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I.L. Kolesnikova, .A.

Dolgina

A Handbook
of English-Russian Terminology
for Language Teaching

CAMBRIDGE
UNIVERSITY PRESS
Russian Baltic Information Center
BLITZ
St. Petersburg
2001

.. , ..

-



-




CAMBRIDGE
UNIVERSITY PRESS
-

-
2001

81374.822
81.2-4-923 60

The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the


British Council in the development of this project

,

1, 2, .. ,
3,4,6 ..

.., ..

- . .: - - ", Cambridge University Press, 2001 . 224 .


ISBN 5-86789-143-7
,
.
, , , .

81.2-4-923
ISBN 5-86789-143-7
Cambridge University Press, 2001 Published by the Press
Syndicate of the University of Cambridge

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191011, -, ., . 3


........................................................................................................................ 11
.................................................................................................................... 13

1. Language teaching: methods and approaches


:
...............................................................................................................................18
1.1. GENERAL CONCEPTS
Approh........................................................................................................................,...........20
Method......................................................................................................................................21
Principle...................................................................................................................................23
1.2. LANGUAGE TEACHING APPROACHES

Behaviourism / Behaviourist approach...............................................................................24
Cognitivism / Cognitive approach........................................................................................25
Humanistic approach...............................................................................................................28
Communicative approach........................................................................................................29
Learner-centred approach...................................................................................................... 31
Whole language approach / Gestalt style / Global learning / Holistic approach /
Top-down approach........................................................................................................... 33
Product-oriented approach ................................................................................................... 33
Process-oriented approach......................................................................................................34
Deductive approach us. Inductive approach..........................................................................34
Structural approach / Grammatical approach.................................................................... 35
Lexical approach.............................................................................................,...................... 36
Eclecticism.............................................................................................................................. 37
Integrated approach .............................................................................................................. 37
Comprehension approach........................................................................................................38
1.3. LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS: HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
:
Grammar-translation method.................................................................................................38
Direct method ........................................................................................................................ 39
Audiolingualism /Audiolingual method / Mim-mem method..........................................41
Audiovisual method / Structural-global method ...............................................................42
Situational language teaching (SLT) / The oral approach..................................................43
Natural method........................................................................................................................45
Natural approach.....................................................................................................................45
Communicative method / Communicative language teaching (CLT).................................48
1.4. FRINGE / ALTERNATIVE METHODS
()
Community language learning (CLL) / Counselling learning............................................49
Suggestopedia / Lozanov method........................................................................................ 50

The silent way.....................................................................................................................52


Total physical response (TPR)........................................................................................... 53
1.5. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN LANGUAGE TEACHING

Computer assisted language learning (CALL).................................................................. 55


Consciousness-raising approach (CRA) ........................................................................... 57
Data-driven learning (DDL) ............................................................................................. 59
Task-based learning (TBL)................................................................................................ 61

2. Syllabus design and curriculum development



......................................................................................................................... 63
2.1. GENERAL CONCEPTS
Curriculum......................................................................................................................... 65
National Curriculum.......................................................................................................... 66
Course................................................................................................................................. 67
Programme ........................................................................................................................ 67
Course design / Programme design...................................................................................68
Syllabus................................................................................................................................68
Syllabus design................................................................................................................... 69
Threshold level................................................................................................................... 70
Subject................................................................................................................................ 71
Unit..................................................................................................................................... 71
2.2. SYLLABUS DESIGN PROCEDURES

Needs analysis.....................................................................................................................
72
Aims ...................................................................................................................................73
Objectives.............................................................................................................................74
Performance objectives / Behavioural objectives / Instructional objectives................ 75
Graded objectives................................................................................................................ 76
Process objectives vs. Product objectives......................................................................... 76
Content............................................................................................................................... 77
Ordering / Sequencing......................................................................................................78
Grading............................................................................................................................... 79
2.3. APPROACHES SYLLABUS DESIGN

Approach to syllabus design.............................................................................................. 79


Synthetic approach..............................................................................................................80
Analytic approach...............................................................................................................80
Functional approach / Notional-functional approach......................................................81
2.4. TYPES OF SYLLABUS
Type of syllabus...................................................................................................................82
A priori syllabus vs. A posteriori syllabus........................................................................83
Negotiated syllabus.............................................................................................................83
Learning-centred syllabus ..................................................................................................83
Skills-centred syllabus........................................................................................................84
Content-based syllabus........................................................................................................84
Functional syllabus / Notional-functional syllabus (NFS)..............................................85
Lexical syllabus...................................................................................................................86
Structural syllabus / Grammatical syllabus / Language-centred syllabus ...................86
Task-based syllabus / Procedural syllabus ......................................................................86


2.5. FORMS OF SYLLABUS ORGANISATION

Linear syllabus .............................................................................................................................87


Modular syllabus...........................................................................................................................87
Spiral syllabus / Cyclical syllabus ..........................................................................................87

3. Teaching language skills



.....................................................................................................................................88
3.1. GENERAL CONCEPTS
Skills ............................................................................................................................................. 90
Integrated skills ......................................................................................................................... 91
Receptive skills............................................................................................................................ 91
Top-down reading, top-down listening .....................................................................................92
Bottom-up reading, bottom-up listening................................................................................... 93
Productive skills.......................................................................................................................... 93
Background knowledge ...............................................................................................................94
Study skills.................................................................................................................................... 94
3.2. TEACHING READING SKILLS
Reading......................................................................................................................................... 95
Guided reading............................................................................................................................ 96
Intensive reading ........................................................................................................................ 97
Extensive reading ....................................................................................................................... 97
Reading aloud / Oral reading..................................................................................................98
Communicative reading / Fluent reading .............................................................................98
Scanning........................................................................................................................................ 99
Skimming / Skim reading / Reading for gist ..................................................................100
Reading for detailed comprehension.....................................................................................100
Critical reading..........................................................................................................................101
3.3. TEACHING LISTENING SKILLS
Listening / Listening comprehension..................................................................................101
Guided listening ........................................................................................................................102
Communicative listening...........................................................................................................102
Skim listening / Listening for gist......................................................................................103
Listening for detailed comprehension...................................................................................103
Listening for partial comprehension / Selective listening................................................104
Critical listening........................................................................................................................104
Interactional listening / Conversational listening / Reciprocal listening ....................104
Listening to interaction ..........................................................................................................104
Transactional listening / Non-interactional listening.......................................................105
Academic listening / Listening to lectures .......................................................................105
3.4. TEACHING SPEAKING SKILLS
Speaking.......................................................................................................................................106
Speaking turn............................................................................................................................107
Turn-taking.................................................................................................................................107
Short turn vs. Long turn.........................................................................................................108
Interactional speech .................................................................................................................108
Transactional speech ................................................................................................................109
3.5. TEACHING WRITING SKILLS
Writing........................................................................................................................................ 110
Types of writing.........................................................................................................................111
Study writing / Academic writing .......................................................................................113

Note-taking, note-making .........................................................................................................114


Summarizing...............................................................................................................................114
Composing ..................................................................................................................................115
Fast writing / Automatic writing ........................................................................................115
Product-oriented writing / Genre-based writing................................................................116
Process-oriented writing..........................................................................................................117

4. Language teaching / learning activities



.................................................................................................................................. 119
4.1. GENERAL CONCEPTS
Exercise........................................................................................................................................121
Activity........................................................................................................................................121
Task.............................................................................................................................................. 123
Technique.................................................................................................................................... 124
Procedures................................................................................................................................... 126
Open-ended activities vs. Closed activities...........................................................................126
Lead-in activities ......................................................................................................................127
Warm-up activities / Tune-in activities...............................................................................127
4.2.

LANGUAGE TEACHING TECHNIQUES


Classifying / Organizing .......................................................................................................128


Drama.......................................................................................................................................... 128
Eliciting / Elicitation..............................................................................................................129
Information gap......................................................................................................................... 130
Questioning................................................................................................................................. 130
Reconstruction / Restoration.................................................................................................132
Word association ......................................................................................................................133
4.3. PRACTICE ACTIVITIES

Completion...................................................................................................................................133
Consciousness-raising activities.............................................................................................134
Drill.............................................................................................................................................. 135
Expansion.................................................................................................................................... 135
Gap-filling / Blank-filling / Cloze activity........................................................................136
Jigsaw activities / Information gap activities....................................................................136
Matching......................................................................................137
Odd one out............................................................................................................................. 137
Prediction....................................................................................................................................138
Ranking....................................................................................................................................... 139
Rephrasing / Reformulation / Paraphrase.........................................................................139
Selection...................................................................................................................................... 140
Split dialogue / Jumbled dialogue..........................................................................................141
True-false statements...............................................................................................................141
Unscrambling...........................................................................................................................141
4.4. COMMUNICATIVE ACTIVITIES

Brainstorming............................................................................................................................ 142
Mapping / Mind-mapping ......................................................................................................142
Information transfer / Media transfer..................................................................................143
Presentation................................................................................................................................143
Oral reporting / Oral report..................................................................................................144
Reporting back..........................................................................................................................144


Discussion .............................................................................................................................145
Controlled discussion / Guided discussion ......................................................................145
Free discussion .....................................................................................................................146
Problem solving........................................................................,...........................................146
Scenario .................................................................................................................................147
Role play................................................................................................................................. 148
Interview................................................................................................................................149

Simulation.........................................................................................................................150
Project work .........................................................................................................................150

5. Classroom management
:
.........................................................................................................................152
5.1. GENERAL CONCEPTS
Classroom management........................................................................................................153
Teaching.................................................................................................................................156
Learning.................................................................................................................................157
Classroom communication ...................................................................................................159
5.2. LESSON PLANNING
Lesson.....................................................................................................................................161
Lesson type / Lesson planning model................................................................................161
Lesson stage...........................................................................................................................163
Lesson planning / Pre-teaching planning .......................................................................164
Lesson evaluation..................................................................................................................166
5.3. MANAGING THE MATERIALS

Authentic materials..............................................................................................................167
Course book............................................................................................................................167
Self-access materials.............................................................................................................168
Audiovisual aids / Teaching aids......................................................................................169
Materials selection................................................................................................................169
Materials evaluation.............................................................................................................169
Cues / Prompts.....................................................................................................................170
5.4. CLASSROOM DYNAMICS
Classroom interaction...........................................................................................................171
Type of classroom interaction.............................................................................................172
Classroom monitoring...........................................................................................................173
Teacher roles us. Learner roles ...........................................................................................174
Teacher talk vs. Student talk..............................................................................................175
Code switching / Choice of language.................................................................................177
Teacher talking time (TTT) us. Student talking time (STT) ..........................................178
Teacher waiting time (TWT) ..............................................................................................178
Grouping / Grouping arrangements.................................................................................178
Whole class work ..................................................................................................................178
Group work............................................................................................................................179
Pair work / Pair practice ...................................................................................................180
Solo work................................................................................................................................180
One-to-one instruction .........................................................................................................181
Seating arrangement............................................................................................................181
Discipline / Student behaviour...........................................................................................181
Rapport...................................................................................................................................183
Feedback.................................................................................................................................183

10___________________________________________________________________________________

6. Assessment and testing



........................................................................................................................185
6.1. GENERAL CONCEPTS
Evaluation ........................................................................................................................187
Assessment .......................................................................................................................187
Summative assessment / Summative evaluation ...........................................................188
Formative assessment / Formative evaluation................................................................188
Self-assessment / Self-evaluation....................................................................................188
Testing / Language testing ...........................................................................................188
Test / Language test........................................................................................................189
Tester................................................................................................................................190
Washback effect / Backwash .........................................................................................190
Error..................................................................................................................................191
Mark / Grade ..................................................................................................................192
Marking / Grading ........................................................................................................192
6.2. TEST TYPES
Test types .........................................................................................................................193
Pragmatic test...................................................................................................................193
Discrete-point test ...........................................................................................................194
Integrative test / Global test..........................................................................................194
Proficiency test ................................................................................................................194
Placement test...................................................................................................................195
Diagnostic test .................................................................................................................195
Achievement test .............................................................................................................196
Progress achievement test................................................................................................196
Final achievement test.....................................................................................................196
Norm-referenced test vs. Criterion-referenced test ......................................................197
6.3. TESTING TECHNIQUES
Testing techniques ..........................................................................................................197
Cloze procedure.................................................................................................................198
Cloze test...........................................................................................................................198
C-test..................................,..............................................................................................199
Multiple-choice test...........................................................................................................199
Dictation ..........................................................................................................................200
Partial dictation ...............................................................................................................201
Reception testing..............................................................................................................201
Production testing ...........................................................................................................202
Oral testing.......................................................................................................................203
Oral interview ..................................................................................................................203
6.4. TEST VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY

Validity..............................................................................................................................203
Content validity................................................................................................................204
Concurrent validity..........................................................................................................204
Predictive validity / Prognostic validity........................................................................204
Construct validity.............................................................................................................204
Face validity......................................................................................................................205
Reliability.........................................................................................................................205
....................................................................................................................206
...................................................................................................218


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1. Language teaching: methods and approaches

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1. Language teaching: methods and approaches

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24

1. Language teaching: methods and approaches

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1.2. Language teaching approaches



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26

1. Language teaching: methods and approaches


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1. Language teaching: methods and approaches

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30

1. Language teaching: methods and approaches

(discourse competence)
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32

1. Language teaching: methods and approaches

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33

Whole language approach / Gestalt style / Global learning / Holistic


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34

1. Language teaching: methods and approaches

Process-oriented approach
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writing, . 117). (. Analytic approach, . 80), (. Process objectives us. Product objectives, . 76).

