125)

z(34.875)0.8125 z(34.875)(0.812s)'?

: - 30,550 psi.
Flange Stresses

/ | -t' -0.2821 \/2.1638\ ' s-l ll - - l:0.0284 - U(34.87s)5.4375l\0. 1638/

Psi

: _jj?!1623) 'u:34i75(0J
s.
125

t _106 Iror _ /r 6rR\-l s :_ | t.066J)_256.4401..'.:: I l:1.315 psi, -' ---'---' nt34.8'75)5.43'7s L \0 1638/l
r

I -

040r I _, - 4r324.63er8 14.8?5 10.9625 Lt'o'*t) -l:

Now

,.^

-5'530psi'

Sr,:0.0284 -0.0396: -0.0112 Psi'


S7r3:0'0284
thus with internal Pressure

0'0396 =0'068 Psi'

two values ofSJi' The force F is given by the negative quotient of the

Resultant Flange Stresses

Sr":1315
Sri,
Stresses with

-(+(

1315

5530):6,845 psi. 5530): - 4,215 psi.

p: -

/ tn54\ . _I _-::: l:30.206

0.068

Ib

and with external Pressure

Full Gasket Restraint

In this

case

o: -1-a2ls):ot.sts \ 0.068 /
n-tb
Stresses Due to lnternal Pressure and with Full Gssket Restrsint

tu

c,=seI:21187s
and
34.875 4(6.6923) 1 .37 s

:0.94'15lb

by the Multiplying the stresses determined above due to the unit force to due stresses the with these .orr".pinOlng force F and combining

internal pressure

as

computed earlier, we get

Now
5.8668(0.9475)

Sr,: 2.7r87 s(s.2625\ 31.0223

0.0557(30,206)

-0.282 lb

srr

1828: -3,510Psi'

0.0504(30,206) + 4902

6'424 psi.

Sr,,: - 0.01l2(30,2061- 544: Sr1:0.068(30'206) - 2054 =0

882 Psi'

156

r57

t)tlsl(;N ( )tr pl{(xjtjss lQtJll,MIN1.


Strcssrs Duc lo llxternal Prossurc and with Full Gasket Resaraint

S'TI{ESS ANALYSIS

oT TLOATIN(; HEADS

obtain the combined stresses, we get sa


srr
s_/,,

Repeating the above procedure and subtracting the external pressurc [(]

:
:

-0.0557(61,985) + 23,310 _ 310


0.0504(6 1,985)

19,547 psi.

: - 0.01 12(61,985) + 6,845 - 310:5,841 psi. S/r :0.068(61,985) 4,215 - 3lO: - 310 psi.

30,550 _

3 I0

_ 27,7 36 psi.

I T / w E

Corroded head thickness, in. Corroded longitudinal thickness offlange, in. Ring-load between flange and head,lb

Total bolt load, lb


One half of central angle of head

: sin

'

(B/2R )

REFERENCES
l. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, "Pressure Vessels," Division l, ASME, New York, N.Y., 1983. Soherns, J. E., "The Design of Floating Heads for Heat Exchangers," ASME Paper 57-A-247.

AII the stresss determined above due to internal or external pressure and with or without full gasket constraint are within thc allowable of 30,400 psi (0.8 yield) stress, rherefore, our design is safe.

Nomenclature
Corroded outside diameter offlange, rn. Corroded inside diameter offlange, rn. Bolt circle diameter, in. Corroded radiai thickness offlange, in.
Mean gaskel diameter, in.

c
d
G h

Radial distance from gasket load reaction to the bolt circle

:(c - G)12

K
m

Radial distance from corroded inside diameter to the gasket load reaction :(G - B)/2 A/B
n3

M
n
P.

Ring-moment between flange and head,

in-lb

T/t
Inside pressure on the floating head, psi. Outside pressure on the floating head, psi. Inside depth offlange, in. Mean corroded head radius, in. Stress on the outside offlange, psi.
Stress on the inside offlange, psi. Stress on the outside of head, psi. Stress on the inside offlange, psi.

q R
e
C

S,,
Jl,i

158

159

5
FIXED TUBESHEET DESIGN

In the chemical industry, heat exchangers are frequently required to be fabricated of expensive corrosion-resistant materials, and to avoid waste of such materials it is desirable that tubesheet thicknesses should be no greater than are required to withstand the design conditions involved. This chapter discusses the design offixed tubesheets in accordance with the method proposed by Dr. K. A. G. Miller.r It takes into account the support given to the tubesheets by th tubes and also the weakening effects of different tube hole spacings. The tubesheet designed by thrs method results in thickness much less than as given by the method proposed by TEMA'? (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association). The Miller method is generally preferred over the TEMA method for economical purposest especially for large diameter alloy tubesheets
designed for low internal pressure. There, will not only be a saving rn material but, more important, a saving in the machining time for drilling the holes in the tubesheet. Discussion is limited to the box type ofexchanger as shown in Fig. I, since thiscovers almost all types of fixed tubesheet exchangers used these days. The tubesheet has been assumed to be simply supported because rn almost all cases, gaskets are neither full faced nor extended inside bolt holes. In any case, if the type ofexchanger or the boundary condition is different than discussed, one should refer to Miller's paper for analysis. A detailed example follows the short discussion ofdesign procedure in order to present the application of this method for design problems.

t6l

t)ltst(;N ( )tr
Design Procedure

l{( x

jtjss

LQTJTPMENT

FIXED TUBESHEET DESION

I)ifferential exPansion

is
y

= d10t- d"0"

liflective pressure diflerence due to the combined pressure difference P and the differential exPansion i' is

P":P+y*+
Determine the value ofdimensionless factor

FIG. 1. . BOX TYPE HEAT EXCHANGER

E,na ^| rn:tot[tP;,1e-o

-]"

D ^

area o[ one tube is

Typical cross-section of a tube is shown in Fig. 2. Cross_sectional


nd,2 t: nd2 q- q

The values of Gr, G2, G3 and Ga corresponding to the factor l(R can be read from Table 1.
KR Gr

c2
0.800 0.810 +1.000 +0.998 +0.966 +0.836 +0.546
+0.121

G.
1.000 1 .002

Cross-sectional area of inside ofshell is

0
0.5 1.0

"

A:lpz
4

0.800 0.809 0.820


0.871

0.844
o.993

t.)
2.0
2.5

t.o29 t.14
I .40

Cross-sectional area of tube holes in tubesheet is given by

t.012
t.34
1.88

t.412
2.40 4.24 6.36 8.53
10.7 5

t;79
2.25

c:|a,,
Cross-sectional area ofshell plate is found using the formula

3.0

J.)
4.0
4.5 5.0 5.5

2.36
2.75

-0.306 -0.608 -0.7 4r


-0.727

2.69 3.10
3.47 3.83

B:

3.10
3.43

n(D +

t)t

13.1

Deflexion or ligament efficiency can be calculated from the relationshtp

6.0

4:P:(A-C) A
Determine

7.O

8.0 9.0
10.0 12.o 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.o

4.12 4.82 5.54 6.26


6.98 8.43

15.8 18.7

2s.3
33.1

-0.619 -0.541 -0.515

4.529
-0.5 64

4.18 4.54 s.26


5.97 6.68 7 .39 8.81 10.23 11.65 13.06 14.48

41.8

a:E-!: E"B
Working Conditions
Calculate equivalent pressure difference by

)l.t)
74.3
101.1

9.88
11.33

132.0 t67 .2

i2.80
14.25

206.4

-0.602 -o.642 -0.727 -0.816 -0.907 -o.999 -1.091

P: P,' - P, . -'A-C 'z""


162

TABLE r. VALUES FOR Gl, G2' G3 and G4

163

)tist(;N ()tr t,l{(xItss IQtJtpMLNT.

IlxDl)'ruBBsHtit1,r D[slcN

Maximum radial stress in tube plate is given by

,-,

I1 ^u*, -lt"4lQG,+Gzf \ltl


t

t^^A^-l - t'
e

c,u

oy'

,i :
r/'

,,.:26.08(10)" psi. z,:7.16(10) 6 in./in. "F


5o Psi.

l),:580

in.

70:510"F
2(0.083)

Also, maximum stress in tube material is sreater of

ri:1.5

P,r^u*1

:(

_oct

l, ",

(-,;*,

:
:

1.5

t)]

1.334 in.

ti,

ZZ.52,tOru Ott.

a,:

?.96(10)- 6 in./in. "F

,ir:27.52(10)6 psi.
Assuming the total thickness of tubesheet as 3 in. therefor,

rl-u''A-stl

Similarly, the stresses in tube plate and tubes should be determined for different combinations of shell and tube design pressures, if any are required. If, either of the stresses in any of the cases is found moreihan the allowable, the tube plate thickness should be modified unless the stresses within allowable limits are obtained.

".@,T31]

ft:3 -Total required corrosion : 3 - 0.062s :293't5 n.


5)2 -334)2

allowance

:0.3695 in., .. a:4-4-r(l _n(l na : 2436(0.3695) :900. I in''?

n(I10.625)' ^-.,1.6 in.'z :n6l o:""'\"'"'


c

EXAMPLE
Design 58-162 Ni 200 tubesheets in accordance with K. A. G. Miller method for a fixed tubesheet exchanger having an expansron joint. The A-516-70 shell has an uncorroded inside diameter of I10.5 inches and is designed for 150 psi internal pressure at 580"F. The shell
plate is 0.625 inches thick inclusive of0.0625 inches corrosion allowance. There arc 2436,22leet long, 1.5 inches outside diameter and 0.083 inches thick SB-163 Ni 200 tubes. Tube side design conditions are 50 psi at 580"F. Shell and tube metal temperatures can be assumed to be 580"F. Total corrosion allowance for tubesheet should be 0.0625 inches.

-i :'"":'

<\2

ecttt:4304.8

in.2

I l.?51, n(110.625t' : B=r(l O, _ a

t96.5 in.,

- C:s6ll.6 -

4304.8:5306.8 in.'

^ --^. 4:It=-:u.))21

5306.8

a: 27.52(10)6 26.08(10)6(196.5

(900.1)
r

:4.8336

SOLUTION
Pr

":,50_50-H#:er.5psi
Sinc the exchanger has an expansion joint the differential thermal
expansion will be

150 psi.

0"=580-70=510.F

D:

r 10.5

+ 2(0.0625): 110.625 in.

t :0.625

-0.0625 :0.5625 in.

?:0
164

to)

t)1.:st(;N ( )r, therefore,

pti(xjljss tjQUtpMINT
psi.

F'IXED TUBESHEET DESION

p.: p:91.5
ruoesneet, whtch gtves

Nomenclature
a

Let us assume_that the tube projection is 0.125 inches outside each

Cross-sectional area of metal in one tube, in.2 Cross-sectional area of bore of shell, in.2 Cross-sectional area of shell plate, in.2 Cross-sectional area of tub holes in the tubesheet, in.2

L :22(12)

2(3) _ 2(0.125)

:257.7s in.
a

d'
D

From Table l, for kR:8.5282 we get by interpolation


Cr
G

5 9203

and
P,(max): [91.5 -

6r: - 0 5841
Gt:6.3450
50(

z:31

6953
h

Outside diameter of tubes, in. Inside diameter of tubes, in. Bore ofshell, in. Modulus ofelasticity for tubesheet material, psi. Modulus ofelasticity for shell rnaterial, psi. Modulus ofelasticity for tube material, psi. Thickness of the tubesheet, in.
of the tubes, in.

L Ellective length
n

l.8l l2)4.8jj6]

I10.625

Number of tubs Equivalent pressure difference, psi.


Pressure outside tubes, psi. Pressure inside tubes, psi.

4 14.8336

(s.9203) + 37.69

:p,(max)

zws
psi.
O.K.
p
P,(max) P,(max)

l85l

psi (compression) < I1,700

ElTective pressure difference due

to

combined pressure

:#1r.5
:433 psi

-( -0

5s4r/1####{l.l
1

difference P and the differentialexpansion i,. psi.

Maximum radial stress in tubesheet, psi. Maximum longitudinal stress in tubes, psi.

e,r,nu4: !963 [el.s vw.r

91 5

-16.34591

- 50( l'8 | l2t+ g:lo]1 (4.8336+6.3450) |

:1698 psi (Tension)< 15,520 psi, O.K. Since all the stresses are within allowable limits, a 3 inch thick tubeshet is sufficient for this exchanger. Thickness .outa U" iu.it", reduced but seems to be quite reasonable for such a large "*"nung"..

Q t r" z, 7 4 p 0" 0,
l.

E,nalE,B
Corroded thickness ofshell, in. Coeflicient of thermal expansion of shell, in./in. F Coeflicient of thermal expansion of tubes, in./in. 'F Differential expansion per unit length, in./in. Deflexion efliciency Ligament efficiency
Temperature ofthe shell,

'F

Temperature of the tubes,'F

REFERENCES
Miller, K. A. G., "The Design of Tube Plates in Heat Exchangers," Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. lB, t952 53, pp.2l5-23t. 2. Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, Sixth
Edition. New York. N.Y.. 1978.
166

FIG. 2. CROSS SECTION OF A TUBE

t67

6
FLANGED AND FLUED EXPANSION JOINTS

btween tubes and shell offixed tubesheet exchangers, when making an expansion joint selection. Temperature differences between shell and tuie side fluids cause differential expansion oftubes and shell Asaresult the tubes are subjected to stress unless suitable provision is made to accommodate the differential expansion. Expansion joints are installed, when required, to accommodate differential expansion' Tubisheet thickness design formulas of the TEMA STANDARDS' are relatively simple for all construction other than fixed tubesheet desien. In this desisn a factor "J" has a value of 1.0 for shells without expa'nsion joints, and mostly zero for shells with expansionjoints, except foi designs which require special consideration. Among these are those expansion joints which require considerable axial load to produce movement and are known as "ring expansion joints." There are several types of ring expansion joints. They have been successfully used where small movements are to be accommodated and whre the frequency of movement is minimum. They offer significant advantages over the more flexible thin wall bellows type joints in fixed tubesheet heat exchanger

One must consider Yarious aspects of differential expansion

applications.

The procedure as recommended by Kopp and Sayre2 for designing these typis ofjoints is discussed briefly. This computation method takes into account joint flexibility of the shell plates and of the circular ring' The following three types of ring expansion joints can be analyzed with

this technique: L FIat plates with ring Thisconsists of two concentric flat plates with a circumferential bar at the outer edges. Tbe flat plates can flex to make some allowance for differential expansion. This design is genrally

169

t)Est(iN oF PROCESS EQUTPMENT used

FLANOED AND FLUED EXPANSION JOINTS

for vacuum

are subject to severe stress during differential 2. Flenged only herds Inthistv The curved shape tends to reduce the Flanged and flued herds Thi expansion
expe-nsive because of the

service (steam surface condensers).

;_;;i;"."'

All wetd! "

Let E be the modulus of elasticity at design temperature and m be the Poisson's ratio of expansion joint material. Now,

d;il;G";;;,ffi'ji"Hl!lii":tl.,1T,1x,.fl fi ]hlill
,"*,

3.

wrrn concentric reverse flue

joint.rnliiJtr;'i:11?il'H#,'iffj.liff i,.j:j "IJi,i*fy


^l1l"l fluingoperation.

""

,f,"

*"fi#;iiiir.

^Ro

Tq.: f,.ra,
iri" "u-rii

.:ffi(I)
hf b:t +t
-L

the amount of stress significantly.

"* Jr,;d;;&"r,

:I:n-,C:^. example is included


Design Procedure

#il, ," paragraph 7.tel of riMA" St;$ffi;;'"r., :::::d** .with having_ these type of expansion
rnlalirionl predicting the value of ,,J" factor for designing fi;;;;.;;;;;
unuryrir.

discussed applies directly to type I above. However, provrsron ^-^..Ll._,::l-l'?": ls made to convert the actual cross_section oftyp" iu"J an equivalent of type I (i.e., square cornered ring, with the same total leng.th of plare along the centerline)for

ll",o
zla +
F,J

loRpa , , ,< | L lt-^'11'o ' '-- ,

l1-

oJ

to demonstrate

:"i*. l. p."r".[i rhi .f ;"t;iq; ;;;;;;;. ^" "r"

D:nffi)
At:(2bLIC

Br:(2a+ L)C

a,:ltt-rtc
n,:lta+Dc
v,:L]+oa,-Le,
TYPE

I
FIG.

v,: -l-o.a,+L-;,
TYPE

TYPE

I.

RING TYPE EXPANSION JOINTS

^:ffl
Moments Drc to Internal Pressure
Let P be tho internal pressure and x be the distance above point is shown in Fig. 1, then

joint of Type 2 or 3 is desired, the dimensions of ..-Il "*p1ori:l tnese types should be converted to an equivalent oi Type f ioff-o*r, ", For Tyrr- 2, L:G _O.2t5r
For Type 3, t: c O.215(r tr,) For Type 2 or 3, lr : H _0.43r

as

':(+)"
t7l

170

t)Est(;N oF Pt{(xtEss EQUTPMENT

FLANCED AND FLUED EXPANSION JOINTS

F=KW

Ft=LW-F

S, should also be determined in the same fashion and at the same


distances from

Mt:
M

AzW- ArF
B1F _ B2lU

as Sr.

j:

Resulta[t St]esses in Expsnsion Joints

It4:7,4,- p,r

1!2 rz
(i.e.

S=Sr*Sz
Thus, the resultant stress at each location from I to B can be determined by adding S, and S, at the same location Care should be taken to use the proper sign while adding these stresses. The resultant stress will be compressive if positive and tensile ifnegative. The pressure, deflection or combined stresses should be less than the corresponding allowable stresses, otherwise, the design should be modified.
Allowable Stresses

Moments Due to Differential Thermal Movement Using the proper sign for dillerential movement A
opens and

-if

the

joint closes) determlne

+ if thejoint

',4 t=,
\Lrr'/ Mn'=-A'F' Mu'=B'F' Mr=M^r*Frx
Determining Section Modulus of Exprnsion Joint Section

- /D\ ly rr:l;;

The movement with respect to each other of the shell plates at the joint
be determined by the elastic changes in the shell and tubes. This may cause high stresses locally in thejoint and therefore some plastic yielding,

will

but any yield in the joint will not cause further movement of the shell plates, and so will be self-limiting in nature. The portion undergoing plastic deformation is small in comparison with the portion undergoing
elastic deformation. Therefore the residual strain will be imperceptible. Thus the prevention of significant plastic deformation does not require all calculated elaslic stresses to b below the yield point, since appreciable plastic deformation can occur only if the material yields across the entire area. Thus, ifthe exchanger service is to be a steady one, the local stresses with this type of loading should always be lower than twice the yield stress in order to avoid failure by brittle fracture as stated by Brownell and Young.3 Similarly, internal pressure acting on the flat plates in thejoint may B at an interval of
cause them to bulge, but as they bulge. catenary or cupping stresses as well as bending stresses are introduced, and unless the plates are very heavily loaded, the bulging will also be self-limiting in nature. Therefore, the stresses of the following order can be allowed

z:+(!-f,+t\ 6\ r ' -/
Strss6 Due to Internal pressure

s,

=M 'z

should be determined at x 0 i.e. at /4, ro .S, = one inch by changing the values of M and Z.

x:

Msximum Strss rt Test hsslre

s,:
Stresses Due to

Maximum s,

(p)

while designing such expansion joints:

r.s
Pressure Strcsses

Dilfcrcntid Moveme

-M,

'z

Maximum allowable Sr = 1.5(Sd"") Maximum allowable S, : 2.25(S"'n)

172

173

r'

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

FLANOED AND FLUED EXPANSION JOINTS

Detlectlon Strsss

Maximum allowable S. = smaller of 2(Srr)


or 4(S0.,)
Toasl Stress

EXAMPLE
with a flanged and inches in order. to 125 0 flued expansion joint to be designed to open internal design The tlie dilferential thermal expansion' A 15.25 inches I.D. exchanger is to
be equipped

u""o-rnoa"t"

Maximum allowable S=smaller of 2(Sro)


or 4(S;,) Calculating Value of J Factor ratio ofthe force to move the expansionjoint one inch to the force to move the shell and the expansion joint rogitt
"/ is the

inches total minimum thick fressure is 100 psi and the shell is 0.375 joint inclusive of 0.0625 inches corosion allowance' The expansion material has the following properties: psi Code allowable stress at design temperalure: 17'500 Yield stress at design temprature:38'000 psi (10)6 Modulus ofelasticity at design temperature = 27'6 pci Poisson's

earlier, these types of erpansion jointsiequi."-"onria".uur" ".

produce the required movemenr.


determined as follows: By definirion

i. ,i""0 JJlo"a, to Thus, the value .r J J""iJ o"


on"

in"i.

ratio:0.3

,:
where

, (f.r+r")__,

Fr

fixed tubesheet Also, calculate the value of factor '/ for designing feet' 16 to equal be to shell of assumingthe overall length

*&
be

SOLUTION
is assumed to be the The minimum expansion joint plate thickness equal to J llmes made are radii same as the shell thickness' Both corner be..1.inch (shouldinches A straisht flange of 0'875

F" the force to move the shell by one inch can readily determined from ..Hooks
Law"
as:

r'":/!(rd=z(Do=49u
Therefore,

;l;;;;l;-k"".t.
shown in Fig. 2.

joint as fabricated wrll be normally) is assumed and the expansion


4.37

as

,*opF#L
Mettods of Calculating F,
Bsides the Kopp and Sayre technique Gardnera and Samoiloff have also stated methods of calculating _Fr. fr.**"r, .rrf y"t"n""_"iirra and Sayre is disiussed here, accoioirg,. :*::T:T^1 ll.Ko?p i., can oe determlned as:

s',

t
-i

*iir,

rr:0.375L

Fr=2(F,)(R,)n
in accordance with TEMA .I can be assumed to be equal to zero shells with expansion joints, where Fr But,

for

<(Do-t)tEs/loLl

=r;Jlrs.2vlD
FIG. 2. EXPANSION JOINT IN EXAMPLE CALCULATION

t74

t75

[)ESI(;N OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT The expansion joint calculation sheet can also be used for design. joint should be analyzed in the corroded condition only. Referring to type 3 joint in Fig. I and determining the data for analysis in corrodcd
The

FLANOED AND FI.UPD EXPANSION JOINTS

D: 27.6(10)6(0.3125)l = 77132.3 lb-in. l2(l


-0.3,
)
A | = t2(7.2502)- 6.l23ll(0.3895) :3.262e tn. 81 : [2(0.6090) + 6.1231](0.3895) :2.8593 in.

condition:
G

= 6.625 +0.0625 = 6.6875 in.

H = 4.0 +2(0.0625) = 4.125 in.

e,
a,

:4!p1t.zs02):

6.I231I(0.38e

12.4236 in.'z

-0.0625 =0.3125 in. :0.375 tr -0.0625:0.3125 in.

t =0.375

r:

I.125 + 0.0625 +

oltrs '';-

{1

1r1o.ooe0) + 6. 1 23 l I (0.3se 5) = 6.3202 in.z

t.3438 in.

,, :(u

ttit)'

*o.u oso(3.262\-9!21(2.85e3) :5.730?


6.3202)

in.'?

rt:1.125 +

o lt?s -'-:--

:1.2813 in.

R,=:-19.962, +' T":7.8438 t2


Ro:

lsrs

r,:
in.

n?rr<

-(6'l2tlt)'-o.6o9ooz.a:r,6'ya!E\

=-

16.9125 in.r

rll

+ 0.i75 + 6.6251q.g62510
14.8438

25

':l+ff] :2,5tzin
= 14.8438 in.

Now, P:
therefore,

100 psi.

- R" 1(:d:

7J43s

8924

in'

h: H -0.43r = 4.125 - 0.43(1.3438):3.5472 in. L: Q -0.215(r + r) :6.687s -0.215(1.3438_ 1.2813):


Also given,

w:ry1!@l :
F

rr+4.62

tb lin.

2.95 12(144.62)

426.8025 lb

6.r231 in.

6.1231(144.62)- 426.8025 =458.7202lb.

E:(27.6)106 psi
and

Since the expansionjoint is to be designed to open, therefore, A be taken as positive, i.e.

will

A:0.125 in.

m:0.3
Calculating
,/7.8438(0.3 _:F::I a:-r

Now,

y=0.125 25) /0.31253

t2)J3tt

03'z

- _ __ l=0.6090in. \0.3125r/ :7.2502 in.

-:0.0625

in.

and
7't 132.3 F,: . -=:(o.o62s): ' 6.1231(5.7307)

137.38a3 lb.

Cdculating Strsscs The magnitude of stresses due to internal pressure and differential move. ment and also the resultant stresses at different locations are determined and tabulated as follows assuming tle positive stresses to be compressive
and the negative being tensile:

6.1231 ^ L:)a;ono*rr*

:o'389s

176

177

DES|(;N oF

l{ocEss EQUTPMENT

FLANCED AND FLUED EXPANSION JOINTS

Maximum Saress at Test Prssure

2t^ NF

Sa;

3 I S E S $a |:l.-o\NF-v)\oF (.) 6 ql \O 6 \.r dc.l


' I 'i -i I
cr"r
!?ooocov('l C.l .Oco; sFcn(/)o\v.. o
oo \o
C.l aE
ot

S,:24785(
Allowable Stresses

I)

1.5:37178

Psi.

Maximum allowable sr

1.5(17500):26250 psi.

Maximum allowable Sr:2.25(17500): 39375 psi. Maximum allowable 52 or S:smaller of 2(3800) or 4(17500)

h90g?..roo 'll

:
z

70000 psi.

Since all the actual stresses at differcnt locations are less than the corresponding maximum allowable stresses, the design is considered safe.

z
E

O\ \O.is (?IF-O\< N .") .o ll

Determining the Value of J Ft =2(F r)(R)n :2(t37 38a3)Q.8437sln :6770.81 14 lb.

d, v)

q 3 G: F gh I = E R 3 R R - E ..TTTI
jE oo o,, $.ll H ertt t^ v N qr F sr ...r Fr .? a' . .d -i

Es:27.6(10)6 psi. L, -- 192 in.


o

(Do- tltEs (r6 l0L1

0.375)0.375(27.6)106 10(1e2)

>a :
N

g P+ ii H ll :

o
F

:84,228.5156 lb.
Since

t,

-(Do -r)tEs =-ioL

z?
(/)E

g : q $ c NR q E q q qc c H:
oQ * qi

Therefore, ./ can be assumed to be equal to zero.

Nomenclature

()

c.r

rf

,n

o Fi Y

c Factor, in. Ar Factor, in. A2 Factor, in.2 ,4" Cross-sectional 6 Factor, in. Br Factor, in. B2 Factor, in.2

area ofshell metal, in.2

r78

t79

l)L.sl(;N

ol, PRoctiss

UQUTPMENI'

III.AN(;LD AND III,UIiI) IiXPANSIoN JOIN'TS

(' D Do E Es F Fr FA Fr Fs C fi H ./
K

Constant Flexural rigidity of expansion joint, lb-in. Outside diameter of shell, in. Modulus of elasticity of expansion joint material at design
temperature, psl.

S Sr 52 S.,.

Combined stress in thc expansion joint, psi. Stress in the expansion joint due to internal pressure, psi. Stress in the expansion joint due to differential movement, psi. Allowable stress in expansion joint material at atmospheric
temperature, psi.

Modulus of elasticity of shell material at design temprature,


psi.

Sr." Allowable
rFmharar',rc

strss
nei

in

expansion

joint material at

design

Vertical force at B due to intrnal pressure, lb. Vertical force at B due tojoint moyement, lb. Vertical force at I due to internal pressure, lb. Force required to move the expansion joint one inch, lb. Force required to move the shell one inch, lb.

Sl S",
t

Maximum
DSi.

stress in

expansionjoint due to test pressure, psi.

Yield stress of expansion joint material at design temperature,


Thickness of exchanger plate, in. Thickness oI expansion joint plate, in.

tr

Total distance between outside of shell to inside ofcylindrical


ring, in.
Effective inside width of expansion joint, in.

w
Y,

Total inside width of expansion joint, in. Ratio of the force to move the expansion joint one inch to the force to move the shell and the expansion joint together one inch Factor, in.

Lateral load on span L, lb./in. Vertical distance from corner 1{, in. Factor, in.2 Factor, in.3 Section modulus of expansion joint plate at distance x from ,4, in."

Maximum movemnt of expansion joint, in.

L Effective distance between outside


cylindrical ring, in.

of shell to

inside of
1.

REFERENCES
"Standards ofTubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association j' Sixth

Ll
m

M Mr
MA

Overall length of shell, in. Poisson's ratio ofexpansion joint material Moments at distance x from ,4 due to internal pressure, inlb. Moments at distance x from 1 due to joint movement, in-lb. Moments at ,4 due to internal pressur, inJb. Moments at .4 due to joint movement, in-lb. Momnts at I due to inlrnal pressure, in-lb. Moments at B due to joint movement, inlb.

Edition. New York. N.Y.. 1978.

Kopp, S., and M. F. Sayre, "Expansion Joints for Heat Exchangers," ASME Misc. Paper VoL 6, No. 211 (1950, ASME annual meeting)
3.

M^
MB

Brownell, L. E., and E. H. Young, "Process Equipment Design," John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1959. Gardner, K. A., Report to TEMA on Fixed Tubesheet Exchanger Design Background for TEMA Par. 3.3 and Par.7.15. December 14,
1963, pp. 7 and 8.

M",
p

lnternal design pressure, psi.


Mean radius at outside corner, in. Mean radius at inside corner. in.

5.

Samoiloff, A., "Evaluation of Expansion Joint Behavior," Power, Design and Equipment Application section, January, 1961.

ri
R

Width of annular plate at the outside considering a unit sector


at the shell plates, in. Mean radius of exchanger shell, in. Mean radius of expansion joint, in.

