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.., .., ..

SIP

, ,
.. ..
http://librus.ru

1.
1.1. SIP
1.2. SIP IP-
1.3. SIP

2. (SIP)
2.1 (UA)
2.1.1 (UAC)
2.1.1.1
2.1.1.2

2.1.2

(UAS)

2.1.2.1
2.1.2.2

2.2 SIP
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.1.1
2.3.1.2
2.3.1.3

2.3.2

2.3.2.1
2.3.2.2

2.3.3

2.3.3.1 REGISTER
2.3.3.2 REGISTER

2.3.4

2.3.4.1 OPTIONS
2.3.4.2 OPTIONS

2.3.5

2.3.5.1
2.3.5.2

2.3.6

2.3.6.1 UAC
2.3.6.2 UAS

2.3.7
2.3.8
2.4 -
2.4.1 -
2.4.1.1
2.4.1.2
2.4.1.3

2.4.1.4
2.4.1.5
2.4.1.6
2.4.1.7
2.4.1.8





CANCEL

2.4.2 -
2.4.3 Route Request-URI
2.4.4
2.5
2.6
2.6.1 -
2.6.2 -
2.6.3 Digest
2.7 S/MIME
2.7.1 S/MIME
2.7.2 S/MIME
2.7.3
2.7.4 SIP- S/MIME (SIP-)
2.7.4.1 SIP-
2.7.4.2

2.8
2.8.1
2.8.1.1
2.8.1.2
2.8.1.3
2.8.1.4
2.8.1.5

2.8.2
2.8.2.1
2.8.2.2
2.8.2.3
2.8.2.4


SIPS URI
HTTP
S/MIME

2.8.3
2.8.3.1 SIP
2.8.3.2

2.9
2.9.1 -
2.9.2
2.10 SIP
2.10.1
2.10.1.1
2.10.1.2

2.10.2
2.10.2.1
2.10.2.2

2.10.3
2.10.4

3. SIP (SIP-T)
4

3.1 SIP-T
3.2
3.2.1 SIP-T (-IP-)
3.2.2 IP-
3.2.3 IP-

3.3 SIP T
3.3.1 SIP
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.4

3.4 SIP
3.5
3.6 ISUP SIP
3.6.1
3.6.2 SIP
3.6.2.1 ISUP
3.6.2.2 MIME
3.6.2.3 DTMF
3.6.2.4
3.6.2.5 ,
SIP,
3.6.2.6
3.6.2.7 , CANCEL

3.6.3 ISUP SIP


3.6.3.1
3.6.3.2. SIP-T ISUP-SIP
3.6.3.3 SIP

3.6.4 SIP ISUP


3.6.4.1
3.6.4.2 SIP-T SIP-ISUP
3.6.4.3 SIP

3.6.5 URI
3.6.5.1 ISUP tel URL
3.6.5.2 tel URL ISUP

2. (SIP)
SIP
SIP .
.
SIP , , ,
. ,
SIP, . , , SIP,
, . SIP

.
SIP .
Backus-Naur Form (BNF). BNF SIP RFC 3261, SIP
2.2.
.
,
.
2.10.
. ,
SIP ,
, .
,

. , (UAC),
.
2.3.2. (UA) -
(stateful -) .
- (stateless -)
. ,
,
. (state machine),
.
, ,
(transaction user - TU). SIP, stateless , . TU ,
IP-,
,
. TU, , .
, ,
,
. CANCEL,
,
( 2.3.5).
SIP , , stateful
stateless - , -
(core), . , stateless , (TU). ,
10

UAC UAS ,
. 2.1. UAC
, UAS
. SIP, UAS,
c REGISTER,
(registrar). 2.3.3 UAC UAS
REGISTER. 2.3.4. UAC UAS OPTIONS,
UA.
, RFC SIP (RFC 3261),
.
SIP, .
UA
. INVITE ,
, RFC 3261 (
SUBSCRIBE
REFER). UAC ,
UAC, 2.1,
. 2.3.1
.
SIP INVITE,
.
,
. 2.3.6 ,
. 2.3.7 ,
INVITE .
2.3.8 , .