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35

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. .
, .
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, , ( 1973, . 45-46), : The book is on the desk. The

36

1. Language teaching: methods and approaches

book isn't on the chair. Is the book on the desk? Yes, it is. (No, it isn't.) Is the
book on the desk or on the chair? The book is on the desk. Where is the book?
It's on the desk.
, - - ,
.

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Lexical approach
, .

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In England people may drink coffee and drive cars, but in English they typically
do not, as the following examples reveal:
1. Would you like a cup of coffee?
No, thanks. I've already had (not drunk) one.
2. How did you. come this morning?
I drove (or I brought the car; not I drove the car) (Lewis 1996a, p. 25).
.
,
.
,
,
(chunks), .
,
.
,
(collocations) .

1. :

37

* (computational linguistics) , (. Lexical syllabus, . 85). *


.
( presentation,
practice, production),
( observe,
hypothesise, experiment).
* ,

(Lewis 1993, pp. vivii).
,
, , . ,
.

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. .
, . , . , , ,
.
-
(. Communicative approach, . 29) , , .
,
, ,
, , -
, ,
. , .

Integrate approach
,
, .
integrated approach , . -

; , , (
)
( )
( ); . Integrated skills, , 91.
, ,
: , ,
. , , .

Comprehension approach
,
.
:
* ,
-
.
* , .
*
. ,
, . *

, . * ,

(Richards and Rodgers 1991, pp. 87-88).
,
(. Total physical response, . 53),
(. Natural approach, . 45) .

1.3. Language teaching methods: historical overview


:

Grammar-translation method
-
.
, XIX , , .
.
- :

1. :

39

* ,
. *
,
,
.
* . (
, - ,
.)
* , , ,
, ,
.
* ,
, , .
* , , ,
.
* ,
(Richards and Rodgers 1991,
pp. 3-4).
- . , , ,
, , . :
, , .

Direct method
- . . , . . .
:
(. Natural method, . 45), . ,
: (. Audiolingualism, . 41), , (. Audiovisual method, . 42), , ()
(. Situational language teaching, . 43), .
, (. Total physical response, . 53)

(. Natural approach, c. 45), .


,
,
. , ,
(directly), , , , , , . .
: *
,
,
.
* .

,
, .
* ,
. . , , . ,
, , , , . .
* (. Deductive approach
us. Inductive approach, . 34),
. , , .
* .
* (. Grading, . 79),

.
* ,
.
- .
: , , , . . .
- -
. ,
.

1. :

41


, . ,
,
. ,
.
-
,
. , .
,
.

Audiolingiialism /Audiolingual method / Mimmem method


(. Behaviourism, . 24) (. Structural approach, . 35).
, , .
, ,
, , . .

. ,
.
:
*
(habits) . , ,
. ., .
, ,
,
. ,
.
: , ,
, .
* ,
, .
, . (. Drill, . 135), .
, ,
(
), .
* , , ,

42

1. Language teaching: mewious and approacnes

,
.
* .
, , : ,
,
,
.
,
.
:
,
.
,
,
.

Audiovisual method / Structural-global method


(-)

.
1950-
-.
: (, , ) (, , ); : ,
.
, ,
,
. , , ,
,
.
:
* - ,
. : , , , . .
* -
. , ,

(. Functional approach, . 81). ,
- .

1. :

43

* .
, .
. *
, ,
,
; (. Drill, . 135). *
-
, .

.
*
, , .
: ( , ),
( -
- ), ( ), (

) (,
1993, . 30).

.
.
, , .
,
,
, . , .

Situational language teaching (SLT) / The oral approach


() (.
Direct method, . 39) . 1930-
, X. , . . ,
. , - .
:
* .
, 2000
, . 50-

(A General Service List of


English Words), .
* ,
, - , -, .
, - (sentence patterns),
, .
*
,
.
*
(
), ( ).
: (- ), , ,
.
* . ,
, . - . , ,
(Richards
and Rodgers 1991, p. 38).
* ,
. , ,

.
.
* , ,
(. Drill, . 135), .
, . , ,
,
.
,
, .
* . ,
.
.

1. :

45

() .
, ,
(. Structural approach, . 35), ,
, . , , Streamline English (Hartley
and Viney), 1979 .

, ,
.
,
.

Natural method
(. Direct method, . 39);
XIX . .
.
* ,
, () , *
- ; .
. .
, ,
. , , , (. Natural approach, . 45),
(. Community language learning, . 49) .

Natural approach
,
1980- . . (Krashen and Terrell 1983)
. , , ,
. , ,
.

46

1. Language teaching: methods and approaches

(acquisition) (. Learning, . 157) (. Teaching, . 155).


, , ,
(langnuage exposure) , .

-, . .
* Acquisitionlearning hypothesis .
,
, . , .
, , , , , , .
Natural order hypothesis . () , ,
, .
.
,
.
Monitor hypothesis .
. , ,
.
: 1) monitor underusers , ;
2) monitor overusers ,

; 3) optimal monitor users , , .
* Comprehensible input hypothesis () , ( ,
). ,
, i + 1, i
, 1 , .
, , .
Affective filter hypothesis ,
,
. ,

1. :

47

,
, (comprehensible input),
, .
, , . (
) i + 1,
1, i .
. ,
i + 1 ,
. , ,
, .
:
, ,

. ,
- .
* , .
, ,
,
.
* ,
,

.
* ,
.
: (comprehension /
preproduction), (early speech production), (speech
emergence). , , -
, , ,
, . .
, , , , .
, , , 500 . , - , , - .

1. Language teaching: methods and approaches


, , ,
.

,
:
,
, .
* ,
.
9 .
(communicative competence), ,
.

,
, , ,
.
,
.

Communicative method / Communicative language teaching (CLT)


(. Communicative approach, . 29),
- , .

: . ,
,
. , (. Task, . 123).
, ,
.

, , ,
,

.

, , (accuracy), (fluency). - ,
, -

1. :

49

, ,
. , ,
, , ,
.

1.4. Fringe / alternative methods


()

Community language learning (CLL) / Counselling learning


( ) . . (counselling psychology),
, -,
, . , .
:

.

.
-, , . ,
, . , , .
, .
,
,
.
,
, ,
.
, -
, .
:
,
, ,
.
.
-

50

1. Language teaching: methods and approaches

.
, , .
, ,
, , .
-, ,
, .

, . , , .

,

. , , .

Suggestopedia / Lozanov method


( ) , . 1960-
- . .
, ,
, , .
,
, . .
,
, :
* (authority).
. ,
( ,
, , .),
, .
* (infantilization). ,
, (, 1993, . 83). ,
,
.

1. :
51

* (double-planedness). , , , , , . , , ,
, , . , - .
* (intonation), (rhythm)
(concert pseudo-passiveness). ,
, . .

. ,
, , -
, (
)
, , .
, (
), (.. ), (.. ), .
- .
. , ..
,
.
- (. Learner-centred approach,
. 31) ,

, .
..
, , , ( 1986, . 7).
: *;
*- ;
;
;
;
(,
1993, . 121-122).

52

1. Language teaching: methods and approaches


,
.
, ,
,
.
,
,
.
.

The silent way


( ) (. Structural approach, . 35) (. Humanistic approach, . 28).
. (Gattegno 1972),

.
,
, , .
, , , .
: *

,

.
*
. -.
.
: 1) ,
, , . .; 2) ,
, , , ,
; 3) (, , . .).
,
,
. ,
-, ,
.
,
, , .
.
, -

1. :

53

, ,
,
. ,
.
,
,

.
, ,
,
. : , ,
, . .
(cuisenaire rods), . ,
.

, ,
. (fidel
charts), ,
.
,
, . , ,
.

.

Total physical response (TPR)


.
, ,
, . (. Natural method, . 45), ,

,
.

, .
, , .
, , , , ,
, , , (. Comprehension approach, . 38).
:
-
. -

54

1. Language teaching: methods and approaches

, . .
. -,
. 120 .

.
,
,
, .
,
.
, ,
.

(. Structural syllabus, . 86);
,
.
(. Deductive approach
us. Inductive approach, . 34). ,
. .
,
.
,
. ,
.
:
.
,
. .
9 (. Drill, . 135). (. Role play,
. 148) ,
, .
* , . .
(. Humanistic approach, . 28), , , ,
, , .
.
, . , , ,
, .

1. :

55


.
, , . : ,
- . , ,
, , .

1.5. New developments in language teaching



Computer assisted language learning (CALL)
- .

,
, . ,
, , .
, 196070- , (. Drill,
. 135). 70- . (artificial intellect AT)
.

- .
:
,
, ,
, ;
, ,
: ,
, . .;
,
;
, ;
, (Brown 1994b,
p. 153).

56

1. Language teaching: methods and approaches

, . , . .
.
. (Story Board). (. Reconstruction, . 132),
, , .
. , ,
, ,
. .
, .
,
.
, . , .
, , , ,

.
: *
,
.
*
.
, .
, , , .
. , , - .
* ,
.
:
* , ,
, .
, . ,
.

1. :
57


. ,
,
.
* , ,
. . ,
.
,
,
.
,
, , , ,

.

Consciousness-raising approach (CRA)


- . : .

(universal grammar), ; ,
.
,
.
- , ,
, , .
-
1980- ,
.
-
(Rutherford and Smith 1988).
(. Learning, . 157) (acquisition) :
.
.

58

1. Language teaching: methods and approaches

, ,
, , .
(. Direct method, . 39) ,

.
-
, - .

.
, .
:
,
;
,
, ;
* , , ;
9 ( 1975, . 84).

; ( ) (, )
;
. . ,
.


,
,
.
- :
,
,
, ,
.
9 ,
,
; , (input)
(intake)
(output).

1. :

59

,
.
,
. ,
.
* , .
, , *
, ,
,
. ,
.
, ,
(. Consciousness-raising activities,
. 134).
,

, ,
.
, , .

, .

,
.
:
, , .
.
,

(Rutheford and Smith 1988,
p. 114). ,
.

Data-driven learning (DDL)


, , . , , ,
(. Deductive approach vs. Inductive
approach, . 34).

60

1. Language teaching: methods and approaches

, ,
(Corpus of the
English Language). (Sinclair 1991). , ,
, : (Business English), (English for medical students),
(English of finance) . .
. , ,
,
. , , , (. Consciousness-raising approach, . 57).
, ,
, . , COBUILD (Collins
Birmingham University International Language Database) . Look Up, (concordance). ,
,
(concordance line):
, .
, , .
, . :

if this were a personal test between


time for him to respond he contented
learns to see you as the expert and
he should continue preaching or give
Twinkletoes just likes to hear
sent him, and worked out for
shore, waiting for Machado to commit
and shattered. He braced
Paul affirmed that Christ

himself
himself
himself
himself
himself
himself
himself
himself
himself

and the vicissitudes of the planet


with a few apologetic mumblings
as helpless. It's hard to be
entirely to prayer (one senses talk
& Debi giggled. Let's face an
understanding of the Cayce to
one of the available river as best
he could and kicked with was the
appointed representative

1. :

61


, . ,

,
,
.
,

(. Computer assisted language learning, . 55).
, , . , ,

.
- . .

Task-based learning (TBL)


.
(. Task, . 123), , ,
, , , . ,
, , . . : , , , , , , . .
, , ,
, ,
.
, ,
. , ,
, (. Task-based
syllabus, . 86).
,
, . , ,
, , (. Learner-centred approach, . 31).

, , -

62

1. Language teaching: methods and approaches

. , , ,
. ()
(Prabhu 1992a, pp. 1-2).
, . ,
. , ,
(Swan 1996, . 34).
,

(Skehan 1994). . (Willis 1996a, . 53)
, , , :
1. Pre-task.
2. Task cycle:
Task,
Planning,
Report.
3. Language focus:
Analysis,
Practice. ,
,
,
.

2. Syllabus design and curriculum development


, , , , ,
.
, ,
, , , , ,
.
, , , :
(syllabus), (curriculum), (aims),
(objectives), (content). , , , .
. ,
.
National Curriculum . , . ,
,
, syllabus
- .

, , .

64________________________________2. Syllabus design and curriculum development

,
, , .

,
, . - ,
,
.
,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
Syllabus Design , , , - (syllabus
designers).
, , , , ,
.
. .


(study skills). ,
. ,
, .
. , , , , .

, , ,
,
. ,
, .
, ,

2.

, ,
, .

.

2.1. General concepts


Curriculum
1. , , , ,
, ,
(, 1993, . 326). ,
. ,
(. National Curriculum, . 66)
: , , , , . .
,
(. Course, . 67) .
, , , ,
, .
Second Language Acquisition ( ), Syllabus and Materials Design (
), Discourse Analysis (, ),
Pedagogic Grammar ( ) .
,
, ,
,
.
2. , , ( ).
(attainment
targets),
.
.
, . :

66________________________________2. Syllabus design and curriculum development


,
;
(
);
;
, ,
;
.