Ri Ro

180

181

Il

z
tn
I I

,;
...1

C'

X= rIJF a\<

<z
ll

r4

\.-l lN

:^< z z

'JY

a: +

ll

tl

lG.

o ;

o i NI rI]9 F \./ Fr >'''


rr

ca
NI F\

l..l

U rr l(\
-t_
I

>': k-r

L, 's

ll

z trl
ti

t.-

k: !-

>lN
v)

I
tl

:
I

l.o
I

rl,

ll

< l..l

{l

tl

t-: l-r
l.]
ra

t.\

-fr7{ axd vl2 z


dYi F :'.

l',ol^L

lolt
I

J
vt z
T&

+ *l
F

z
()

z
lI]
aa

.,<

tl

/--'-:-\ --lll^ --lll q _ (q \Jt,.t(,


t.

rq
tl

Q
I

ll

*t

U
-1

F]
F.l

II

a:
.c
I

ll

Ht

i
I

= +
I

; ,ttl

e ;
l1

*l

z
F

:s

*1

l \
I

":il .o
N

z \

x
@

7
PIPE SEGMENT EXPANSION JOINTS

The flued-head design has given good service in a number of the applications, but occupies considerable space and is expensive for joints made which it provides. Thus, in some cases expansion
movement

of pipe segments are desirable. This is another kind of ring-expanston

joint in which pipe may be halved and quartered to produce


frequency

ring lt

is

where the also restricted to applications involving small movements and

of moYement is minimum However, it can be

designed'

fabricated and installed much cheaper than bellows or flanged and flued joinrs are rugged and expansion joints. In addition, ring-type expansion They heavy walled. thus, they do not require any additional protection' joints on exchangers are also a good substitute for bellows expansion where corrosion maY occur.l for This chapter along with a solved example discusses a technique 2 "J" analyzing these type of expansion joints A method of calculating 7'191 factor for designing fixed tubesheets in accordance with paragraph

of TEMA STANDARDS3 for


expansion joints is also included.

exchangers having these types of

Analyzing Technique

joint' Choose size and schedule of pipe to be used as an expansion Determine the corroded pipe wall thickness exclustve of mill tolerance'
which is

r:(Nominal wall

thickness)(0.875)

185

I)ESI(;N oF' PR(X]ESS EQUIPMENT

PIPE SECMENT EXPANSION JOINTS

In

general,

should not be

less

than the corroded shell plate

thickness.

movement due to differential thermal expansion or contraction can be calculated by using the following relationship:

A positive value of A indicates expansion whereas a negative value indicates contraction.


Internal pressure also causes some movement, the nature of which, depends upon the type of corrugations. Inner corrugations cause expansion and outer corrugations cause contraction and are in-

tr:

(0,a, _ 0,a")

;$E
FIG. I. DEI,INITION OF SYMBOLS --_tgxchanger__ size or schedule should be altered

dicated by positive and negative signs respectively. Thus, if, there are an equal number of inner and outer corrugations, the resulting movement due to internal pressure will be zero. This will also be the case when we use expansion joints made of pipe segments,

In order to usethis analy$is tneratio r/b should be less than 0.1. prpe

Now the mean radius of expansion joint as shown in Fig. l, is

until the above conaition i"."ii.ti"O.

Total end force required to obtain the desired movement can be determined as follows: For 4 <g <40, the relationship for maximum movement is

a:0.s(d)+(b-c\
Determine

^ ^:
force B we get

0.s7'7

PbnJt - m'

-Er' Rearranging the above equation to get the relationship for axial
LEt2

u:;J12(1-z.2l
Saresses

Due to Internal Pressure

Stresses due to internal pressure can be calculated as follows:

Maximum meridian bending stress is given by

Now, th value ofA can be plugged in the above equation to obtain For p <4, maximum movement is given by

si :o.e55p(t

-' t-''' (o!)u'

^ A:--;-;
where

CPb3n

Maximum circumferential membrane stress is

4uD

si :0.955p(l - n') t'" ( !!\'''


Maximum Stress at Test hessure

4A,aD

Chsn

s,:(Greater of si or
Stresss Due to

s;r(fu)r.s
interpolated from Table
1.

D: _ tzv-m-)
and C is a constant which varies with the value of p and should be

Et3

Axial Movement

If

not already given, the maximum required expansion joint

186

187

t)ESt(;N oF PR(XIESS EQUTPMENT


Prssure Stresses

PIPE SECMIJNT EXPANSION JOINTS

Maximum allowable Si or S;: 1.5(Sd.") Maximum allowable Sr : 2.25(S.,-) Dellection Stresses Maximum allowable S'i or Si:smaller of 2(Sno)
TABLE r, - vARtATIoN

or

wtn

or 4(Sr"")
Combined Stresses

in the expansion joint resulting from the desird axial movement can be determined using the following relationships: Maximum meridian bending stress can be calculated from
stresses

Now, the

Maximum allowable S, or S, or 4(Sr"") Calculating Value of J Factor

smaller of 2(Srr)

-.. Ji | -:=--l znat lt2 --Jl _m2 J -,, "r:


Combined Stresses

l.$Pf

ab ltrr

joint one inctr to the force to move the shell and th expansion joint

expansion As already discussed J is the ratio ofthe force to move the

Maximum circurnferential membrane stress is

0.925pf ab(t _ m2yltt3

2"", L___V_

iogether one inch ./ is one when no expansion joint is used and ismostly joints are used But' the type eq"ual to zero when bellows type expansion under consideration requires considerable axial loads to produce follows: required movement and J in such cases should be calculated as
Bv definition

"-rr

due to internal pressure and axial movement can be -Stresses combined algebraically to obtain the resultant stresses as follows: Resultant meridian bending stress is
st

t., I r rr., ,*.iF 'J,'F

Where F", the force to move the shell by one inch, can readily be determined from "Hooks Law" as:

:si +si

Resultant circumferential membrane stress is

F":41?. t
_r(Do _tltE"
and

s'?:si+'li
If the pressure, deflection or combined stresses as determined above are within the corresponding maximum allowable, the design is safe, otherwise, modifications in design are required.

f,

the force to move the exPansion joint by one inch is

For

4<

p<40,

Ft=

Et2
0.577bn

Allorrble

Saresss

This type of loading will not result in plastic lelding of expansion joint material since the portion undergoing plastic deformation is small in comparison to the portion undergoing elastic deformation. This has already been discussed in detail in the chapter on ttanged and flued expansion joints. Thus, strcsses of the following order can be allowed while designing such expansion joints:

For P<4' Ot::*


But in accordance with TEMA, J can be assumed to be equal to
zero for shells with expansion joints, where Fr

<(Do-t)tEslloL

188

189

tll.:st(;N ( )tr pt{(xjtiss IQtJtpMtiNl.

PIPE SECMBN'T EXPANSION JOINTS

EXAMPLE
Design carbon steel expansionjoint . accommodate to the movement

and

oftubesheets i, iiz.zs and uncorroded inside shell diameter is 110.5 tnches. Shefipf"i" in. thick inclusive of 0.0625 in. corrosion allowance. " nir. value of lactor J for designing fixed tubesheet for this

between shell and tubes in a heat exchanger. naateriU r", shell is carbon steel and tubes are made oinickel. The shefLi" a"J"""i f". 150 psi. inrernal pressure at 580.F. Meral liiir-.n.ff and tubes are 530'F. Length offace to face "rnp.r"ur*r'i*

orjoints made of pipe segmcnlr due to diiferential t t .rrui .* p?n.ion

(s 37sf ,, . fixr - 60.625(0.56575) "


Stresses Due to Internal Pressure

-at\

:2:tsts

oil"".i-Xr"

ir"n.,
6.OZS

si si

:
:

0.e55(r50x1

-o.r,l-',.[ffiffi]""
| - 0.3'
1"0

r4roo n.i

i"il"rl" e;;;;:;.-*

tn.

0.e55( I soX

[60 (u.)b)

i4f!1t-l'''
/)r I

= t+,zr t p'i

SOLUTION
Try a l0 inch schedule
100 (0.718

Maximum Stress at Test Pressure

s,:
l,
we have

14,960(l)1.5 :22,440 psi

in. wall) pipe and referring to Fig.

Stresses Due to Axial Movement


A

O: ).J /J tn
t:0.718(0.875) thus

[(s l0)7.96(10)-

6] 510(7.16) 10- 25',1.'t s

o.r0s2 tn

0.0625 =0.56575 in.

Since g < 4, the applicable formula for P is

0.56575

,:JJ?5:0.1052>0.1
But..since rhis ratio is very close to 0.1, it is assumed ro satisfy the requtrement ol using the technique discussed. uslng two expansion joints i.e. one near to each tubesheet,
we have

'D__ - Cb3n
where

4LaD

D: 26.08(10)6(0.56575)3 12(l
-0.3'.)
and C can be interpolated from Table
1,

= 432A'73 lb-in.
for p:1.7835 we get

n:4
AIso

c :0.7216 d:110.5 +2(0.0625):


I 10.625

in.

I nerelore

L:2) l. l5 rn m:0.3 0:580-70=510oF


a"= 7.16(10)-6 in./in.

3l ^, ^ P:':ffi#:24'6tstb
4(0. 1052)60.625(432,47

'F 'F

Now
|.63(24,615)/

4:580

70:510"F
6

a,:7.96(10)- in./in. E:26.08(10)6 psi

2r(60.625)0.56575 and

[ 60.625(s.3!) Lto.soszs)t.r/t - to:F

'l',.

l,eot pri

=26.08(10)6 psi

a:0.s(110.62s) +(s.375 -0.0625) =60.625 in.

si

o.s25t24,6tsl [(60.625X5.375X1-0.3')-]"'
2zr(60.625)0.5657s

(0.56575f I

1.030

o.i

190

t91

l)Est(;N oF PR(X:ESS EQUIPMENT


Combined Stresses
s1

PIPE SEOMENT EXPANSION JOINTS

E"
14,960

Modulus of elasticity of shell material at design temperature,


psi. Force required to move the expansionjoint one inch, lb. Force required to move the shell one inch, lb.

S, = 14271 Allowable Stresses

+ 1903 : 16,863 psi + 1030:15301 psi

Fr F" J
L

Maximum allowable Si or Si : 1.5(15000) = 225q0 t.1 Maximum allowable S,:2.25(15000):33750 psi Maxirnum allowable S'i or 51:smaller of 2(30000) or 4(15000) : 60000 psi Maximum allowable S, or S,

Ratio of the force to move the expansion joint one inch to the force to move the shell and the expansion joint together one

inch
m n
D

Length of face to face of tubesheets, in. Poisson's ratio of expansion joint material Number of semicircular corrugations

:60,ffi

p5i

Internal design pressure, psi. Axial force required for expansion joint movement, lb.
Maximum meridian bending stress due to internal pressure, psi. Maximum circumferential membrane strss due to internal
pressure, psi.

Since, all the calculated stresses are within the corresponding maximum allowable, thus the design is safe.

si
s'i

Calcuhting J Factor
Since 4 <4. Therefore

si

si

Maximum meridian bending stress due to axial force, psi. Maximurn circumferential membrane stress due to axial force,
psi.

o,:ffi##:233,e80rb.
(D,-r")r"4
10L
(11r.75

0.625)0.625(26.08) 106

Sr 52
S",.

Resultant meridian bending stress in expansion joint, psi. Resultant circumferential membrane stress in expansion joint,
psi.

10(2s7.75)

Allowable stress in expansion joint material at atmospheric


temperature, psl.

:702,749.7575 tb.'
Since F, < Do

zeto.

t")r"E"/I0I, therefore J can be assumed to be equal to

Sd"" Allowable stress


temperature, psl. sr

in

expansion

joint material at

design

Nomenclature

Maximum stress in expansion joint due to test pressure,psi.


Yield stress of expansion joint material at design temperature,
DSi.

a
,4"

b c C d D D, E

Mean radius of expansion joint, in. Cross-sectional area ofshell metal, in.2 Outside radius ofexpansion joint pipe, in. Shell corrosion allowance- in.

t r" a" r,
g

Corroded expansion joint pipe thickness exclusive of mill


tolerance" in.

Constant Corroded inside diameter ofshell, in. Flexural rigidity of expansion joint,lb-in.
Outside diameter of shell, in.

Uncorroded thickness ofshell plate, in. Coefficient of thermal expansion of shell material at metal

in./in.'F Coeflicient of thermal expansion ol tube material at tmperature, in./in.'F


temperature, Shell metal temperature in "F Tube metal temperature

metal

Modulus of elasticity of expansion joint material at desrgn


temperature, psi.

tl
p
A

- 70'F in 'F - 70'F

Constant Maximum required movement of the expansion joint, in.

192

r93

l)ltst(;N ( )tr Pt{(x:uss

IiQT.JtPMENT

REFERENCES
t. Rubin, F. L., "Choose Heat Exchanger Expansion Joints Carelully," The Oil and Gas Journal, November 3, 1975. Roark, R. J., and W. C. Young, "Formulas for Stress and Strain," Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1975. 3. Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, Sixth Edition, New York. N.Y.. l9?8.

8
YERTICAL VESSELS SUPPORTED BY LUGS

The choice of the type of supports for vertical vessels depends on the available floor space, the convenience of location of the vessel according to operating variables such as the size, the operating temperature and pressure and the materials of construction. Various kinds of supports for vertical vessels have been discussed by Brownell and Young' in detail. Lugs offer many advantages over other types of supports. They are inexpensive, can absorb diametral expansions, are easily attached to the cylinder by minimum amounts of welding, and are easily leveled and shimmed in the field. However, a footnote after paragraph UG-29(e) in Division I of ASME Code for Pressure Vesselsz cautions against supporting of vessels through the medium of lugs unless they are properly reinforced. In other words, each case should be analyzed thoroughly to insure that the shell is not overstressed. Vertical shlls supported on lugs require consideration of two important factors: 1. The additional stress of the support forces when combined with the working stress of the shell must not increase the stress in the shell above the allowable limit. 2. The support should not restrain the stressed shell so it becomes too

rigid to flex under normal changes in working pressure or loads, The following types of stresses are developed in the shell supported on
lugs: 1. The internal or external pressure on the shell, along with its weight, causes tangential and longitudinal stresses in the shell. 2. Eccentricity of this type of support results in a radial force on the shell which causes bending stresses in the ring ofthe shell (from the bending moment) as well as axial tensile sresses (from the tensile

force), both of which act tangentially.

t94

195

DESI(;N OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

VERTICAL VESSELS SUPPORTED BY LUGS

3.

often disregarded. After the proper analysis of the forces involved, the various stresrGl must be combined to detemine the maximum normal and shear stressot,

The radial force causes radial shear stresses in the shell, and $a longitudinal force causes longitudinal shear stresses, bothadJscont to the lug. However, these strcsses are so small that thcy rrt

will

If

tchnique discussed by Blodgett., It allows us to calculate stresses in thc shell at the location of lugs and also gives the procedure for sizing stiffeners,

be strengthened. For example, the bending stresses may be excessive inficating thst some type of stiffener ring.should be attached to the shell between supporte to substantially increase the moment of inertia of the shell section thereby decreasing the bending stress. The method of analysis presented in this chapter is based on the

the resulting stresses are excessive a simple study of the indiyidual stressor indicate what portion the lug is underdesigned and should

of

Now, only a portion of the shell beyond the lug is assumed to withstand the flexural stresses due to moment M. This assumption results in conse ative stresses since it disregards the reinforcing effect of the remainder of the shell as well as of the heads of the vessel. A rigorous determination of the effective width of shell that resists these stresses, requircs a laborious mathematical analysis. For simplicity, the shell with stiffeners can be compared to a curved beam with an extremely wide flange. Von Karman4 suggests that an effective width of the flange on each side of the stiffening
web is approximately

\lin '--T
The value of '?" should be limited to a maximum of 12 ts. The moment M applies radial forces to the shell having a distribution similar to that of bending forces, i. e. maximum at the outer fibers and zero along the neutral axis. It is assumed that the radial force applied to effective shell width g would decrease linearly to almost zero at its outer limits. Total horizontal force /2 on the shell will be as shown in Fig. 1(a). The resulting distribution of radial forcefi on a unit wide shell ring is indicated in Fig. 1(b). Now, momnt Mcan be expressed in terms of moment of areas of force distdbution diagram about t}Ie neutral axis, which gives:

if

required.

Analyzing Technique

M=

f,

(+)r(+ t\,

r,

I rI.+)

+frc(3h:2s ) =fth2 bo

={{nz
(a)
(

+zsn+zsz)

h)

=!Ur*rxo*u)l
Therefore, radial force can be expressed as

I,](;, I , RADIAL I:ORC!] DISTRItsUTION ON SH!]LL DUE TO LUC LOAD Let F be tlle nraxirnunl lotd on each lug then thc resulting lo|gitudinal moDlnl on thc shell duc to eccentricity will be

fi,

applied

to the unit shell ring due to moment M

lV=FL
AIso

lt'

TF+|T67ETr97

6M

196

l)DSl(;N

)lj

PR( )(i

uss LQUIPMENT

VERTICAL VESSELS SUPPOIT'IUI) I}Y LUCS


as follows: And the bending stress in the unit ring can be detrmined

Bending moment on unit shell ring is

M,=K2f1r"
Section modutus of the unit shell dng is given by

s=

I
tl
FIG. 2 - RADTAL FORCES ON UNIT SHELL RING HAVING FOUR LUGS

b ftJ2 ----=

Therefore,

o"6
Slresses

M'lS

Using a one inch wide shell ring, the radial forces for four lugs will be as shown in Fig. 2.
Stres6e6

a vessel having

in Shell Due to Pressure

In Shell Due to Lug Support

Pressure in a shell produces two types of stresses:

The bending stress in the shell halfway between lugs will be compressive and much less than the bending stress at the lugs which will be
tensile in nature. On the other hand, circumferential tensile stress will be in magnitude halfway between lugs rather than at the lugs. However, circumferential tensile stress is small and when combined with compressive bending stress halfway between lugs, will further reduce the resulting stress at that location. Therefore, for simplicity, only stresses in the shell at the location of the lugs will be considered.

L
l.

Longitudinal

Stress.

This is the stress in the direction of the meridian

and is given bY

-mp
CircumferentialStress.

P r"
2

greater

to the circumference.
stress and is equal to

This is the stress in the direction of the tangent This is also referred to as hoop or tangential

o"p

=--

P r"

Table I lists the multiplying coefficients rK1 and,l(2 for various lug configuratiom for determining circumferential tensile force and bending
moment respectively in the shell at the lugs. These coefficients have been tabulated by Blodgett and can also be derived by using formulas for circular rings in Roark and Young.s A complete table of coefficients for calculating bending moments in circular rings has also been developed by

will be tensile if the pressure is internal nd comstresses in the shell at the or"*iu" ii th. pr.rrur. is external' Since the lu", u.e onlv tinsile and these will be further reduced when combined *ir, unv .otnpt.tsive stress, only the stresses due to internal pressure
These stresses should be considered.

Samoiloff." Now, the tangential tensile force in the unit shell ring set up by the total radial force can be calculated by

Combined Stresses
at any Representing the resulting stresses in a cubic unit of shell taken in as shown other to each perPendicular planes point ofintersection of thlee

T=Krfr
Area of the unit shell rine is

Fig.3.

omp

A=bts
Therefore,

o4= TfA

FIG, 3. - SHELL STRESSES DUB TO LUG SUPPORT AND INTERNAL PRESSURE 199

198

|)|Sl(;N Olr Pl{O( j tjSS tjeutpMLNT Let or be one of the principal strcsses. Combining these stresses in the outer fiber of shell adjacent to the lug, where o. = o, we have Longitudinal tensile stress = o_ ". Circumlerential tensi]e stress j 6" = o"n + o", + o"o Maximum shear stress is equal to half the difference between two

VBI\'llCAt, VUSSIil'S SUPtORTEI) llY


Now,
and

M1= t,(w,) r1 +/"(r") x2

Ar
calculate thus,

t,

lU, + ls

ts

principal (normal) stresses and is given by

o"-o,
If
at the lugs should be stiffened. The following method of O"rignin; should be used in order to bring the excesstve stresses within limits.
any of the stresses calculated above exceed the allowables, the shell

n=Mr/Ar
r)2

,tiff.n.r,
Stresses

r t, lW,l3 + t tw ttn - x. )2 + /s (ls )r F /s (ts, (x, 'n=_i t2


in nuil-t-op S"ctio" Due to Lug Support
now,
thus,

Designing Stiffeners F
is given

Total radial force acting on shell section resulting from maximum load
by

Tr=Ktfz
o",
o,jo=

+^ M = ,"= h
M,1=K2 f 2 r.

FL
h
s is

= T1fA,

and

Now, the resulting bending moment on shell section at the suppo

M'1@)lI'

Stresses

in Built-up Section Due to Pressue

Therefore, the additional required section modulus can be approximated


as

SP

M='r

Longitudinal tensjle stress = om P reduced by Circumferential tensile stress (it"o) can be assumed to be section: the built-up of cross-section entiri the considedng it to be acting over

.odulus equal to or greater than 54 should be added to the shell at top and bottom of the lugs and the
So the stiffeners huuing the s"Jttion

""0=m
^
o"p(l'

o"^ (Area of the effeciive shell section)

resulting stresses should be checked as follows: Only the effect of the bottom ring should be considered since it applies radial tensile forces to the built-up ring and shell section. When rrngs made of flat bar are used the composite shell and bottom ring section will be as shown in Fig. 4.

t") =GilrTtt

Combined Stresses
Referdng +

to Fig. 3, and combining

tfr" ,tiii"n r, ifr"re 4 - O "na in th" shell only and not in the outer portion of the stiffener)' .ir.r, *iff
we have

also o.o = 0 (because. longitudinal.tensile

these stresses in the. outer

liber of

""i

ocp + oct + ocb Circumferential tensile stress = oc = Maximum shear stress is

ts
FIG. 4 . EFFECTIVE SHELL AND RING SECTION

o"--o, 'mrx- 2

200

20r

t)Est(;N oF Pt(ocESS EQUIPMENT are excessive, the stiffener size should be revisd until the stresses are within allowable limits.
Stresses Number of
Lugs 2
3

VERTICAL VESSELS SUPPORTED IJY LU(;S


anq

If the resulting strsss

= 211I lb /inch ring of shell

in Shell Due to Lug Support l, for shell having two lugs, we have Kr = 0'0 and Kz = 0'318 r=(0)(2111)=0 A = | ('62s) = '625 ir'2 n -ct=O M=.318 (2111)
12.4375 = 8350 in-lb

Values for

'l\l 0.000 o.289 0.500 0.866


1.207

Values for K2 0.318 0.189 0.137 0.089 0.066

From Table Therefore

4
6 8

Now
and

TABLE I - MULTIPLYINC COEFFICIENTS FOR CIRCUMFERENTIAL TBNSILB FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT IN SHELL AT THE LUCS

s
o"b

(.625)2 16 =.0651 in. 3

t}Ierefore,

EXAMPLE
Stresses

83s0/.0651 = 128260psi Pressure

in Shell Due to

Analyze the stresses at the lugs on an A-515-?0 shell of a 24 in. I.D. Vertical exchanger designed for 640 psi. internal pressure at 660o F and having .75 in. thick shell inclusive of .125 in. corrosion allowance. The exchanger is to be supported by two I ft. high lugs, and the total weight of the exchanger is 16910 pounds. The bolt hole in each base plate is located at a distance of 8.25 in. from the outside of the shell. If the shell is found to be overstressed, provide th stiffeners to adequately reinforce it so that the stresses are within allowable limits.

640 fl 2.4375\ o = 6368 Psi = :-::-:-:::-::Jmp 2 (62s)


and

^ ""p-

640 (12.437 s) = ___ = 3E-

j/JO

psl

Combined Stresses
Longitudinal tensile stress = omp = 6368 psi Circumferential tensile stress = oc

(O'K' )

SOLUTION

=12736+O+128260
Maximum Shear

F=

1691012= 8455lb

Stress

= 140996 psi (excessive)


= rmu*

ts = .75

.125 = .625 n\.

140996

L = 8.25 in.
Now-

2 psi (excessive) 70498 =

'

r.. = 12.125

r .3125=

12.4375 in.

M = 5455 (8.25) = 69754 in-lb


as

bdng the Since the stresses are excessive, stiffeners should be added to limits. allowable shell stresses witlin

Determining the followings

shown in Fig.

Designing Stiffeners
84ss (8.T) f- , ,, = ___1;

\/6EIT1Atin I = -----t=l4in'(12ts'hence oK'


202

= serr ru

M,1 =.318 (5813) 12'43'15 = 22992 in-lb

203

DBSICN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

VERTICAL VESSELS SUPPORTED BY LUGS

Using 4-515-70 stiffeners, the allowable tensile stress for stiffener material at 6600 F is l?320 psi. Therefore, the approximate section modulus of the stiffener is

Combined Streeses
Referring to Fig. 3, and combining these stresses in the outer fiber of the stiffener we have

S*

ltoo? *n32o

1.32?5 in.3

o.

=0

o_p =0

Let us provide 3 5/8 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick stiffeners at the top and of lugs around the circumferenc of exchanger and check the magnitude of resulting stresses in built-up section as follows:

bottom

oc = 6187 + 8697= 14884psi. O.K.


14884 - o i max2

Referring to Fig. 4, we have

='7442 'osi.

o.K.

ts= .625

in.,\=

.625 in.,

ll

Since
= 3.625 in.,
1.8125 in' and

all the

stresses are

within allowable limits, our design

acceptable.

ts=.625+2(1.4)=3.425in.," r = x z = 3'9375ln'
Now

NOMENCLATURE
Area of unit shell ring, in.z

Mr = .625 (3.625) 1.8125 + 3.425 (.625)


and A Thus n = ___;_-;;;__ = 2.gul4g in.

3.937

5 = 12.5352ir..3

Ar
b

Total area of effective shell and ring section, in.2

Unit width of shell ring, in.


Corrosion allowance, in. Radial force on unit shell ring, lb/in.

t = .62s (3.625)
12.5352 +,+uoJ

+ 3.42s (.62s) = 4.4063 in?

Ir
lz

F
s
3 4251.625)3 h

Total radial force on shell, lb Maximum load on each lug, lb


Effective shelt width on each side of lug, in' Height of lug, in.

Therefore
.625 ,"=ff

(3.625t

3 .,^-, + (.62s) 3.62s (t .0323)2 +


'

=::::-:::-

Moment
axis, in.a

of inertia of effective shell and ring

section about neutral

+ 3 .42s (.62s) (r .0927)2 = 't .s2o9 na Stresses

in Built-up Section Due to Lug Support


11

=0(5813)=0

thus, oct=0

and

22992 (2 o"t ^ = --jiis- 8^^a\ = 8697 psi

Stresses

in Built-up Section
omp = 6368 psi

Due

to hessure

KL Mdtiplying coefficient for circumferential tension in shell at lugs Kz Multiplying coefficeint for ben&ng moment in shell at lugs /, Effective shell length, in. , Distance of centerline of bolt hole from outside of shell' in' M Maximum moment on shell due to eccentric loading, in -lb M, Sum of the moments of areas of effective composite section about the ' outside of stiffener, in.3 Mt Bending moment on unit shell ring, in -lb Mr, Maximum bending moment on sltell, in -lb l1 Distarce of centroid of composite section from the outside of stiffener, P
ln. Maximum internal Pressure. Psi

12'136 (3.42s) .62s _ ""P = -----766--

bl6/

Psi

204

205

)ESt(;N OIr Pt{(XitSS EQUTPMENT

/c S
s

Mean shell radius in corroded condition, in. Section modulus

ofunit shell ring, in.3

Approximate section modulus of the stiffener, in.3 Uncorroded lhickness of shell plate, in.
Thickness of stiffener, in.

t
tr
/"

Corroded thickness of shell plate, in.


Tangential tensile force on

T t1
w

udt

shell dng, lb

Tangential tensile force on shell, lb Width of Stiffener, in. Dstance of centroid of sliffener from outside

9
{L,
), n.

xr x2

VERTICAL VESSEL LEG DESIGN


of
stiffener

Distance

o. o"b
ocp

. t( ttr- + +,

of

centroid
tn.

of

corroded shell from outside

Resultant circumferential tensile stress, psi Tensile bending stress due to lug support, psi
Circumferential tensile stress in shell due to internal pressure, psi
Tangential tensile stress due to lug support, psi tensile stress in shell due to internal pressure, psi

o"t o, ot r-",
1.

omp Longitudinal

Legs are most commonly used to support small tanks and vessels. vessels are located out of doors, the wind or earthquake load as well as the dead weight load should be considered in the calculation. However,

lf

Principal stress at principal plane, psi Allowable tensile stress for stiffener material at shell design temperature,
psi

as leg supported vessels are usually of much smaller height than skirt supported vessels, the wind loads may sometimes be a minor

Maximum shear stress, psi

REFERENCES
Brownell, L- E., and E. H. Young, "Process Equipment Design," First Corrected Printing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., April, 1968.
..r,SME

Div.

l,

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, "Pressure Vessels," ASME, New York, N. Y., 1983.

Blodgett, O. W., "Design of Welded Structures," Third Printing, The


James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation, August 1967.

consideration. The wind or earthquake load tends to overturn the vessel, particularly when the vessel is empty. The wcight ofthe vessel when Iilled with liquid tends to stabilize it. This chapter discusses the complete design analysis oflhese types of suppods. It gives the method of calculation for forces and moments due to ;ind and earthquake based on the criteria presented in the Uniform Building Code.r These forces and moments can also be calculated in accordance with the ANSI Standard A - 58.1'?, ifdesired. After the size o[ the required legs to withstand the greater ofthe wind or earthquake force is established, the stiength ofthe selected leg support should be checked, in accordance with the technique presented herein and as also has been s explained by Brownell and Young

4.

Karman, Von, "Analysis of Some Thin-Walled Structures," ASME Paper AER-55-19C, Aer. Eng., Vol. 5, No.4, 1933.