2.1. (UA)
(UA) - ,
, .
SIP . ,
(UAC), ,
(UAS), . UAC UAS
,
. UAC UAS .

2.1.1. (UAC)

, ,
. (
, ).
2.1.1.1.
, ,
, , Request-URI SIP,
: To, From, CSeq, Call-ID, Max-Forwards Via.
, Request-URI, SIP-.
11

SIP-,
,

,
. 2.2.2
.
UAC . ,
, INVITE (. 2.3.1),
, OPTION
(. 2.3.4.)
Request-URI
Request-URI ,
. Request-URI ,
URI To. REGISTER;
Request-URI REGISTER 2.3.3.
(privacy)
Request-URI To , ,
UA , Request-URI .

Request-URI
.

URI,
, UAC .
UA
(service provider), SIP .
URI,
-.
,
Request-URI Route, 2.3.1.2 (
, ) Request-URI
URI .
To
To -
(address-of-record) , .
, .
To SIP SIPS URI. SIPS ,
(, TLS).
URI- (,
tel (RFC 2806)). SIP SIP URI,
, TLS, SIPS URI.
To .
To
. ,
(, anton); UA
.
SIP- (user part) , UA
, @
SIP URI (,
sip:anton@niits.ru).
12

SIPS , UA ,
. (home
domain) ;
. SIP ,
. ,
,
.
tag To.
tag To
( , )
SIP . Tag To tag From
Call-ID .
, tag .
To:
To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>
From
From ,
, . To
URI , , (display name),
. SIP- ,
, (,
). , URI From IP-
FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) , UA,
.
From (display name).
UAC "Anonymous",
(identity) .
, From , UA,
,
. UA
, , URI,

, , ,
From .
From tag, UA.
:
From: "Anton" <sips:anton@niits.ru> ;tag=a48s
From: sip:+79213434329@gateway.protei.ru;tag=887s
From: Anonymous <sip:c8oqz84zk7z@privacy.org>;tag=hyh8
Call-ID
Call-ID ,
. ,
UA .
, Call-ID UAC
. SIP ,
13

, Call-ID, , UA.
,
, (,
),
Call-ID (. 4
2.1.1.2).
Call-ID
( RFC 1750),

Call-ID. localid@host. Call-ID
.
:
Call-ID: f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6@niits.ru
CSeq
CSeq
. . ,
REGISTER, .
32- ,
231. CSeq.
:
CSeq: 4711 INVITE
Max-Forwards
Max-Forwards
. ,
. 0 ,
, 483
(Too Many Hops).
UAC Max-Forwards .
: 70. ,
, SIP ,
, -
.
, .
Via
Via ,
(location),
. SIP , Via
, .
UAC , Via.
SIP, - 2.0. Via
branch.
, . , .
branch ,
UA. CANCEL ACK ,
14

2. CANCEL branch, ,
. ACK , 2
branch, INVITE, .

. branch, SIP,
"z9hG4bK". , magic cookie,
, , , ,
.
Via (maddr, ttl sent-by)
SIP.
Contact
Contact SIP SIPS URI,
UA, (
).
SIP SIPS URI ,
. , , INVITE.
Contact , ..
Contact URI, UA , URI
,
.
Request-URI Route SIPS URI,
Contact SIPS URI. Route
-.
Supported Require
UAC SIP SIP
, , UAC
Supported (option tag)
. ption-tag
SIP SIP,
RFC. ,
, , , .
,
RFC Standard, Supported
,
-.
UAC , UAS , UAC
,
Require, option-tag . UAC
, -
, Proxy-Require,
option-tag .

, , ,
,
.
15

SIP- MIME (.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046).
, , ,
( Content-Disposition, ContentEncoding, Content-Language, Content-Length, Content-Type). 2.2.2).

.
-,
DNS-, RFC 3263: "SIP: Locating SIP
Servers". strict router (-,
Request-URI Route),
DNS- Request-URI,
.
Route Request-URI, Route .
,
. , URI
Locating SIP Servers, Request-URI
SIPS , UAC ,
URI SIPS URI.