National Curriculum

,
; , ,
, . ,
.
, , .
, ,
( 1995, . 10). (attainment targets) .

, ,
, . ,
, .

,
, . , , .
, , .
, , ;
. , (level),
; , (Sweetman 1995, . 15). , , ,
.

2.

67

Course
1. , , :
, ,

.
2. ,
,
. ,
.
3. ,
.

.
, ,
, , .
course ;

(. Programme, . 67).

Programme
. programme course : Teacher Training Course / Programme
( ), English Language Course / Programme
( ) . . ,
, ,
, , .
, .

( , . .), - ( , , )
(, . .).
,
- , . : MA, BA, Diploma,
Certificate Courses / Programmes in TEFL, TESL, TESOL.

: PEESETT, INSETT ,
: ESP Teacher Development Course
( ),
Teaching Business English ( ), Teaching
English to Young Learners ( ) .

68________________________________2. Syllabus design and curriculum development

Course design / Programme design


, : , ,
, ,
, , , ,
.
course design syllabus design , , syllabus design ,
, ,
, , .
.: Munby 1978; Yalden 1995; Dubin and Olshtain 1996.

Syllabus
, ; (. Curriculum, . 65).
, .
: , , . .
, , : , , .
-
.
, , ,
.
,
, .
(.
of syllabus, . 82), ,
.
,
, , .
:
basic level , , ,
policy level , ,
* practical action level (Stern 1992
pp. 23-39).
, . -

2. ___________________________________ 69
, , ,
, ,
.
,
. ,

, ,
, (. Negotiated
syllabus, . 83).
(Johnson 1982; Yalden 1987, 1995; Nunan
1994) ,
:
(. Aims, . 73; Objectives, . 74);
, ,
-
(. Content, . 77);
, ,
(. . 4);

(. Objectives, . 74; Graded objectives, . 76);
,
(. . 6);
.

(. Threshold level, . 70),

.

Syllabus design
-
,
.
(. Approach to
syllabus design, . 79),
. (syllabus designers), , , .
(Nunan
1994, . 5).

. .
, , .
- , , .

2. Syllabus design and curriculum development

Threshold level
1 . - , .
. 2.
(Van Ek and Trim 1998a) ,

,
. ,
,

.
: General characterisation ( ), Extended characterisation (
), Specification (). .
. , :
.
,
. , : () () , , . ..

, .
:
(functions) , ,
, , ; , ; -, . .;
* (general notions) (temporal), (spatial), (qualitative), (quantitative)
;
(specific notions) 14 , , , , ;
(, , ).
Specification , , , .
, , ,
, . ,
Waystage (Van
Ek and Trim 1998b).

2. ______________________________________71

,

, .
, , ,
(, 1998).

Subject
, . . ,
,
.
Language Pedagogy English
Language Teaching (ELT). , , , , ,
, : Syllabus Design, Second
Language Acquisition, ELT Methods and Approaches.
, , , ,
. , Discourse Analysis, , , , ,
,
.

Unit
1. , .
, ,
(lesson) , ,
.
2. (teaching unit / learning unit)
, . ,
, , .

. , , -
.
, . -

72

____________________________2. Syllabus design and curriculum development

, , .
, , , , ( , ,
, . .).
,
(, , , , . .), ( ,
,
. .).
, , ,
, (. Data-driven learning, . 59; Consciousness-raising approach, . 57). ,
, .
, , , , , .

2.2. Syllabus design procedures



Needs analysis

, ( ) . needs analysis
. ,
, ,
(, ,
. .) , .
,
, , .
: , , , , . .
, ,
,
, .

2. ______________________________________73
- .
- :
, , .

Aims
-,
. (. Teaching, . 155; Learning, . 157) ( , , , , ,
. .) .
, .

, ,
. , . , , . ,
. ,
, .
(), ,
, ,
, (. Negotiated syllabus, . 83).
, , (. Needs analysis, . 72).
, , ,
, , .
,

.
, , , ,
.
, ,

: cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains.

, - , , .
(. Humanistic approach, . 28) , (. Classroom interaction, . 171).

74

2. Syllabus design and curriculum development

.
,
, , , . ,
,
.

, .
(. Communicative approach, . 29) .

-( 1986, . 16), , , .
,
. , .
(. Objectives, . 74).
,
. ,
, .

Objectives
,
,
. . .
, .
,
(real-world objectives), , (pedagogic
objectives).
: , ,
, ,
, real-world objective; , , pedagogic
objective (Nunan 1994, p. 70).

2.
75
, ,
, . , : , 2%
, .
, , :
, 2% , .

Performance objectives / Behavioural objectives / Instructional


objectives
, ,
.
(. Threshold level, . 70).
:
performance ,
;
conditions , ;
standard ,
(Nunan 1994, . 64).
: (conditions) ,
(performance).
(standard).
, , , (. Behaviourism, . 24), , (. Humanistic approach, . 28),
.
, .
, , , ,
. ,

(. Negotiated syllabus, . 83).

.

(. Graded objectives, . 76).
(. Grading, . 79), .

76__________________________________2. Syllabus design and curriculum development

Graded objectives
, ,
;
, , , ,
, .
.

(. National Curriculum, . 66)
,

. ,
.
, . ,
. , . -, -,

, .
.
, .
,
, .
, , ,
.

, . , .
, .

Process objectives vs. Product objectives


, (process objectives) , (product objectives).
,
, , ,
. .
, -

2.

77

, , .
(. Process-oriented
approach, . 34) , ,
, .
, (. Product-oriented approach, . 33), ,
, , ,
.
, , ,
.
, ,
, .

Content
, ,

( 1986, . 5).
, , , .
, content , ,
, .
content , , , , .
, (. Syllabus, . 68)
.

syllabus :
* , , ,
(. Background knowledge, . 94);
(, , ) ;
* ;
(. Study skills, . 94);
(, ,
) ;
* : , , , , , , -;
.

f
t

78

2. Syllabus design and curriculum development


, ,
(, 1993, . 284), ,
, ,
, ,
.
. .
, ,
, .
(Corpus of the
English Language).
.
, ,
.

Ordering / Sequencing
, (, , , . .), , .
,
. .
, -
(. Consciousness-raising approach, . 57)
(. Data-driven learning, . 59), ,
, .
(. Communicative method,
. 48) ,

.
.
(. Integrated approach,
. 37), : . , , ,
.

2.

79

Grading
() , . (. Syllabus, . 68) (. Ordering, . 78).
(natural order)
(lock-step grading). ,
,
.
, .

,
. ,
, .
Present Continuous, ,
to be .
,
. ,
, , ,
.
, .

2.3. Approaches to syllabus design



Approach to syllabus design

.
( ) , ,
, .

, (. Type of syllabus, . 82).

, .
(. Analytic approach, . 80 ; Synthetic
approach, . 80), - (. Functional approach, . 81) (. Functional syllabus, . 85).

80_______________________________2. Syllabus design and curriculum development

Synthetic approach
. ,
(. Product-oriented approach, . 33)
.
(. Deductive approach, . 34).

, , ,
, ,
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
- , , .
(. Structural syllabus, . 86) (. Functional syllabus, . 85) (White 1988; Hutchinson
and Waters 1993; Nunan 1994).

Analytic approach
. (. Processoriented approach, . 34), . , ,
.

, . (. Deductive approach us. Inductive approach, . 34).
, ,
.
(chunks) ,

.
, , , , ,
, .
, , , (function) (notion),
.
(. Contentbased syllabus, . 84) ,
(. Task-based syllabus, . 86).

2.

81

Functional approach / Notional-functional approach


(-)
- .

, ,
, . , .
,
(John is easy to please. John is eager to please), a
(John wrote this letter.
This letter was written by John), ,
(intention) (function)
(notion) (Hutchinson and Waters 1993, p. 27).
, , , . . , .
. , : Could you close the window? Would you mind
closing the window? Close the window, please. ,
, (exponent of function). : - , Would you like to ... ? Let's .... .
, .
.
, (, , , . .). ,
, : , ,
. . (Hutchinson and Waters 1993, p. 31). , (. Functional syllabus, . 85; Threshold
level, . 70).
-
.
,
.
, , .
.
(., : -
1987), ,
.

82________________________________2. Syllabus design and curriculum development

2.4. Types of syllabus


Type of syllabus
. , . , (. Method, . 21; Approach, . 20) , , ,
.

, , . product-oriented syllabus.
, , , , ,
, . - , ,
,
.
, , ,
. , ,
(process-oriented syllabus).
(. Community language learning, . 49)
,
, , , ,
.
(Richards and
Rodgers 1991; Hutchinson and Waters 1993; Nunan 1994; Dubin and Olshtain
1996) , ,
, . ,
, ;
,
(. Task, . 123), .
, , . (mixed syllabus, multi-strand
syllabus; Ur 1996, p. 178).
.
: , . , ,
(Hutchinson and Waters 1993, p. 37).
:
* : a priori syllabus, a posteriori syllabus,
negotiated syllabus;

2.

83

: learning-centred syllabus, skills-centred


syllabus;
: structural / grammatical / language-centred syllabus, content-based (topic-based / theme-based,
situational syllabus), functional-notional syllabus, lexical syllabus, task-based /
procedural syllabus.

A priori syllabus vs. A posteriori syllabus


a priori , .
.
a posteriori, ,
.
. a posteriori
(retrospective syllabus).

Negotiated syllabus
- ,
. ,
, ,
: , ;
, ;
.

, ,
, . ,

, (Nunan and Lamb
1996, pp. 9-10).

Learning-centred syllabus
, , . - (. Learner-centred
approach, . 31) learning-centred (Hutchinson and Waters 1993, p. 72). , , , , ,
.
, ,

84_________________________

2. Syllabus design and curriculum development

,
, , (
) .
, , ,
. ,
.

Skills-centred syllabus
, , . ,
.
, .
(. Study skills, . 94),
(English for Academic Purposes EAP),
.
(Business English) , ,
,
(business negotiation skills).
(Teacher Training Course) (teaching skills).
,
(. Product-oriented approach, . 33). , , .

Content-based syllabus
.
,
, .
,
,
, . -
, , , ,
.
: *
situational syllabus , ,
;

2.

85

topic-based syllabus / theme-based syllabus ,


, .

(. Situational language teaching, . 43). , , , ,
.
,
-
. -,
, .

Functional syllabus / Notional-functional syllabus (NFS)


(-) (. Functional approach,
. 81).
(functions) (notions),

.
(. Structural syllabus, . 86),
, ,
(, , . .), ,
,
. , ,
: Could you ... ?
Will you ... ? .
,
. : (general
notions) (specific notions).
, , , . .

. , : Food and Drink, House and Home, Clothes and Fashion . .
Is there a drugstore near here?, . , drugstore ,
near here (Odlin 1994, . 322). , - ,
(. Threshold level, . 70).

Lexical syllabus

(. Lexical approach, . 36), , . (Willis 1990) ,

86________________________________2. Syllabus design and curriculum development


,
, .
, , - , , should, would, have written . .,
, .

Structural syllabus / Grammatical syllabus / Language-centred


syllabus
() (. Structural approach, . 35), , - ,
. (structures), , (sentence
patterns). , , ,
, , .

. ,
, (Ellis 1993b).

Task-based syllabus / Procedural syllabus


, , . (. Task, . 123), ,

.
, ,
. , : ,
; ; ;
, , . , .
.
, (. Task-based learning, . 61) , .

2.

87

2.5. Forms of syllabus organisation



Linear syllabus

, , .

Modular syllabus
, . ,

. , , .
.
:
(General English),
(English for Specific Purposes ESP), (Business English),
, . ., (project work)
.
, (, British and American Studies).

Spiral syllabus / Cyclical syllabus


, .
.

3. Teaching language skills


,
(skills) . ,
, . XX . ,

, , , .
.. ,
50- .
, 1970-
, , .. , -
.. .. . .
, ,

, . . ( 1991, . 74). , ( ) : , , .
, ,
, .
, .
,
.

.

, ,
. ,
, ,
,
. -

3. ______
_______________________________________________89
, . ,
, :
.
,
. , , , , ,
.

.
, , ,
,

.
: 1) , 2) -, 3) ( 1986, . 29).
, . , .

. ,
( 1991, . 94).
, ,
: , , , , , , , , .
,

.
, (, ,
) ,
() ( 1969, 1997;
1977; 1985; 1988; 1985; 1991; ,
1993; 1999; 1999).
skills. habit, 5060- , . ,
, , , . , , ( ,

90___________________________________________________3. Teaching language skills


, , , )
.
,
,
(). . . , , .
, , , .

3.1. General concepts


Skills
skills , .
1. skills ,
,
: reading , listening ,
speaking , writing .
total skills (Littlewood 1994, p. 17), macro-skills
global skills (Wilberg 1996, p. 23; Rost 1993, p. 151).
2. skills
, .
,
,
, sub-skills, part skills, component skills, micro-skills, enabling
skills.
,
. skimming, scanning, summarizing, note-taking, skim listening, academic
listening, interactional skills, transactional skills. : Speaking is an
example of a complex cognitive skill which can be differentiated into various
hierarchical sub-skills, some of which might require controlled processing while
others could be processed automatically (O'Malley and Chamot 1995, pp. 66-67).
sub-skills, part skills
,
. , , . . (Munby 1978; Richards 1987, pp.167168; Hughes 1993, pp. 116-117; Rost 1993; Richards 1994a, pp. 198-199; 1987). ()

3.