Cllculating Wind Forces

5.

Roark, R. J., and W. C. Young, "Formulas for Stress and Strain." Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1975.

If the vessel is to be exposed to wind, first of all, the base

shear and

Samoiloff, Alexander, "Investigation of Stress in Circular Rings," Petroleum Refiner, Vol. 26, No. 7, July 1947, pp 99-103.

moment should be determined. After the wind pressure zone for the location of vessel is established from Fig. 1, the wind pressures' p, for various heights can be determined from Table l. The effect of shell and legs should be considered separately.

206

207

l)l1Sl(;N ( )lr l,l{()(itjSS l:etJIpMljNT

VtsI\TICAL VESSEL LEG I)ESIGN


WIND I'RI.SSURF P WHLN THL HORIZONTAL CROSS SEC]ION SOUARE OR RECTANCULAR MAP AREAS HEICHT 45 50 40 25 30 20 Zone ft. 40 35 30 2S 20 25 less than 30 45 40 25 30 30 to 49 55 60 45 50 40 30 sO to 99 25 't0 60 40 l0O to 499 30

TABLE I.
WIND PRESSURE FOR VARIOUS HEIGHT ZONES ABOVE GROUND Shell

Wind force should be determined by applying the factor for cylindrical structure excluding appendages to the vessel and then adding the forces due to the attached elements, if any. S., the wind shap factor for cylindrical structure excluding
appendages is 0.6. Now

A":
therefote
Legs

Dh

F":

.4"(s,)p

Calculate ,4, in the direction of the wind. Also


Sr thus

:
F

2.0(constant

t:

t(S r\P

Total Wind Shear and Overturning Moment


I' and - F !F

Mw:F'.(hl2+D+FL(12)
Wind force and moment due to platforms (if any)should beadded tothe ones calculated above to get the resulting shear and moment due to wind.
Selecting Approximate [,eg Size

The approximate size of lhe required legs to withstand the total


FIG. 1. . WIND PRESSURE MAP OF THE UNITED STATES from rhe Uniform Buitding Code. t976. wirh ihe permission ofThe lR"prod.u""q rnrernafionat ( onrerence ot Building Officiats)

horizontal force { can be chosen from Figure 2. This size can be further checked for its adequacy for earthquake force' if the geographical location of the vessel requires such.

208

209

)llst(;N

)t

l,t{( ,(.Lss LQL.JIt'MLNT

VEIITICAL VESSEL LEC I)ESICN


Calculating Earthquake Forces
The legs can be assumed to be fixed at the vessel shell and pinned at their bases. Since the shell is stiffer than the legs, the deflection of the legs can be assumed to be the deflection of mass resulting from a lateral load applied at the mass equal to its own weight. For a vessel supported on three or more legs symmetrically spaced about the center, the deflection can be determined from the formula:

2W(t)'

3NE(/,_+

r...

Now, the first mode natural period of vibration of the vessel can be determined by using the following formula for one mass structure:

I: Zn
Base Shear
F
5.0

Iv
I

vs

5.5

C:=,, (r,
1:
1.0

o 067

(C should not exceed 0.12)

for vessels

If It
T>2.s,

T:2.5, S: l.s
0.048(T)'z
(S should not be less

S:r.2+ 0.24(n

than

1.0)

The applicable earthquake zone can be established from Fig. 3,4 or


5 for the location of the vessel.

Now

Z -0.1875 for zone l, 0.75forzonel, K=2.0foru.rr.l, 0.375 for zone 2, 1.0 forzone4,
thus

v:
LENGTH OF LECS

z r K(cs)w (CS should not be more than 0.14)

If, / is greater than F., the leg size should


horizontal force
Base

be rechosen for

I/

using Figure 2.

Overturni[g Moment

For vessels having T> 0.7 a portion of t he total eart hquake lbrce, 4 shall bc applied at the top of the vessel, the magnitude of which is given by
210

ltl

l)Est(;N oF PR(XIESS EQUIPMENT

VERTICAL VESSEL LEC DESION

PACtFtC OCtN

FIG.4. - SEISMIC ZONE MAP OF ALASKA


i

ie
( :i ..'l ---t'.

XAUA I

a::_q i=_
= @ :: i: I E::t

H t': b Er!;
E

;=5
!
E

#,,oP
; P
E

/-)

;;
!_:

! i 5

r(* 4)

M0L0m

!:i

; I 5- i
Eri9li ;= E'.;; s !1!= :; i
9 9!E!:

" -:

I
.\-\=;; B ee

i:r'!!i; iiiiill ;;.


EEi E9E

E E

FIG. 3.. SEISMIC ZONE MAP OF THE UNITED STATES


(Reprodrced f.om the uniform BuildinB Code, 1926, with the permisston of The tnternational Conference of Building Officials)

FIG,5. - SEISMIC ZONE MAP OF HAWAII (Reproduced from the Uniform Building Code, 1976, with the permission of The International Conferenc of Buildins Ofiicisls)
213

212

l)Esl(;N

o|

PRoc[ss IQUIPMEN'I'

VERTICAL VESSEL LEG DESIGN


Therefore, the change in length of brace can be determined by a_
(lcs)b

4 = 0.07 TY(4 should


equal to zero for

be limited to

0.25 I/ maximum and strould be assumed

T!0.7)
Thus,

(AE

Considering the weight, l{ uniforrnly distributed along the shell length, the remainder of the earthquake torce {V-F) resolves to a ttapezoid, the extended non-parallel sides of which intersect at the base as is shown in Figure 6. For this iype of load distribution the base overturning moment can be determined by the formula:

Y=4sin 0
The period of vibration can be deternined by using the relationship
i

ME:Flrlr+l(v-F)(H3 -ti)l@, - Pl
The rest of the calculations to determine the earthquake force and moment will be the same as discussed for unbraced legs.
Checking Strength of the Legs

-F

To check the adequacy of leg size, the


as

vessel support can be considered

column and allowable fiber stress under concentric axial load is given by

t8ffn _ '"-r+(f13666"2,
F

fr ratio should not exceed 120 and also the fiber stress should be limited to 15000 psi. maximum allowable
The maximum
FIG. 6. - DISTRIBUTION OF EARTHQUAKE FORCE ALONG THE VESSEL LENGTH

Designing Legs for Axial Loading

Wind Forces for Vescels with Braced Legs The technique discussed earlier can be used to determine the wind force and moment except that the projecied area of the bracing exposed to the wind should also be taken into consideration with legs.
Earthquake Forces for Vessels with Braced Legs

The required cross-sectional area of each leg for axial compression can be found from

A,: pt/F"
Ifthe value of .4,,
strength of the leg.
Designing Legs for Eccentric Loading
as

calculated above, is greater than the actual area

of selected leg, ,4, choose the one with higher area and recheck the

The static deflection, { is found by determining the change in length of the bracing resulting from a total lateral load equal to the weight of the
vessel.

Now, the maximum force in the brace will be

When the legs are attached to the vessel with distance 'a' between the centerline of the leg and the centerline ofthe yessel plate, this produces an eccentric loading and an additional stress in the leg supports. This stress
is siven as

":(#):
214

2t5

I)tisI(;N

Ot? PI{(XJESS EQUIPMENT

VERTICAL VESSEL LEG DESIGN


Lg Design Analysis

f"":P:: sr
The effect ofeccentricity ofleg supports which are welded directly to the vessel is almost negligible. However, this should not be neglected if the legs are attached dilferently.

A technique for analysis

in two

is presented for four angle supports with F acting directions. The moment due to eccentric load is assumed to be negligible. A typical cross-section of the angle along its various axis is shown in Fisure 7.

Designing

l*gs for Wind or Earthquake Loading

The legs for this type of loading have to resist the greater of wind or earthquake force as well as the moment about base. This moment eventually is converted to direct load on the legs, the magnitude of which depends on leg location corresponding to the direction of force. This load should be added to lhe dead load while calculating direct
stress. Analysis of most generally used cases are discussed in figures 8 and 9.

The force F (greater of F* and /) at the base produces bending moment which is comparable to considering the leg as a beam fixed at one end but guided at the other end with a concentrated load at the guided end. This type of loading produces the same bending moment at both ends and the magnitude of maximum bending stress in leg is given
by

FIG. 7. . VARIOUS AXES OF AN ANGLE

Let

M:Grealet of Mn or ME
Now select the configuration of supPorts corresponding to the
direction of force

and analyze using the proper figure as described

fb-G

lN)t/2
sr

below.

Direction of "F"

as shown in Fig. 8.

However, to obtain more conservative results in actual analysis in figures 8 and 9, the leg is considered as a cantilever with the load F
concentrated at the free end. Designing

WM Pt:i' P': ot -

l*gs for Combined Inading

":zrt^*

When leg supports are subjected both to direct loads and bending produced by wind, earthquake or eccentric loads, the sum of the axial compressive stresses divided by the allowable column stress, plus the
bending stresses divided by the allowable flexural stress shall not exceed

*Ll' ":at..j Lj ,t!, . L:F: Leg,,a..y.:-_


t.

/*,.'F

I=, F

r",
t

unlty, or
Sum of direct stresses Sum of bendine stresses

t-ec't* 1.:Pt

1^:l^' 's"." ,4'

<l

Using approximate values we can simplify and say:


LeC"a"

where Fr, the maximum allowable bending stress in the column should

not exceed 20.000

0.l0F l w M l;:4-+ D,i. h: S*

Dsi.

Irg"
216

o-L:#,

,=ti::'

217

l)ust(;N oF pl{()(jLSs TIQUtPMENT


Bracing of Legs

VERTICAL VESSEL I,E(; I)ESICN

'2

t
P1

I
\

nr ?t L
\-(
.171"s"u'

DP

ti

"rl

LJ".,*-o'

".i-,1 p

"l n]",

lP. IP'
,rt|J ".17
P,

Legs 7 feet or greater should be braced. The recommended bractng sysiemconsists ofcross-bracingconnecting adjacent pairs of legs Braces should be stitched together at their point of intersection' Knowing the maximum shear per leg, the maximum tensile load in each brace can be calculated by multiplying the maximum shear by the ratio of the length ofthe brace io the h;rizontal distance between two legs Using allowable stress of 22,000 psi for the tension member the required area of the brace the can be easily determined by dividing the maximum tensile load by

tl
IJ
JI

tJ

tl tl

allowable stress. However, the ratio of the length to the radius of 4 g;ratlon of Uracing members, ifother than rods,should not exceed 300

"-fl

<> 19t
Direction of "F"

\y'*r
FIG.8

S-.n (P*'
as shown in Fig. 9.

'F-rE r'-rn n,

tu-'h-4
lr' rl.
F-

[1L

fr I uF4
flrh

rYl

tsil--4
FIG. TO. . TYPICAL BASE PLATE DETAIL

FIG.9

-WM-F pr:V,

,r:rU t

Fr=O
Base Plate Dsign

F,.t " P,+P. Jb:i: l"= A-.

Refer to Fig. l0 and lel 0 be the larger of the dimension '/ or O, the base Dlate thickness can be calculated by using the relationship;"

.w ^ J.:4A+2DiA.h:+s*
In any
case,

F.t

if

f.,fo F,- h

Restrictions on Using l.gs

columns.

exceeds unity, the design should be modilied till the above equation becomes equal to or less than 1. Figure 9 also applies to other types of

1. The legs should be used on small vessels in general 2. Legs lhould not be used on vessels where severe pulsations will make the vessel vibrate.

218

219

l)us t(;N otr pRo(iltrss tQUtpMuNT

VERTICAL VESSEL LEG DESIGN


Check Leg Strngth for Axial Loading Area of the selcted leg, ,,4 = 3.82in.'l The load to be supported by each

EXAMPLE
in. tangent to tangenl carbon steel vertical vessel having ellipsoidal heads, is 0.375 in. thick. The biggest overhead
6

A 54 in. inside dia., 10 ft.

les,
A,:

maxlmum operating weight is 16,000 lbs. and the vessel is to be supported on four 7 ft. high legs. Neglecting the elfect of earthquake,
design the leg suppods

nozzel size is 8 in., and the vessel has 4.5 in. thick insulation. The therelore

Pt:

tu*g:oo*
q

,o

if the vessel is to be located in a 40 psf wind

zone.

4000112865 :0.3109 in.'? < 3.82 in.2 O K'

or maximum direct stress is given by

SOLUTION
Shear for the vessel and legs can be calculated separately and then combined in order to come up with the maximum shear at the base. However,for simplicity and to be on the conservative side, the maximum base shear can be calculated by assuming the vessel as a cylinder of diameter d throughout its length including legs. The wind diameter in feet is given by D: [vessel I.D.+2 (vessel thickness)+2 (insulation thickness) +overhead line size+2 (insulation thickness) 1 (extra for external

fF#=
Check Leg for Wind

4rrx)

t047 psi < 12865 psi, o.K.

The bending sfess in each leg due to base shear can be calculated from

'" -(2595 5.45

r.

8t4)8412

=5001 psi <20000 psi, o.K.

Check Leg for Combined Loading It r-t t!L< ft f "


t

additions)l/12. Thus D in this


D

case is
5)

ls4 + 2(0.37

+ 2(4.s) + I + 2(4.5) + r2ll

12

7.'t 3

tr.

Total length ofthe vessel:tangent to tangent lngth +inside depth of head +top head thickness + height of the tegs:(126 + 5414 + 0.3j5 + 84)/12: 18.6563 ft. Therefore
Bracing of Legs

12865

lna1 ---'=0.3314<l.O.K. sfnl .' +


20000

f :(Wind diameter)0.6(Wind force)total length of vessel : 7.73(0.6)30(18.6563) :2595.8 lbs =2.5958 kips
From Figure 2, for a vessel with a wind force of2.595g kips, choose
the leg size as
I,Y4

Try 2" x2"

x!"

angles as bracing and arrange as shown in Fig. I

Then

Length of each brace:J272

+692:74 ir'.

minimum radius ofgyration oleach brace:0.391 in. Length

13.

Now for this leg, r:0.991 in. and

l:84

in. Therefore

mlnlmum radius of gyration 0.391

:A:,rr.roo,o.*.
t "T :
uon

t- -:

18000 -" I + [842118000(0.991)r] = 12865 psi. < 15000 psi. O.K.

Area of each brace:0.938 in.2


Shear in each

t/r:84/0.991:84.8 < 120, O.K.

leg:

b
tu

maximum tensile force in each

vace:o+sffi): nlal

220

221

t)tilit(;N ( )l. pt{(xttjss tjQtJtpMtrN'I.


Required area of each

VEI{TICAL VISSEL

LE,G

I)ISIGN

"

brace:

1778

22000

7 :0.089 in.'1<0.938 in.'? Nomenclature

Thus selected brace size is O.K.

a .4
,4s

Distance between the centerline olthe leg and the centerline of the vessel plate, in.

Actual area ofeach leg, in.2


Cross-sectional area ofeach brace, in.2 Projected area of legs including braces (ifany) in the direction of

.4,
Notch to clar

wind, ft.2

SECTION X.X

.4, A" b B c C D E f /, f", F F"


FB Fh

Required area ofeach leg, in.2 Projected area of shell, ft.'?

Length ofthe brace, in. Width of base plate, in. Distance as shown in Fig.7, in.
The

lr

fleiibility factor

Effective wind diameter, ft. Modulus ofelasticity of leg or brace material, psi Maximum direct stress in the leg, psi

Maximum bendingstress in the leg due to wind or earthquake


load, psi Maximum bending stress in the lg due to eccntric loading, psi' Greater of the wind or earthquake force on vessel, lb Allowable compressive stress in the leg, psi. (should be limited to a maximum of 15,000 Psi') Maximum force in the brace, lb Allowable bending stress in the leg, psi. (should not exceed
20,000 psi.)

FIC. 1I. , ARRANGEMENT OF LEGS AND BRACES

Base Plate Design

Section "x

- x"

of Fig. I I is shown above.

Comparing section "x

" with Fig. 10, we have

J:O:I in.,

therefor Q
psi

=I

in.

F" F, F" F, F. g lr H

Wind base shear due to


20,000 psi.)

legs,

lb

Allowable bending stress in base plate, psi. (should not exceed


base shear due to shell, lb Earthquake force at top ofthe vessel,lb Total base shear due to wind, lb

p: ^ 4000 ... _ t. ol o,
The thickness of the base plate is given by

Wind

I'

20000

Acceleration due to gravity, inches/sec'/sec. (386 inches/sec'/sec') Shell length from bottom tangent line to top head, ft'

l1

=0.1291

in., therefore j
222

in. thk.plate is O.K.

Total hight ofthe

vessel, ft.

l'

223

l1
I

r)Est(;N orj PRocEss EQUTPMENT

VERTICAL VESSEL LEG DESIGN

/ Occupancy importance factor (1.0 for vessels) 1",. Moment of inertia of angle about W-W axis, tn.a 1,, 1,,
1""
11,,+1lI-1"")
Moment of inertia of angle about X-X axis, in.a Moment ofinertia ofangle about Y-Y axis, in.a Moment of inertia of angle about Z-Z axis, in.4 (r2,4) Distance as shown in Figure 10, in.
Structure coefficient (2.0 for vessels)

Z A 0

Earthquake zone factor Change in length ofbrace, in.


Angle between the leg and the brace, degrees

REFERENCES
t. "Uniform Building Code," International Conference of Building Officials. Whittier, California,l982. "Minimum Design Loads in Buildings and Other Structures," ANSI A-58.1, 1982 Brownell, L. E.,and E. H. Young, "Process Equipment Design," First Corrected Printing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., April 1968. "Manual otsteel Construction," Eighth Edition, American Institute of Stel Construction, New York, N.Y.,1980.

J K I I M

Length of legs from base to shll attachment, in. Length of base plate, in. Greater of wind or earthquake moment at base ofthe vessel, intb

ME Earthquake moment at base, in lb MWind moment at base, in Jb N Number of legs O Distance as shown in Figure 10, in. p Wind pressure at the height under consideration, psf P Bearing pressure on foundation, psi. (maximum load on each

Pt Q / S g S" S, S,. S*,


Sr"

leg /area of base plate )

Maximum compression load per leg, lb (4N) Larger of base plate dimension ./ or O, in.
Least radius ofgyration ofeach leg, in. Numerical coefficient ior site-structure resonance Section modulus ofeach leg, in.3 Wind shape factor for legs Wind shape factor for shell Section modulus of angle about 17- tlzaxis, in Section modulus of angle about X - X axis, in.3 Section modulus of angle about Y- Yaxis, in.3 Section modulus of angle Base plate thickness, in.

! (I*.

lcl

S,, r T / l/ x Y

abolt Z - Z axis,in.3

Period ofvibration of vessel, cps


Base shear due to earthquake,

lb

Operating weighl of vessel, lb

Horizontal distance between two legs, in.


Leg deflection due to lateral force, in.

22s

10
2 ASME CODE SECTION VlrI, DrvIsIoN 1 I,ICU TTS COMPARISON TO DIYISION

History of Division 2 and ri-r" nSft4g code committee has continually modified' revised' fi$t it was since ever code vessel pressure exoanded the Section VIII of the workilis. the oti6na criterion was a factor of 5 between ;;;;;; American ioJrtr"r, *O ultimate tensile strength Back in the 1930's-the wrtn a

vessel co-de Peiroleum lnstitute and ASME developed a pressure during World War materials to conserve ,"i",V f"*- of 4' In an attempt factor' ASME adopted the code with the lowest safety *-nii"t U, *' the committee and the API-ASME ah ift" *1tt' in the eally 1950's, VIII on pressure vessels main committee ageeil that the revised Section the ASME Boiler and 1955 earlv In lhe"continuing code' ;;;;;;; committee to review and Pressure Vessel Committee orgaruzed a special VIII of the pressure vessel Section existing .uulout" th" following in the l): qode (now designated as Division 1. Basis of the allowable stresses' of i. Experimental ancl analyticat investigations -of the influence performance ot pressure design and other factors on the Research Committee vessels as conducted by the Pressure Vessel Council' of the Welding Research

mierials,

stress values' 3. Practices used by other countries in setting allowable which recommendations make to was ift" rnul" purpose of all this to techniques design analytical latest *oUJotiti". modem technology's or rcduction of safety' afiive at higher allowable stresses without sacrific an urgent need of the realized committee fr, iSf8, }t"o*"""r, the special issued a code for nuclear pressure vessels' Therefore' they

".*,-"tio" it"ii"r sJ*

uI tto*.tp*did to t*o Dvisions) in 1958 and published and after tlle first edition in i963' Retumhg to their original assignment

227.

)tist(;N Otr ptr()oljss IQUtPMENT

ASMII ('Ol)li,

sli(l

l()N

vlll' l)lvlsloN

tlro cxpericnce ol producing Section

lll,

the special committee issued the

initial draft of Division 2 of Section VIII in January of 1967 and rrublished the first edition in December of 1968. Both Division 2 of Section VIII.
and Section

rucllts o1'tlle detailed strcss aDd I'atiguc analysis can be evaluated and perlbnned if required, as discussed below. Stress Analysis Code contains a series of design rules in which the analysis has been carried out for a series of specific configurations. If the desi$er stays within the limits of these configurations, a detailed stress analysis is not required. Thus, the cdteria for determining whether a stress analysis is to be made on a particular vessel are left to the judgement of the vessel designer.

III

had safety factors of 3.

Introduction
Division 2 of Section VIII for pressure vessels entitled .,Alternarrye Rules" covers minimum requirements for the design, fabrication, inspection and certification of pressure vessels that are prohibited by the Dvision l. Consequences ofthese rules may be summarized as follows:
1. Pressure vessels above 3000 psi can be designed and manufactured to comply with these rules and can thus be code stamped. This extension of pressure limits encompasses a large number of vessels that were previously constructed as specials, or in many srares constructed without reference or comparison to an established and recognized code. 2. The need for special state regulations for such vessels has been

significantly reduced.

3. More economical
result of advances

vessels can

in technology with

be designed and manufactured as a respect to working stress

After it has been determined that a stress analysis is required, all loadings on the vessel must be analyzed in accordance with Appendix 4 to determine their effects on the vessel, It is a step-by-step process of stress analysis in accordance with the maximum shear theory. Items such as wind, earthquake, piping, support loads, intemal or extemal pressure and thermal loads etc. must be considered. Stresses developed by various loads must be calculated separately and then combined with shell or head stresses caused by internal pressure at their point of application. These requirements must be met whether or not a fatigue analysis is required. Fatigue Analysis
Paragraph

4, Restrictions and imposed on the use and initallation of vessels made under Division 2, since the basis for the vessel design de_ pends on a specific service for a fixed location and thus are par_ ticularly applicable to the vessels used by the chemical and other
process industries.

levels, design, inspection and quality control procedures.

ADl60 of

the code covers the evaluation of service con-

Design Criteria of Division 2 Division 2 permits higher working stress levels at the expense of a significantly more detailed stress analysis, which is based on maximum
shear theory, on more stdngent material testing and more careful quality control. Equivalent margins of safety are maintained despite the higher working stress leyels. It permits application within the ASME code, of technology that was previously applied only to pressure vessels designed outside the scope of Section VIIL This division depends on a detailed indentification of those stress

ditions to establish the need of a vessel fatigue analysis. In general this paragraph deals with the cyclic conditions of the vessel and is divided into two parts, Condition A and Condition B, covedng the integral parts of vessels including integrally reinforced type nozzles or attachments. It is further subdivided into Corditions AP and BP, which cover non-integral (i.e. pad type) nozzles or attachments. Condition A is an evaluation based stdctly on pressure and tempera-

conditions that actually exist, rather than on simplified rules and arbitrary stress limits. Tresca's ma.:rimum shear theory is used as the analytical principle, so that limits are based on actual stress intensity rather than on arbitrary stress.

In addition to detaited
tant for
yessels

to

be

stress analysis fatigue analysis is very impor_ manufactured in accordance with Division 2. Requtre_

ture cycles. There is no limit to the pressure cycles where the pressure variation stays withirl 20% of the design pressure. Cycles rangtng over 207o of the design pressure are to be included with the cycles of differential temperature between adjacent points, as described by the code, with a limit of t,000 cycles for the life span of the vesseL. Condition B is evaluated if requirements of Condition A are not satisfied. Condition B compares cycles, determined in Condition A, with fatigue allowables as discussed in Appendix 5. In regard to pressure, temperature or joined materials of different coefficient of thermal expansion, if either Condition A or B are met, a fatigue analysis is not required. Conditions AP and BP evaluate non-integral (i.e. pad type) nozzles or attachments only. Condition AP is related to Condition A except that the pressure cycles are unlimited if the pressure variation does not exceed 15%

228

229

)USI(;N Otr ptl(XjUSS t:,euIpMENT

ASMt, ( ()l)t1' SIa('l loN

vlll, l)lVlSloN

of tlle design pressure. Condition Bp is related to Condition B except lbr some required value adjustment as discussed in code. If either Ap or tsp satisfies the requirements, a fatigue analysis for these type of nozzies or attachments is not mandatory.

strcss analysis plus drawillgs showing compliance with the code requlremcnts. Both the design report and the stress report must be prepared and ccrtified by a Registered Professional Engineer experienced in the field of
pressure vessels.

If

Article 5-l (Appendix 5) for vessels and Article 4_6 (Apfendix 4) for fatigue evaluation of pressure stresses in openings.
Comparison
Drurjion 1 utilizes safety factor of 4 on the tensile strength whereas .. ^. Division 2 uses a safety factor of 3 on the tensile ,tr"ngtL

a fatigue analysis is required, the code provides design methods in

For high alloy materials two sets of stress values are not given for the sam material at the same temperature, as in Division 1. Therefore, under Division 2 rules, the vessel engineers cannot make a choice of stress Yalues.

For Division 2 vessels, the standard hydrostatic and pneumatic tests


are similar to that required by Division 1, except that the design pressure is

of Division 2 to Division

multiplied by 1.25 for hydrostatic test and 1.15 for pneumatic test instead

limits of application. Some materials used in vessels operati"g i"'_ib" to qualify by impact testing, as opposed to the ruies given yl

in Division I do not meet the Structural quality plate such as SA_2g3 has been omitted, and 5A-36 is not permitted for pressure part use per Olvision Z. In regard to testing the materials, Division 2 more specifically _ defines lo.cations from which test coupons may be taken Ultrasonic e*"_inurron or plates and torgings over 4 inches in thickress is mandatory. Many of the carbon steels in Diyision 2 have stricter l# temperature
intent of Division

materials below the creep range. . SoT: matedal specifications used

f;'"I_ort df

of

1.5.

2.

Applications of Division 2
Division 2 can be used economically for vessels with internal pressures exceeding 3000 psi, vessels with lesser pressures where exceptional savings in material costs can be realized, or vessels with fluctuation temperature cycles. ln other words. it is used for vessels which are of sufficiently rigorous duty or are sufficiently complex so as to require more
comprehensive calculations and more sophisticated procedures with which to construct safe as well as economical vessels. Design in accordance to Division 2 results in thinnervessel walls, thus besides saving material cost it permits the use of larger vessels whose use

conditionThere are several design differences between the two codes. Division _ - rules.are^ I formulated on the principle stress theory, which has simplicity as its chief attribute. The Division 2 rules by contrast, are for_utui"O on Tresca's maximum shear theory, which giu., fu, U"tt", ," bending effects, secondary stress effects, fatigue, and so forth, whereas Oiuirion i ignore,
such considerations,

.h"* Division I for the same

by

"fnr""i_",i"" but require more" complex computations. th,.,.::p"r]T.tl .resutts, aqorrlon, the Division
2 rules take into account all of

In

the so called fully radiographic vessels. ln those "ifo*, "rly cases *t is not used, there are requirements for other "re,aOiograpty method of examinatioln s'ucn ,r, *: of ultrasonics, dye penetranr or magnetrc particle. The yarious ll: aoqlrronat requirements or restrictions that appear in Division 2 relative ro fabrication are all directed toward the prevention of brittle fracture and on the existence of structural or metallurgical notches or discontinuities. 2 requires a complete design report t" p."p"rJ iy irr" ur"r. ?rloto" lnrs desrgn report musl include operating informarion including cvclic duty and materials of construcrion. on rhe orher rland. irr" iJri?"'", required to submit a stuess report which contains complete cal"ulutionrlnO

two basic differences between the two codes. Division 2

Regarding non-destructiye examination and fabrication, there are

i",

has been precluded earlier by transportation or installation limitations. Thinner wall usually results in the reduced temperature gradiant, and thus in lower thermal stresses, and an economical design in application that might otherwise defy the designer's ingenuity and surpass the capabilities of materials currently available for pressure vessels. Uniform strength can be easily attained throughout the metal thickness after proper heat-treatment for thin wall vessels. This also results in improved mechanical properties such as ductility and toughness Thus, design in accordance to Division 2 leads to much safer vessels even though the ratio of ultimate tensile strength to working stress may have been reduced.

Limitations of Division 2 Division 2 does not provide rules for


trol.

vessels operating at elevated temperatures. At present the break off point is where creep begins to con-

_.,

"

Vessels whose pressures are low enough to require a thickness governed by fabrication minimums do not justify Division 2 requirements, unless the nature of thefu operation requires attention to pulsating pressure causing fatigue or some othr peculiar problem relative to the safety of

230

)DSl(;N ()tr Pt{(x)tss TQUIPMENT

tllese vessels.

rules of Division 2 cover vessels, only to be installed at a fixed location for a specific service. Thus neither the location nor the servrce
can be altered during the useful life of the vessel.