. Request-URI SIPS URI,

TLS. ,
, Route.
,
-.
- ,
URI. Route,
, Route,
, Route Request-URI,
UA. , UA, -,
,
Route, . , -,
Record-Route, . ,
Route,
-.
UAC , "SIP: Locating SIP Servers",
RFC 3263 stateful SIP , ,
. ,
Via branch
.
2.1.1.2.
SIP,
.
(transaction user, TU).
16

TU , .
.

, , , SIP
, .
(timeout error),
, 408 (Request Timeout).
SIP (fatal transport error),
, 503 (Service Unavailable).
ICMP- UDP TCP.

UAC ,
x00 , x00
. , UAC 431,
, , , 400 (Bad Request). UAC
, 100,
183 (Session Progress). UAC 100,
183 .
Via
Via, UAC
, , -,
.
3
(, 301),
() Contact
, .
(target set),
URI - Request-URI .
3
, target set. UAC ,
URI, Contact, target set. ,
3, URI target set
. SIPS URI Request-URI,
SIPS URI,
URI.
, target set , UAC ,
target set .
q
Contact. q ,
Contact 0 1.
.
q
q
.
17

q,
q.
, SIP
. ,
.
( 399).
, ( )
(TU) .
, ;
.
,
.
.
, ,
3, UAC URI target set
Request-URI, method-param header. header
,
, .
(,
Contact) .
. ,
,

.
,
. ,
:
sip:anton@niits.ru?Subject=organization&Call-Info=http://www.niits.ru,

Subject
, HTTP URL
Call-Info.
, UAC To, From Call-ID,
, UAC, ,
Call-ID . ,
, ,
, branch Via.
, , ,
, .
, Contact

.
4
4xx UA
, .

401 (Unauthorized) 407 (Proxy Authentication Required)


, .
18

, UAC
.
413 (Request Entity Too Large) ,
, , UAS . UAC
, .
415 (Unsupported Media Type) , ,
, UAS.
UAC ,
Accept ,
Accept-Encoding
Accept-Language, .
416 (Unsupported URI Scheme) , URI,
Request-URI, .
UAC , SIP URI.
420 (Bad Extension) ,
Require Proxy-Require, option-tag ,
- UAS. UAC
, ,
Unsupported .
494 (Security Agreement Required)
.
Security-Server
, . UAC

.

,
.
Call-ID, To From, , CSeq
, .
4
.

2.1.2. (UAS)
,
, ,
- .
2.1.2.1.
,
, . , .
,
, ,
.
,
( , ,
).

19

( ), UAS
. UAS , ,
405 (Method Not Allowed);
Allow, , UAS.
, .

UAS , ,
. UAS
, .
To Request-URI
To
. UAS
, To UAS. ,
UAS , URI
(, tel) To, To ,
UAS. , UAS ,
403 (Forbidden)
( 2.3.2) .
Request-URI UAS, .
Request-URI , ,
416 (Unsupported URI Scheme). RequestURI , UAS ,
404 (Not Found). , UA,
REGISTER (address-ofrecord) , , Request-URI
.
Request-URI Contact ,
UA .

tag To, UAS (UAS
core) . tag
From, Call-ID CSeq ,
, ,
UAS 482 (Loop Detected)
. ,
, - -.
UAS 482 (Loop Detected)
.
Require
, UAS , ,
Require .
Require UAC, UAS SIP
, UAS .
20

UAS - option-tag,
Require, 420 (Bad Extension). UAS
Unsupported ,
Require .
, Require Proxy-Require
CANCEL, ACK, 2xx.
, .
ACK 2xx Require
Proxy-Require, , :
UAC->UAS:
UAS->UAC:

INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0


Require: 100rel
SIP/2.0 420 Bad Extension
Unsupported: 100rel

,
, (options) ,
, , .
- ,
. , ,
, , .

, UAS , , UAS
, .
( Content-Type), (
Content-Language) ( Content-Encoding),
( Content-Disposition), UAS
415 (Unsupported Media Type).
Accept , UAS,
, .
, UAS, AcceptEncoding , UAS.
UAS , Accept-Language
, UAS. ,
.