91

, , ().
, . .
, ,
, ,
. , , .
3. skills linguistic skills, accuracy skills, linguistic
contributory skills (Weir 1993, p. 73), motor-perceptive skills (Bygate 1993, p. 5)
, , .
linguistic
competence. - , , grammatical and lexical low-level operations, grammatical and lexical
abilities underlying skills. automaticity
(Silberstein 1987, p. 32; Grabe 1993, p. 59), .
, ,
teaching pronunciation, teaching
vocabulary, teaching grammar.

Integrated skills

(, , ) .
(. Integrated
approach, . 37; Summarizing, . 114).

Receptive skills
. (listening) (reading).

,
( ).
.
.
. , , , , -

92___________________________________________________3. Teaching language skills


, , ,
, , . .
, ,
:
(. Top-down reading, top-down listening, . 92; Bottom-up reading,
bottom-up listening, c. 93)

. , , , :
.
, , ,
, , .
, ,
. , ,
- , .

, , (.
Authentic materials, . 167).
.: Silberstein 1987, . 32; Anderson and Lynch 1993; Rost 1994, p. 94; Paran 1996;
Field 1999; 1989, . 42.

Top-down reading, top-down listening



( )
(. Bottom-up reading, bottom-up
listening, . 93; Receptive skills, . 91).
,

. , ,
- . , .
, ,
.
.

3.
93


, , .
. , .
(pre-text activities), (pre-reading / prelistening activities).

, , . ,

, .
.
.: Silberstein 1987, . 32; Grabe 1991; Anderson and Lynch 1993; Carrell 1993;
Eskey 1993; Rost 1994, p. 94; Paran 1996; Field 1999; 1989, . 42; 1991,
. 89; 1996, 1996.

Bottom-up reading, bottom-up listening


( ) (. Top-down reading, top-down listening,
. 92; Receptive skills, . 91). , , , .
, ,
,
. ,

, , .
,
.

Productive skills
()
(speaking) (writing) .
, ,
( 1985,
. 82).
. - .

94________________________________________________3. Teaching language skills

( ), ( ).
, .
, .

Background knowledge
,
( ),
( ). , , , , .
( ) ().

. (sociolinguistic competence)

. (sociocultural
competence) , , ,
.
, , - , , , .
.: 1988; 1989; 1997.
Study skills
( ), , . , , ,
. ,
,
, . , ,
,
.
. :
;
;
;

3. ___________________________95

: ,
, , , , , ;
;
* : ,
(mnemonic techniques);
* ;
: ,
, , , (reference
skills);
, (examination skills). .:
Matthewn et al. 1991; Jordan 1997; 1991; 1995.

3.2. Teaching reading skills


Reading
, . , .
, , , , , .
, .
,
(interactive reading: Grabe 1991; Alderson and Urquhart 1992; Carrell et al. 1993).

,

(. Receptive skills, . 91),

, .
, , (analytical reading) (global
reading), (reading aloud, oral reading) (silent
reading).

. (class
reading) (home reading); (individual reading) (group
reading, chorus reading).
, , - .
(. Guided reading, . 96) (. Communicative
reading, . 98).

96________________________________________________3. Teaching language skills

, , . , .

(reading strategy), .
.: Silberstein 1987; 1994; , 1991; 1991.

Guided reading
, ,
, , :
(visual perception) (recognition);

(grapheme-morpho-phoneme correspondences);
& ,
(anticipation / prediction / forward inferencing);
(segmentation /
chunking), (grouping) (context cues);
(guessing / inferring from context).
, - .

:
(intensive
reading) (extensive reading);
* ; ;
;
*
.
. , ,
, ,
.
intensive reading extensive reading
.
: , . .

3.

97


,
- , .
, (. Intensive
reading, . 97; Extensive reading, . 97).
,
( 1973, . 86; 1989, . 195; ,
1993). .

Intensive reading
,
, , (. Guided reading,
. 96).
, .
.

. , , ; ,
( 1985, . 138).

(text-based activities),
- ,
.
.: Nuttall 1982, pp. 23, 32; Matthewn et al. 1991; Grellet 1992, p. 4; Carrell and
Carson 1997; 1986, . 91; 1987.

Extensive reading
,
, (. Guided reading, . 96). , , ,
. ,
, ,
. , -

98________________________________________________3. Teaching language skills

-
( , , , ) .
.: Nuttal 1982; Greenwood 1992; Grellet 1992; Carrell and Carson 1997.

Reading aloud / Oral reading


,
- ,
(. Pragmatic test, . 193).
, , . , ,
(silent reading), .

. , - .
:
;
, ;
( 1990;
. 1991, . 143).
-
, . , (Maley and Duff 1990, p. 95;
Wilberg 1996, p. 133).
, , , ( 1973; 1987).

Communicative reading / Fluent reading



. ,
. - ,
, , (reading strategies).
, ,
, , (. Communicative listening, . 102). ,

3.

(reading for information) (reading for pleasure).


, , .
.
, : scanning,
skimming, reading for detailed comprehension (Nuttall 1982; Grellet 1992; Ur
1996). :
, ( 1985, . 130;
1988; 1993; 1995; ,
1995; , 1998, . 4).
,
.. (1987, . 25), , , , ,
,
. , .. (1973, . 68) ,
: , , ,
.

Scanning

,
.
:
1. , :
, , , ,
, , , .
.. (1987, . 29)
. ,
, ,
, .
, ,

: , .

.
2. , ,
.
, ,
.

.. (1987, . 28) .
(
) -
.

100__________________________________

3. Teaching language skills

,
(. Reading for detailed comprehension, . 100).
:
, , ;
, .
,

. - , , , , .

Skimming / Skim reading / Reading for gist


, , ;
( 1987, . 27). , , . 70% , 30% ,
(, 1993, . 167). ,
. , ,
, .
, , .
, ,
, , .
, ; ;
,
( 1993-1994; 1995; , 1998).
, , (. Reading for detailed comprehension, . 100; Critical reading, . 101).

. , , (. : , 1993, . 250).

Reading for detailed comprehension


,

, , ; ( 1987, . 27). -

3.

101

, :
, ,
, ,
.
.
.
(. Intensive reading, . 97), . ,
, -
. , (
, , ), :
, . .

Critical reading
, ( 1973, . 68, 72) , ( , , , )
, , .
,
, . , (. Reading for detailed
comprehension, . 100).
, , , , (Silberstein 1987, Eskey and Grabe 1993).

3.3. Teaching listening skills


Listening / Listening comprehension
,
(. Receptive skills,
. 91).
:
(auditory perception) (recognition,
discrimination);
9 (concentration);
,
(anticipation / prediction / forward inferencing);
(guessing / inferring from context);

102_____________________________________________3. Teaching language skills


$ (segmentation / chunking) (grouping);

;
* , .
,
:
- ,
, ,
;
- .

(. Communicative listening, . 102)
(. Guided listening, . 102).
- .
.
.: Anderson and Lynch 1993; Rost 1993, 1994; Field 1998; 1991;
1996a, 19966; , 1998.

Guided listening
, , , , .

.
, , ,
.
, ,
, , , ( 1985; 1996, 19966).
:
intensive listening (. intensive reading);
extensive listening (. extensive reading).

Communicative listening
, . ( )
(. Communicative reading, . 98).

3.

103

, ,
, :
* skim listening ; *
listening for detailed comprehension ;
* listening for partial comprehension
;
* critical listening .
,
, :
* interactional listening -
;
listening to interaction
;
* transaetional listening .
,
. , ( , , , ) .
.: Anderson and Lynch 1993; Rost 1993, 1994; Lynch 1996, p. 92; Field 1998;
1991.

Skim listening / Listening for gist


,
; ( 1991).
, , . ,
,
, , ,
, , . .:
Rivers and Temperley 1979; Rost 1993, p. 232; Prodromou 1992.

Listening for detailed comprehension


, ( 1996, 19966). , , , .

, .
,
(post-text activities):
, ,
, , .

104_______________________________________________ 3. Teaching language skills

Listening for partial comprehension / Selective listening



( 1991).
, . , , , : , ,
.
, ,
,
.

Critical listening

,
.
,
(), , , (. Critical reading, . 101).

Interactional listening / Conversational listening / Reciprocal


listening
- ,
, . , , , . ,
, ,
. , , : , , , , , , , .
.: Anderson and Lynch 1993; Rost 1993; Lynch 1996, p. 92; 1985,
. 114; , 1998.

Listening to interaction
,
- . ,
(. Interactional
listening, . 104). ,
, , . , . ,
(

3. __________________________105

, , ). ,
, , ,
. , . , ( 1988, . 193).
, .

Transational listening / Non-interactional listening


,
.
(. Academic listening, . 105), , , .
(planned monologue) , , (unplanned monologue), , , .
.: Anderson and Lynch 1993; Host 1994.

Academic listening / Listening to lectures


-, . , ,
,
. .
(Flowerdew 1994).
:
, ;
;
.
, ,
, , .
,
,
.
- (
, , ) .
, , (. Note-taking, note-making, . 114).

106__________________________________________________3. Teaching language skills

3.4. Teaching speaking skills


Speaking
() , -
. , . , :
;
@ , ;
;
* ;
* , , ;
* ;
* , ;
* ;
* .
, - - .
,
, , , , ( 1989; 1991).
(), () .
, , : .
, : .
Bottom-up processing, , , ( ) , (). , , ,
,
.
Top-down processing, , , . (, , ) ,
, . , . ,

3. ___________________________107

, ( 1988, . 188).
.: Bygate 1993; Nunan 1998, p. 45; 1985, . 116; . 1990;
. 1991, . 129.

Speaking turn
, . . - .
. , (. Short turn us. Long turn, . 108).
. ,
.
,
, .
( ) ,
( - - ),
(adjacency pair).
. .

, . - - ( ). : ; ;
; .

Turn-taking
, .
,
,
- (turn-taking
strategies).
:
*
. ,
, .
* ( , ) holding a turn.
. , , .
relinquishing a turn.
.: Keller and Warner 1988; Richards 1994b, p. 68; 1989, . 162;
1989.

108____________________________________________

3. Teaching language skills

Short turn vs. Long turn


, , , - , . . . , ,
, .
.
, - ,
, -, , , . ,
, . (transactional skills).
-
,
, .

. ,
,
(Brown and Yule 1993, p. 16).

Interactional speech
,
(interaction).
,
,
.
.
( ,
, ).
, - . , - ,
, , , .
,
, . ,
, ,

3. __________________________109

, ,
( , ).
, ( , ), , .

( , ).
(, ). (.: Brown and Yule 1993; Richards 1994a, 1994b;
1989).
, . (adjacency pair). ,
( , ), , , - ( 1985;
1993-1994).
(interactional skills)
, :
(. Turn-taking, . 107);
*
;
* ;
* , ( 1991, . 162).

Transactional speech
, .
.
, () ,
, , , . transactional speech,
(transaction).
.
, , . , , (), .
, -

110_______________________________________________ 3. Teaching language skills

- . (description),
(report / account), (narration), (argument)
.
, , , .
, - ,
,
.. , .. , .. , .. ;
. : Brown and Yule 1993; Richards 1994b.
: , (reproduction
us. production), (planned monologue us. unplanned
monologue) . (transactional skills),
-, ,
( 1986, . 81). (. Information transfer, . 143),
(. Jigsaw activities, . 136), (. Oral reporting, . 144),
(. Discussion, . 145) . .
.: 1985; 1988, . 176; 1989, 1991.

3.5. Teaching writing skills


Writing
1. .
writing
- , :
, ,
.

.

(mechanics of writing),
.
, ,
. ( )
,
.
2. () .
.

.

________________________________111

(writing for training / writing for


reinforcement)
- , - , , . ,
. (composition) (dictocomp / dicto-gloss). .
(writing for communication) ,
. ,
, , , .
(. , Types of writing),
,
(Hedge 1993, . 96; 1986).
guided writing free writing .
Guided writing / controlled writing , (. Cues, . 170).
Free writing
.
: , , ,
(. Product-oriented writing, . 116; Processoriented writing, . 117). , .

(Raimes 1987; Kroll 1993; Richards 1994b;
White and Arndt 1994; Dyer 1996; 1969).

Types of writing
( , .. : 1955, . 77). , (written
genres),
.
- , ,

112

3. Teaching language skills

.
. (Hedge 1993, . 96)
, ,
.

Types of writing
Study writing

Professional

writing
essays
research reports
summaries
reviews
annotations
abstracts
notes

business letters
progress reports
resumes/
curriculum vitae
applications
public notices
contracts
memoranda
minutes
advertisements
articles

Social writing

Personal
writing

Creative
writing

notes

diaries
journals
reminders
addresses
recipes
shopping
lists
packing
lists

poems

letters
invitations
messages
instructions

stories

rhymes
drama
scripts
lyrics

1. Study writing / academic writing ,


() .
(notes), (reviews),
(summaries) (essays) (. Study writing, . 123).
2. Professional writing / business writing ,
; ,
(business letters), (contracts), (public
notices), (progress reports), (articles), (minutes),
(memoranda / memos) . .
3. Social writing , (notes), (letters), (postcards),
(e-mail messages), (telephone
messages).
4. Personal writing ,
(diaries, journals), (reminders),
(recipies), (addresses).
5. Creative writing : , , . .
, ( , ;
. Composing, . 115) ( -

3. _________________________113

, ,
; . Summarizing, . 114).
.: White 1987, . 261; 1991, . 96; 1997, . 5.