The

l1
MECTIANICAL DESIGN OF SELF'SUPPORTED STEEI.' STACKS

REFERENCES
1. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, ,,pressure Vessels,,, Division l, ASME, New York, N. y., 1983. 2. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, ..pressure Vessels", Division Z, Alternative Rules, ASME, New york, N. y.. 19g3. 3. LeCoff, J., "Safer Pressure Vessels Using the New ASME Code,,. Svmposium on Loss Prevention, part VI, pressure Vesels, AICHE iixty_ . Seventh National Meeting, AICHE, New york, N. y., 1970. 4. Macleod, L. M., "Comments on Division 2 Vessel Design,,, Hydrocarbon Processing, December 1969, pp. 125-126. 5. Witkin, D. E., *A New Code Worth its Weight in Metal,,, Chemical En_ gineering, August 26, 1968, pp. 124-130.

Introduction The demand for stacks of greater heights to conform to increasingly rigid air pollution control standards has emphasized the need forJmore thorough understanding oftheirdesign criteria Guyed stacks are cheapcr but the main disadvantages of guyed stacks are the amount of land required and the interference of the guy wires Thus, in rcfineries and pelrlchcmical plants, self-supporting stacks are desired from thc slandpoinl of plant appearance and safety' Design Crlteria Assuming the slack has been sized on stack draft requirements,
rvind and earthquake moments should be calculated at various levelsThe greater of the wind or earthquake moments should- be used for desig;. The stack then should be checked for wind induced vibratior It shoJd be pointed out thal stackvibrations induced by earthquake are infrequent in occurcnce but the wind induced vibrations can occur every day or more and many times during the day depending upon the location. Wtnd Loads Winds apply force to the lallvertical shcks causingthe stackto be loaded as a canlile'vcr beam which is fixed at the base' In this case, the bcnding stress induccd by the cantileverbeam action is zero at the top of thc stack and a maximum at the base. The bending stress produces a

comDressivc axial slress on the downwind side of the stack and a corrcsponding lensile stress on lhe upwind side

Static forcc, rcpresenting the wind load due to drag may be obtaincd using thc standard wind pressures on the vertical projected arcas of the stack for various height zones as recommended by the applicablc building codesr'2 Wind pressures must be multiplied by a drag cocflicient (shape factor) associated with the exposed crosssectional shape 6f the stack

232

ZJJ

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

DESIGN OF S1EEL STACKS

dramctL'r Iimes height) may be considered to act at the average height of a distancc. This force times lever arm gives the bendine

rcsult in conservative results, thus the applicable codes should be re[crrcd to, if accuratc results are desired. l o.^urrfo.*lrrJ tolai"" thc lurcc L-,f tht wind on the prqiected surface of rhe .1".k (.f;;;;;?
riome"nt

pl;rlcs atlachcd tolhe outside of rheshell). This recommendalion nray

fol a rrrugh cylinder (smooth cylinder with ladder und plat[ulms. crc.), and 1.2 fora cylinderwith spoilers (verric"L"il"ll"f "ae'".
1.0

Rccorrmcndcd drag cocfficients3 are 0.6 for a smooth cylinder,

I'lallbrms also conlributc lo additional overturning momcnt which can


clctcrmincd as follows:

Horjzontal arca of platform (Wind pressure based on location of plltlorrn) (Actual hcighl of platform above base) (.5) Alle l ltrc momcnls duc to all the platforms are calculated' these shoulclbc adclcd toM*,dclcrmined above, to get the total moment atthe bzrsc. Similar-lv, lhc momenl at any point above base can also be

calculated on thc samc principlc. Diameter used in calculation of wind load:

Da =

MOMENT@BASE: M,
(For values of P. see map and table on pages 12 and 13')

M*:-

Xx-

Xx-

xx-

x_
X-

x_
X-

-x
PFt
PF"

-X

xxx-

xX-

xX
.5 .5 .5

'.-Pr

PFz

xx-

x x

FL LB. TOTAL =
FIC

TYPICALWIND LOADING DIACMM FOR STACK

shows the typical wind loading for a stack The effective diarrctcr of stack can be obtained as follows:

Fieurc

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Natural Frequency of Vlbration Thc oeriod of vibration I is thL. time necessary to complete one cycle o[ oscillation and is the reciprocal of the natural frequency of vibration/. Thc nalural frequcncy is equal lo the circular frequency o dividcd bv 2n. The circular frequency of a single degree of freedom slr'r.rclure is proponional to the square root of the stiffness divided by lhc mass. Thc equation is:

D6 : =

Effective diameter of stack, ft. Outside diameter of stack + insulation + allowance for ladders, platforms, and piping, etc. (allow 1 to 2 ft)

Fol st:rcks wilh strakes or spoilers, the effective diamerer should bc cqual 1o slack diameter plus twice the spoiler projectio[
Now, referring to Fig.

l,

we get

Mry

= Overturning moment at the base, ftJb. = (D,) (P,) (H) (h) + (Dd Qz) (H) (h,) + (D) (P) (H,) (hz)
234

, = ,lv^,

where

stiffness, and

'?

me$s

235

I)ESIGN OF PIIoCESS EQUIPMENT

DESIGN OF STEEL STACKS

Erplcssing rruss
gcl

ars l,V/g

and stiffness

as

A(force over deflection). we

- I lFr ' 2r tlWL


Mode Shapes
The dcflccted shape ofa s1n:cture for any single mode
is

rlrc vibr rrlot.,r tlrolioll ilt otrc swing a{tcr frec vibralion stafls Thc firsl sm:rll pclccnlngcs ol dilmping greatly reduce peak responses because

pcirk |espo|tscs arc gcncrally associated with shon response time clunrlions ;rnd, thcreforc, involve liule energy. Damping represenls cncrgy losscs Irom manv sourccs and' therefore, can be of a number of
tvpcs as rclzrled to vibration.

ofvibralion

alwavs thc samc for that slructure, regardless of the magnitude ofthe vibration. In othe| words, though the amplitude of the displacement changcs with timq the relation between displacements throughout the heighl rcmains consrant The distribution of accelerations for a single

modc of vibralion lherefore remains constant Knowine the mode

shapc and thc maximum vibralion al the top, the maximum vibration at anv levcl above the base can be directly obtained for fiat mode The

modcs. Thc modc with the longesr period is called the first, or fundamcntal, mode and the mode with shorter periods (higher frequcncics) are called the higher modes The typical shapes of first thrcc modcs ofvibration for canrilevered cfinder are shown in Fig 3.

modal displacements for a typical smoothed response spectrum will decrcasc as rhe modal period decreases from the lower to the hieher

Seismic Loads Anolher environmcntal factor that must be considered in the clcsign of tall stacks are seismic stresses produced by earlhquakes To pr"ri"nt tull .,u.k. from toppling underanticipated possible earrhquake it,rcc., a tall stack must bc designed to wilhstand these forces The cfftct o[ seismic forccs is somewhat similar to wind loads in that the slack again is loaded as a verlical cantilever beam fixed at the base' Therc is a difference in the load distribution in the case of wind loads as compared 10 seismic loads but in both cases the vertical column is cxposed to bending which produces axial tensile stresses on one side and thc axial compressive slresses on the other side There are both horizontal and vcfiical shifts of the eadh crust Juling th,' carlhquakc. Vt'rrical shihs arc oI small imponanct i n large sllcks bccausc oi thcir stability to forces in the vertical direction The horironlal shifting of the earth's crust is the cause of major concern wilh lall slacks. This shifting might be compared to a sudden displaccment of thc foundation underneath the standing stack Bccausc of thc ineflia of thc staclq this produces bending similarto that produced by a [orce pushing against thc side ofthe stack and results in sending thc stack into a hannonic vibration. T"hc sway of thc stack will produce a maximum velocity as the stack passcs t-hrough vertical cenler. Also, the maximum velocity of As the s',vay will be at the top of thc stack with zero velocity al the base sta& rcaches the limit of its deflection, the kinetic energy of molion is
I

:,tr|
I'I(

Vodu

lrd

Modc

i 1 \IODIi

SIIAPES FOR A CANIILEVERED CYLINDER

Damping conlinuc
eulside'

A pcrfcctll' claslic systcm, set into vibralory motion, would 1() vibratc forcver if the vibrations were not stopped by an
forcs However,
no system is perfectly elastic, and the vibratorv

molion will die out due to loss ofenergy resulting from internal strains. This Ioss of cnergv is called damping Damping is generally expressed as a perccntage of "critical damping', the damping which would srop

slrain cnergy of thc shell causing reversal of direction and lhc slzrck rvill srvav back and forth unlil the energy is dissipated An cxprcssion for pcriod ofvibration I can be derived by equating the total strain cncrgy slorcd lo the kinclic encrgr of motion as the slack movcs Thc Jck thus will have a charactcrislic period of vibration and thc [r-equcncv ol vibration will be a function ofthe mass of the stack and rhc sla;k dimcnsions and thc modulus of elasticity of the material of cor.rslrLrclioll. It tlic period of vibralion o[ the stack is large, the stack cln bc corrsiclclcd to bc flcxiblc and although it may sway appreciably, \\'ill bc irblc lo rcsisl lhe scismic forccs much bctterlhan a stmcture with r srritlt pcriod o[ vibralion. Rigid structure havc short periods of vibr:rtior.r and are morc susceptible to seismic deslruction than flexible slruclures.
wrnsfcrrcd
1o

236

237

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

DESIGN OF STEEL STACKS

wilh the mean located


n()1

In thc casc of tall flexible stac( the force producing acceleratron oI the stack during rhe sway varies wirh the velociry at rh."n;";;;i;*r". Since this velocity increases from zero at the base to the maximum ar the 1op, tht: flexible stack should be considered to be load.a
a1

'Ihickncss l,can bc irssumecl lo bc lhickness at lhc top ofstack for Fig..1(b) irnclin crirgc of thc t <tp a ncl bot tom thicknesses of stack for Fie.
-l (

c).

the top ls re'strained and increase 10 a maximum at the base ofthe stack where thc accumulated forces are a maximum. Seismic Ioads forthe stackcan be calculated as follows:

resuhing stresses induced bythe sway from seisilic shifis u.", oi co,r."", in lhc revcrse order and are zero at the top of the stack because

twothirds the heighl of the

u,

" sack

r.i.ngt"
The

Tlrc lundzrmcnlal Ircqucncv of a stack having varying cross scclion or ntulliple diamclors can;rlso be found by the Rayleigh-Ritz nrclhod of suntm;rlion. In lhis ci.rse', the slack height is divided inro a nunrl)cr of sccliorrs. II wl - - , is thc rveight of each section and rr - - is the lcsulting clcad loacl dcllcctit.rn at lht: center of each seclion produced whcn stack ncls irs horironlal cantilcver bearr! then6:

Fundamental Frequency of Stack Vibratlon sectioq


as shown in

I
^

--..------------

wlxt+w2x2+--l|rxr' + w2x2' + ---

is given bya

Foracantilevered cylindrical structure of uniform crossFig 4(a), the fundamental period ofvibration

Thc first mode period [or-all tvpcs of stacks can also be calculated by using the ;rpproximalc rclalionshipT:

T:

wIl
3.)Z

Where

! = rrr31t
_ nur'tr
8

T=

Substituting for

F, /,

and

we ger:

Dr

?=765(,0)-6(#l

l+
i. of
the

cquivalcnt sriffness. The diameter D. and the hcight cquivalcnt cylinder are given by the following equationss:

Thc reciprocal of period Igives the natural frequcncv ofvibration staek in cps. Thc abovc equation can also be used to calculate the period for lapered slacksas shown in Fig. 4(b) and ( c) by using slraighr cylinder of

c-r[

For Fig 4(b):

D.

H.

l?". u"(;?d)'
o" = o,tou

(a)
FIC.,r - COMMON

Factors Affecting Stack Frequency


Frce standing stacks have always been observed lovibratedurine

For Fig 4(c):

H.=Hm
238

voncx cxcitation a1 a frequency and wilh a mode shape associatedwiti the fundamcntal mode In addition, the shape of the dynamic force amplitude of nearly constant frequency over the height of the stack implies that the dynamic response will be almost enlirely due to the
239

DESIGN OF PR@ESS EQUIPMENT

DESIGN OF STEEL STACKS

conlribution ofthe first mode only. Thcrefore, itis recommended that all higher modes be neglected in thedynamic analysis and that

Base Shear
F

the frequency and associated critical wind velocity of


fundamental mode only be considered

the

Thc cffccl of rhe following should be included in the de lcnninirtion ol thc fundamental frequency of the stack Gunite Lining Thc conrribution of gunite lining if used should be included rn thc crrlcul;rlion of both thc mass and stiffness 10 obtain an accurare cslimalion of thc fundamcntal frequency ofthe slack In calculations lbr lined stacks, the section properties ofan equivalent steel seclion mav bc calculated using a suilable value for lhe modular ratio e s.
c

V_F,

(r) S.isnric L!.ding

Diig,am

(b) Scjsmic Shcrr Dirgnm

E:

."

FIC.5,

SEISMIC LOADING AND SHE"{R DIAGR,AMS FOR STACK

The base shearis the totalhorizontal seismic shearat thebase

ofa

calculations. Linings dccrcasc lhe natural frequency and damp the ;rmplitudcs of vibration. But, the lined stack will be resonant at lower
wind r,clocitics.
Thc natural frequency of a stack lined with bricks or blocks is nor vcry diffcrenr than thc unlined shell, because the degree of composite aclion bclwcen rhe shcll and linine is small Base Flexibillty

Howevcr, if the gunile lining is not integrally compacled with the stack shcll, lhc nalural frequency for the unlined stack can be used in

stack The triangular loading pattem and the shape of the stack shear diagram duc to that loading are shown in Fig 5(a) and (b). A portion f, of lolal horizontal seismic force Vis assumed to be applied at the top of rhc stack per UBC (Uniform Buildihg Code). The remainder of the base shcar is distributcd throughout the len$h ofthe stack including the top
Thc UBC base shear formula is given by V:ZI KCSW
Wlrcre
7,:.187 5 for zonel, .37 5 for zone2, .7 5 for zone 3, and 1.0 for zone ,l (rcfer to Fig. 3,4 or 5 of Chapter 9 for determining the proper s{jismic zone)

can bc shown 1o reduce the fixed base fundamentaL f;";;;.; substantially.s Translational and rolational spring constants can be calculated using standard structural analysis procedures and incorporalcd into frequency calculation. For stacks supported on normal sprcad footings and pile foundations, an investigattn into the cffcct ofthebase flcxibility suggests that these types ofsupports are very nearly fixed. Approximate translational and rotational soil sprino constanrs can be calculared based upon methods currentt"";i;;i: using csrimates of the dynamic modulus of elasricity (obtained from a scismic sun,ey of the sitr:) and the poisson,s ratio of the soile Sincethe foundalion flexibility will gencrally affect the fixed base frequency by Iess lhan I 1<l 2 pcrcent, these tlpes of foundations can be treatei as Ilxccl, sincc this effect is relatively insignificant in comparison with olher cstimated parameters.
240

,For slacks supporled on structural members, many framrng con[iguralions, though designed to safely resist the static wind loadino

- = "

tS

.S:1.5

|.2 + .24(n -.048(7)'z. if T>

1 .067 = J-f fi if l'( 2.5 and

tC should not be morc than O.l2)

2.5

(.S should not be less than 1.0) Thc product of C.9 should nol exceed 014. Now; tht: total horizontal force 4 al top of the stack is given b3r F, = O.07TV (F, should not exceed 0.25n

:0,for?<0.7

(lverturnlng Moment at Base Thc ovcnuming moment is the algebraic sum of lhe moments of all t hc forccs above the base. The ovenuming moment at the base of stack duc to cadhquake in ftlb. can be expressed as:
241

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

DESIGN OF S]EEL STACKS

ME = IFF + (v _ F) (2Ht3\) 1000 Allowable Shell Buckling $tress Thc axial loads and overturning moments are assumed to be rcsisted entircly by the steel shell Gunite lining if used is nor considered to bc structurally reliablq or to have any significant value in
prcventing shell buckling Initially, some thicknesses at each section arc assumed The maximum allowable compressive stress in theshellrs rlrcomn,cnded to be rhe smallest of the following:

Anchor Bolt Chalr Following calculations are based on the anchor bolt chair shown

in Fig

7.

N.. WASHEB WiSOLT HOLE

WHEN THIS OISTANCI: EECoMES 1t/!" 0R

Y." LARGER THAN 8011SEE CHART fOR SIZE

IESS USE (1)


SOLTS

{"

CUSSET OETWEEI{

(a)
(b)

One-half of the material yield stress at the desisn


I'-'mpcralurc, or

L"

S.:

Y/2

\
'
TYP.
TOP

Thc allowablc compressive stress considerins local shcll buckling as dercrmined from rhe followins empirical relationshiplo
for t"/d ratios less than 0.00425
0.56 t"E

Ai{0
BOT.

s.=

d(r + .oa4E/Y
E

[,tusr
PILOT IN TOP
SOTTOM

For higher r"/d ratios, the allowable compression stress used is that calculated for t"ltl : .00425. Stack Weight

As SHO' N

BASE & TO

I
8AS

n.

RTNGS

40 P|PE AIOToR
SOLT GUIDE.SEE CHART CONT. FILLE] WLD TO TOP A}IO 80TT0M RI.IGS

Corrosion allowance

(if required) is added to the

thicknesses

LI

zrssumed above and uncorroded weight (including

thc botlom of each section is determined

lining ifrequired) ar

carlhquakc moments at each level is determined for the following rclationship:

Stack Plate Thickness Stack plate thickncss requircd to resist the greater of wind or

ANCHOR BOLT CHART


Anchor Anchor

bolt
dia.
314

bolt
guide

Plate
washrs

b Min.

&718
ro 1 314

2
2

1l2x3112Sq.

2 r12

1 tolli4
Corrosion allowance (if required) is added to the thickness dctcrrrincd above and resulting thickness is rounded off to the hieher l/16 inch. This is actual srack rhickness al rhe level u;der

ll2x

ll2

Sq.

J
3
3 3 r12

) | l) 1 t l)
)
3
111

8 8 8 8 10

| |

318 718

2 r12
3

1l2x4112Sq.

to 2

114

3l4x4ll2Sq.
314

) tl)

considcration. After required plate thicknesses are determined at each level they arc comparcd with corresponding assumed lhicknesses in uncorroded condilions. If therc is any deviatioq correct weighls are calculated bltsed on ncw thicknesses and procedure is repeated until the two thickncsscs coincide.
242

2 r12
2 314
3

J 112
5 112

5 314 x 6 314x6
x

Sq. Sq. Sq.

1tl)

ll ll

ITI(;. 7 , ryPICAL ANCHOR BOLT CHAIR FOR STACKS

243

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

DESIGN OF STEEL STACKS

Calculating Number and Size of Anchor Bolts The number o[ bohs is assumed initially, based on a multiple of lbur with about 18 inches o[ bolt spacing Total tension in each bolt is dctcrmined from the relationship:

Q---

tya

'

: 48(M)_ wt N(DEd -N

*l

'."
a

.:

If SB is the maximum allowable stress of anchor bolt material in psi, lhc rcquired boh arczr .r1 lhe root of the thread is given b5r

o^

=Y! sd
FIG. 8

Calculating Base and Top Plate Thicknesses Dimcnsions tt b. and c, in inches corresponding to actual bolt diamclcr arc dctermincd from Fig 7. Now, bearing pressure pb in psi on concrcte foundalion is calculated from the follov.ing formula:

' VON

KARMAN VORTEX STREET

_
"

r(D61)'c r(D6l1c

48(m

W,

The value of P, is limited to 750 psi maximum for 3000 lb concrete and 500 psi maximum for 2000 lb. concrete.
Pb exceeds the above limit, the value of c is modified so that P6 falls within the allowable limit.

I
+l
AI -n

Sucrion Effccr Tolva.d

'*'*'*''*7

If the calculated

Base plate thickness

f, is calculated from the following relationship: / J'b ap \12 6 I t" = " |\,ffi) whcre , :cr *b

@i'
I

FIG' 9 - EFFECT OF VORTEX SHEDDINC ON A STACK

For top plate thickness ?a, the following formula is used:

,': |
Dynamic Wlnd Design

t(w")o \rtz

""l,"ing; ani i"n" p."t""i""Jr.',ttbution

atu"L,

\4(2oJoo)r/

When a cantilevercd cylindcr is subjecled to steadywind there is a ccnain velocity al which the cylindcr begins to oscillale in the direction lransverse to that of the wind This phenomenon reportedly exists when eddies, created as wind contacls thc stack or flows close to it, are shed from the chimney sulface. Thc vortices commonly referred to as the Von Karman effecl, are similarlo thr: watereddies formed when we row a boar The flow is depicted diagrammatically in Fig 8. The effect of vonex shedding on a stack is shown in Fig 9. 244

pr"ssure drop across the cylinder as they are.released the bending momenl caused due to this change in r.-,n".I* p."t""." distribution is shown in Fig 10' The a lateral force, which must be resisted bv the ;;;;;"'p;;t""s frequency of wind cantilevered columrl At resonance that ig when the the 1o the natural frequency of the cvlinder

the In theory vortices are shed inlermittently from each side of

lorr".pond" ;;.il; io*"t .tl .attt. -aximum

which the resonance takes ot.." i" d""ienur"d as the critical wind velocity Equating the VonL"r-un uorrit ,hedding frequency at the top lo the nalural frequency and solving for the critical wind velocity we get:
The velocity
a1

fD-

245

DESIGN OF PROCESS TQUIPMENT

DESIGN OF STEEL STACKS

20

Vibraliun analvsis =h ,to < W - < 25 Vibration analvsis SHoULD

MUST be performcd
be performed

HD,'

25

<

w
V-Oz

Vibration analvsis NEED NOT be performea'

If, lao = Wind velocity at 30 feet height' mph y-' at the 1op of lhe slack itr"n irt. maxim,lm r'ind velocity
given by

Analysig

if required, should be carried out as described below


is

V* =
and the maximum gust velocity
Bending Mom.nl DiagEm FIC.

Vzo(Lt3D)o

to'

= 1'3V.

IO

PRESSURE DISTRIBUIION AND BENDINC MOMENI DIACRAM FOR A STACK DUE TO MDIAL WIND

for all Relnolds numbers be used for stack design plugging for
Strouhal number in the above equation and modifying the equation 10 get an expression for critical wind velocity in miles per houl we get

The value of Strouhal number N,, depends on the Reynolds number, however, il is recommended that a Strouhal number of 0.20

gusl Ifcritical wind velocity, % falls within range ofthe maximum stack corroded case' u"to"lty,-th" rtu"t -ust bec'he&ed further' In that *"ighi -"* be equal to or greater than 15 times the wind force at u" a fot-ul4 the ratio' Kt should be less .riii.ut u"to"itv ot than 1/15.

""p."s."d

K,

=P,p,L. _ O.\Ulp,s E
.vv'-"

_ f p. (ffi) 60 v '" - .213\7760 = 3.47 tD-

For lined slacks l4l can be used in place of W" in order to reduce vibralion. Design modifications are required if K1. in the above
cquation exceeds 1,/15. Static Deflection pressure The computed d)'namic loading is applied as a slagnant 1op is at the amplitude 1o the stack Assuming it to be a cantileverbeam, approximated by,

Various orher relationships available to calculate the critical wind vclocity Yl in mph, are as followsT:

,, ," = fD,(60) --fralso

P"D,LL;(LD3 D" _

where Iz

: rr3t
resonant

",^(*)'
V" =

'

Dynamic Deflection

and

finally

'..,t

JE

(*)

Al a critical wind velociry the structure vibrates at

f."q,r.'n.v,

CAI\MLEVER VIBRATION Analyzing Procedure Now, the following criteria as recommended by Zorrilla 1r can be uscd to establish need for vibration analysis of sracks wi th H^ /H ratio
not cxcecdins 0.50;

^tti which is a ratio of dynamic amplitude to static auri.-i.1o"ffi"i"nt, the magnification factor' This is a function of the iaa", lt -and "Af"d ^'-of several other factors' The amount of iitil" tirir.*". of the soil

greatly' The rU"s the amplitud'e ofvibration is magnified

must be multiplied by the magnific^ation factor to magmncanon determine dlnamic deflection Approximate value-ot by a.i".t i". iirf.*nt types of stacks as suggesred DeGheno and Longr2 are listed in Table l.

ri"tlJa.n"oio"

246

247

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

DESIGN OF STEEL STACKS

Ovalllng Vlbratlon
TABLE I - MAGNIFICATION FACTORS
SPREAD FOOTINGS ON SOFT SOIL (BEARING BELOW !.500 psl) SPREAD FOOTINC ON MEDIUM SOFT SOIL (BEARINC BETWEEN Li00 rnd 3,000 psl)

In addition
PILED FOUNDATIONS
AND SPREAD FOOTINCS ON STIFF SOIL AND ROCK

t<.r

^frr

li,-,Ui..i"a

fiPE

OF STACK

""ra"*

,n"aai.g Thc

"ib.^ti,rn

frequcncy of rhe lowesl-mode, of flexural steel shell that oiovalling orbreathing for an unlined circular

tt

transvcrsc (cantilever) vibration' unlincd stacks are of ncxural vibration in the planc of the ring as a result

"'

30

l0

tt -

, .5gr,

J-"

6OD2

90

Maximum Allowable Deflectlon


Maximum dcflection at the top of the stack should not exceed six inches per 100 feet of stack height

Darnplng Excesslve Vlbratlon


The following methods of modiS'ing design are recommended an cxcessive amplitude of vibration is expected:

if

1.

External atlachmenls (such as piping ladders and platforms) may be properly distributed around the stn.rcture which helps to reduce or nullifu the effect of pcriodic eddy shedding

2.

Refractory lining may be added

to an

given by Now lhc voncx shedding frequency is 0'2vr rv- D is 66 fps as . where Vr, the wind velocity for vortex shedding most economical and for woodruff and bi"t"v tv ;;;;;;& ;;;i;"k design as far is vibration is concerned at each level using notn rn"."i."quencies should be calculated voftices form the .<-,rrcsponding thickncsses and diameters Becausc thar the suggested been it has ;i;;,.d"t eitf,er side of thc stack frequency' shedding vortex of the or,^llin* fi.ou"n.y will bc rwice thar ii ;;; il J;ii.; /. < 2/" ovalling rings are required al that level thc stack is frce from ovalling vibration' uih"t-it" "'-be S".tiun modulus of thc rings' whenever required' can as follows: *''-' dctcnnined c.iii"ot*i"a velocityV.in fpm,at the section under consideration ,, _ 60f,p

,-

unlined

'" -

stmcture or the thickness or density of refractory of a lined structure increased which adds to the mass and consequently increases the structural damping

of whcrc N",' the Strouhal number, is 0 2 over a wide range


Reynolds numbers.

2N,

No*, rtt" section modulus of stiffeners at section


7 . - (1)(tof v"\z Dz (H,\ J-=_s.

under

3.

If possible, modifying the dimensions of the structure can also help in damping by increasing the critical wind velocity above the maximum gust velocity.
The paltern of vortex shedding can be modified by winding helical strakes around the perimeter of the shell at a pitch of about five times the diameter of the chimney. The height of rhe strake should be abour onetenlh of the diameterand manvtimes, strakes are only required around the top one third of the slackr3 A patented device of this t5,pet't has been successfully used on stmclures to avoid the formation of vortices
and thus cxcessive vibration.
248

.r..li.']."ii."' "..

be found from the formula used by MoodyT

4.

grealer than S'' Stiffeners having section modulus equal 10 or of the section length lhe shoull bc provided at spacingl{' throughout

.rna", .ontia"*tlon.

.".ti.". Jiff"*",
possiblc.

stiffeners are required for more than one sizes and spacing should be used for economy' if

if

having Ahcrnalively, it is recommended3 that for unlined stacks' less or mph of60 vibration ovalling criticai wind vjocity for the shell stiffen provided to be should .ir.,r-f"."ntiul sriffening rings ;;;-;h"t raisc the ovalling vibration frequency Stiffening rings VIII' Jesiencd for a uniform external pressure of 1 5 psi using Section
249

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUTPMENT

DESIGN OF STEEL STACKS

Division I <-rf thc ASME Codcts rules, arc rccomnlcnclcd to avoid thc occurence of ovalling vibration due to voncx shcdding Example Problem
Design a200-foot high, free standing multilplc-diameter, unlined SA-285 Grade C stack as shown in Fig I l. Corrosion allowance: 1/8 inch. Operating temperature of stack: 400"F.

(4 basc ol l2-lt. dia


(q)

scction:

12,046,570 ft-lb

basc o[

@ basc of 6

l0 [t dia seclion:5,818,910 ft-lb ft, 8 in. dia- section : 1,088,410 ft-lb

Assuming corroded thicknesses as follows: 0.625 in. for 12 ft dia section 0.5 in. for lO-ft dia section 0.25 in. for 6 ft, 8 in. dia section

->l

F.--3,.0"

BA.

Allowable Compresslon Stress 12 ft. diameter section

t"ltl

0.6251L44

0.00434

>

0.00425, therefore

0.56 (0.00425) (27.6) Ltr (1 + 0.004(27.6)1f/30,000) Similarl5,, for the 10-ft dia seclion

14,035

psi

t.ld =
6

0.51120

0.004167

S. = 13,761 Psi ft., 8-inch. dia. section t"td = o.25t8o = 0.003125 S. = 1032a psi

Total Uncorroded stack weights Weighls at each level are calculated by adding the corrosion allowancc 1<.r lht-'thickncsses assumed above After adding about l5 pcrcent of the calculated weight to account for piping plalformg
ladders, etc., we gel: W @ basc of l2-ft dia section 178,000 lb W @ base of lO-ft dia section 86,000 lb l,1l @ base of 6 ft, 8-in. dia- section 23,000 Ib

: :

Requlred Plate Thlckness


12-ft. dia" scction

_ .,
=
I

178,000 (144)
----------------

+ >

48 (12,046,570)
14,035

r(r44)2

0.6605 inches

0.625 inches as assumed.

FIG. I I . EXAMPLE PROBLEM FOR SELF.SUPPORIED MULTILPLE DIAMETER STACK

Thcrcforc, totalthickness:0.6605 40.125:0.7855 inchesoruse th ick plate for bottom 8 feet of l2-foot diameter section Wind momcrrts al 8 fect above bottom of l2-fL section : I 1,136,950 ft- lb

3/16 inch

Moments Geographical location of the stack did not require moment calculations due to earthquake Total calculaled wind momenls are.
250

Total thickncss: 0.61l6 + 0.125 :0.7366 inches. Thcrcfon:, 3/4 inch plate is sufficient for rest of l2-foot diameter
sccllon. 251

t,

0.6116 inches

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUTPMENT

DESTGN OF STEEL STACKS

l0-ft. dia. section, r, = 0.4652 in. lbtal thickness = 0.4652 + .L25 = .59O2 in. Thereforq 5/8 inch thick plate as assumed is sufficient for the l0-foor
diameter section.

Cantllever Vlbratlon

D, =

1.385

fr., W = 146,550 lb, H = 200 ft. and lla =

15

ft''

H6lH = 0.075 <0.5

6 ft, 8-in. dia section tt 0.2606 in. > 0.25 in. as assumedThereforc, use 7/16 inch plate for bottom 8 feet and 3,/g inch plate for rcst of 6-fr-rot, 8-inch diameter secrion.
Also, 3/8-inch rhick plate is used for ropmosl3-fool diameter sectiorl Sincc ther e is no apprcciable change in thicknesses, the weishts based

HD:
Iry,

w _

146,550 _

200(7.38sr

t3.44<20

Thcrefore, vibration analysis must be per{ormed'

on rcquir('d thicknesscs arc'almosl Ihc samc as assumed Anchor Bolt Chair Design

: T'

123,550

lb' L" =

185

+ 't '5 -- 192'5 lt'

L.648(192.5F

7.385 v27.6(lo)
117'574

- = 1.5?4 seconds :
14'08 mph

Assuming (40) 3-inch diameter bolts, the total tension in each bolt
ts

f:
Vgo

0'6353 cPs

V" = 3(0'6353) 7'385

w_ '=

48,\1,?'0a7.,s7!l

98 mPh

40(1s3.62s\

178.000
40

__ Rq 64o rh

Sp 15,000 psi Thus, the bolt area required a1 the rool of the thread
89,649

v- = e8l'+*l
\JUl

/rnn\0.143

129 mph

: Maximum gusr velocity : 129(1 3) 168 mph chcck tor K' Since y" fails within maximum gusl velocilv'

r5,000

5.9766 in.2

<

6.324 in.2

Thcrcfore, (40) 3-inch diamercr bolts are suflicicnt From the chan on Fig. 7, corresponding to a 3-inch diamererboll a:4 in., b: 3.5 in. and c: I I in. minimum, lhcrclore e: a * b: 7.5 in.
Now

-. = --nm]Fif-l,soK'

0.00?7(7.38s)'21!09)

-'0.0053 < t/t5


:
0'5017

Therefore, the stack is frec from canlilever vibration'

Trv
Thcrcfo rc,

48(72,046,570) 178,000 * Al456r5irrj .rr+s^exl rr =


13 in.

Static Deflectlon P" = t(0.00238) (1.467y (14.0s)'zi2

824 psi

>

750 psi

r = 0.355 in, r :

44'3lin'

Therefore

I: :

n('l4
97

psl , ^ --355 3l)' O


'025

in''

P6

698

psi <

750 psi

D":

o.su| e.3ss) (|w.r't (nf = aQ1.qrffgl,ozs)

0.4153 in.

Dvnamic Deflection
and

""*i:il;;;niii"ttion factor of 30' we ge1 dvn;rmic deflection 0.4153(30) : 12 5 in. ).12 in' allowing

":

fu(8ri49)6 = Vq-rqoooli=

64 in

'

Use l'75 in'

li:nits when BuL il is assumed lo oe wtthin allowable ul stacr hcight aboul 7-inch d.'flection per 100 fect o[

Ovalllng Vibration NJtural frequency of free ring is given by

Outsidc dia. of basc

t45.625 +

2(7

Insidc dia of basc: 160.625 B<.rlt circlc din. : l -53.625 in.

.5\

203)

160.625 in. 134.625 in.

1.su,\E t.su,Jn@ 6$.11 Di=--ffi-=----1y,F-:


253

252

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

DESICN OF STEEL STACKS

al 3-li. dia.,

=
and

18.4361 cps

D. Dt l
f,

Slalic stack dcllcclit.rrt, it.t. Oulsidc diamctct' a1 lop ol slzrck li.


Distancc bctwccn thc outside of the stack
a1

thc basc to outside of

" "each diamctcr;

0.2(66\
-3

4.4 cps,2f"

8.8 cps <

EL

Similarlv, thcse frequencies were calculated foreach thickness ar and/, at cvery level was compared 10 2te al the same lcvcl. It was found thar 21, excceds rhe t al 6-fool g_inch diamerer section only, thcrcfore rings were required to stiffen thal section.
shown in Fig I

E2

lhc ring in. Modulus of clasticiry for stack material, psi (30 x 106 psi for carbon steel) Modulus of clasticity for stack material psf (43.2 10" psf for carbon slccl) Modulus of elasticity for lining material, psf. Natural frequ.'ncy o[ slack vibralion.cps

Nalural frcquency of ovalling vibration at level under con-

under considcration is

Using threc sliffeners in the 6-foot, g_inch diameter sectiorr as 1, wc get fl, : I 7.5 ft Criricalwind velocity at the section

f,
F
F

v" -_
s_ -'
Use

@(3.7J14)9.6666

sideraliqn, cps Vortex shedding frequency al levcl under consideration, cps Force on slructurc', lb Total horizontal seismic force al lop of the slack lb Acccleration due to gravity, ft/ scc.'z (32.2 h/sec.'\

2(0.2\

3733.3627

fpn

Thc required section modulus of the rine is

0)$0f '(3733.{4):6.666)'z1'7.s
lR rSn
as

0.4158 in.3

5/8 in. x 2-in. flat bars

circumferential stiffeners in this sectioIL

circle AB
b

NOMENCI.ATTJRE Distance between the oulside of the stack at the base to the bolt

in

Z cr d
D

Dr Stack mean diametel ft Dac Bolt circle diameler, in. Dt' Outside diameter at bottom of stack fL Dot Oulside diameter at bottom of stack iIL D. Equivalent diameter for rapered or multilple diameter snck ft Dl Average internal diameter of top half of stack ft

Bolt area required at the root of the thread in.2 Distance between bolt circle to outside of base ring in Width of base ring in Numerical coefficient (should not be more than 0.12) Lift coelficienr (usually nken as 1.0) Internal stack diameter at level under consideration, in Inlemal stack diameter at level under consideration ft

Width of Von Karman Slrcel fL Lenglhs from centroid areas to point under consideration, fL H Total height of stac( fi Ht,z,z Hcight zoneg ft Hb Height of conical section(s) of stack ft H. Equivalcnt height for tapered or multiple diameter stack ft H Stiffening ring spacing ft. H" Height of slraight section(s) of stack ft 1 Occupancy imprtance coefficient (use l 0 for stacks) I1 Moment of inertia of stack fta t2 Moment of inertia of lop half of stac( in" Horizontal force factor (use 2.0 for stacks) K K1 Ratio of wind force al crilical wind velocity to weight of stack Effective lengh of stack ft (can be assumed equal 10 straight lengrh plus onehalf of conical length) nt Mass of struclure, Ib-secr/ftM Grealer of wind or eanhquake moment a1 level under conIt

ht,.,z

sideration, ft-lb. Eafthquake moment at level under consideration, ft-lh Wind moment at level under consideration" fr-lb. Number of bolts Strouhal number (0.2 over a wide range of Reynolds number) Pr,z,e Wind pressures for height zoneq psf Pb Bearing pressure on concrete foundation, psi P. Unit wind pressure al critical wind velocity, psf

Ms MN N,,

PF1,2

Wind moment due to individual platform at level under


consideratiorl ft-lb.
255

254

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

DESIGN OF STEEL STACKS

Average internal radius ot top half of

stac( in

r\
s
,ts

Stack mean radius,

ft
REFERENCES l. "Minimum design loads in buildings and other
A58.1, 1982. str-uctures," ANSI

s"

Numerical coefficient for site structure resonance Maximum allowable stress of anchor boh material psi Allowable compression stress in plate material at level under
consroerauon, psr Required section modulus of stiffeners, in.3 Allowable tensile stress of stack plate material psi Average corroded plate thickness of top half of stacl in. Stack plate uncorroded thickness, fL Assumed corroded plate thickness al level under consideratiort

S.Srr

t tr to, t6 I,

"Uniform building code," International Conference of Building Officials, Whittier, California 1982.
3.

Stalev, C.M. and Graven, G G, "The static and dynamic wind design of steel sracks,"ASME Paper No. 72-Pet-30.

in. Uncorroded plate thickness at bottom of stack, in. Required corroded plate thickness at level under consideratiorL
in.

Frecse, C.E., "Vibration o[ vertical prcssure vesselq" Journal of Engineering for Industry Series B, Trans ASME Vol 81' No l' Fcbnrary 1959, pp. 77-86. Gaylord, 8.H., Gaylord, C.N, "structural Engineering Handboo(" and Woodruff G.8., "The Vibration of Steel Stacks," Procccdings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, VoL 80, Scparale No 540, Nov 1954 Moody, G.B., "Mechanical design of rall stacks," Hydrocarbon Processing 48, No 9, September 1969, pp, 173-178' Marrone, A. "Vibrations of slacks suported on steel structures," Proceedings of the ASCE Vol 95, No. ST12, December 1969, pp'
Dickey,

T TB T7 y Vr
73e

% Y"1 V"

Fundamental period of vibratio4 seconds Base plate thickness, in. Top plate thickresq in Total seismic shear at base of stack lb. Wind velocity for vortex shedding fps Wind velocity at 30 fee! mph Critical wind velocity for cantilever vibratiorl mph Critical wind velocity for cantilever vibration, fps Critical wind velocity for ovalling at level under consideratiorl

McGraw-Hill Book ComPanY, 1 968.

WL

'1.

283t-2844.
9.
10.

Wp W" Wt I Z P to ). A

fpm V. Maximum wind velocity at the top of stach mph w Stack weight per ft of height lb./ft. w1 2 Weight of individual section of stack lb. W Total corroded stack weight including lining lb. Wr Total operating weight of stach kips
Total tension in each boll lb. Corroded weight of shck excluding weight ofpans which do not contribute to stiffness, lb Total uncorroded stack weight, lb. Dead load deflection of individual section of stack ft Yield stress of plate material at design temperature, psi llBC seismic faclor Mass density o[ air (0.00238 lb-sec']/fra) Circular frequency of stack vibratiorl cps Stiffness of structure. lb.,/fr

Parmaleg RA, " Buildingfoundation interaction effects," Pro ceedings of the ASCE VoL 93, NO. EM2, April 1967, pp 131-152' Donncl-L LH., "Results of experiments with very thin cylindrical shells under axial pressure," Transactions of the ASME Vol 56,
1934.

.rr.2

E.P., " Determination of aerodynamic behavior of cantilevered stacks and towers of circular cross sec1ion," Transactions of ASME, Paper No. 71-Pel35 t2. Dechetto, K, and Long W' " Dlnamic stability design of stacks and towers," Journal of Engineering for Industry Series B, Trans ASME, Vol 88, 1966, p 462. 4076: 13. "British Standard Specifications for Steel Chimnels," B S' 2 Park House, Standards 1966, British Standard Institution, British Streel London, Wl. vorter 14. Scruton, C. "Note on a device for the suppression of the or near-circulal of circular structures excited oscillations o[ flexible

lt. Zorrill4

Deflection of structure,

ft

section with special reference ro its application to tall stacks " National Physical Laboratory Teddington, Middlesex, England' Aero Note 1012, APril 1963.

256

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Seclion VIII, .,pressure vesselg" Division l, ASME New York N.y. 1983. 16 Tang S.S., "Shortcut method for calculating tower deflectio4,'
15. ASME

Hydrocarbon Processing 47, No.

ll,

November 196g. rl. 230.

12
VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF TALL TOWERS

Wintl inducBd vortices ale formed on the surface of tall structures


such as heater stacks and plocess

with shedding

towe$. The change in pressure associated these vortices can generate forces required to proiluce instability an-<l can'even result in structural failures' Thus, after the selfbe suppoiting structure has been designed as a static structwe, it must also

of

i"vestlgated regaraling its possible behavior under vibration conditions' ihis chapter extends Zorrila'sl method by establishing simplified graphical data in relationships from his data. It also presents some of his tabular form for quick vibration invstigations of self-supporting vertical cylindrical, cantilevered structures such as towers and stacks' Criteria' as If recommenied by Zorrila, is used to estiblish a need for such analysis'

the structure is foun<t to be susceptible to vibmtion, the amPlitude of vibration (maximum dynamic deflection at top of the structure) can also be easily determined. Methods of ilamping excessive vibmtion are recommentled-. .l sample calculation is included to demonstrate the use and accuracy of the technique presenteal. Analvzing procedure.
lnat-yiing
aU ttre towers and

plant or refinery for vibmtion would be time consuming process. The following criteria is used to investigate vibmtion possibility in a structure: stacls in
a

$
20< 25<
258

,outorurion

analysis MUST be performed

#<

25 Vibration analysis SHOULD be performerl

ffi

Vibration analysis NEED NOT be performed

| )t

jsl(;N ()t, t,tr()Chss TjQUtPMENT

VIIJRATION ANALVSIS oF TALI, 'TOWERS

/r,

(10)a can be read from Table 1 corresponding to ,6, the uncorroded thick_ ness at the base of the structure_ This table is an extension of a graphical presentation by Zontla based on the calculation of natural vibration lie_ quencies of several structures bry a computerized technique using the method proposed by Major.2

if required, should be carried out as described below. Natual frequency of vibration. The natural frequency of vibration, of a bare structure in its fundamental mode for unit uit e ot lOlLzj
Analysis,

TABLE l-Frequency of bare structures for unit value of (D/L2) (r0)4


tr,Thickness, in.
0.25

fi,

Frequency, cps
0.37 5

. Thus, the natural (Wlll"


_= 1)
based,

frequency of vibration for a bare structure on actual value of (DlL2) (tO)a is given bf

0.3125
0.3 7s

o.4Q26

f = (ft)
_

(D lL2)

(1o)4

o.43'7s 0.5

9.4284 0.444
0.4642 o.474

to the ntioll/Wsfrom Table 2. Intermediate values shouldbe interiolated. The natural frequency of vibration is given by

lvhen refractory linings, insulation, ladders, piping, platforms, in_ te-rnal trays, operating liquids, etc. are considered to iontribuie to stiffness of.skucture (l|lws > 1), the frequency of yibration will be reduced con_ $oerably. tn that case, determine the correction factor CF,
corresponding

o.5625 o.62s
o.68'7 s

o.482r
0.494
0.5

0.75 0.8125
0.875
0.93',7 5

0.512
0.523 0.533
0.5 5

structural ability of the stack or tower to dissipate energy" during vibration. For a particular structure 6 depends on ih" typ. oi the lining used. The value of6 can be selected fromiable "onrtr"u"tion "na 3 as recommenO_ ed, by-Zorrila based on the reported average values of several ,t*atur"r. Stability investigation. The wind tunnel test3 shows the O.p"ni.n." - oscillations of on structural damping. Further staUitity lnvestigitions for structures can be made as follows: Calculate the damping factor

(10)a (c F) Logarithmic decrement, 6 is the log of the mtio of successive ampli_ tudes of a damped, freely vibrating structure and i, mearur" of the
(D lL2)

f = (ft)

1.0

TABLE 2-Correction factor for frequency


Ratio of weights I//It4
1.0

Correction faclor Cp
l_0

1.12s

0.9
0.85

t.25
|.3',7 5

Dp from the relationship

Or=#
can be made according to the following criteria proposed by Zorrila on the basis ofactual behavior of several case-histories

t_)
1,

0.8 o.79
0.'135

.7

A check for stability

2.O

0.69
0.6
0.5 5

2.5

considred:

3.0
3.5
4.O

Dp,3 0.75 unstable 0.75 <DF < 0.95 probably unstable

0.5

0.465
Q.435

0.95

<DF
tt" =

Stable

If, the structure


velocity from

is not found to be stable, calculate the critical wind


3

4.5 5.0 5.5

o.4
0.3 85

6.0

o.37

f D,
261

260

l)l1st(;N ( )ti I'l(( x:tlSS

Ij(ltJ

,MtrN.t

vll!l{Afl()N
4.'llrc prttcrn

ANAI.YSIS

()l: lAt.l. lowlilts

strakes around thc perimeter of the shell at

ol'vortcxslrcddirlS canbe modit'iod by winding lrelicrl a pitch of about five times the strake should be about oneof the height The the chimney. of diarnoter are only required around strakes times, and many the diameter of teoth of this types has-been patented device A stack.4 of the top one-third the ,u""arifully used on structures to avoid the formation of vortices and thus
cxcessive vibration.

Limitations of the technique. The application of the technique to cylindrical steel cantilevered structures lraving fairly uniform distribution of non-stiffness masses and wrtn L"lL ratios less than 0.50 ,(DlL2) (lO)4less than eight, Illl/s ratios not exceedpresented should be restdcted lng srx.

trom "

Maxim[m wind velocity at the top of the sfuucture can be determmed

EXAMPLE
Analyze the stuucture shown in Fig. 2 (Chapter 13) for cantilever vibration. Calculate the maximum dynamic amplitude at the top of the structure, if instability is expected.

V* =

V3o (Ll3o)o.r43

Using a gust factor of l_3, themaximum gust velocity = l.3ll, cantilever yibration, the instability is usuitty inifiaiei at a winO . .In velocity at or near the cdtical wind u"to"ity of tne-itru","* ,", O,r,. cdtical wind Zc, is greater than the maximum g"r, ^yelocity, r,rru..,lt" it free from vibration; otherwise, the amphtlude "af""ny,,na of villtron should be calculated as described below. dynamic deflection Z at the top of tne ,tru"tur" the following relationship; ""n

Calculations.
The example under consideration has been described in Chapter 13' Complete analysis for cantilever vibration was also performed- It is repeatedhere to compare the results and check the accuracy of the technique
presented.

Vbration amplitude. The vibration amplitude or the maxinum

t""..i."f

",fr"fr".

):t'"'
w

6 D-00)-6

(o oo243)

vibration possibility. D, = 7.385 ft' w = 146,550 Ib, L = 2oQ fr' and.L" = l5 ft., L"lL = I 5/200 = 0.075 < 0.s. w _ 146,550 - rJ ta -rr LL \ z. 4u nn LD.' = zoo0.385Y -

If

the desisn musr be m";r,J;"design are recommended

the structure is found to l

Damping excessive vibration..ff," foffo,oing

to lhe-mass and consequently increases the structural damping. -,iu.?ur" possible, modifying the dimensions or ir.. .r. ]t hlp in damping by increasing the cdtical wind verocity auou" tr,e mum gust velocity.

around the structure which t.,"fp, to ,"0,i". _ nulJify the effect of periodic eddy shedding. z. .,. . Ketractory lining may be added to an unlined structure or the thickness or density of refractory of a lin"d,trr"t; i;;;;;, ;;;*,

, be__properly distributed

t.

External

rn"ih;;r';f;ffi;,r, if an excessive ,.plit"d;; ;;;;;", ir'"_#"a, attachmenrs


(such as

;;#.;:",',1l.jil1J:;: :-fi lll""iT,r",,lil,;.

Natural
0.512 cps

Therefore, vibration analysis MUST be performed. frequency of vibration. 16 = 0.8125 in , from Table l,11 =

piping,ladd"J;;;;j;,;;;:;;"y

Also,D = 9.36?5 ft., therefore (Dp2) (10)a = (9.367 sl20o2) (r})a = 2.34t9 18 tlls = 123,s50 lb ,Wlll"= (146,5501123,5s0) = |.1862 < 6
From Table
Therefore

2,C"
= (f1)

= 9.9155
(D lL2)

(r])a

(.Cp) = an unlined welded struc-

0.512 (2.3419) 0.87ss = 1.0498 cPs

,.

._

urro

ml*i

Logarithmic decrment. From Table 3, for ture 6 = 0.03-

zoz

263

)tis t(;N ()tr pt(()cLSS DQUtPMENT


is

VII}I{ATION ANALYSIS oI;'I'ALI,'I'OWljI{S

Stability investigation. The damping factor DF

_ w6 _ n = u" TL, =
Vc =

146,550t0 n?) =ffiffi = 0.4031 < 0.75

Therefore, the structure is unstable. The critical wind velocity is


3

V. Critical wind velocity, mPh ,/1, Maximum wind velocity at th top of structure, mph l,/ Total corroded weight of structure, lb Ws Corroded $,eight of structure excluding weight ofparts
contribute to stiffness, lb

whlch do no1

fL
ho

= 3(1

.0498) 7 .38s =

23

.2583 mph

Z 6

Maximum amplitude of vibration at the top ofstructure, in. Logarithmicdecrement

Z3s = 98 mph
vu, =

(Ll3o)o.143 = 98(200/30)0.143 = 129 mph

REFERENCES
l. Zorrita. E. P.. "Determination of Aerodynamic Behavior of Cantilevered Stacks and Towers of Circular Cross Section," Transactions of ASME
2.

determined.

Maximum gust velocity = 1.3(129) = 168 Inpil Since I/" ( maximum gust velocity, the dynamic amplitude must be
is

Amplitude of vibration. The maximum dynamic deflection

L=
_

f 5l/

Wt(l0fo

(0.00243)
)

(200 ) " (23.2583 ) '( l0 )-6 (0.00243

146-;5so-(oo-tiis-t- = Izeb rn'


if 7in.
deflection/IO0

Paper No. 71-Pet-35. Major, A., "Vibration Analysis and Design of Foundations for Machines and Turbines," Collet's Holdings Ltd., London, and Akaddmiai Kiadd, Budapest, 1962. 3. Scruton, C., "Wind Effects on Structures," Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1970-?1, Vol. 185 23/71, February 1971. 4. "British Standard Specifications for Steel Chimneys." B. S. 4076: 1966, British Standard Institution, British Standards House, 2 Park Street,

which is within allowable limits height is allowed.

ft. of

structure

London, W.1.
5.Scruton. C.. "Note on a Device for the Suppression of the Vortx-Excited Oscillations of Flexible Structures of Circular or Near{ircular Section with Special Reference to its Application to Tall Stacks." National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, England, Aero Note 1012,

Comparison of results. There is an appreciable difference in natural frequency of vibration and thus the critical wind velocity as compared to the earlier method. However, the dynamic deflection of 12.96 in. seems to be reasonably accurale as compared to I2.5 in. calculaled earlier, tt may be concluded that this technique is quite accurate and much less time consuming when compared to other conventional methods.

Aoril 1963.

NOMENCLATURE

DD,

(10)4,

Correction factor for frequency Average internal diameter of structure, ft. Damping factor Ayerage internal diameter of top half of structure, ft. Natural frequency of vibration of strucrure, cps Natural frequency of bare structure based on unit vafue of (DlL2)
cps

Z Lc t6 I/rs

Total length of structure, ft. Total length of conical section(s) of structure. ft. Uncorroded plate thickness at the bottom of structure. in. Wind velocity al jO feet, mph

author's srudv: Analyze To*er vibration Quicker" dfii 'il-ii" "tigtttty modified version of Processin1 volume 56. Nb. 5 {May. 1977) Copyrighted Culf ilft"lia-i ny&*itrton with permission.

itblishing Co. Used

264

26s

13
DESIGN OF RECTANGULAR TANKS

sizes

The chemical plocess industries use vessels of various to store, accumulate or process gases, liquicls and solids'

shaps and

While a cylindrical shape may be structurally best for tank construction, rectangular tanks frequenuy are preferred-even though these require laiger quantity of matedal for eonstruction than do cylintlrical tanks of " the same capacity. On occasion, special piocesses or operations may make cylinclrical tanks imPractical. When several separate cells are needed, rec' tangular tanks can be easily fabricated and arranged in less space than the cylinrirical ones of the sarne capacity. This is especially helpful when
tanks or vats are needed insirle a building' We will discuss the complete design technique* fol flat+urfaced rcctangular tanks that contain nonpressurizeilliquids. These exert a varying horizontal pressure against the side-walls, as shown in Fig' 1' The walls of

the tank act as plates having suitable

edge conditions (i.e', the edges are

free and supported). Such plates are analyzed under certain assumptions by using the theory of bending for thin plates.2 The data as originally presented by Wojtaszak" in glaPtucd rorm' for and later represented by Roark and Younga in tabular form are used made: are assumptions analysis. In oriler to apply these data,the following (l) iectangular plate has a uniform thickness, (2) allowable deflection of the plate is held to within about one half the ptat thickness, and (3)
Poisson's ratio

for the material is 0.3' To obtain the required rigidity for a lighterage plate, stiffenen are recommended. This can lower fabrication cost considerably' A sample oroblem will show how to use the technique.
*The currcnt Aflsrican Petroleum Institute Standaral fot tank designrdos not include a tchnlqu for snalyzing the rectangular confiSrtation'

267

)tjst(;N ()lr pllo(:uss IQUtpMtNT

DESI(iN OI] RIiCTANCUt,AR TANKS

l)esign procedure wil.hout stifreners

_ We begin by calculating the maximum plessure against the side_wall due to the weight of the contents from:
p=

0.433Hs

(t)

Ratio,

a/b 0.5

0.667 1.0

.5

2,5

3.0

3.5

4.o
O37

Tanks without stiffeners have their top edge free, and the remaining three edges supported. Flat-plate formulas can be directly applied for this edge condition to determine stresses and deflections. We calculate the ratio afb (that is, the height, a, of the tank to the larger of the length or width dimension, b), and read the correspondmg values of constants B and a from Table 1. Intermediate values should be interyolated. The maximum bending stress in the plate is given by:

Constsnt,

p o.'l1 0.16 o.2o o.2A 0.32 0.35 0.36 0.37 a 0.026


0.033 0.040 o.o5o 0.058 0.0&l 0.067 0.069

constanr,

0.070

Sourcs: Modlfi.d from Raf.4

TABLE

s^"" =

ppb2/Q)z

CONSTANTS FOR RECTANGULAR PLATES' SIMPLY SUPPORTED ALONG I'HREE EDGES (FREE ALONG TOP EDGE AND SUBJECT TO HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE)

1.

e.)
The thickness determined from Eq. (3) should be rounded off to the allo\Mance (if required) must be added to this value in order to get the minimum required total plate thickness. However, in no case shall the corroded thickness of tank plate be less than 3/16 inMaximum deflection of corroded plate is given by:

. * ing Eq. (2):

approximatety one third of the ultimate tensile strength of the steel. (This is a factor of safety of 3, which is also common for static structural lo;ds on steel) For :iTqli:ity, a more appropriate value of allowable bending stress, s_*, of 18,000 psi for plates and stiffeners is recommended by young.6 The. required corroded-plate thickness, tr, can be founJ by rearrarg_

Stresses as recommended by the ASME Code for pressure vessels5 may .be increased_rrhen used for designing tanks under hydrostatic pressure. I he r_nax-imlm allowable working stress is considered to be

next higher sixteenth of an inch, and a cofiosion

Y^". --

aPba/E(t")3
to one half of

(4)
the

Maximum plate deflection should be limited

nPe

(3)

corroded-plate thickness. Ifthe final plate thickness seems uneconomical, or maximum plate deflection exceeds one half of the corroded-plate thickness, a topdge stiffener shouldbe added, and an analysis for this condition
made.

Design procedure with top-edge stiffeners All edges of the tank may be considered supported

if a topdge stiffener ofsufficient size is added. For this type of beam(supported attop and bottom, and carying a varying load that increases uniformly to one end), the bending moment at top and bottom edges is zero. However, this type of loading results in reactions R 1 at the top edge and R 2 at the bottom edge, as shown in Fig. 2. The magnitudes of these reactions are:
R, = R, =

pan/6 patn/3

(5) (6)

FIG. I . PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN RECTANGULAR TANK

Reaction R1 is assumed to be a uniformly distributed Ioad per unit length of top edge, and the beam alo4g that direction is considered to be fixed at both ends. The maximum deflection of the beam? with this type of loading is given by:

268

269

l)Lst(;N oF PR(XlllSS EQUIPMENT


Y^o,

Dtisl(;N olr Rlic rAN(iul'AR

',TANKS

Rrbn . = 3B4EI^i.

(7)

Neglecting the moment of inertia of the plate itseli we find the minimum required moment of inertia of the top_dge stiffener by equating the deflection from Eq. (7) to the maximum pt"t" -calculated defleclion, taf2, o( "ttowaUte

horizontal stiffeners Adding "*'i?iff"t." the ln",.ur. ttt. rigidity of the entire plate by in-creasittg momentofirlertiaofthecombinedsectionThus'theplatethlcknesscan be

l.

to

2
We get

Rlba

3g+El,'.i,
R.bn

(d'

A large stiffener can ,.Ou..O .onriO"rably by adding more stiffeners' f""*O " O \statce of.a/ added horizontally all around tne taJ, "J the minimum .-OSilii', frorr the top of th tank in order to produce stiffener' the below in the plate, both above and i"rOint xcept Tiere is no simple iormula for analyzing such a configuration'

"

rt'

."rn*,

Inin by

rearranging Eq. (8):

width' m' of the plate The by using bbam formulas that consider a unit the stiffener' maximim bending moment is negative and occurs at

, tni" = lsrE;.