Study writing / Academic writing


, .
,
,
:
* Dicto-comp / dicto-gloss ,

-.
, ,
. dicto-comp (dictation-composition) : ,
. ,
(Wajnryb 1989).
Summary / precis , ,
.
-
(. Summari
zing, . 114). -

.
.
Review , , ;
.
, .
, () , .
(), . , ,
.
* Annotation , ,
-. ,
.
* Research report , , , , , .
Abstracts , ,
, , .
Outline ,
,
.

114_____________________________________________3. Teaching language skills


0 Notes (), ,
. (. Note-taking, notemaking, . 114).

Note-taking, note-making
(notes) ,
. .
note-taking
, ,
(taking notes while listening), note-making
(making notes while reading). . note-taking note-making , (Povey and Walshe 1982, p. 140;
Hedge 1993).
note-making - .
(. Brainstorming, . 142), (. Mapping,
. 142) (. Fast writing, . 115).
, , , :
;
,
, ;
, ,
(, . .);
*
(Host 1994, . 72; Jordan
1997).
-
(. Study skills, . 94).

Summarizing
,
. ()
, ,
. , .

3.

115

, ,
, , .
: , , , . (, , ,
), -,
, , , (. Study writing, . 113).
. . , .
, , , ,

.
.: Pink and Thomas 1936; Knight 1981; Nuttall 1982, p. 142; -
1990, . 196; . 1991, . 159.

Composing
, (,
, ),
(. Process-oriented writing, . 117). , , composition. , .
(. Summarizing, . 114). , ,
( , , , , . .).
- : - (narration), (description), - (argument).
.

Fast writing / Automatic writing


. ,


.

116_______________________________________________ 3. Teaching language skills

. 5-10 ,
. , (. Process-oriented writing, . 117).
, , ,
, . ,
, . .
.: Raimes 1987, . 39; White and Arndt 1994.

Product-oriented writing / Genre-based writing


,
,
( , .. : 1955, . 77), (. Processoriented writing, . 117). ,
.
, ,
, .
,
. , , . - (
) ,
(the traditional read-analyze-write model: Zamel
1987, p. 274; . : Brookes and Grundy 1991; Jordan 1997, p. 164).
,
, . ( ) , , , .
, -. , , : (gap-filling); (completion); , ,
(sentence combining); , (unscrambling);
, (expansion).
. , , , .

3. ___________________________117

,
-, ,
- ,
( , . .)
.
, ,
.

Process-oriented writing
,
. ( ),
. ,
, (. Productoriented writing, . 116). ,
,
, ,
.
,
, :
1. Pre-writing / rehearsing , ( , , .. : 1969,
. 133, 153), , - . ,
, , (discovering, generating ideas).
.
:
(. Brainstorming, . 142), -
(. Mapping, . 142), (. Fast writing, . 115),
(conferencing), (responding to questions), (note-making, outlining).
2. Writing / drafting ,
, . : (introduction), (body),
(conclusion). , , (unscrambling), () (sentence combining), (expansion)
(reduction).
3. Revising / editing / post-writing ,
,
. ,
,
, , , , -

118_______________________________________________ 3. Teaching language skills

, .

, , , .
. , ,
, , , , . ,
, , , , .
.

.: Brookes and Grundy 1991; -Lyons and Heasley 1993; Hedge 1993, pp. 44,
154; Krapels 1993; White and Arndt 1994; Johnston 1996; Jordan 1997, p. 167; 1969,1997.

4. Language teaching / learning activities



Language teaching /
learning activities activity, task, technique,
exercise. , . ,
,
, . , , , .

- ,
-
. , , , ,
.
, ,
,
.
. ,

(Gvishiani 1993, . 44).
, , , , , .

)
) .
,
.
():
( ), .

120__________________________________4. Language teaching / learning activities

* . ,
( 1988, . 103); - , ( ) (
1986, . 55).
.
.
.
9 , : ,
, ( 1985, . 108, 159).
() . (
: , , , ),
. 9
(, ). *
.
( ),
, ,
.
, ( 1980). , (
1986, . 55): - (-), - (-) .
( 1985, . 61).
: communicative activities / communication activities / tasks, precommunicative activities / pseudo-communication activities, practice activities.
, , , ,
: () .

, , . , ,
. , . ,
( 1986, . 23-24), task (. Task,
. 123).
, : ,

4. _____________________121

, - ( 1988).
, , , .
,
, . , -
, .
-
( ),
.
,
.


, .
,
.
,
,
.

4.1. General concepts


Exercise
.
.
(Rivers and Temperley
1979; Nuttall 1982). formal exercise ( ), linguistic exercise ( ),
() . -
, activity
task (Lewis 1993, pp. 127, 184). exercise
activity. , exercise
(Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, 1992).

Activity
. activity
, -
. () .
122__________________________________4. Language teaching / learning
activities
activity task
(Lewis 1993, . 184). , task,
activity (. Task, . 123). , task,
activity
. task ,
, activity

, - ,
/ .
: selection, matching, reconstruction, gap-filling, deleting . .
Activity
. task:
...A task is taken to be an activity in which: meaning is primary, there is some
sort of relationship to the real world, task completion has some priority (Skehan
1996a, p. 38); Task is the carrying out of an activity / activities to achieve a preestablished
objective (Ribe and Vidal 1993); @ By task I mean a specific goal or activity that
is accomplished through the
use of language (Richards 1994a, p. 30); Task is a goal-oriented activity in
which learners use language to achieve
a real outcome (Willis 1996a, p. 53).
, activity
exercise,
(. Exercise, . 121).
activity
,
. activity
(Harmer 1991; Littlewood 1992, pp. 85, 89; 1994; Lewis 1996b, p. 13).

, :
accuracy activities vs. fluency activities:
;
practice activities vs. communicative activities: () () ; pre-comnranicative
activities vs. communicative activities:
() ;
controlled practice activities / guided practice activities us. free practice activities:
()


;
pre-text (pre-reading / pre-listening) activities us. in-text (in/whilst-reading /
listening) activities us. post-text (post-reading / post-listening) activities:
;
pseudo-communication activities vs. communication activities: - ; 4.

123

closed activities vs. open-ended activities:


(. Open-ended activities, . 126);
* pre-teaching activities vs. follow-up activities: ( ) ;
* consciousness-raising activities us. practice activities:
(. Consciousness-raising activities, . 134).

Task
1. , . task
.1980-x .
, ,

(Rubdy
1998). task (a unit of teaching / learning),
.
:
* (goal / general intention / a pre-established objective / a communicative
purpose); (procedures / the operations
learners use to
complete a task);
* (content and language form); *
(product / outcome); *
(order /
the arrangement of a task within a sequence of other tasks); * ,
(pacing / the amount of
time spent on a task);
* ( / ), (resources / input data);
(mode); *
(grouping arrangements) (Lewis 1993, p. 184; Nunan 1993, p. 48; Rost 1993, p. 158; Richards
1994b, p. 151; Skehan 1996a, p. 38; 1996b, p. 23; Ur 1996, p. 124; Willis
1996a, p. 53; 1996b, p. 23).
,
() task
activity (. Activity,
. 115).
, ,
, task , (. Task-based syllabus, . 86). Task , , ,
.
, , ,
. -

124__________________________________4. Language teaching / learning activities

, , ,
.
, (. Open-ended activities, . 126).

(. Task-based learning, . 61). , (- ), , , , ,
( / - ).
, task ,
exercise drill
. tasks
, ,
( ),
tasks , , ,
(Skehan 1996b, p. 20; Willis 1996a, 1996b).
2. task , , , ,
,
- .

Technique
, , . , :
, ,
. , . (Alexander 1998, . 79; 1986, . 15).
(. Teaching, . 155) (. Learning, . 157) , , , - , , ,
,
( . 1982, . 17; . 1991).
.
teaching techniques testing techniques.
Teaching techniques ,
, ,
. ,
. , :

4.

125

* , (presentation);
* (practice). , ,
(accuracy practice /
controlled practice).
* , , (fluency practice).
elicitation, drama, project work. (Lewis and Hill 1992, p. 54; Byrne
1994, p. 2; Skehan 1996b, p. 17; 1988, . 90; , 1991).

- ,
(. Questioning, . 130).
Testing techniques , ,
(. Testing techniques, . 197).
. ,
- ,
learning technique learning strategy (. Leaner-centred approach, . 31).

. activity technique. , , ,
() ,
(. Activity, . 121; Task, . 123). ,
,
, .

.
- , , , , .
-
,
.

.
(controlled practice activities / guided practice activities).
, (matching),
(unscrambling) (jumbling). (gap-filling)
(deleting).
, , .

126__________________________________4. Language teaching / learning activities

Procedures
,

. procedures techniques, -
. Procedures , , . , - :
, , .
procedures
, , , , (Richards and Rogers 1987, pp. 146, 153; Nation
1989, p. 26; Rost 1993, p. 158).
Procedures, techniques, , . (twelve generalizable
procedures: Maley 1994, p. 3).

Open-ended activities vs. Closed activities


, , . . .
, ,
. ,
,
(tasks). (), .
,
, ,
(discovery learning).
, (mixed-ability class)
, , . . ,
.
, (prediction), (brainstorming,
mind-mapping), , , (ranking, discussion, problem

4. ___________________127
solving) - (role play,
scenario, simulation).
, closed activities.
, , ,
. . , .
(gap-filling) (reconstruction), (matching)
(Prodromou 1989; Willis 1996b, p. 28; 1997).

Lead-in activities
, ( 1989, . 208; , 1995,
. 12; 19966, . 8). .
, , , .
.
,
(. Background knowledge, . 94)
, , , ,
, (pre-text
activities).
. (. Lesson stage,
. 163).

Warm-up activities / Tune-in activities


, ,
. ,
, , ,
. , , ,
.
.
1960-70- - .
warmup activities ,
, , ,
-, --

128__________________________________4. Language teaching / learning activities

, ,
.
, , , (. Open-ended activities, . 126). .: Ur
and Wright 1993; , 1993, . 328; 1997.

4.2. Language teaching techniques



Classifying / Organizing
- ,

. ,
, .
(identification), (selection), (comparison, contrast), (matching), (sorting), (grouping), (ranking).
, ,
,
.

(. Consciousness-raising activities, . 134). ,
: , , , , , ( 1989, . 208; , 1995).
. , ,
. , ,
. , , , (. Open-ended activities us. Closed activities, . 126).
.: Lewis 1993, 1997; Carter and Long 1995, p. 41; Willis 1996b, p. 26.

Drama
(discovery learning).
, , . , , : , , , -

129

, .
(. Role play, . 148),
(. Simulation, . 150), (. Scenario, . 147),
(language games).
, . , , , , (),
, . , ,
- , , .
, , , , , . ,
:

. . , , .
:
- - -
,
, , .
, ,
, , , -;
* -
, , , , , .
, ,
- , ,
;
* ,
, ,
, -
. .: Holden
1981; Via 1985; Maley and Duff 1993; Wessels 1993; Ladousse 1994; 1996.

Eliciting / Elicitation
, . ,
, -

130__________________________________ 4. Language teaching / learning activities

, , , ,
.
- (. Questioning, . 130), (. Rephrasing, . 139).
, , . ,
.
.: 1988, . 90; 199.

Information gap
. , , .
.
, , .

(jigsaw activities, information gap activities), .


(. Information transfer, . 143).
information gap activities opinion gap activities,
,
, , , . , ,
, , , , .
.: Lewis and Hill 1992; Prabhu 1992a, pp. 46-47; Prodromou 1992; Nunan 1993,
p. 64; 1991, . 4-6.

- . . , , ,
, , .
(. Eliciting, . 129). -

4.
131

. - : .
, , ,
.
, : referential questions, inferential questions, evaluative questions questions of
personal response. ,
, ,

. , , .
, , . :
* comprehension questions / literal comprehension questions

, ;
display questions - .
, ,
- :
* multiple-choice questions ,
;
* truefalse questions , , (.
*Truefalse statements, . 141).
, , . ,
.
, . , , , :
* yes / no questions ;
* wh / how questions ;
* or questions ;
* tag questions .
:
* closed / convergent questions , ;
* open-ended / divergent questions , .
, ,
, .
. -

132________________________________

4. Language teaching / learning activities

. . , , , (. Open-ended activities us. Closed activities, . 126).


()
:
* pre-questions (pre-reading, pre-listening, pre-text questions) , ( , , . .);
in / whilst-questions (in-reading, in-listening questions) , ;
* post / follow-up questions (post-reading, post-listening, post-text questions) , , .
,
.
(, 1992).
,
, ,
(. Background knowledge, . 94). , , .
, , , , , . (follow-up discussion),
(. Feedback, . 183).
.: Nuttall 1982, . 132; Stevick 1986, pp. 24-25; Lewis and Hill 1992, p. 1ll;
Tollefson 1994; Tomlinson 1994; Hess and Pollard 1995.