(e)

A stiffener having a moment of inertia greater than or equal to 1,nrn should be provided around the top edge of the tank. The size of stiffener should be recalculated if therc is any change in tank_plate thickness. How_ ever, angles less than 2 112 il. X 2 112 in. X ll4 in. should not be used. Fo-r plates, supported on all four edges. we determlne ttre -rectangular v,lues of F and a (correspondin g to the ratio sf b) frorn T"bl" Z . We interpolate for intermediate yalues,

lntermedrare

stiffener

ah 0-25 0.286 0.333 0.4 0.5 0.667 0.024 0.031 0.041 0.056 O.O8O 0.1t6 B Constant, a 0.00027 0.00046 O.OOO83 0.0016 O.OO35 O.OO83
Rario,

constanr,

lMaximum Pressure, P

N4aximum Pressure, P

Aetio,ah 1.0 1.5 2.O 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 consrant,, 0.16 0.26 0.34 0.38 0.43 o.47 O,4g Constanr, a O,O22 0-043 0.060 O.OZO 0.078 0.086 0,091
Sourcs: Modifiod from Bf.4

FIG,2.

ON SIDE OF TANKHAVING A TOP.EDGE STTFFENER


REACTION FORCES

FIG'

3'

OF TANK

REACTION FORCES ON SIDE HAVING TOP-EDGE AND

INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS

TABLE

2. CONSTANTS FOR RECTANGULAR PLATES, SIMPLY SUPPORTED ALONG ALL EDGES (SUBJECT TO HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE)

Its magnitude8 is given by the following equatlon:

M^a' =

O'O]l47Pa2m

(10)
simple

in- a combination of both. Then, an analysis stiffeners should be made.

looks uneconomical (taking into consideration the cost of material ancl fabrication), more stiffeners should be added horizontally o, uo,i"uliy, .,

thickness and maximum deflection respectively. If the maximum deflection is greater than one half the corroded-plate thickness, or if final ptutu tti"t,"-"r, ,ttt

calculate the corroded_plate by using Eq. (3) and (4),

We

We determine the required thickness bending equation:

of plate by using the

s^M = 6M''",/ (q), (l l)

for horizontal

anO

verticaf

270

2'.1|

t)tisl(;N ot' PRocEss EQUIPMENT


Addition of this horizontal stiffener
tions Rl andRz. location, as shown
changes the magnitude of reac-

'fANKS DESICN OII RIJCTANCUI.AR

It

also results in an additional reaction, R3, at this in Fig. 3. The magnitudes of these reactions are:

the toP tNrk. 'l'ltc resultant stilfening eflecl should not bc uscd to resize analysis' of this r,rlgc stillbner, due to the extreme complexity

R, = O.O3}pan Rz : 0 l5lqam R" = 0.320pan

(12)
(13)
(

14)

The intermediate stiffener can be sized from Eq. (9) by usingR3 rl place of Rr. The top+dges stiffner can also be resized,if desired, by using the newvalue ofRl-as given by Eq. (12) in Eq. (9).

analysis for the tank lh.rriurr "' 'Tft" the plate utl'i"f method of analysis is to consider a section of ln stiffeners the of centers between llrving a width equal to the distance The comanalysis in the be included if,ir rlo"*t, only one stiffener is to for this it,,'.J t..,t"" *iil b" u, shown in Fig' 4' The moment of inertia
rcction can be found from:

,_,
Dimensions

For this configuration, maximum shear on the plate section occurs


at reaction

_ Ar\ta\2 -+ ArAz(hiz At+42 12

(18)

R3. Its magnitude

is:

V*, = 0.l59pab

Cl

and C2 in Fig' 4 are calculated as follows:

(1s)

The method of considering unit-width of ptate produces a slightly greater stress value than actually exists. For a more efficient design, vertical stiffene$ are recommended wherever possible.

^
C":

AjQ,,/2) + A-lh\+

\!./2tl

A1+
C

(1e)
(20)
;ti

A2

Adding vertical stiffeners


reduces dimension

tq

of I I - (8/ l5) Maximum deflection in the plate occurs at a distance ili)"(t,-, g.5193a) from the 1op of the tank' Its magnitude can be
Y

C,

of

Adding vertical stiffeners along the length and width of the tank b. We recalculate the /ztio afb (using the larger value if the stiffener spacing on length and width is different). From Table

({etermined from:

-- = o.oo652pla4 / EI

(2r)
Maxi-

il
tr

2, we find the constantsp and (r that correspond to the ratio a/r. We then calculate tr a'nd Ymax by using Eq. (3) and (4), respectively. If the maximum deflection is not within allowable limits, we repeat the procedure by changing the value of b, or by increasing panel thickness for the determined value of r, until the deflection is within limits. Size of the vertical stiffener can be approximated by neglecting the effect of the plate itself for the selected stiffener spacing. The plate sectron may be treated as a simply supported beam at both ends, with varying load increasing uniformly to one end. Maximum bending moment occurs at a distance of al(3)rl2 (or 0.5114a) from the top of the tank. Its magnitude is:

built-up section We now calculate the bending stresses in the plate is: the of fiber outer the Sr, in mum bending stress,

S, = M,,""Ct/ I fiber of the stiffener is: And maximum bending stress, 52, in the outer (23) S, = M^""C2/ I
The design should be modified
able value.

(22)

Ii

if

either 51 or 52 exceeds the allow-

Maximum vertical shear for this configuration is:

M*, = 0.0642qta2
be selected.

( 16)

By using the bending equation, we calculate the required section modulus, Z, of the stiffener fromi

(24) V,a, = pla/3 stiffener is stressed in horizontal The -Theweld joining the plate and forces' The si"" of ttrir-*etd c"n be determined from the shear ,h""r. join a stiffener to the plate l*rtnuous fillet weld required to
i"g

"i*t" may be found bY using:

ri*

[ir

M^",

s,,",

0.0642p1a2

(2s) (17)
continuousintermittent fillet weld$ are required' we calculate the
as a

s,'",

A stiffener having a section modulus equal to or greater thanZ should

If

fi

It

should run from the top edge to the bottom edge of the

fillet weld size (expressed

decimal)' and divide

it by the actual

leg srze

272

2-13

il
il

t)tjst(;N otr p t{o(jtr.ss lQUIPMENT

DESICN OT RBCTANCULAR TANKS

of the intermittent-fillet wetd.

When expressed as a percentage, this will give the amount of intermittent weld per unit length.

store a liquid whose specific gravity is l'26. Material of construction for the tank is ASTM A-285 Grade C steel Corrosion allowance equals zero. Let us assume that the entire surface of the bottom plate is supported. We begin by calculating the maximum liquid pressure on the tank

Center of gravily {C,G.} o{ plate

walls by substituting into Eq. (1): y' = 0.a33(6)(1.26)

3.273 Psi

We then analyze the design for a tank without stiffeners. To do so, we note thata = 72 in., b = 84 in., and alb = 72184 = 0.851. FromTable 1, we determine the constants p and d by interyolation and find them to be:

\'. \'
C.G. or u.u. of sflrrner stiffner

(S,''o! = 18,000 psi), we calculate the corroded-plate thickness from Eq' (3) as:

= O.tg:

and a =

0.037. For the maximum allowable bending

stress

l r

C.G. of combined sectionj

FIG.

4.

TERMINOLOGY FOR COMBINED SECTION OF PLATE AND STIFFENER TOR A TANK WALL

= 0.485 in. l8,000 Rounding 1,. to the next highest l/16 in., we get
Eq. (4), we obtain the maximum deflection:

'0. r 83(3.273)(84),

1a

= 0.5 in. From

Designing the bottom plate


When the entire surface of the bottom plate is supported, a minimum of 1/4 in. is sufficient in almost all cases. However, corrosron allowance (if required) should be added to the minimum thickness. If the bottom of the tank is to be supported by angles or beams, a special design analysis should be made to ensure sufficient rigidity.

thickness

1.608in. x 106(0.5)3 = Since Y,'i* should be <1l2ta ,I]ne deflection of 1.608 in. is excessive. Consequently, a toPedge stiffener must be added. To size the top-edge stiffener, we must find,a,,i,? for it by determining R 1 from Eq. (5) and then 1-;, from Eq. (9).
R

0.037(3.273x84_)4

Summary of design concepts Actual analysis of a tank panel having stiffenen is very complex. Several such tanl<s of various sizes have been successfully built, using stiffeners designed in accordance with the tecnhique described in this
chapter. The distance betn/een yertical stiffeners has been used as the reduced plate-width to detemine the panel thickness (this may not be exactly correct). Therefore, to be more conservative and for additional security, a horizontal stiffener is recommended, along with vertical stiffeners for tanks 7 ft. high or more. Theoretically, adding horizontal stiffeners would allow a reduction in size of the vertical stiffeners. For simplicity, a hodzontal stiffener of the same size as the vertica.l stiffeners may be used withour further calculations. The horizontal stiffener should be placed at a distance equal to 0.5774 of the total height from the top of the tank.

39 28(B{)' / . = 0.679 '"-192(30x106x0.5)

t=

3.27 3(7

2)(t) / 6

39.28 tb /

in.
in.4

We will select a structural member known as an equal-leg angle from Ref. 7, and having a moment of inertia equal to or greater than the calcuIated value of 0.679 in.a The angle fitting these requirements has dimensions of 2 ll2 in. x 2 112 in. x 114 in., and is fitted around the top

perimeter of the tank. Now, we check our design for a tank having a top-edge stiffener, by detrmining the constants p and a from Table 2 for the fttio ofb = 0 857. The values arep= 0.141 anda=0.016. Substituting these values into Eq. (3) and (4), we get:

18,000

0.425 in. to

0.4375

in. (i.e., /tu in.)

Fxample illustrates design method kt us design a rectangular tank 7 ft.long X 7 ft. wide X 6 ft. high to

v-

0.016(3.273X84r 30 x 106(0.4375)3

1.038 in.

274

27s

)lisl(;N oli PltO(llrSS EQUIPMENT

Dt]SICN OF RtsCTAN(iUI,AR 'I'ANKS

The deflection of 1.038 in.is still excessive. Therefore, additional stiffeners are needed. Let us try adding vertical stiffene$ at a 42-in. spac_ ing along the length and width of the tank. For rhis spacing, a/, becomes 72142 = 1.714. From Table 2,we now find thatfi=O.294and a= 0.050. Therefore:
18,000

0.307 in.

=
Y

0.3125 in. (i.e., ,f,oin.)


0.050(3.273 r(42 )r

30

x loloilr5F

0 556 in'
{11 dimensions are inches

to 28 in., and solve for a rcw afb = 72125 = 2.571. From Table2, we obtain new values forf = 0.387 anda = 0.071. Solving Eq. (3) and (4) for
this condition yields:

Again, the deflection is excessive. Let us reduce the stiffener spacing

FIG.

5.

COMBINED SECTION OF PLATE AND STIFFENER


FOR TANKWALL OF PROBLEM

0.387(3.273)(28)'
to

0.235 in.

as:

From Eq. (17), we obtain the section modulus, Z, for this stiffener

z=

3o,5oo / l9,ooo

1.694in.'

.. r,,,, :

0.25 in. (i.e., 1/4 in.)


0.07

30

0.305 in. xr o,,-io25l =

3.17J )(t8 rr

For vrtical stiffeners, we will select an appropriate channel from Ref. 7 to meet or xceed the calculated section modulus' The required channel has dimensions of 4 in. X I 5/8 in., and weighs 5'4 lb/ft' Its crosssection contains 1.56 in.2 We must now perform a design analysis for the combined section, as shown in Fig. 5, to dtermine whether the maximum deflection is exceeded. To find the area of the combined section, we add the area of the plate (28 X 0.3125) and the area of the channel (1 56) to get a total area of 10 31

The deflection is still excessive. Let us 0.3125 in.). Deflection now becomes:

try 5/16-in. plate (i.e., ro =


rn.

,, )\'28)l r,,," = 30 x ro,\ojl2r.r = u.rrb


o.ol t( 3.213

in.2 By

The deflection is now almost equal to tal2, or 0.3125/2, and is suitable. Since corrosion allowance is zero, let us use 5/16-in. plate for the tank, with veftical stiffeners having a 28-in. spacing. We now resize the top-dge stiffener. Neglecting the effect ofvertical stiffenem, we calculate the required moment of inertia for the new plate thickness from Eq. (9) as:

substituting into Eq. (18), we can calculate the combined moment of inertia as: 8.75(1.s6X2.1563)z 8.?5(0.3125)z 3.8 +

/=

t2

10.31

10.207 in.a

, r-..=__

39.28(84)1 __,.* t92(30 x 106 )\..,, _,/ =

1.087in.{

where 3.8 is the moment of inertia for the selected channel about its major axis, as found from the appropriate table in Ref. 7' We calculate Cl and C2 from Eq. (19) and (20), respectively: 8.75(0.1s63)

From Ref. 7, we obtain the size of the equalJeg angle meeting or exaeedng Imin. Dimensions of the resized angle are: 2 1 12 in. x 2 I li in. X l12 in. To size the vertical stiffeners, we calculate maximum bendrng momenr by using Fq. (lO). Hence:

1.56(2.1563
10.31

0.1563)

C"

- 0.4826 = 3.8299 in. l=b=29in.


4.3125

= =

0.4826 in.

M^* = 0.0642(3.273)(28)(742 =
276

30,500 in-tb

277

I)US

I(;N ()I'I PI{(X]ESS EQUIPMENT

tXlSl(;N

oI

RLICTANCUt.AR lANKS

(2r):

We then calculate the maximum deflection by substituting into Eq.

0.00652(3.273)(28X72)r

30

106(

10.027)

0.0534 in.

,2u2in, X 21t2in. X

1/2 in.

Top angle

Therefore, wc will use a 3/ l(r-nr. minimum llllet weld for attaching the stiffeners to the tank wall. Since the entire surface of the bottom plate is supported and since the corrosion allowance is zero, a bottom plale ll4 iI'. thick will be sufficient for this tank. The final arrangement of stiffeners is shown in Fig. 6. It is important to note that the weight of the tank and its contents must be transferred to an adequate support structure (if elevated), and ultimately

Channel4 in. X 1sr6;n., 5.416711

to a foundation.

NOMENCLATURE

d ,4 Ar b C Cr C2
Elevation
FIG.
Side

Height of tank, in. Area of uncorroded-plate section of width /, in.2 Area of corroded-plat section of width /, in.2 Larger dimension for length or width of tank, in. Distance from outer fiber ofplate to outer fiber of stiffener, in. Distance from neutral axis of combined sectionto outer fiberofplate, in. Distanc from neutral axis of combined section to outer fiber of

6.

E ht h2

stiffener, in. Modulus of elasticity (for carbon steel, E = 30 X 106), psi


Distance between center of gravity of plate section and the neutral axis of combined section, in. Dstance between the neutral axis of combined section and the center of gravity of stiffener, in. Distance btween center of gravity ofplate and that of stiffener, in. Height of tank, ft. Moment of inertia of combined section, in.a Moment of inertia of plate section, in.a Moment of inertia of stiffener, in.a Minimum rcquired moment of inertia of top-edge or intermediate

LOCATION AND SIZE OF STIFFENERS

Since the maximum deflection is considerably less than one half of the plate thickness (0.312512),the design is satisfactory. Finally, we check the maximum bending stress, S1, in the outer fiber of the plate from Eq. (22), and S, in the outer fiber of the stiffener from Eq. (23). These stresses are:
.5'r

J',

= =

30,500(0.482 6) / 10.0'27

30,500(3.8299)/ 10.02'r

: =

h3 I/ 1 1, ./2
lnrz

1,468 psi

ll,650psi

stiffener, in.a
Distance between sliffeners, in. Unit width of plate, in. M,n ajr Maximum bending moment in the plate, in lb r Number of continuous welds joining the stiffener to the plate. p Maximum pressure against side-walls of tank due to weight of contents, psi Rl Reaction at top edge of tank, lb/in. R2 Reaction at bottom edge of tank, lb/in. R3 Reaction at intermediate horizontal stiffener, lb/in. s Specific gravity of tank contents Sr Maximum bending stress in outer fiber of plate, psi ,S2 Maximum bending stress in outer fiber of stiffener, psi

Since the allowable value is 18,000 psi, both bending stresses are well within the limit. We calculate the maximum vertical shear for our configuration from Eq. (24), and find it to be:

/ m

v^", = 3.273(28)(12)/3 =

2,200 tb

If we use a continuous fillet weld to attach the stiffeners to the plare, we can dtermine the weld size by substituting into Eq. (25) and assumrng that the fillet-weld shear, S*, is 10,000 psi,

W=

2,200(8. i5)(0.3263)
r

0,000(10.027X2)

0.0313 in.

278

279

l)l;Sl(;N ( )lr Pl{(X;tiSS t)(.lUtPMLjNl


Smdx Maximum allowable bcnding stress in plate or slil.l.eDers, psi

S,, td // ll

I/-o, I-or,

Z c B

Allowable shear stress of stiffener-to-plate weld, psi Actual corroded-plate thickness, in. Required corroded-plare lhickness, in. Total shear on plate section, lb. Lng size of continuous-fillet weld, in. Maximum deflecrion of plate. in. Section modulus ofvertical stiffener, in.3 Constant (se Table I and 2) Constant (see Table I and 2)

t4
AIR COOLED HEAT EXCIIANGERS
PART A

CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS

REFERENCES
1. "Welded Steel Thnks for Oil Storage, " 7th ed., API Standard 650, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C., November i980. 2. Timoshenko, S. and Woinowsky-Krieger, S., "Theory of Plates and Shells," 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, N. Y., 1959. 3. Wojtaszak, I. A., "Stress and Deflection of Rectangular Plates," J. Appl. Mech., Vol. 3, No. 2 (1936). 4. Roark, R. J. and Young, W. C., "Formulas for Stress and Strain," 5th ed., Mccraw-Hill, New York, N.Y., 1975. 5. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII. "Pressure Vcssels" Div. 1, American Soc. of Mechanical Engineers, New York, N.Y.,
1983.

Air cooled heal exchangers become altractive especially in Iocalions where water is scarce or expensive 1o treat Although the

initial installed cosl ofan aircooleris usually greaterthan that ofa waler cooler, the savings in operation and maintenance costs frequentlymake
the air cooler the more economical selection' Air cooled heat exchanger consists of a bundle of bare or finned tubes which are rolled or welded into headers Ambient air is moved across the tube bundle by an induced or forced draft fan The warm fluid circulating through the tubes, gives up paft of its heal to the air which is then eipelled lo the almosphere above or around the unil's circumference. Different tlpes of tubes, headers, and fans combine to form a wide varicty of overall designs The aim of each is to carry away unwanted heat as cfficiently as possible, with minimum maintenance' vibration. and noisc. Two main groups of these exchangers along with t the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed below
These are the types in which the lube bundles are located on the suction side of the fan as shown in Figure 1.

6. Young, D., 'lBending Moments in the Walls of Rectangular Tanks,,'proc. Am. Soc. Civil Engrs., Vol.67, 1683 (1941). 7. "Manual of Steel Consfucdon," 8th ed., American Institute of Steel Construction, New York, N.Y., 1980. 8. Blodgett, O. W., "Design of Welded Structures," The James F. Lincoln
Are Welding Foundation, Cleveland, August 1967.

Induced Draft

l}pe

Chapter l3 is a sligitly_nodified version ofauthor's study:'A method for Designing Rectangufar Storagr 'Ihnls' published in Chenical Eneineerine (March 28, 1977). -Cop-yrighted-by

Mccraw-Hill. Inc.

Advantages l. Easier 10 shop assemble, ship, and install 2. The hoods offer prolection from weather' i. Easier to clean underside when covered with lin4 bugs, debris' 4. More efficient air distribution over the bundle 5. Less likely to be affected by hot air distribution Dlsadvantages 1. More difficult to remove bundles for maintenance' 2. High temperature service limited due to effect of hot air on the

fans

280

281

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT


3.

AIR COOIfD HEAT EXCHANGERS

More difficult to work on thn assembly, heat from bundlc and their location.

i.

c., ad

just bladcs due ro

.IG 2

FORCED DMFT AIR COOLED HEAT EXCI-IANCER

Tubes

R COOLED HEAT EXCHANCER

Forced Draft \pe In these tlpes, the tube bundlcs are located on the discharge ofthe fan as showr in Figurc 2. Advantages 1. Easy to remove and replace bundles. 2. Easier to mount motors or other drivers with shon shafts. 3. Lubrication, maintenance', etc. more accessible. 4. With reinforced straight sidc panels to form a rectangular box tlpe plenum, shipping and mounting is greatly simplified, permitting complete preassembled shoptested
units.

configuration But do not have surfaces round bare its applicalion is limited because and heat bundle tube larger A much sufficient heat rransfcr area expose can Fins duty same the handle to exchanger would be needed in result thus and sur{ace more tube from eighl 10 lwenty times of lube' given diameter a from dissipati,on of more hcat Selection of mosl economical exchanger requires careful
A bare tube is thc simplest and least expensive

5. Best adapted for cold climale operation with warm air


recirculation.
Disadvantages

consideration of many component variables. It is extremely imporlant to use standard designs ifat allpossible. Tube and fin sizeand materials D' are limited to what can bc manufactured economically' One inch O from varies height Fin most common '/2 and thirty feet long tubes arc inch to 7, i.r.h and fin pitch varics from 8 to I I fins per inch' Othertube sizes can also be used if found economical for any applicarion Bare rubes should be used where the process temperature ls very high and whcre thc heat lransfcr rate on the process side is very low' Where these conditions cxist, il is good practice to provide both bare and fin tubes in onc sewice'. When the process inlet temperature is loo high for the fin tubc, thc fir-sl pass may be bare tubes Likew]se, for rhe last pass, where thc coolcd stream has a lransfer rate in the viscous
region.

l.

Difficult to shop asscmble, ship, and install.

2. More exposure to weather conditions. 3. Difficult to clcan from underside. 4. Less efficient air distribution over the bundle. 5. Greatly increased possibility of hot air recirculation.

Finned tubcs zrrc available in a wide range of shapes and materials. Some of thc most popular designs are discussed below' Each of these tlpes is dcsigned for a given temperature range

Finned Tubes

282

283

DESIGN OF PR@ESS EQUIPMENT

AIR COOI.ED HEAT EXCHANGERS

depending on materials used and operating conditions. Each will give maximum service for a given application when correctly used Tension Wrapped Embedded Flns This type of fin, as shown in Figure 3, is tighrly wound into th groove to produce an inlerference fit on both sides andbottom toinsure tight contact between fin and 1ube. This is good for design temperature of up to 750'F. It has the disadvantage of an exposed bimetal contact and provides no protection for the steel liner.

FIG,

5'SINGLE

FOOTED TENSION WMPPED FINS

Double Footed Tension Wrapped Flns --- itrit typ", shown in Figure 6, is obtained in the same way

as

"in"rc}oot"a' ;;i"";;il;;";i"f

^,und fl"t

iltr'"d;;i;;;if.tr

" atmosphere than the single footed t)?e

ln is also good for the same temperature range fin' preceding ofrhe toe the one fin [iri directlv upon more posil ive shield berween the base tube and the

FIG. 3 . TENSION WMPPED EMBEDDED FINS

550"F design temperature.

Extruded Flns - This is the most expensive tlpe. It is produced by slipping an aluminum tubeoverthe coretube, thealuminum fin is th"., ""i-d.dby rolling the muff Extrusion operation builds up an inlerference fit between the two tubes producing complete mechanical bond" This design actually consists of a tube within a tube and the fins Drotect the surface of the core tube as is shown in Figurc 4. Il is go;d through

FIG' 6 - DOUBLE FOOTED TENSION WRAPPED FINS

Wound Tension WraPPed Flns Edee --"- ft i"..i^pf. tension wound type of fin and is shown in Figure 7(a) and(b). It is good for 300"F of maximum design temperature'

(b) On Knurlcd rubc

FIC.7 - EDGE WOUND TENSION WRAPPED FINS

FIG. 4

EXTRUDED FINS

Single Footed Tension Wrapped Fins up to 350"F. Contact between fin and tube is obtained by applying tension during finning The heel of one fin fits snugly againsi rheioe of the preceding fin thus completely covering the base iube and shieldrns
against atmospheric corrosion.
This type, as shown in Figure 5, is good for design temperature

Hot Dtpped Solder Bonded Fins by soldering and then These tlpes offins are attached to thc tubes maximum design 250"F to is limited use Its aiop"a-ttoi ln tot"tiorr. constmction their of because temperature

of

Headers ----

t"b., t-";;";
tuU".

H"^d".

i.i

"*f"

is important because they tie the exchanger "on"truction itilo a bundle. They also-provide accets to the,inside of in the removal and' occasionaliy' for replacing a tube

284

285

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

AtR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS

bundle. ln an air coolcd heat cxchanger, tubc ends are bare of fins in order that the rubes can be roller expanded and/orwelded into headers. Various t,?es of headers along with their applications are discussed
below.

Plug

gpe Header

This is the most common type ofheader. It has plugs opposite the tubes to allow for tube rolling and cleaning Box t5pe headers can be fabricated from side plates and two end plates using corner welds as shown in Figure8 (a). In applicarions(such as lethal service, etc) where extensive nondeslruclive testing is required, plates can be bent to,,C" shapes and butt-welded togetheras shown in Figure 8 (b). Box headers have been built with design pressures up to 3,000 psi

Manlfold \pe Header This typc utilizcs cylindrical hcadcrs with U-tubcs as shown in Figure 10. iLese arc suirablc [orhigh prcssure applications' Chemical cleaning and flushing conncctions may be added to handle dirty streams in the cylindrical hcadcr This tJ,rpe cannot be used where periodic tube cleaning is ncccssary.

:OLD ryPE HEADER

(a) Fab.icaied Bo\ T.We FIC. 8 . PLUC TYPE HEADERS

(b) 'C" Shapc Type

Billet lype Header This tlpe is shown in Figurc 1l and is also suitable for high pressure applications. In this, a solid metal billet is drilled with flow passages. The bored fluid passages are manifolded inlo pipe or machined collecting chamberu depcnding upon the pressure

Cover Plate 1}pe Header This type has bohed cover plate as shown in Figure 9 and thus does away with the need for screw plugs. This should be spc.cified for streams with fouling factor of.003 or more and where entrained solids may settle ou1 in the bundles. Because of gasketed joint at the coverplate, use of this type is limiled to design pressure oi350 osi and temperatu rc o[ 400'F.

COVER PLATE TYPE HEADER

FIC. I I -,BILLET TYPE HEADER

286

287

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS

Steam Coll Sleam coils are used 1o heat the fin tubes to prevenl fluids from solidification or freezing inside the tubes on stan-up, shutdowrr, or operating conditions. Fans Moving air should be distributed as evenly as possible across the tube bundle. Poor distribution can create areas of very little air movemcnt resuhing in reduced cooling effectiveness ofthe finned tube bundle and an increase in power consumption. Axial flow, propeller tlpe fans are used to movc and distribute air across the air cooled heat exchangers. In forccd draft the fan forces the air across the bundle while in induced draft" it draws air across the bundle. Two fans arc usuallv provided forcach bay, This assurcs continuous operation wtrn
onc fan out ofservicc. Also, at reduced loads and during coolerweatner, it mav feasible to opcrale with one fan out of sewice as an aid to control and for economy. Fans may have fixed oradjustable pitch blades. However, most of the fans in the air cooled heat exchanger application have adjustable pitch blades. Adjustable pitch fans are either manually adjustable or automatically adjustable Most automatic adjuslable pitch fans cause fan pitch change by means of a pneumatically actuated diaphragm.

ground velocity. In oil rcfinerics and chcmical complexes' to conscrvc cxisling above mounted usually space, air cooled heat exchangers are oine.u"k, with other equipment occupying the space underncath the pip"auaL The piperack and air cooled heat exchanger structures are integrated

REFERENCES

1. API Standard

661

Refinery Sewices", Second Editioq January, 1978'

"Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers

for

General

Mechanical Equipment

The fan drivers are electric motors, steam lurbines, gas or


gasoline engines, orhydraulic motors. The most commonlyused driver for air cooled heat exchangers is the electric molor. Steam turbines are sometimes installed as a back-up for electric motors in the event of powerfailure and to permit variable fan speed control. V-behs and right angle bevel gears are used as the speed reducer of these drivers.

Plenum
The air plenum is completely enclosed space which provides for the smooth flow ofairbetween fans and bundles. plenums are desisned

as a transition type or box type. The lransition type givcs rhelesr distribution of air over the bundles but is usuallv used onlv on induced draft because o[ slrucrural difficuhies with forced drah

Structure
The structure consists ofthe columnq braces, and cross beams ro support the exchanger of a sufficient elevation above ground to allow the necessary volume of air to enter below al a reasonable approach

288

289

I)ESICN OI: PROCESS EQUIPMENT

AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS

should bc used However, fbr tube and plug platcs, thc ligament clliciencies

AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS PART B _ IIEADER BOX DESIGN

stress calculations For simplicity and pitch diameter of conservative design, ligament efficiency based on the plug type-header for in plugtnJ"t cai be used for both these plates diameter in tubesheet Uoxes. foicoierptate type of headers, the tube hole should be used for determining ligament efficiency' or Figure covers the design of the header box without Partition in located stiffener stiffenei. Figure 2 shows the boi with single partition or unequal two to ihe analysis of Figure 2 are also applicable itr"

in both membrane and bending

iiJ.

Introduction
to intemal pressure for alr cooled heat ex.t uneaaa ,, discussed. The analysis is in accordance with Appendix f.}, ofSection'VIfl Code.
r

are based.on the compartments when ihe anatysis of both the compartments partitions or spaced larger size. Figure 3 represents the box with two equally can be analy-zed stiifeners. Cases of three or more unequal compartments size of the the on is based *ith th" pro."du.". of Figure 3 provided the design

""*".

The technique for mechanical design analysis bolted cover and subject

of header box without

largest comPartment.

Division 1 of the ASME Boiler and pressure Vessel

The discussion is limited to very common configurations of a header box in which the opposite sides have the same wall thiikness. f*o opoo.it" sides may have a wall lhickness different than thar of the othe, i*" sides. The walls are considered fairly thick and there is no rounjiii'"i,rr" comers. The tubesheets and plugsheets are considered pertoratea Tor ttre tubes and removable cleaning plugs.

Analyzing Procedure for Header Box of without Partition or Stiffener

Air

Cooled Heat Exchangers

*t
t
I I I

"ii"ri"

Nl

Design Criteria
The formulas given require solution by assuming a thickness or thick_ nesses f9f t9q and bottom plates and tube und plug plals and sotvlng fo. tfre shss which is then compared with an allowaLle;;ess value. The a"ssumeo thicknesses are used in the formulas to calculate both membran" una U""Olng stresses. Ail_membrane stresses generated by mechanical loads are limited ro rne alowatrte tensile stress values listed in the appropriate stress tables of the ASME Code. Any combination ofmechanicallyinduced."rnf.un"

_L_
I
I

iP

bending stress. should not be greater than one and a fratf times tfre Joae atiowable tensrle stressare designed in accordance with Uc_34(c), Fdragraph .^.of Tl" (3) the"llflg": ASME Secrion VIII, Division I Code. Comerjoint construction is mostly used for header boxes of air cooled exclrT-C:js:The comerjoint weld efficiency can always U"urrurn"Ju, IrT 1.0 per ASME Code. For locations other than comers, ,rja ;oini cies as given in UW-12 of ASME Code should be "ffi'"i"n used in Jr"r, _uiyri..

otu,

Let

Et = Ez=

weld joint efficiency (from Thble UW-12 of ASME Code) Ligament efficiency = (P - d) i P

r) H_c=lK:(Irll,)o
h 291

I. ''

)r = -:--.)-:(t,

, L ' --

(t2)3
12

290

DESIGN OI: PROCESS EQUTPMENT

AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS

Stress Calculations

Allowsble Stresses Membrane Strtss Top and Bottom Plates (S^)

t, =

Ph

/ (2trEr)

Thbe and Plug Plates

allowable membrane stress allowable tensile stress for plate material at design temperature Allowable total stress = 1.5(S)

= =

(S)t2:

P}l/(2t2E2)

stresses Assumed thicknesses should be revised until all the calculated be added should fall within the allowables. Corrosion allowance, if required' to these thicknesses to determine the final plate thicknesses'

Bending Stress Top and Bottom Plates

(s/N=

12

Pc
12

l1E1 c

fr.s

ut-t,t

(l +

q2 K)

Analyzing Procedure for Header Box of with Single Partition or Stiffener

Air

Cooled Ileat Exchangers

l+K

/.S,)O: +

Ph2

(l + a2K)

.:Lf

rr(l) c

(l + K)

Tbbe and Plug Plates ph2

(s.tM=-r

(t + q2K, I l-,. 12 l2E2 L J l+K (l + ctz K) Ph2 c 12 I2(r) (l +K)

"T__l__]
I

Tbtal Stresses Top and Bottom Plates

"f-l __rll 'l


_

,,]=HEADER BOX WITH SINGLE PARTITION OR STIFFENER

(s,)N

= (S-) tr + (SJN, (sJQ = (S-) t, +

(Sb)e Let Ej (Sb)e


F
E

FJI]URE 2

Tirbe and Plug Plates

(s,)M

(S-) t2

+ (SJM,

(S,)O

(S-)

t, +

:
=

Weld

joint efficiency (from Table UW-12 of ASME Code)

Ligament efficiency

= (p -

d) / P

End Platos

z = ft+ - 2.4 5.(maximum z = 2.5)


\
h/

Weld joint efficiency for Partition or stiffener (from Table UW-12 of ASME Code)

= 0.33

',

(t')3 t2
H h

(L)l

-t2
K
=
(12

r:' "VsE, /cPz ''

I)q

292

293

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS

Stress Calcutations

End Plates

Membrane Stress lbp and Bottom plates

Z
C

=(3.4

LI - 2.4!), maximum Z = 25\

(s)tr

:
P11

Ia - {z--t-!A-::?t1 4ttEt t I t+2K IJ


112rP",

Ph

=0.33,

b =H

V t""

lirbe and Plug Plats

Allowable Stresses

(S)t, =

Partidon or Stiffener

(s^)tt

:
2

en
tou"

allowable membrane sfess allorrable tensile saess for plate material at design temperature 1.5(S) Allowable total shess

= =

fz_frO_S11 L l+2K I

Bending Strtss Ibp and Bottom platss

Assumed thicknesses should be revised until all the calculated stresses fall within the allorrables. Corrosion allowance, ifrequired, should be added to thes thicknesses to detennine the final plate thicknesses'

(s)N =a
(S)e

Pc lzu, zntl l+2a,K \l Z4ltEt L t lJ


c I t +2a2K I 12 Irfl) L l+2K I
Ph2

Analyzing

with T\vo

:+

l+2K

Thbe and Plug Plates

(SbM

=+ Ph2c fl+K(3-q2)l r2\E2L 1+rK I

(5,)e
Ibtal

=*

Ph'zc
12r2(l)

I + 2crK f L ll21<-l 1
(sJO=(s-)t,+(sJe
(sJC=(s_)t,+(sJe
Let E1

Stresses

Tbp and Bottom platas

(,s,)N:(S-)tr+(sJN,
lirbe and Plug Plates (5,)M = (S^)q + (sb)M,
Partition or Stiffener S,

. FIGTJRE 3 -

HEADER BOX 1VTIH TWO OR MORE PARITTIONS AND/OR STIFFENERS

(S..X+

= E. = fi =

Weld joint efficiency (from Table IJW-12 of ASME Code) (P d) / P Lieament efficiency joint efficiency for partition or stiffener Weta

(from Table UW-12 of ASME Code)

294

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

AIR COOLEI) HEAT EXCHANGERS

t2
H
h Stress Calculations

: ()3 r, -t2
K =(Ir/tr)u

'lbbe and Plug Platcs

19,)M=(S,")t2+(Sb)M'
Irortitions and/or Stiffenrs

(S,)O=(S-)t2+(Sb)Q

,!, = (s-)ta Ilnd Plates

Membrane Stress Top and Bottom Plates

z :(t.q \
6+
(

2.4H\, h/
ts

(maximum

z=

2'5)

PhFr (s-/r,=-13-,{ 2ttEt L


TUbe and Plug Plates

K(ll 3+5K 3+5K

a2) )

C :0.33,
.S

Allowable Stresses

(S^)tr = PH / (2t2E )
Partitions and/or Stiffeners

= allowable membrane stless = allorvable tensile stress for plate matedal


at design temperature

Allowable total stress

1.5(S)

6+K(ll-Ctr)l 3+5K 3+5K


Bending Stress Tbp and Bottorn Plates

f"[

io ihese

all the calculated stresses Assumed thicknesses should be revised until should be added if required' allowance *i;i;;;"u"*ables. Corrosion ' thicknesses' plate final the thicknesses to determine

EXAMPLE

/c l^r -r ! tu b,r -

Pc

24

ItEl

f.,, -

zn' ( J -i )c. l(

3+5K )l

(S)e =t

Ph'?c
12

r,(l) \

/ 3+5q2K \

ofa single pass plug type headerbox-for an air cooled Check the design -100 for psi intemal piessure at 400"F Allow 7re inch h"at exchange. for various The plates the for all material SA-285-C

.orr*in ufio*-"".
t

Us;

3+5K
-5K
JO'

Ihbe and Plug Plates

(S)M:t
(SlQ = t:

Ph'?c 3+ K(6
12

I2Ea

f L
(
\

q")

c 12 Ir(l)
Ph2

follows: Uo* Parameters in uncorroded condition are as "uO"a .375 inches ToD and Bottom Plate Thickness 1.25 inches Tirbe and Plug Plate Thickness .5 inches End Plale Thickness 4 inches Inside Header Width

= =

J+JK

Inside Header Height Inside Header Length Pitch of Tirbe Holes

12. 125 inches

Tbtal Stresses Top and Bottom Ptates

114.75 inches

2.375 inches
1.1875 inches

(sl)N: (s-)tr + (sJN,

(sJQ=(s_)tr+(sJQ

Pitch Diameter of Threads

in Plugsheet

296

297

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS

SOLUTION
I

1z

:
=

Moment of inertia of unit wide tube or plug plate

(t )3 t2

.1395 in.a/in.

*{ "

q. :
I

Rectangular box parameter Vessel parameter = (I2 /

!:
h

o.rrt
18.7879

12.25

.3367

f-l tl

K :

Ir)ct

Stress Calculations

Membrane Stress Top and Bottom Plates

*TFIC. 4

(s^)t-Ph / (2trEr) :100


lhbe and Plug Plates _
EXAMPLE PROBLEM FOR HEADER BOX WITHOLN PARITTION

(12.25) /2(.3125)1.0

:1,960

psi

(S^)tt =p11 1 (zhU) =


Bending Stress Tbp and Bottom Plats

100 (4.125)

/ 2(1.1875\.5 :347 psi

Refening to Fig. 4, we have

tt = .375 - .0625 = .3125 inches tz = 1.25 - .0625 = t.1875 inches b = .S - .0625 = .4375 inches h : 12.125 + .0625 + .0625 = 12.25 inches 4 : 114.75 + .0625 + .0625 : 114.875 inches H = 4 + .0625 + .M25 : 4.125 inches
Materials of construction: SA-285-C Design conditions

Pc ,c ,a/ _ + I l.5Ht tr (l + a'zK)l (rN:= ta"E, l_'..' t-K l tl + .33672 (18.7879))lf _ _+ 100(.rs625) | t.s,q.nsr, "-' '-', _ 12.252
12(.0025)r.0 L

(1

+ 18.?879) I

-r 931 psi

(sr)Q

:!

Ph2

(1 +

ct2

K)

12rl1) l + K
r00(r2.2s)2 (.r562s)
12(.0025)r

100 psig at 400"F

Er
E2

:
=

(.1582)

1'0 Ligament efficiency for membrane


and plug plates

: -f 12,365 Psi

& bending

stresses for tube

Thbe and Plug Plates

1, :

= (p -d) / p =

(2.37s

1.1875)

t 2.375

.5

Moment of inertia of unit wide top or bottom plate

ts.tM : =-

c I rt + q,K)l 1.5 - -------------- l I l+K 12 l2E2 L


Ph2

(tr)3
12

.0025 in.a/in.

__+

100(12.25\2

.59375 (1.5 _.1582)=+

14,284 psi

12 (.1395) .5

298

299

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUTPMENT

AIR COOIJD HEAT EXCHANGERS

(S)Q

(l +c2K) l2 120\ I + K
Ph2

NOMENCLATURE

t0[/(12.25)2 .59375
12 (.139s)
1

(.1582) =

'r

842 Psi

lbtal Stresses Ibp and Bottom Plats

= (S-)tr + (S6)N: 1,960 -r (sJQ: (s"Jq + (sjQ = 1,e6i a


(S,)N

(one-half of applicable Distance from neuFal axis to outside surface thickness), in. 6on.*i O","..ining end plate thickness ( 33 for header box end plate thickness) tft .ads in plugsheet for Plug tyPe header and tube Fi"f, "f in . hole diameter in tubesheet for coverplate type header' Code) ASME of IIW-12 (From Table joint efficiency Weld

it

a#."t

931

2,891 psi

Lisament efficiencY
E3

12,365

14,325 psi

i;ld

l;il;iil;v

(P - d) / P ror partition or stiffener (From rbble uw-12 of

Ibbe and Plug Plaies

= (S-)t, + (Sb)M : (S/9 = 6-)t2 + (Sb)Q =


(S,)M

+ 14,2U = 14,631 347 + 842 = 1,189psi


347

psi

End Plales

=Plpne parameter

(3.4

2.4

-)' h'
=

(Z should not b geater than 2.5)

h h, i ;, t'. Ii p P S Sb SS, il 11 t", t', i a

ASME Code)

Conoded inside header height, in' Cormded inside header length, in' Conoded inside header width' in' plate' in a/in' i|;rrrerrt of inertia of unit wide top or bofiom plaie' in "/m' Moment of inertia of unit wide tube or plug vessel Parameter Pitch of tube holes, in. Intemal design Pressure' Psr at design temperature' CoO" alowaile tensile stress for box material psi

:
C

4.r25 3.4 _ e.4't :


12.25 Plate coefficient

2.5918, (use 2.5)

0.33

= .3189 in. <

"

/cYz .. .-_ /.33(rN)2.5 HVd= 4 t25V = ,.


l38oo
.4375

t'Ji

n.,

hence O.K.

Maximum bending sness' Pst Maximum membrane stress' Psl Maximum total stress, Psl in Conooea thickness of top and bottom plates' in' Conoded thickness of tube and Plug plates' Conoded thickness of end plates, in' Conoded thickness of partition or stiffener, in' nnA pl?d! parameter (UG-34' ASME Code) Rectangular box Parameter. in'

Nlouable Stresses
Allorable membrane stress

REFERENCES

allorvable tensile stress per 1bble USC-23

=
Allowable total stress

13,80 psi
1.5 (alloxable tensile stress) 1.5 (13,800)

Boilers and Pressure Vessel Code' section VIIr' "Pressure 1. ' ASME V"*"ft", Division l, ASME, New York' N Y'' 1983'

10_,700

psi
are

Stresses are adequate.

within allorable limits, thus the assumed thicknesses

300

301

AIR COOLED HEAT EXCI{ANGERS

per bolt pitch Minimum required bolt load for initial gasket seating

W^2

B"b

AIR COOLED IIEAf, EXCHAi\IGERS


PART C COVERPLATE AND TLANGE DESIGN FOR IIEADER BOX

pitch Minimum required bolt load for operating condition per bolt

w^, = 9g" P + 2bB"nP


2 Therefore, required area of each bolt

A- =
This section discusses the complete design ofcoverplate and flange for box of air cooled heat exchangen. Th. dir"urrion i, U"*A.1-n" leader

greater

of

w-" 4 or

w-,

l;

design criteria of ASME Section engineering practice.

vIiI, oi"i.io, r-C"J"i

*i*tiJ!*a

be equal to or greater than The root area, Ar, of the chosen bolt size should

bolt spacing should not unUonn ioaO OistriUutiin on the gasket' However, the not U"i"o tft*,ft" rnl"imum required for wench clearance Also' it should

obtain The bolt spacing, 8", can be assumed equal to 24 +- b3 to

be greater than

2o

+ (n + .5)

6b'

Maximum available load Per bolt

W': Af"
FIG, I. DEFTNI ON OF SYMBOLS

Bolting Requirements
defines some of the svmbols fo he rced in rhi. tonsue and groove construction,

Minimum required gasket width


N

Figure

o -* *
b

T.

, wl-!-

--* r *o' ;; 'Jfl"ll1l"i:J,i,l*'l,tj,i,l*

^t"

AuS"

/ 28"

The value of chosen N should not be less than N,,t,'

The effective gasket seating width

will be b", when b" < . when D" >

Ve
Z+

inch
inch

tatW^be

the greater of loads W^r all.d W*z'

b=

Ybo

*JLiHt" =ryt
303

302

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMEM

AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGER9

Cover Plate Deslgn

Ileader Flange Deslgn

End, Top and Bottom Plate

Cover Plate

FIG. 2, COVER PLAIE AND FLANGE ASSEMBLY

FIC, 3. FLANGE AND END PLAIE ASSEMBLY

Cover plate and flange assembly is shown in Figure 2.


Plate parametel

Refer to flange and end plate assembly in Figure 3, we have maximum bending moment at flange end due to bolt load' IV,

Z, is

M=WX

Z=3.4 -{

GI

Moment of inertia of effective flange section about vertical centerline

rt$eater

than 2.5)

/ b, *; b" \2 ,=r; tb,3+zbtb\; )


centerline Section modulus of effective flange section about vertical

Thickness of the cover plate can be deterrnined by

t":

Where C, the plate coefficient, is equal to 0.3.

( = Iu br/z -=-

b3

Cross-sectional arsa of effective flange section

The greater of the groove depth or the desired corrosion allowanco must be added to the calcula0ed cover thickness to obtain the final thickness.
Howeve4 the net coverplate thickness under the groove shall not be less than

A = 2bttr

Maximum bending sress in the flange section

Ft=MlS,"E
Fd=WIAE

ffiho
SP

Maximum dhect stress in the flange section

"G'

304

305

DESIGN OF PRoCESS EQUIPMEM

AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS

Maximum resultant stless in the flange

.5 in.
50 psi 25,000 psi 25,000 psi 17,500 psi 1.5 in.

F,= Fu*Fo
Flange thickness is adequate if the resultant stress falls within the allowable
stress for flange material.

Example
Check the design of bolted coverplate and flange for header box of air crytgO exghg_Se1 Aesigned for 50 psi at 329'F. % inch thick Vz inch wide , , soft iron doublejacketed asbestos filled gasket with tongue and groove

of construction is used. The bolts are % inch diameter an d inches apart. Coverplate and flange material is 5.4_516_70 and Si-193-B7

type at{spaced 2%

T: x=
De.rign Calculations

2.0 in.
.125 in.

.5 in.

7ffi

.84375 in.

of corrosion allowance is allowed wherever applicable. Addi--tional data required for evaluation is as follorvs:
Longitudinal thickness of flange to
plate weld Total longitudinal thickness of flange Height of gasket load reaction lffgth of gasket load reaction Radial distance from gasket load reaction to the bolt center
Total thickness of coverplate

bolts are used. The coverplate has %6 inch deep and %o inch wide groove and end; top and bottom plates have t% inch deep and /z inch wide tongue. /r inch

for Cwerptate and trlong for Header Box of Air

Cooled Exchangers

Bolting Requirements
Basic gasket seating width

= .4375 inches 1.25 inches = = 16.5625 inches = 153.9375 inches = = =


1.15625 inches 1.5 inches 2.0 inches

b^ =

.5 +.t25 ''---:---:=' (

: 5+

maximum)

.3125 in. (.25 in. maximum) Use

b"

=
'25

'25

io'

Effective gasket seating width

Radial thickness of flange ring Radial distance from outside of plate

in'

to the bolt

center

.g4375 inches

Minirnum required bolt load for ioitial gasket seating condition per bolt pitch W^z = B"b y

Solution Ia this case, we have

=
=
.4375 in. .375 in.

2.75 (.2s) 7@0


5,225 lb

a = .75n.
bz bz

4:

B" = 2'75 n'

= l '25 n' = 1.25 - 2(.4375) =

Minirnum required bolt load for operating condition per bolt pitch G

W^r=18"P+2bB"mP

E=.8

=,'#

Q'75)50 + 2

(.25') 2.7s (3.75)

50 =
Su

1,397 tb

G = 16.5625 in. Gr = 153 '9375 n' hc = 1.15625 in. m = s.tJ tn.

Required cross-sectional area of each bolt

A^ =

crealar of w,e I S" or W^, I


5.225

25

'W :

.2A9 in.2

306

307

DESIGN OF PN@ESS EQUIPMENT

AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS

Actual cross-sctional area of each bolt

Ab

'302 in'2

Header Flange Declgn Maximum bending moment at flange end due to bolt load, W

Since > A-, therefore, the chosen boft size is adequaie. Maximum available load per bolt

M=W

W, = AuSo
Minimum rcquired gasket width

= 6,388 (.84375) = 5,390 inlb

= .302 (25,q00) = 7,550 lb

Moment of inertia of effective flange section about vertical centerline

,=r++zr,q(f,+f,)'

N^,,=Wrl2B"y
=

Since

N > N.,r,

7,550 | 2 (2.7s) .1806 in. therefore, the selected gasket width is sufficient.

1ffi

W- = Cre et of W*, md W^.

5,225 tb

.3629 lll.'4

Flange design load per bolt

(A +AI

S"- M^+w)t2
=
(s,225

Section modulus of effective flange section about vertical centerline

'"
6,388 lb

+ 7,550)/2 =

Coverplatr Design
Coverplat parameter

=7,#?,'"
Cross-sectional area of effective flange section

Z = 3.4

- (rt ^

2.4G

(Z

trc/.

$earer than 2.5)

2.4 (r6.s62s\
r53.9375

^
Maxirnum bending sfess in the flange section

=
Coverplate thickness

3.1418

Use

2.5

t"=G

Fr = M lS^E = 5,3W | .5806 (.8) : ll,6Mpsi

=ii,:i,:t,

sp,c2
:3(2.5)50

r6.56?s

6(6,388) r.15625
17,500(2.7 5) (16.5625\2

Maximum direct stress in the flange section Fa: w t AE = 6,388 / 1.75

(.8I =

4,563 psi

1.2283 in.

Maximum resultant sfiss in the flange

Mding

3Aa

inch for groove (includes % inch corrosion allomnce), t" = 1.2?,83 + .1875 = 1.4158 inch < hence O.K.

F"

Fr + Fa = ll,604 +

4,563

16'167 Psi

1.5,

Net coverplal thickness under the gmove .9596 inch, hence O.K.

1.5

.1875

= l.3l25inch>

shess Since, the resultant flange stress falls within the maximum allowable assumed the temperature, of 17;500 psi for flangi material at the design

flange thickness is adequate'

308

DESION OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS

NOMENCLATURE
a

A
Ab

b b"
br
b2 b3

Dianeter of bolts. in. Cross-sectioual area of effective flange section, in.2 Actual cross-sectional area of each bolt, in.2 Required cross-sectional area of each bolt, in.2 Effective gasket seating width, in.
Basic gasket seating width, in. Longitudinal thickness of flange to plate weld, in. Inngitudinal thickness of unwelded flange, in. Total longitudinal thickness of flange, in. Bolt spacing, in. Constant (.3 for coverpla0e thickness) Flange !o plate joint efficiency Maxirum bending stress in the flange section, psi Maximum direct shess in the flange section, psi Maximum rcsultant sffess in the flange section, psi Height of gasket load reaction, in. Ingth of gasket load reaction, in. Radial distance ftom gasket load reaction to the bolt center, in. Moment of inertia of effective flange section about vertical cen_

W-, X ) Z
l.

Minimum required bolt load for gasket seating per bolt piich' lb Radial distance from outside of Plate to the bolt center, in'
Gasket seating shess, Psi Coverylalg parameter (UG-34' ASME Code)

RETERENCES
ASME Boilers and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VItr, "Pressure Vessels", Division 1, ASME, New York, N.Y'' 1983'

4
c
E
Fb

Fd

F,
G Gr

hc

ff
P

N^t,
s"

terline. in.a Gaskt facior Maximum bending moment at flange end due io bolt load, Width of gasket, in. Mnimum required gasket width, in.

inlb

s,
,t"

s_
tc

ln,,

Internal design pressure, psi Allorrable stress for bolt material at atrnospheric temperatue, psi Allowable shess for bolt material at design temperature, psi Allwable stess for cover material at design temperature, psi Section modulus ofeffective flange section ;bout vertical ce;terline,

.f
T
w

w
wr

w
W^r

pitch, lb

Tbtal thickness of coverplate, in. Radial thickness of flange ring, in. Thickness of the gasket, in. Width of the tongue, in. Flange design bolt load per bolt, lb Maximum available load per bolt, lb Greater of the loads Wtdr and W_r, lb Minimum required bolt load for the operating conditions per bolt

310

APPENDIX 1 Head Derivation of ASME Coder Formulas for Shell and Pressure Internal for Thicknesses of CYlindrical Vessel

THIN CYLINDRICAL SHELL FIG. I. CIRCUMFERENIIAL FORCES ON A


DUE TO INTERNAL PRESSURE

Consider

pressure' P' as unit shell leng$ of a thin wall vessel under intemal (D (2n) ( l) to equal force a exerts pressure Ji.*" i" rle-"." r. m" Intemal of Z(t) 1(S) at the two cross and the wali thickness exerts a resisting force get: we sections. Equating these forces,
a

?'PR
thus,

2tS

,:PR
s

to modify the allowable If a longitudinal weld joint efficiency, E' is included stress, the formula becomes:

=PR
SE

or'

SEI R

313

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

SHELL AND HEAD THICKNESS

This thin wall formula was used in the ASME Code until the 1942 Edition when it was modified to more accurately calculate results for thicker walls due to high pressures and/or temperatures. The modified formula is: PR

t =25E

PN

ol

t=

sE

SEt

.6P

o! R + .6t

This longitudinal stress formula was also modified in the 1942 Edition of the ASME Code for the same reasons as the circumferential stress fonnula, it became:

2SE
or,

0.4P

0.4,

Spherical Shells and Hemispherical Heads


The same thin wall formula is obtained as for the longitudinal stress in the

circular shell,
PR 25E

FIG. 2. TONCITUDINAL FORCES ON A THIN CYLINDRICAL SHELL


DUE TO TNTERNAL PRNSSURE

Modified formulas are:


For henrisPherical heads' For spherical shells,

The stress formulas for the longitudinal or axial direction are developed in the same way. Referring to Figure 2, in order to maintain equilibrium in the axial direction, the iniemal force exerted against the vessel end closures must be resisted by the strength ofthe metal in the cross-section of the vessel for seamless shells <ir by the circumferential weld joints for welded shells.

PL
2SE

.2P

t=

PR

2SE

.2P

The pressure force is nD'P while the resisting force is rDrS. Equating 4
these two forces, we get:

NOMENCLATURE
D

E
T

nPD : -Dp 445 tDtS oB t =Substituting

lnside diameter of shell or head' in. Joint efficiency Inside radius of dish, in.
Internal design pressure, Psi Inside shell or head radius, in.

P
R

D=

2R, the above equation becomes,

Atlowable tensile stress for shell or head material at the design


tmperature, Psi Shell or head wall thickness, in.

. _PR
25 Introducing E as the circumferential weldjoint efficiency, fte expression for welded shell is:

r
l.

ASME tsoiler ancl hessure Vessel Code, Section VIII, "Pressure Vessels," Division 1, ASME, New York, N'Y., 1983.

REFERENCES

314

3ls

considerof vertical vessels are determined The thicknesses at various levels

Thid;;il;;

APPENDIX 2 Derivation of Formulas for Checkingv"tlo"t ie"ett of Vertical Vessels

irie the follorring conditions: i. Wind or earthquake moment 2. Vessel weight

3.

Pressure

as vertical vessel acts in the same manner Assuming that the self-supporting are moment u""4, *sultant stresses due to wind or earthquake

"-"*iir""* shown in Figure 1.

FOR VESSEL FIG. 1. STRESS DISTRIBUTION

IUS TO WIND Mcrition of weighr

OR EARTHQUME MOMENT

Fieue 2. Sress due to wetgnr wru

iiil"t

i*Jti"; ;tn

-i {:::y.1:l'dil:,i;n:'J#ffit:;,:lH: l: will
act

Lnsion a"a stress due to external pressure

act in compressron.

317

DESI(;N Otj

I'tr(uss

IQUtPMENt.

TI tICKNIISS oF VERTICAL VESSI:I.S

s. =

r.5 (10)6

TENSION DUE TO WIND OR EA(THQUAKE TENSION OR COMPRESSION


COMPRESSION DUE TO WIND OR EAKTHQUAKE COMPRESSTON DUE

and sresses In any case, if S" (max) S., the value of r should be increased to S.' equal or rr,ouia U" recalculated until S. (max) becomes less than is given by the The maximum tensile stress at the point under consideration values greater of the following two Pp (3)

(^) = *t

S,(max)
or,

= --

4t
W

TO VESSEL WEIOHT

Sr(max)
FIG. 2. STRESS DISTRIBUTION FOR VESSEL DUE TO PRESSURE, WEIGHT, AND WIND OR EARTHQUAKE MOMENTS

48M PD rD2t 4t

nDt

of In no case, should S,(max) be greater than S,(E)' the product 1ax11um Irom detemrneobe S, can joint efficiency allowable tensile stress and the

The vessel must be designed for the most extreme condition. Therefore, the vessel

S".,ion Vut, Oiuition


temperature.

of the

Code for vessel material at the design

musr be checked for both the tensile and

;;;;;;;';;;r"r.

The.maximum compressive stress at the point under consideration is qrven by the greater of the following two values:

S.(max)
oI'

w 48M PD _--L = nDt -+- nD2t 4t

(l)

'SME and It appears that extemal pressure will control the compressive stress (2) equations by shown is int.'JJ pt"ttu." *ill control the tensile stress as the above equations' the following rela-O i:) i"tp""tin"fv. Rearranging
tionships for thickness can be established: For extemallY Pressured vessels:

w J. rmax):

The maximum compressive shess must be less than S., the maximum -'--" allowable compressive stress,which can be computed ?"ffo*.,
1. Calculate the value of A using th formula

48M Pl) +__-s_ nDt 4t -+ TD2t ^

(2)

zrD S.

15.3

M
S.

P.D 45.

(5)

D,

Similady for intemally pressured vessels:

'

15.3M PD U S,A 4SP

w nD S,E'

(6)

A=

0.125

/ (R"/ t)

to the calculated Corrosion allowance, if any desired, should be added thickness' thickness in order to get the total minimum required

ture line.

chan in Appendix 5 of ASME code 1 section vrr, Rl",:i,ifol'::9h ulvrslon I at the value of A. Move vertically to the applicable tempera_
the intersection move horizontally to the right and read the value

NOMENCLATURE
Rctor for extemal pressure design from ASME Code Section VIII '

3. From
of B.

Division I

Section Factor for extemal pressure design from ASME Code

VIII'

Division I
D
F

The value ofS" will be equal to.B. The allowable compressive stress, S^, can app.::xiTlted by-using the following relatio;rlrtp ;, lso-be by Brownell and Youns2:

;;;#il.