Reconstruction / Restoration
- ,
-
.

(deleting)
(jumbling).
: (. Gap-filling, . 136), (. Completion,
. 133), (. Unscrambling, . 141).
, , , .
(. Jigsaw activities, . 136).
.: Maley 1994; Willis 1996b, p. 78.

4. _____________________133

Word association
- ,
, , .
(synectics) , . , , (brainstorming).

( 1997). .
, ,
(. Brainstorming, . 142) - (. Mapping,
. 142). , , , , , . , ,
, . , , ,
- .

(. Top-down reading, top-down listening, . 92).
(Carrell 1993, . 246; 1996).

4.3. Practice activities



Completion

, .
. , (sentence head) , .
,
, . ,
. ( )
(. Reconstruction, . 132), , , . -, .

134__________________________________4. Language teaching / learning activities

Consciousness-raising activities
,

, (Ellis 1993a; Willis and Willis 1996, p. 64).
awarenessraising activities, discovery techniques (Bolitho and Tomlinson 1988), observationbased activities (Lewis 1993, p. 10), noticing (Batstone 1996; Cranmer, 1996, p. 32;
Joe et al. 1996, p. 3; Lewis 1997, p. 52; Thornbury 1997).
, consciousness-raising activities .
1980-
,
- .
,
, .
,
. , drill
exercise. ,
, , , , ,
.
,
.
, . ,
. , , ,
, .
,
,

( 1991, . 93), .
90- ( )
, - ( 1991, . 17; Cook 1997). -,
, ( ).
, , .
-, , , -

4. __________________ 135
(. Consciousness-raising approach,
. 57). , ,
, , , , ,
( ), , , (. Classifying, . 128).
.: Willis and Willis 1996, p. 69; 1985, . 61; 1986;
1991, . 83; 1991, . 22.

Drill
, -
, , , , .

, (, , )
, .
- ,
. (Rivers and Temperley 1979, p. 130; Matthewn et. al. 1991; Prodromou
1992; Stevick 1992; Byrne 1994; 1986; 1989; 1991).
, , ( , ),
.

(Wilberg 1996, . 127; Cook 1997).

Expansion
,
, , , .
, , , , -
,
.
,
, ,
.
. (reduction), (. Summarizing, . 114).

4. Language teaching / learning activities

Gap-filling / Blank-filling / Cloze activity


, , (. Cloze procedure, . 198). ,
,
. ,
, .
(. Reconstruction, . 182),
.
, (. Multiple-choice test, . 199). , ,
,
(. Cloze test, . 198).


, -
, ( ) , . , , .

Jigsaw activities / Information gap activities


, . (. Information gap, . 130). .
.
.

. , , () ( , , ). : ,
, , .
jigsaw activity jigsaw reading,
jigsaw listening
,
, -

4.

137

, , ,
. .
,
.
jigsaw viewing, , jigsaw reading jigsaw
listening, .
.: Carter and Long 1991, pp. 71-75; Prabhu 1992a, pp. 46-47; Prodromou 1992, p.
72; Willis 1996b, p. 79; 1988; 1995.

(, , , , ) (, ) ,
, .

. , , , ,
(. Classifying, . 128).
, , - , ,
. , (
, ).
,
. ,
. , , , .
, , (. Split
dialogue, . 141).
.: Carter and Long 1991, pp. 76-79; Frank et al. 1993; 1995.

Odd one out


, ,
, ,
( ) , , . , , (. Classifying, . 128).

138__________________________________ 4. Language teaching / learning activities

,
. ,
, , , . . (Lewis
1997, . 91):
Which of the following words do not form a strong word partnership with the
word given? Delete the Odd One Out.
pay

a debt

a meal

a bill

a ticket

the taxi

strong

language

cheese

intelligence

accent

indication

() ( 1991, . 86). ,
, ,
. (. Topdown reading, top-down listening, . 92).

() ,
. ,
.

(pre-text activities, pre-teaching activities) , , , ,
, , , , .
,
, . (Carter and Long 1995, pp. 13-19).
,
(. Gap-filling, . 136).
.
,
- ,
, ,
.
, ,
(Willis 1996b, pp. 76-78).

4.

_________________139

Ranking
, , ,
: , , . . , , . , .
, . , , .

(. Integrated skills, . 91). ( )
- (Carter and Long
1995, p. 41). .
(. Openended activities, . 126).

Rephrasing / Reformulation / Paraphrase


.
,
(, , ) ,
,
.
,
, ,
.
:
() (),
, . , , ,
.
, , .

(Pink and Thomas 1936; Knight 1981; Bygate 1993, p. 44;
Jordan 1997, p. 170; , 1991, . 339-340).
:
, .
-

140 .__________________________

_______4. Language teaching / learning activities

; , , .
* .
* , .
* .
,

.
, (. Process-oriented writing, . 117),
, . , ,
(avoidance
strategy) (clarification strategy),
, . , , , , (compensation strategy), . Wenden and Rubin
1987, p. 26. , , (revising) (Kroll 1993).

(. Teacher talk, . 175) , , (Bartram and Walton 1991, p. 52;
Allwright 1993; Wilberg 1996; Thornbury 1997, p. 327).

Selection
-
(matching), (grouping, sorting), (ranking),
(. Classifying,
. 128).
,
. , - .

(. Scanning, . 99) (. Listening for partial comprehension, . 104). (. Multiple -choice test, . 199). ,
- (. True-false statements, . 141).

4.
__________________________________________________________________________
141_

(.
Odd one out, . 137).

Split dialogue / Jumbled dialogue


/
. split dialogue (jumbled
dialogue)
(. Reconstruction, . 132). ,
. - , (. , Unscrambling).
,
. , .
, .

Truefalse statements
- , (. Selection, . 140). .
, , , . ( )
- .

.

Unscrambling
,
(. Reconstruction, . 132).
(); , , , . ,
,
.
, , - , -

142__________________________________4. Language teaching / learning activities

.
, (Stevick 1992, pp. 132-133;
Willis 1996b, p. 78).

4.4. Communicative activities



,
- .
(. Word association,
. 133). ()
, , , ,
, . , .
(. Lead-in activities,
. 127),
. , ,
.

, (. Open-ended activities,
. 126)
, , .
.: White and Arndt 1994; Ur 1996, p. 68.

Mapping / Mind-mapping
( : 19966,
. 8; - : 1985, . 103) , ,
, (. Word association, . 133). (mind
map, semantic map: Carrell 1993, p. 246), ,
.
, - , - . -
,
,
(Woodward 1991, pp. 21-23).

4. ____________________143

Information transfer / Media transfer


.
.
, - , , . () () (, , ).

, , , . (, ) ,
, , , , (Hedge 1993, p.1ll; Littlewood 1994, . 71; Maley
1994; Ur 1996, p. 146).
- , . ,
, , , , ,
(Souillard 1989). ,
, ()
,
, ,
(. Information gap, . 130). , .

, () .

Presentation
.
- , .
, , - . (. Oral reporting, . 144)
, , .

142_______________________________

4. Language teaching / learning activities

.
, (Stevick 1992, pp. 132-133;
Willis 1996b, p. 78).

4.4. Communicative activities



Brainstorming
,
- .
(. Word association,
. 133). ()
, , , ,
, . , .
(. Lead-in activities,
. 127),
. , ,
.

, (. Open-ended activities,
. 126)
, , .
.: White and Arndt 1994; Ur 1996, p. 68.
Mapping / Mind-mapping
( : 19966,
. 8; - : 1985, . 103) , ,
, (. Word association, . 133). (mind
map, semantic map: Carrell 1993, p. 246), ,
.
, - , - . -
,
,
(Woodward 1991, pp. 21-23).

4. _______

143

Information transfer / Media transfer


.
.
, - , , . () () (, , ).

, , , . (, ) ,
, , , , (Hedge 1993, p. 1ll; Littlewood 1994, . 71; Maley
1994; Ur 1996, p. 146).
- , . ,
, , , , ,
(Souillard 1989). ,
, ()
,
, ,
(. Information gap, . 130). , .

, () .

Presentation
.
- , .
, , - . (. Oral reporting, . 144)
, , .

144__________________________________ 4. Language teaching / learning activities


(planned monologue) , ,
, , , . : 1) ,
; 2) , ,
, ; 3) ; 4) . , , . ,
. . , , .
.: Ellis and Johnson 1994; Jordan 1997, p. 201; Schmidt 1997.

Oral reporting / Oral report


. -
, , , .
(- ).
.

(. Cues, . 170),
,
, (guided report).
,
(. Presentation, . 143). .: Rivers and Temperley 1979, pp.
42-43; Willis 1996b.

Reporting back
- ,
(. Open-ended activities, . 126) . , , . -
,
,
. -
,
,

(Willis 1996a, 1996b; 1997).

4.

145

Discussion
- , . , , (, 1994, . 18),
,
, . discussion , - , , (Ur 1983, . 2).
() ,
, . ,
( ). ,
, .

, , , , .

, , ,
, - .
,
.
(. , Controlled discussion) (. Free discussion, . 146).
, , ,
( 1997).

, (. Lead-in activities, . 127),
, , , , , , (follow-up discussion). ,
,
(. Feedback, . 183).

Controlled discussion / Guided discussion


.
, (topicbased discussion) (text-based discussion) , . , .

146__________________________________4. Language teaching / learning activities

, , ,
, - , , , (, ).
, , .
, ,
. :
, (. Discussion, . 145).

Free discussion
.
, .
, ,
(. Controlled discussion, . 145). . : , ,
, ,
.

:
* Panel discussion . - .
, .
*Forum , ,
.
* Debate , ,

, ( 1997, . 190). *
Pyramid discussion , , . , , , , ,
.
,

(. Discussion, . 145). .: Jordan 1990; 1997, . 321; Woodward 1991.

Problem solving
, , , , -

4. ___________________147
, .
( ),
. :
(, , ), ,
(), , .
:
, ,

;

;
* , (. Information gap, . 130);
* , .
( )
, , . , -, - -.
,
, , . : , ,
, (, ), , , ( . 1993, . 48).
.
, , , (). .
, , .
.: Rivers and Temperley 1979, p. 61; Souillard and Kerr 1990; 1985, . 101;
1991; , 1992; 1996.

Scenario
,
. , (. Drama, . 128),
:
, , , ,
( ,
, , -

148__________________________________ 4. Language teaching / learning activities

; ,
, , , ).
* , , . .
, , .
* ,
(. Information gap, . 130).
, . , (Di Pietro 1994b).
,
(Di Pietro 1994a, p. 132):
A) You are going to spend the night in your friend's apartment while he (or
she) is away. Unfortunately, you have lost the key. Your friend told you that the
neighbour has an extra key. How will you convince this neighbour that you, a
stranger, should be given this key so that you can get into the apartment?
B) You have an extra key to the apartment next door. The owner of the apartment
has asked you to be careful about letting others use the key because there have
been several burglaries in the neighbourhood. Someone has just come to your door
to ask for the key. How will you make certain that this person is sincere and
should have it?

Role play
, ,
, ,
( 1985, . 87). ,
. , (. Drama, . 128).
: 1) ; 2) ,
; 3) , ; 4) ()
(Holden
1981; Maley and Duff 1993; Ladousse 1994; 1988 (
H.H. ); 1988; 1989; 1991).
, . , : . , (, , , , , , ).
(, , , ,
). , , .

4.

149

, :
, . , , . ,
, . , , - :
A: Can you tell me where the station is?
B: Straight ahead, two miles.
A: Thank you.
, , ,
. , ,
( ). ,
, , , .
, , ,
.
, , ; , . ...
, ,
( 1995, . 110).

Interview
, , , ,
,
. :
*Guided interview (interview schedule). .
Focused interview , (
), . , , . .
Depth interview ,
(Longman
Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, 1992).
interview (. Oral
interview, . 203).

150_______________________________

4. Language teaching / learning activities

Simulation
()
, , (
1995, . 4). ,
,
(. Scenario, . 147). ,
. ,
, . , ,
.
(. Role play, . 148)
, ,
. , (case study), , , . ,
(Jones 1992).

Project work

, - (, 1991, . 10). () .
, , ,
. ,
( .: Fried-Booth 1993).
, - ; . , , ,
. .
,
, ,
. , .
: 1) (planning),
2) (carrying out the project), 3)
(reviewing).

4.

151


.

( ).
,
. . , ,
, ,
, .
: (. Leaner-centred approach,
. 31), , . (, 1994, . 44).
,
, . .

, (discovery learning), , ,
, , (Hutchinson
1993; Ribe and Vidal 1993; , 1991).

5. Classroom management
:

classroom management
-
, ,
,
.
classroom management , ,

.
, ,
, , . , ,

, .
, ,
.
: ,
- . . , , . , ,
.
, .
. , ,
. , , , , -, .

. : _________________153


(. Humanistic approach, . 28) ,
, , .
,
, , , . ,
. , , .

.
, , ,
,
. .
.
,
, , ,
.
, , ,
,
: ,
,
.

5.1. General concepts


Classroom management
( ) :
,
,
,

( ) .

, .
, .
, , , ,
.

154________________________________________________ 5. Classroom management

(. Teaching, . 155) ,
, ; ,
; ,
. .
, (. Teacher roles,
. 174).
, (. Learning, . 157),
,
(learning strategies),
, (. Grouping, . 178),
,
.
(. Classroom
communication, . 159)
, - ,
, , . , (-
1979, . 11).