Outside diameter of vessel at point under consideration, in' Joint efficiency ftMornent due to wind or earthquake at point under consideration'

lb

318

319

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

P" Pi R" S" S,

Extemal design pressure, psi

Intemal design prcssure, psi Outside radius of vessel at point under consideration, in. Maximum allowable compressive stress for vessel material at

design temperature, psi S"(max) Maximum compressive stress in vessel at the point under consideration, psi Maximum allowable tensile stress for vessel material at design temperature, psi Sr(max) Maximum tensile stress in vessel at the point under consideration, psi Corroded thickness of vessel at point under consideration, in. Empty weight of vessel at point under consideration, lb Yield stress of vessel material at design temperatue, psi

APPENDIX 3 Derivation of Formulas for Anchor Bolt Chair Design for Large Vertical Vesselsl'z
1; Base Plate Thickness The bottom part of the tower skirt is provided with a plate sufficiently wide for disnibuting direct loads to the supporting beams or concrcte foundation as sho\Mn in Figurc

t W Yp

l.

RETERENCES
1. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII. "Pressure Vessels," Division 1, ASME, New York, N.Y, 1983.

4
II

2. Brownell, L.E., and E.H. Young, "Ptocess Equipment Design," First Corrected Printing, John Wiely and Sons, Inc., April 1968.

OF TOWER SKIRT FIG. I. DISTRIBUIION OF R)RCES ON TI{E BOT'IOM

load at the base The total compressive load acting on the base ring is the skirt and is given bY:

ws=

rz(M)

n D2 rD

y" :

4UM)

+w" trD2 rD

bearing area Assuming that the load is uniformly distibuted over its entire unit length of a (if seleting any)' for anchor bolt lugs tut *lttt no as: "i"ai "n be expressed can foundation base plate, the bearing pressue on concrcte

f=+
D

320

321

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

ANCHOR BOUT CHAIR DESICN

The value of/should be limited to 750 psi for 3000Ib concrere and 500 psr for 2000 lb concrete. The width of vessel base ring, D, should be modified until bearing pressure, falls within allorrvable lirnits.

a. Chalr

The beam in this case is considered as simply supported at the ends, in which case.

ltpe

Comprecslon Plate

Now, the base ring is trealed as a cantilever beam of span c, subjected 0o.the uniformly distributed bearing pressure/ The maximum bending moment for such a beam occurs at the junction of the skirt and base ring for unit circumferential length = I inch) and is equal to:

w.d d

(l

where

gusset spacing, inches

M*
I'et tB be the
base

= tlc

.c. fc

(for /

= l)
an

be the compression plate thickness, the maximumbending stress in the beam is given bY:

Lt

tr

ring thickness, the maximum bending stress in

\--Substituting for

elemental snip of unit width is given by:

't2 6

"^= iw
Rearranging, we get:

M^",

3fc
,2

(for

I = l)

M--

ftom above' we get 6 W.d


2

.S=-or'4: t^.

rB-L

b. Continuous Ring Tlpe Compression Plate The formula for determining this thickness can be derived in the

same

fashion as explained above, with the exception that the beam in this case can be considered as fixed at the ends because ofcontinuous ring. Therefore, in

Where S,'o, should be limited to 20,000 psi maximum.

this

case

2. Compression Plate Thicknes


Compression plate design is optional . Either chairs or complete lug ring may

M-*=;

w.d

be used. Such a ring is preferred when the spacing of external chairs becomes so small that the compression plates approach a continuous ring.
As in the case of the compression plate, the maximum load on a continuous compression ring occurs on the upwind side of the vertical vessel where the reaction of the bolts produces a compression load on the ring. This load produces a bending stess in the compression ring. As in the case of external chairs, the vertical gusset plates hansfer this compression load to the base plate.

Now

" -

M* = c t,2
6

3u'-4
4r
t,2

Rearranging, we get

In determining the thicknesses of these plates, the assumption is made that each section of the plate acts as a beam between two gusset plates with the bolt load acting as a concentrated load in the center. The thickness formulas for both types of compression plates are derived below.

the maximum allorrable bending stress in either tyPe of The value of compression plate, should not exceed 20'000 psi.

S*,

322

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

ANCHOR BOLT CHAIR DESIGN

As can be seen from the design formulas, the top plate of chair type lugs must be approximately 1.4 times as thick as a complite lug ring. ftiil i, Ou" to fixed-end beam action occuring in the co-ptete iug rlng"type-a, ."r".aO wrm slmple beam action for the chair olate.

bolt will.bc Assuming that the number o[ bolts is represented by N' each reprcsented required io carry the stress over the portion ofthe circumference
as

follols:
TB"

3. Designing Foundation Bolts


The thickness of shell plate required to resist the bending moment onlv. is:

',_48M trD2S,
By.multiplying-the shess. S,, in psi by the shell thickness, r, rhe stress Incn oI cficun erence is obtained as follows:
Der

Thus, the load to be carried by each bolt can be expressed as:

nB, 1 a8M _ % \= u, rtR-_ t \


N nB.z
TB.
Thus, the bolt area required at root of thread is,

N NB. -wE

48M

48M

'

ttD2

^ -w" ^r_ Sa
be adequate The bolt of area equal to or greater than A, should -However' bolt is made in order of anchor size determined in in"rease smalt iormaly a

The foundation or anchor bolts for a self-supporting tower are required to resist the overtuming moment, M, resulting irom ti" *inO pr"rrii" uft", allowance has been made for the resistanci offered by tf,. '*"igit tower._Obviously the resistance offered by the tower,s weigtrr is tJast "iif," eifec_ tive wher the-minimum weight is acting. The anchor boltJsnoutO thereior" De calcutated lor the condition existing when the tower is empty and without insulation, platforms, erc. This weight will be designateJ i;;

to allow for corosion.

i;

"

NOMENCLATURE
^B b

In order to determine the bolt stress, bolt circle B. can be substituted in place of D in the above equation. The stress per inch of bolt can then be written:

circle;;";;;;"

B"
c

Bolt area required at root of thread, in Width of vessel base ring' in. Bolt circle diameter, in.

of base Distance between the outside of vessel skirt to the outside

n(8.)2
tower is,
The compressive stress per inch of circumference due to the weight of the

fI

d D

wE

M M,,_,
s8

anchor bolts is,

1".:1lll

tensile srress

n",

,Jl

Dlate. in. busset spacing, in. Outside diameter of vessel skirt. in' Bearing pressure on concrete foundation' psi Circumferential length of the skirt' in' Overtuming moment at the skirt base, ft-lb Maximum bending moment at the base ring' inJb Number of foundation bolts psi maxAllowable bolt stress, psi (should be limited to 15,000 imum)

"

",.."*"rence

to be resisted by

s^(
t
tB

Maximum bending stress in the base ring. psi Maximum allowable tensile stress for vessel material at design
temperature, psl in' Sheil plate thickness required to resist bending moment only' Base ring thickness, in.

n(B)2

-Wt TB"

324

325

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUTPMENT

t, b" WB WE W" W" l

rernoved)

Thickness of continuous ring type compression plate, in. Thickness of chair type compression plate, in. ^ Maximum tensile load per Uolt, Empty weight of vessel, lb (for vessels with removable trays the empty weight should be determined assuming all the trays are

tU

Operating weight of vessel, lb Compressive load at the base ring, lb/linear inch of circumference

REFERENCES
Brownell, L. 8., and E. H. young, .,process Equipment Design,. First Corrected Printing, John Wiely and Sons, tnc., ,Lprit 196g."Foundation Design Handbook for Stacks and Towers ,, Peholeum Refiner Supplement, Vot. 37, No. 5, Mav 195g.
O. ,

APPENDIX 4 Derivation of TEMA1 Equation for Non'Fixed Thbesheet Thickness or ASME Equation for Flat Unstayed Circular Heads in Bending
1. ASME Equation
a. Without Edge Bolting

2. Marshall, V.

FIG. 1. INTERNAL PRESSIJRB LOADINC ON FLAT CIRCLILAR PLATE

I-et G be the inside diameter of the shell or the diameter of gasket load
reaction whichever is applicable and P be the intemal pressure on the plate. The tubesheet or flat cover is a flat circular plate of constant thickness with a

uniformly distributed load of P throughout.


From the 5th Edition of Roark3, Table 24, Case 10a (simply supported)' the maximum unit bending moment at the center due to intemal pressur, 4 is

given by:

/G\t t3 + ul M^^=p \r) ,6


Foisson's ratio for tubesheet or cover material

where

v=

Now. let

t:

thickness of tubesheet or cover

Bendine Stess S

6M*
Section modulus,

/bc\ t-, \6 /

a
(using unit width)

326

327

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUTPMENT

NON.FTXED TUBESH EET THICKNESS

Plugging for

M-o, from above, we get 6PG2(3


vl

and thus, the resulting equation for thickness becomes'

- = -----ll-:- + J

or, [; t:_
=

tz =

6PG2(3 + v)
645',

t=G

.3P

.3(6.2)WG

:G

Vs For ASME formula, ter i9ll


64

t=G

For initial gasket seating,

P = 0, thus

"

then

t=

CP

t:G
2. TEMA Equation
a. Without Edge Bofting
For TEMA formula.

tt.sw
sG,

b. With Edge Bolting


bolting pressure for fixed tubesheets proouced by edge moment when tubesheets are extended for boltins. TEMA's expression can be derived as follows:
For a uniform pressure on a circular plate of diameter, G, the unit bending moment at the center is:
TEIv.IA

hL

an ex_nression for equivalent

let

tubesheet thickness multiplier based on, wall thickness / I.D. Ratio' tor integral vessel or gasketed tubesheet thickness multiplier for gasketed vessel (generally F = l 0 for floating head and fixed tubesheet exchangers and is equal to 1.25 for U-tube exchangers).

,","=#(3+v)G2
for,

Thus TEMA formula becornes,

v=

0.28,

M^",

0,0512

pd
edge

No%

il

at the edge.

moment, the unit moment at the center should be eqiaied to th. unit morn-en,

grder.to calculate the equivalent bolting pressure due to

'=TVi
The same formula is used for fixed tubesheet thickness, wittr or without edge bolting, except P in that case, is the effective design pressure as derived in

FG IP

TEMA. b. Wth Fdge Bolting

For a total moment, M, the unit edge moment rs

M*=

+
?TU

or,

o.o5r2

pG2:
6.2 M
F2 G3

L
ttG

o!

M
G3

FG
2

V;

lF*

erM
F,
s6p-

Introducing the factor,

per TEMA, we have

Floating head exchangers


Plug

1.0, we get

t=G
U-tube xchangers
Plug

.25P

1.55

For ASME bolted channel cover or blind flange with edge bolting,

-+---:-

C=.3 M:Whc F=1

f' =

1.25, we get

t=G

328

329

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

NON.FIXED TUBESHEET THICKNESS

Edge moment needs not be considered when the tubesheet is sandwiched betwen flanges.

W u
I

TEMA recommends this equivalent bolting pressure for bolted fixed tubesheets only where the maximum value of F does not exceed.1.0. Horveve4 there is no mention of value ofF to calculate equivalent bolting pressure for U-tube exchangen. IfF = 1.0 is used then the equation for thickness of the tubesheet for U-tube exchangers with edge bolting will be:

Flange design bolt load for the operating condition or Sasket seating' as may apply, lb Poisson's ratio for tubesheet or cover material

REFERENCES
. Standads
of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, 6th Edition'

1978. New York.

t=G

2.42

sG3

2. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VUI, "Pressure Vessels." Division 1, ASME, New York, N'Y', 1983' Fifth 3. Roark, R. J., and W. C' Young, "Formulas for Stress and Strain," 1975. Company, Book McGraw-Hill Edition,

However, for simplicity, it is recommended that the effect of edge bolting can be made the same for the flat cover equation of ASME, thus ive tave;

wi

Floating head exchangers

t:G
U-tube exchangers

'.25P

1.9

t:G

t39P

1.9

NOMENCLATURE
b
C

Unit width of the tubesheet, in. factor for flat heads depending upon the type of attachment,

F
G
hG

M M",",
P

dimensionless (see UG-34 of ASME Code) Ttrbesheet constant Mean diarneter of gasket at tubesheet, in. Radial distance from gasket load reaction to the bolt circle, in. Tolal moment mting upon the flange for the gasket seating, in-lb Maximum unit bending moment at the tubesheet due to intemal design pressure, inlb/in. of mean gasket circumference Iniernal design pressure, psi Code allowable tensile stress for tubesheet material at design tem_ peratue, psi Effective tubesheet thickness. in.

330

331

APPENDIX 5 Derivation of TEMA1 Equation for Pressure due to Differential lhermal Expansion for Fixed lbbesheets
Consider a fixed tubesheet exchanger without o9ansion joint and a non-

deflecting, i.e. a tully rigid, tubesheet'


The differential thermal expansion between tubes and shell can be expressed
as:

41 = (o"e,
c" O' =

- qe)

wherE, exPansion of shell

and,

c, O. = olpansion of tubes
Let e- and e, be the srains in the shell and tubes respectively. Notr, since the tubes are secued to the shell through tubesheets, therefore the total elongation of shell will be equal to th total elongaton of [tbes or
cr" O"+

s" = c, Or+ e,

(l)

The strains can be exPressed as

Er

P,
A" E"

and,

-Pz A, E,
Norr, for equilibrium
or'

Pt

* Pr=

(no unbalanced forces)

Pr=-Pz
JJJ

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

PRESSURE ON FIXED TUBESHEETS

Then, Equation

(l)

can be rewritten as,

o-e-+A: AE.
Substituting

a.

e- +

Pz

This is the exact derivation for Pr, however, TEMA has simplified the above exprcssion by showing that the assumption

A, L,

Pr

: -

Pz, we get

t"(D"-t) _ (D" - u)2


P'

t"

(D"

3t")

: o,g, +
or,

does not make significant difference in results.

A, E,

Making the above substitution and introducing factor,/ and F4 in Equation (4), we get
l"=

cr"

o"

cr"

cr,

o,

o!
O"

= :+ A,E,
o' O,

*
-

:+ A" E,
e"

e')

^ '

4J E,rs(a"e"

- a,e,) (D"-3t")(r+JKFq)

e,

which is the same as the TEMA equation. When there is no expansion joint,/ = l, and when the tubesheet is rigid, Fq = | .

Force

P,
4

can be expressed as uniform pressure, Pd, over an area of

tr (D-

- 2t.)z

^-

NOMENCLATURE P,

: Pol

lD"

2t")z

Also, the shell cross-sectional area, A,, can be expressed as: A" : qt" (D" -t)
And tube cross-sectional area is given by, A,= rN /, (d" -

A" At d"

Cross-sectional area-of the shell, in.2 Cross-sectional area of the tubes, in.2

D"
E" E,

t)
P, dD^ - 2r ))2 4i E" t" (Do - t")

Fq
,I

Substituting for Pr, A", and A, in Equation (2), we get


ta .f\ -

*/^ - 2t)2 'd "\so 4nN E, t, (d. - t,)


D
P" (D^ - 2t"\2 4E" t" (D" - rr) t-\

K N
Pr
P2

Simplifying the above equation, we get

Pd

(c-g--c.e,)=-

E-t-0- t-eta=K N Ettr(d" - t)

N E, tt G" - t)
t")

E" t- (D-

t"

0r c,

e"

Substituting r( and solving F4uation (3) for

P"

we have

e,
EJ

'= ".

r"

(D"

- t)44(a, o" (D"

c,O,)

Et

2t")2 (1

+ r0

(4)

A1

Outside diameter of tubes, in. Outside diameter of shell, in. Elastic modulus of shell material at mean metal temperaturc, psi Elastic modulus of tube material at mean metal temperature, psi lbbesheet flexibility factor per TEMA Expansion joint factor per TEMA Factor per TEMA Total number of tubes in shell Longitudinal force on shell, lb Longitudinal force on tubes, lb Pressure due to differential thermal expansion. psi Shell wall thickness, in. Ttrbe wall thickness, in. Coefficient of thermal expansion of shell, in./in."F Coefficient of thermal expansion of tubes, in./in."F Shell mean metal temperature less 70"F Thbe mean metal temperature less 707 Snain in shell, in./in. of shell length Strain in tubes, in./in. of tube length Differential thermal expansion between tubes and shell, in./in.

334

335

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

REFERENCES

l.

Standards of lirbular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, 6th Edition,

1978, New York.

APPENDIX 6 Derivation of TEMAr Equation for Flat Channel Cover lhickness


The equation in TEMA is based on the maximum allorvable deflection of 7rz inches. The effect of both the intemal pressure and the edge moment due to bolt load is taken into account.

Deflection due to Internal kessure

FIG. I. INTERNAL PR.BSSIJRE I,OADINC ON FLAT CHANNEL COVER

Lt G be the diameter of gasket load raction and P be the uniform intemal prcssure on the plate.
From the 5th Edition ofRoark2, Table 24, Case 10a (simply supported)' the maximum deflection due to the unifonnly distributed load, P, at the center

will

be:

y" =

.Gj Ptj)

(5+u)

& E(t)3 l2(1 - vz)


256 E(ter3

n+y)

_3PGa(l-v)(5+v\
According to Appendix S of ASME Section VIII, Division 13, the maximum bolt stress anained due to manual bolt tighteligg will be,

sB

45

'm l\/dB

336

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

FI.AT CHANNEL COVER THICKNESS

which gives,
therefore, total edge

w=Aa(s,MDt/ia

l_l \2 t
3

Gr

3MG2(l

v)

-o.*, ", : un *u"_


VE
=M
load Au (45,0W)
hG

lt(r-;t
=
AaSr.
%z inch for Ynn' we get

28ft

(r +

E(t

') :
l44rc where

The unit

moment

The total edge moment due to bolt load

= M.

W the total

_ Mr

_ ttG
h"

t/d t"c)
(G2)

Allowing

Thus, the deflection due to edge moment becomes,


3AB (45,000)

1.98hcAB .98 hG A ( G \_

\tr
- l:-

\r^^/100

2hcAB ./:

Vd"

('-'J

(1

v)

\f$, 1nq
for,

zn1t,1t

v=.28
E=
25 (10)6 psi

2 hc AB rstl"' u= fl-ff 1:i)'l


pressure as well The total channel cover thickness to resist the intemal is, load edge moment due to bolt
as

we have,

3ds (45,000) hc

ol

t/$

1"1212s1

G) (72) tw 6,1

, = tp +

tM

=ls.lp

Zh.A, t G \1t13 * $*, ffi t,oo4 ,cra


above

v" =
For we have,

3PG4

(l -

v)(5 + r)

the In order to incorporate 1982 supplement to TEMA' multiply


equation

,s6 Ey,

by r25(10)6lt/3.

v:0.28
y" =
E=
25 (10)6 psi
Vtz

LEI

we eet

inch

f ,=L,

1.425(G)4

P , 0.5 ft,: A" (10)6-lr/3

t-E\/h I

'"

f =

rco

(.72) (5.28)

,s6 (r5)

tor

32 I r/r
AB
-.l

NOMENCLATIJRE
Total cross-sectional area of bolts, in.2
dB

Nominal bolt diameter, in'

| | c =Ls?P\

\o1"'

E
G

roo/I

hc M
MT P
sB
T

psi' Elastic modulus of the cover maierial at the design temperature, in. gasket diameter, Mean Radial-distance between mean gasket diameter and bolt circle, in' Unit edge moment due to bolt load, inlb/in. of mean gasket circumference' Total edge moment due to bolt load' in-lb Design pressure, Psi Maxinum bolt stress attained due to manual bolt tightening' psi Total channel cover thickness, in.

Deflection due to Edge Moment Resulting from the Bolt Load Deflection at the center of the flat circular plate due to edge moment is,

338

339

DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT

w
YM Yp

Channel cover thickness due to edge moment, in. Channel cover thickness due to intemal pressure, in. Total bolt load, lb Maximum channel cover deflection due to edge moment, in. Maximum channel cover deflection due to intemal pressure, in. Poisson ratio for cover materia-

RDFERENCES
1. Standards of

'Ibbular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, 6th Rlition,

APPENDIX 7 Derivation of Formula for Calculating Nlowable Buckling Stress in Tall Cylindrical Towers
uniforrnly compressed in the axial direction, buckling value of the load' The critical unit compressive critical will occur at a certain bYr: stress is given theoreticallY If a cylindrical shell
is

1978, New York.

Roark, R. J., and W. C. Young, "Formulas for Stress and Strain," Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1975.
3. ASME Boiler and hessure Vessel Code, Section VIII, "hessure Vessels," Division 1, ASME, New York, N.Y, 1983.

Et

,\,{r

_;t

However. theoretical formula should only be applied to very thin shells where buckling due to axial compression occurs within the elastic range' Experiments with very thin cylindrical shells under axial pressure showed tttat in at cases failure occurred at a shess much lower than the theory predicts. ln not one case was the ultimate stress more than 607o of the theoretical. The ratio of the ultimate stress to the theoretical decreases as the ratio r / t increases, i.e., the discrepancy between experiment and theory is larger for thinner shells.
To explain this discrepancy, L. H. Donnel2 advanced a theory which takes into account the initial displacernents from the ideal cylindrical surface and investigates bending of the shell due to this initial imperfection assuming that deflections are not small. He also assumed that the shells collapse when yielding of the material begins. Taking initial displacement in the form of waves of equal length in the axial and circumferential directions in combina-

tion with waves oi buckling symmetrical with respect to the

Vtz(t found that the ultimate load fora given value ofthe ratio, E/ can be presented as a function of the radius thickness ratio' r / t'

Tlr-8ryL - 'z)

On the basis of the existing experimental data, Donnel developed an empiri-

cal formula for calculating the ultimate strength of cylindrical shells under axial compression. This formula takes into consideration the ratios r / randE / and gives ultimate buckling stress as:

3N

341

DESIGN OF PR@ESS EQUIPMENT

"

[o'u l-t'oY'
I + 0.004

;l E,
,)

(l+

.N4 E rY)

TNDEX

Neglecting the second tern in the numerator since it's very small compared to .the first term, and using a factor of safety of 2. 14, we get the expression for allo$'able bucklins stress as:

s=

"

E+A
.oME tY)

Air coolers
steam

accessories

(t +

fan. 288 plenum, 288

.56tE d(r + .w4E tY)

coil, 288

extruded finned, 284 hot dipped solder bonded finned, 285 single footed tension wrapped

structure.288

finned,284
tension wrapped embedded finned,

Air cooler's cover plate design, 302


flange design, 302

Air cooler's

headers, design, 290 without partition or stiffener, 29'l

NOMENCLATURE
d Intemal lower diameter, in.
Modulus of elasticity of tower material at operating temperarure , psi . lntmal radius of tower, in. Allowable buckling stress for iower material, psi. Tower plate thickness, in. Yield point stress of lower material at operating temperatue, psi. Theoretical value of compressive stress, psi. Ultimaie buckling stress of tower, psi. Poisson ratio of to\ver material

with single partition or stiffener,


293

with two or more partitions and/or


stiffener, 295

Air coolers

headers, ty'pes

s t oo
cuk

billet type, 287


cover plate type, 286

284 Allowable shell buckling stress, 242 Allowable stress in flange design in hub of tapered flange, 83 in loose type flange, 83 radial in ring of flange, 83 tangential in ring of flange, 83 Allowable stress in flanged and flued expansion joints
defection stress, 174
pressure stress, 173

manifold type, 287 plug type, 286

total sfiess, 174

AL cooled

heat exchangers, types

induced draft, 281 forced draft. 282 Air coolers tubes, types

Allowable stress in pipe segment expansion joints deflection stress, 189


pressure stress, 189

REFERENCF^S
1. Timoshenko, S., "Theory of Elastic Stability," McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York, N.Y., 1936.

bare,283
double footed tension wrapped

total shess, 189 Anchor bolt chair for support of tall


stacks, 243

finned,285
edge wound tension wrapped finned. 285

derivation of formulas. 321

2. Donnel, L. H., "Results of Experirnents with Very Thin Cylindrical Shells Under Axial Plessure," ASME Tlans., Yol. 56, 1934.
342

ASME Code

lNl)l1X

tNt)tix
flange design, 59 types of circular flanges, 60,61,62 Checking strength ol'lcg support, 215
Class B heat exchanger, definition,

du( lo (lill.rctltilll llx)\crlrclll. l 7duc t0 intcrnal Prossulc, 172


Flat channel cover thickness' derivation of formula, 337 Floa(lng neao
example design, 153 resultant stress, 150,151, 152 Floating head, shess analysis due io extemal Pressure, 150 due to intemal Pressure, 149 Rrndamental frequencY of stack

llcirt cxclrunScr. lunctlons

chillcr,9
condenseq

l0
10

ASME Section VIII, Division Two


applications, 231 comparison to Division One, 230 design criteria, 228

2l
Class C heat exchanger, definition,

cooler, l0

final condenser,

2l
Class R heat exchanger, definition,

introduction, 228 limitations, 231

2l
Concrete, allowable compressive
stress, 244

forced circulation reboiler, exchanger, 10 heater, l0 partial condenser, l0

l0

B class heat exchanger, definition,


Baffles, types
disc and doughnut, 25,26

21

reboiler, l0 steam generatot


vaporizer, I I

ll
l0

orifice,26
segmental,24
Base plate design for leg supPort,

Damping, definition, 236 Damping of excessive vibration, 262 Design of external bolting chairs for
stack support, 243 Dimensions of steel pipe, 22

vibration,238
Gaskets

superheater, 11 thermosiPhon reboiler,

contact facings, 64,65 factors, table for, 64,65

2r9
Bracing of leg supPolt, 219 Bolt data, table, 70

Dynamic wind design for tall stacks,


244 Earthquake forces for vessels with braced legs, 214 Earthquake forces for vessels with unbraced legs, 211 Exchanger (see heat exchanger)

material,64,65 seating force, 63


seating stless, 64,65 seating width, 66,67 Heat exchange! definition, 9 Heat exchangeq shell and tube

waste heat boiler, I I Hub flange rotatton due to initial bolt tightening,

135

Bolt load, design, 69 Bolt spacing, maximum, 69


Bottom plate design lor rectangular tat|,ks,214 Buckling of towers, derivation of

due to intemal Pressure, 136 due to unequal radial exPansion ot the flange and shell, 138 methods oi reduction, 139,140

Hub of flange, ProPortioning, 69

formula,34l
C class heat exchanger, definition, 2l Calculation forms for flange design with full face gasket, 132
lap joint independent ring tYPe, 124 slip on independent ring tYPe, 120 slip on or lap joint independent

hub type, 128 weld neck dependent type, 114 weld neck independent tyPe, 116 weld neck with rib area, 112 Calculation forms for flange MAWP
lap joint independent ring 126
tYPe,

fhcings, for gaskets, 64,65 Fixed tubesheet design miller's method, 161 Flange, ASME circular types integral,60,62 Loose,60,62 optional, 61,62 Flange design, ASME method deficiencies, 133 with full face gaskets, 106
Flange sfiesses, maximum axial hub stress, 83 radial ring stress, 83 tangential ring stress, 83 Flanged and flued expansion joints, allowable stress deflection stress, 174 pressure stress, 173 total stress, 174
Flanged and flued expanison joints, stress analysis

classification fixed{ubesheet tYPe, 17 floating-head tYPe, 18 inside iPlit backing-ring tYPe, l9 outside-Packed lantem nng lYPe'
outside-Packed stuffing box tYPe,
18

lntegral flange
example design, 86 Inrernal pressure formulas. derivation

ol

313

l8

Le'g support, design for

Heal exchanger. shell and tube design

pulhhrough bundle tYPe, U-tube, 17


ExamPle

19

uxial loading, 215 combined loading, 216 eccentric loading, 215 wind or earthquake loading,
216 Leg suppoil for vcrtical vessels 20T Lu-g rupp.,n for |ertical vessels' 195 Map of seismic zones.
2

l,

ExamPle 2, Heat ex&angel shell and tube

28 51

fabdcation

l2

baffles, 24
duplex tubes, 25'26

Map of wind Pressures, 208

slip on independent ring tYPe, 122 slip on or laP joint independent


hub type,
130

ferrules, 27
flanges, 23 shells, 21
tube rolling, 27

Maximum allowable working pressure for flanges, 100 Miller's met[od for fixed tubesheet design, 161
Mode shapes for cantilevered

weld neck independent tYPe, 118 Calculation form for ring tYPe expansion joint design, 182

tubes, 25

tubesheet and tube hole Pattem' 24

cylinder,236

345

344

INDEX Natural frequency of vibration, 260 Nomenclature of heat exchanger components, 14


Pass

Seismic forces for stacks, 237 Seismic zone map of the United

States,2l2
Selection of approximate leg size,

rib area in flange design,


84,85,86

2r0
Stack frequency, affecting factors

Period of vibration, 235 Pipe segment expansion joints,

gunite lining, 240


base flexibility, 240 Standard flange specifications, 59,60 Stress analysis, of floating heads due to extemal pressure, 150 due to internal pressure, 149 Stress in vertical vessel due to lug support, 198

allowable stress deflection sffess, 189 pressure stress, 189 total stress, 189
Pipe segment expansion joints. stress analysis due to differential movement, 186 due to intemal pressure, 186

Thickness of towers, derivation of

R class heat exchanger definition,


Rectangular tank design without stiffeners, 268 with top edge stiffener 269

2l

formulas, 317 Tubsheet, derivation of equation,


327 15

,333

Type designation of heat exchangers,

with horizontal stiffeners, 271 with vertical stiffenen, 272 Restrictions on using leg support,
219
Resultant stress

in floating head, 150,151,152 Ring expansion joint, types flanged and flued head, 170 flanged only head, 170 flat plated with ring, 169 Ring flange example design, 97 Rotation of hub flange
due to initial bolt tightening, 135 due to intemal pressure, 136 due to unequal radial expansion of the flange and shell, 138 methods of reduction, 139,140

Vibration analysis of tall stacks or towe$ Cantilever v ibrznon, 246,259 ovaling vibration, 249 Von Karman vortex street for a stack,
244 Vortex Shedding on a stack, 245

Wind forces for stacks, 233 Wind forces for vessels with braced legs, 214

with unbraced legs, 207


Wind pressure map of the United
States,208

Wind pressures as functions of height


above ground, 209

346