,
,
(, , , ), , , . . :
* (management of content),
, , .
. ; *
(management of student
participation),
; *
(management of face), ,
,

, .
, , (Nunan and Lamb 1996, p. 113).
,

. , :
9
, -

5. :

166

(My visit to the circus , Why I like theatre


. .), , My Family,
.
* - ( ; - ; , - ;
. .).
* ,
, .

. , , ,
.
: 1) , 2) .

.
, ,
.
,
(. Classroom monitoring,
. 173), . , ,
. , ,

.

() (. Teacher roles, . 174) ,


,
.
, . , , , , .
:
* ,

,
* ;
* ;
* ;

156__________________________________________

5. Classroom management

;
* , , .
, ;
, , ,
(. Learning, . 157), , .
(
1970, . 34-35), :

, ;

, , ,
;
,
,
,
;
, ;

,
, .
, , .
: (high-structured teaching), ;
(low-structured teaching) ,
, , .

, , . ,
. (high-structured
tasks).
(team teaching), ( ,
. .) , ,
,
.

5. : ________________157

Learning
()
, ,
.
; , ,
.
.
, (cognitive style),
(learning strategies). , ,

(learning style). ,
,
,
.
(acquisition). . ,
, , ,
.
; , (second language acquisition SLA); . Ellis 1994. , . ,
, ,
.
,
(. Teaching, . 155), . (instruction)
.
, , ,
.
.

158__________________________________________________5. Classroom management

, ,
.
Autonomous learning / Independent learning / Self-directed learning
, , ,
, .
. independent learning
, , self-directed learning ,
, . . autonomous
learning , , , , , , . .
. - ( 1998).
Co-operative learning , , ,
; (, 1993, . 90).
,
( 1998, . 11). (collaborative learning), (Brown
1994b, p. 81). , .
Discovery learning -, ,
,
-
( ), ,
.
Experiential learning ,
,
.

, ,
, , ,
. (. Communicative approach, . 29) (. Task-based learning, . 61).
Individualised learning / Individualised instruction: 1.
, , , , . , ,

5. :

159

. : , , ,
, , . 2.
, ; - (. Learnercentred approach, . 31), .
(lockstep learning), , .
Inductive learning us. Deductive learning . Deductive approach us.
Inductive approach, c. 34.
Meaningful learning , .

,
.
(rote learning), , .
Self-access learning (self-access centre, resource centre), ,
, - (. Self-access materials, . 168).

Classroom communication
,
, ,

( 1979, . 3). (communication), .
:
,
, -, -,
-.
,
, ,
,
(. Rapport, . 183),
-
( 1979, . 8).

160________________________________________________ 5. Classroom management

. ,
, ,
, (. Classroom interaction, . 171) (interaction). , .
:
* . (. Lesson planning, .
164), , , , , , . . *
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
* , ,

, (. Types
of classroom interaction, . 172)
, (. Feedback, . 183).
* (classroom
evaluation, classroom research) ,
,
(- 1979, . 24, 35, 36).

, .

(teacher training) , :
, (role play, peer teaching),
, ,
;
* (micro-teaching) ,
( ) ; ,
5-10 , , ,
;
*- , .

. :

16
1

5.2. Lesson planning


Lesson
.
, , ,
, . ,
,
. .
, ,
, .
:
, ,
, , ,
( 1988).
, , , :
( );
, ;
, ;
9 , .

Lesson type / Lesson planning model


,
. ,
. ,
, .

: , ESA, OHE, ARS, deep end.
(presentation, practice, production) (,
, ).

( ), , , ,
,
. . : , , ,
.

162________________________________________________ 5. Classroom management

.
.
, .
,
, , (teacher-centred
approach).
ESA (engage, study, activate , , ),
. (Harmer 1998, pp. 25-29), (observe,
hypothesise, experiment , , ), . (Lewis 1996b, pp. 1016),
. , ,
.
ARC (authentic, restricted, clarification), . (Scrivener 1996, pp. 7992), . , authentic
- ; restricted -
; clarification ,
.
, . , : CRRA, RCR, . . ( ), ESA, EAS, EAASASEA
. . ( ).
(. Task-based learning, . 61) deep end. ,

, . : , , , . ,
, , ,
, - .
,
, ,
, , - , , (jungle path).
, , ESA, deep end jungle path
, ,
,
, .
.
, -
.

5. :

163

:
Transaction ,
.
, : (. Product-oriented approach, . 33).
*Interaction -, , , , . (. Process-oriented approach, . 34),
, .

. , .
,
, . , , . , (Ur 1996, . 214).
.
, . *

,
;
* , , ( . 1982, . 330).

Lesson stage
, (, 1993,
. 345),
(Prabhu 1992b, . 225).

,
, , ,
, . .
, ,
: , , , , , . , ,

164__________________________________________________ 5. Classroom management

.
,
. (. Lesson type, . 161), , .
, , , ,
. , , , .
, :
; ,

, ;
,
,
,
,
; 9

(-, - . .); *
..., ...
..., ... ( 1988, . 6768).

:
* , . *
,
. *

.
* (entry) (closure) ; ,
. *
,
. ,
, ,
(Ur 1996, pp. 217-218).

Lesson planning / Pre-teaehing planning



, . :
, , .
- ,
, ,

,
.
() () .
.
; ,
, . . , .
, . ,
. , ,
.
.
. :
goal(s) ;
*objectives ; ;
* materials and equipment ;
*procedures , , , ;
evaluation ,
;
* extra-class work , (Brown 1994b, pp. 396-398).
,
(. Product-oriented approach, . 33; Processoriented approach, . 34). , ,
, . , .
,
, , , (Nunan and Lamb 1996, pp. 106-107).
,
,
, ,
.
(. Community language learning, . 49)
(. The silent way, . 52), (. Communicative approach, . 29).
,
, . ,
.
- .

166________________________________________________ 5. Classroom management

Lesson evaluation

.
, , , ,
. :
formal evaluation , , , ;
8 informal evaluation ,
,
,
;
* self-evaluation , , ;
* peer observation and evaluation
;
*student evaluation ; ,
.
,
:
9 ,
,
.
() :
,
: ; , - ; ,
,
; . .;
;
, ,
;
* : ,
, . .;

(
, ,
. .);
:
, , ,
; ,
, , . .

5. :

167

5.3. Managing the materials



Authentic materials
. (, , , ,
. .),
, ,
. , . , ,
- .
. , (simplified materials)
, .
,
. , .

, .
, , ,
, . .
, , ,
, ,
.
, , .

Course book
.
, - (course
series), , (level).
:
: -

168___________________________________________________5. Classroom management


, ( ),
;
* ( ) ,
, , . .;
* :
(,
, . .);

, ;
, ,
,
,

;

,
;
: (, , , ),
,
, (. Skills, . 90); *

(. Spiral Syllabus, . 87).
(student's book),
, , ,
, , , , .
,
(teacher's book), - , ,
, , , , ,
.

Self-access materials
,
,
.
(graded readers), - , . . , . , - ;
.
(self-access centre),

. - ,
. .

. : _________________169

Audiovisual aids / Teaching aids


, ( , ), (
),
: , , , ,
, , , , , , , , ,
(, , , ,
. .).
, ,
, (flash cards),
(picture cards), (cue cards) (sentence cards) (role cards). (card games),
(word display),
(magnet board) (flannel board) . , . .

(. Cues, . 170) ,
, ,
- .

Materials selection
,
,
. : , ,
. . , : , , ,
,
( ) .
, , , (. , Materials evaluation;
Authentic materials, . 167) .

Materials evaluation
. (. , Materials selection)
-

170_______________________________________________

5. Classroom management

, .
, . :
* ;
* ;
* ; *
(, , ); *
;
* ;
* : ,
, , ;
* ; *
: ,
, , ;
: - , , . . (Brown 1994b,
pp. 150-151).
(basal course series) (supplementary course books), , ,
.

Cues / Prompts
, -. ,
.
-

.
() (, ),
( )
( ).
, - (), , - , , , . , , , .
, , , ; , , , , , ( 1980; ,
1993).
(-) (cued
dialogues: Littlewood 1992). , (: ...; ...; . .). ,
, -

5. :

171

, .
, , ,
. ( ) .
,

(, 1997). ,
:
, : (phonetic cues), (grammatical cues), (lexical cues), (textual cues / context cues);
, (background knowledge): (factual cues) (realia) (soiolinguistic / sociocultural
cues).
.

5.4. Classroom dynamics


Classroom interaction
, , .
(, , . .)
. , ,

. , .

:
(teacher initiation) (student response) (teacher feedback /
evaluation) (Chaudron 1993, p. 132). , , (. Types of classroom interaction, . 172; Feedback, . 183).
. .
, - , , . ,

172____________________________________________________5. Classroom management

, .
, , , . ,
, , , , , , .
,
(mutual
construction of meaning, negotiating for meaning), (Chaudron 1993, . 106). , ,
: , ,
.
, (. Teacher talk, . 175),
,
(. Teacher talking time, . 178),
. ,
, (. Teacher waiting time, . 178).

(error correction) (. Feedback, . 183), , . , , , , , .
(. Rapport, . 183) .

Type of classroom interaction


.
IRF (initiation, response, feedback),
,
( ).
, ,
, ,
. , , :
, ;
, ;
TS ;
S , ;

5. : _________________173

SS , (Ur
1996, . 227; teacher, S student).
,
, :
- ();
-> 1 ();
P1- 2 ();
-> 1 .

Classroom monitoring
:
, , ,
, , , .
, , .
(pre-teaching planning), . , -
, , , (online monitoring).
, , , :
,
. .
(allocation of teacher speech to learners)
.
, (action zones) , , , ,
. , ,
- , (Chaudron 1993, . 119).
,
.
.
, :
*lock-step monitoring / teaching ,
, -

174

5. Classroom management

; ;
*self-monitoring ,
, ; , ;
* peer monitoring () , ;
, , , ;
.

Teacher roles vs. Learner roles


.
, ,
.
: -, -, , , , ( 1970).
- ,
(. Aims, . 73).
(, ) -, - .
, ,
, , , .
,
,
(,, , ). , .
, , , , , ,
.
.
(- , ), ( ).
-

5. :

175

, ,
(Teacher Training Programmes).
, . :
controller / instructor , , ;
tutor , , , ; facilitator , ; assessor ;
organiser , ; prompter , , ; participant
,
; investigator , (Harmer 1991, . 239).
, , :
parrot , , ; note-taker ;
researcher / explorer / experimenter , , , ; performer ,
, ,
; individual , ; group participant , ,
.
. , ,
.

.

Teacher talk vs. Student talk


, . .
, :
- ;
.
, , , , . ,
,
, , , . . (Cullen
1998, pp. 179-187);

176________________________________________________ 5. Classroom management


.

, (modification) , ,
, , (. Teacher talking time,
. 178), (. Code
switching, . 177).

,
, , , , ( , . .) (Chaudron 1993, . 85).
,
, , .
, , , ,
(foreigner talk),
. : , , ,
.
, .

, (. Classroom interaction, . 171)
(. Classroom monitoring, . 173).
(, , . .; . Questioning, . 130)
, , .
, , ,
. ,
, , ,
,
.
,
, , .
,
, , , , .

5. :
177
, :
*, , : , , . . (comprehension checks);
* : - (confirmation checks),
- (clarification
requests), , , . .
, , ,
(student talk),
.

(. Group work, . 179;
Pair work, . 180; Solo work, . 180), ,
, , , (. Student talking time, . 178).
,
.

Code switching / Choice of language


, ,
.
, . :
,
, , , . , .
.

,
.
,
( ), .
,
, , .
, ,
.
, , ,

178______________________________________________5. Classroom management


, . , .

Teacher talking time (TTT) vs. Student talking time (STT)


, , . , , ,
. . ,
, , . , , ,

.

Teacher waiting time (TWT)


, .
1-2 ,
- , .
35 . , ; , , . . (Nunan 1998, . 193).
, , ,
, . , ,
.

Grouping / Grouping arrangements


. , , (. Classroom management, . 153), (. Classroom monitoring, . 173)
. , ,
, .
: (whole class work), (group work), (pair work), (solo work).

Whole class work


, ; ,
. ,

. : _________________179

(. Seating arrangement, , 181)


. , , , .
whole class teaching,
, .

Group work
, ( )
, .
:
, , ,
, ,
( 1998, . 12).

, , , , ,
, ,
, , .
(team building), (group dynamics).
, ,
, . :
* ,
,
;
* ,
, , , ,
;
* ;
* ,
, ;
* , , .

:
* , ;
* ;
*
; *

(, );

180____________________________________________

5. Classroom management

* ,
(Brown 1994b, pp. ITSITS).
, , . , .
, , , , , , ,
.
:
, , , . , .

(. Seating arrangement, . 181),
(, , , , . .).
, , , , , , .

Pair work / Pair practice


; , , .
:
, - .
, , , . .
, .
,
(. Group work, . 179).
(open pair)
(closed pair).
. ,
. ,
. (Matthewn et al. 1991,
p. 213).

Solo work
() ;
.
, , -

. : ________________181
, . -, .

One-to-one instruction
, .
, , - ,
(self-access centre), ,
.
.
, , ,
; , , .

Seating arrangement
,
. , , ,
, ,
.

,
34 , ,
, , .

Discipline / Student behaviour


, . , ,
, ,
(. Rapport, . 183). , , . -
, , .

, , . , ,
.

182_____________________________________________
management

5. Classroom

,
(unacceptable student behaviour, disruptive student behaviour),
- , .
,
. ,

. , , , :
, ,
(. Classroom monitoring, . 173);


;
* , , , ;
;
, , ,
,
, ,
;

(Nunan and Lamb
1996, p. 124).
, ,
:
9 Don't go to class unprepared , .
Don't be inconsistent
: ,
.
Don't issue threats ; , .
Don't raise your voice ,
.
Don't give boring classes ,
.
Don't be unfair .
Don't have a negative attitude to learning :
, ,
,
.
Don't break the code , : ,
(Nunan and Lamb 1996, p. 124).
(. Behaviourism, . 24) . , ,

5. :

183

.
,
:
, ;
* , ;
, ;
, ;
,
, ,
;
* ;
* , ,
;
* ,
(Nunan and Lamb
1996, p. 127).

Rapport
, , (positive classroom
climate), . .
, ,
, , .
Feedback
, , , ,
.
, .

, , .
,
. ,
,
.
: .
,
, . .

184________________________________________________ 6. Classroom management


: (positive feedback)
(negative feedback).
, . , All right, Good,
Right ,
.
,

.
: , , , .

. .

.
.
,
. ,
, .
(. Self-assessment, . 188) .
,
, . , ,

(Rinvolucri 1994, pp. 287288).
,
.

. ,
,
, ,
.
.
(hypothesis testing) .
, ,
, ,
.

6. Assessment and testing


, , .
. . , - , ,
...
, (, 1993, . 100).
, () , , .
, , . control ( 1987).
, , , , , ,
evaluation, assessment testing.
,
, , . :
* (),
* ,
* ,
'
* () , , ,
* (),
* ,
* , *
,
* , .
, ,
- .

186_____________________________________

6. Assessment and testing

,
, .

testing teaching (Hughes 1993; 1996, . 6). , , , , ( 1991,
. 24). (. Testing techniques, . 197).
:
* ,
* ,
* ,
* ,
* ,
, , , , , .
- : , , , , . , , . (, , ,
), , , , , (, ), , .
, , , , .
, , evaluation, assessment
testing .
evaluation ,
, , , .
, , , , assessment testing. evaluation , ,
. assessment testing,
, , .
, , .
, , .

6. _______________________________187

6.1. General concepts


Evaluation
,
,
, , - .
: , , , .
, ,
, , , , . evaluation
assessment testing, evaluation.
, , ,
evaluation , , (Bachman 1990; Oiler 1992;
Alderson et al. 1995).

Assessment
1. . assessment
evaluation testing .
-: selfassessmentself-evaluation, peer assessmentpeer evaluation, oral testingoral assessment. , evaluation , assessment. assessment
, , ,
. , , , , . (,
, , )
evaluation (Bachman 1990, p. 22; Nunan and
Lamb 1996, p. 231).
2. .
, ,
, ,
.
(. Formative assessment, . 188),
,
, (. Summative assessment, . 188).
(. Mark, . 192).
.
.

188_____________________________________________
testing

6. Assessment and

Summative assessment / Snmmative evaluation


,
, , ,
. , .
.
, , ( )
.

Formative assessment / Formative evaluation


, .
.
: , , , . (progress achievement tests) .

Self-assessment / Self-evaluation
.
-,
.

, , , , , .
.
, , , ,
.
, ,
(- 1990, . 205; . 1991).

Testing / Language testing


1. . testing
evaluation, assessment
.
2. , ,

6. ______________________________189
, ; , () (Davies
1990, . 10).

Test / Language test


. , , test , , , , .
test
: (objective tests) (subjective tests).
, ;
(Povey and Walshe 1982, p. 153; Bachman
1990; Oiler 1992).

,
, , ... ... / ... , (,
1993, . 114).
, ( ) .
, ,
, (validity)
(reliability). , .
, . ,
. ,
, ,
, (Davies 1990; Weir 1990, 1993; Hughes 1993; Heaton 1994; Alderson et
al. 1995; 1986; . 1987; 1994;
1996).
: .
.
(items). , .
(stem, lead) ( ), . , ,
(), , , .

190______________________________________________6. Assessment and testing


(responses), (options)
(alternatives). (key / answer /
correct option) , (destractors).
: . .
( 40-50) (test batteries) (parts)
(subtests). (test tasks).
Tester

, (), ,
(testees / test-takers) (, ),
. learner testee test-taker, .
test administration,
to administer tests.

Washback effect / Backwash


( , ) ,
washback . washback backwash test impact test feedback (Alderson and Wall 1993;
Hamp-Lyons 1997; Brown and Hudson 1998, p. 668).
(positive / beneficial washback) ,
, , ,
. , , , , . (negative / harmful washback) ,
, :
, . ,
,
,
, (Hughes 1993).
, .
, .

6. ______________________________191
washback , .
( 1985; ,
1993; , 1995, . 12; 1996).

Error
,
,
. , .
(error), .-. . ,
, .
,
(Corder 1993).
( , , , ) , , (Lennon 1991; Richards 1993;
1996; 1997).
: , , (phonological, lexical,
syntactic errors). (formal / overt errors) (covert errors),
.
, ( 1986, . 10),
(global errors),
, (local errors),
. (interlingual errors)
(intralingual errors). , . , , . ,
(
, ) , . (overgeneralization)
,
(developmental errors). , (induced errors) ( 1996, . 31).
,
(learning strategies).
:

192______________________________________________6. Assessment and testing


* (ignorance of rule
restrictions);
* (incomplete application of rules);
*
(false concepts hypotheses).
, , , . . ( 1996, . 36).
error mistake, ,
error, (), , , . .,
(). ,
, .-. (Corder 1993).

, . mistake error . - (Povey and Walshe
1982, p. 179).

Mark / Grade
. ,
,
. ,
(. Assessment, 2, . 187).
.

, ( ),
, .
,
. , , grade;
, . ( ,
, .: Povey and Walshe 1982, pp. 169-171.)
grade.

Marking / Grading
()
, ,
(. , Mark).
Scoring () .

6. _______________________________193

6.2. Test types


Test types
.
* : proficiency test , achievement
test , diagnostic test ,
placement test , aptitude test
. ,
, ,
.
* : progress achievement test
, final achievement
test .
:
linguistic test , ( );
pragmatic test , ( ).
* : discrete-point test
, integrative test / global test .
* : norm-referenced test
, (- );
criterion-referenced test , (- ).
* ( ): recognition-type test , recall-type test
.
.: Bachman 1990; Alderson et al. 1996; 1986; 1989, . 20.

Pragmatic test
. () . ,
(Oiler 1987; Tan 1994; 1982).
: .
, , .
,

(. Integrative test, . 194).
( 1985, 1990, . 23; 1989).

194________________________________________________ 6. Assessment and testing

He . , - ( ), -, , ,
, ,
, .

Discrete-point test
. , , (, , , ) . ,
(. Pragmatic test, . 193; Integrative test, . ).
.
. ,
, - ,
.
, -, , , , , (. Multiple-choice test, C-test, . 199).
(. Validity, . 203) (editing
test). , .
.

Integrative test / Global test


.
(. , Discrete-point test) ,
. . , (. Pragmatic
test, . 193).

Proficiency test
( )

,
.
(entry test /
selection test), (placement test)
(planning instruction
test).

6. ______________________________195

.
, . ,

. .
, TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language), (First Certificate in English FCE, Certificate in Advanced
English CAE, Certificate of Proficiency in English - CPE)
(Preliminary EFL exam, Higher EFL exam), . , , .

Placement test
,
.
" ( 1997). .
, (
), , . , , (. Achievement
test, . 196), (. Proficiency
test, . 194).

Diagnostic test
,

. , , , .
, ,
.
,
, .
.
.

196______________________________________________6. Assessment and testing


, , ,
(Davies 1990).

(formative tests) , (summative tests). ,
.
.

Achievement test
( ).

. ,
(. , Progress achievement
test) (. , Final achievement test).

Progress achievement test


, (, , ). , ,
, , ,

.
,
, . .

Final achievement test



. , .
(. Proficiency
test, . 194) ,
.
, , , ,
. -

6.

197

,
(Hughes 1993, . 11-12).

Norm-referenced test vs. Criterion-referenced test


- / . ,
. ,
, .
,
, (criterion-referenced tests). - .
, .
- - , , .

6.3. Testing techniques


Testing techniques
, ,
. , (. Test, . 189).
Testing testing techniques
(. Testing, 1, . 188).
testing techniques test method
(Bachman 1990).
(. Techniques, . 124)

.
, , . ( ), , , ,
, , , :
* ;
* ;
* ;
* , , ;
* ;
*
.

198________________________________________________ 6. Assessment and testing

,
.
,
, .
.: Davies 1990, . 17; Alderson et al. 1995, pp. 41-42; 1991;
1996; 1996.

Cloze procedure
(). () , .
, ,
. .

, . , . . (fixed-ratio method standard
cloze procedure) ( 5
10). (variable-ratio method)
, : , ( ,
. .) . .
:
* ( )
(readability test: Nuttall 1982, p. 29);
* -,
(. , Cloze test);
* () (. Gap-filling, . 136);
* (Oiler 1992,
. 348).
(Weir 1990, . 46; Heaton 1994, . 131),
-.
, ,

(exact word method) , (acceptable word method, contextually appropriate method). .

Cloze test
- , , (. ,
Cloze procedure).

6. _________________________________199

. -
- .
- .
- ,
. , ,
, (, 1992).
,
(. , Multiplechoice test). - , . , , , .
- ,
(Alderson et al. 1995).
- ,
,
, (Carter 1991, . 161).
.: Hughes 1993; 1986; 1989; 1994.

C-test
- - (. Cloze test, . 198). - ,
.
. -
(exact-word
method).
- .
.
. , -
, (. Face validity,
. 205), (Weir 1990, . 46;
1989).

Multiple-choice test
. , ,
(options / alternatives),
, . -

200________________________________________________ 6. Assessment and testing

. - , , (. Cloze
test, . 198).
: , . ,

. ,
distractors (Goodrich 1977).
(Heaton 1994, . 30):
* , , ;
* ;
* ,
;
* ;
* 5 ( 4 5 ).

Dictation
, . ,
, . : () (standard dictation), (. Partial dictation,
. 201), - (dictocomp / dictogloss), (dictation with noise), (self-dictation),
(mutual dictation) . (Hughes 1993; Wilberg 1996, p. 125; ,
1993; 1997).

:
. , (,
1991, . 65).

, .

,
. ,
: Davis and Rinvolucri 1993.

6. _________________________________201

Partial dictation
, (. Dictation, . 200) ,
, - (. Cloze test, . 198). , , . .

.
(. Listening for partial comprehension, . 104).

Reception testing
.

.
, . ( 1991, . 25).

,
(), :
*classifying (selection, matching, ranking, .) ,
* true-false statements - ,
* note-taking ,
* mind-mapping - ,
* information transfer / media transfer ,
* discussion ,
* retelling .
(. Cloze test, . 198; C-test, . 199;
Multiple-choice test, . 199).
,
( ). ,
, . , , (. Testing techniques, . 197; Pragmatic test, . 193;
Integrative test, . 194).

202________________________________________________ 6. Assessment and testing

Production testing
.

, , ,
. . , , , (
), (. Oral testing,
. 203).
(, , , ) :
questioning - ,
information transfer / media transfer ,
ranking , presentation
, oral interview , oral reporting
,
drama ( , . .),
discussion ,
problem solving ,
oral summary , retelling
, oral commentary
.
,
.

. (. Types of
writing, . Ill):
* form completion ,
*letter-writing in response to information
(-, , . .),
written commentary ,
* information transfer / media transfer ,
* dictation (. Dictation, . 200), *summary
writing ,
( , , .
.); (. Summarizing, .
114),
* editing ,
* composition , *
essay .

6. _______________________________203

Oral testing
- ( - ). ( ) : , ,
, . () . , .
(oral test) , (. , Oral interview; Production testing, . 202).
.: Underbill 1993.
:
, ,
; ,
, , ( .: , 1991).

Oral interview
, (. , Oral testing), (interviewer) (learner / interviewee)
(
, ). ,
,
, , ,
.
,
, . - (Underbill 1993,
. 54; Fulcher 1996).

6.4. Test validity and reliability



Validity
, ,
. ,
. ,
. , , -

204__________________________________________

6. Assessment and testing

(content validity), (concurrent validity), (predictive validity / prognostic validity), (construct validity) (face validity).
, ,
.
:
* ;
* ;
* , ;
* ,
,
( ),
.
* , .

Content validity
,
, ,
, , .
.

Concurrent validity
, , , . .

Predictive validity / Prognostic validity


, . , , ,
.

Construct validity
() ,
. , , ().
, -

6. ______________________________ 205

- , . , , . ,
.

Face validity
. , .
, , , , , -
- . . , .

Reliability
,
.
, ,
(Bachman 1990, . 24; Oiler 1992).