UAS ,
Supported .
,
SIP- , .
, ,
421 (Extension Required). ,
.
Require .

21

, 421,
Require, . ,
Supported .
, ,
.
2.1.2.2.
UAS , ,
. ,
.
, UAS
, .

, ,
, UA
INVITE. INVITE
.
100 (Trying) Timestamp (,
UAC UAS)
. RTT.
, UAS ,
Timestamp .
,
.
tag
From ,
Call-ID, Cseq Via Call-ID, Cseq Via .
Via Via
.
tag To, To ,
. To tag, URI To
URI To ; , UAS
tag To ( 100 (Trying), tag
). tag
, ( 100 (Trying)).
UAS
UAS (stateless) UAS,
. , UAS
(stateful)
. stateless UAS ,
,
. UAS stateless ,
. Stateless UAS
22

: SIP
.
stateless UAS ,
.
,
, ,
,
UAS.
stateless UAS :

stateless UAS (1xx)


stateless UAS
stateless UAS ACK
stateless UAS CANCEL
tag To

tag.

, stateless UAS stateful UAS.


UAS , .

2.2. SIP
2.2.1.
SIP , ISO 10646
UTF-8 (RFC 2279). SIP
, .
, ,
.
:
;
;
, ;
().

2.1 SIP

23

,
(CRLF).
, .
SIP-.
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
, ..
. .
, SIP-
HTTP/1.1, SIP
HTTP.
SIP .
ACK, INVITE OPTIONS ,
, SDP, BYE .

2.2.2.

SIP- HTTP-
. , SIP
HTTP/1.1
.
,
:
:

(SP) .

.
Subject:

Subject
Subject
:
Subject:
,
.
,
(SP)
(HT). (line break) (whitespase)
SP. .
Subject: , , !
Subject: ,
,
!

24

.
, - (Via, Route,
Record-Route, Proxy-Require, Max-Forwards, Proxy-Authorization ),
.
.
,
, .
: ,
,
; .
WWW-Authenticate, Authorization, ProxyAuthenticate, Proxy-Authorization.
, ,
SIP-.

, ,
, .
, ,
.
Route: <sip:anton@niits.ru>
Subject:
Route: <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Route: <sip:alexander@loniis.ru>
Route: <sip:anton@niits.ru>, <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Route: <sip:alexander@loniis.ru>
Subject:
Subject:
Route: <sip:anton@niits.ru>, <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>,
<sip:alexander@loniis.ru>
, .
Route: <sip:anton@niits.ru>
Route: <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Route: <sip:alexander@loniis.ru>
Route: <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Route: <sip:anton@niits.ru>
Route: <sip:alexander@loniis.ru>
Route: <sip:anton@niits.ru>,<sip:alexander@loniis.ru>,
<sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
.
UTF-8
(tokens), (whitespace), ,
.
,
, .
25

: ; = ; =

, ,
.
, .
, ,
- .
, , , .
,
Contact: <sip:anton@niits.ru>;expires=3600

CONTACT: <sip:anton@niits.ru>;ExPiReS=3600

Content-Disposition: session;handling=optional

content-disposition: Session;HANDLING=OPTIONAL
.
Warning: 370 niits.ru " "
Warning: 370 niits.ru " "
.
, .
(, ),
.
SIP,
UDP, ,
- , .
,
, SDP. .
2.1

Content-Type
E
Content-Encoding
F
From
I
Call-ID
K
Supported
L
Content-Length
M
Contact ( moved)
S
Subject
26

O
R
T
U
V

Event
Refer-To
To
Allow-Events
Via

Accept
Accept , , .
,
, , ,

. Accept ,
. Accept,
- application/sdp.
Accept: application/sdp;level=1, application/x-private, text/html

Accept-Encoding
Accept-Encoding Accept,
.
. :
Accept-Encoding: identity, :
. ,
- identity.
HTTP,
, identity ( )
.
:
Accept-Encoding: gzip

Accept-Language
Accept-Language ,
, ,
, .
, , .

q. :
Accept-Language: da, en-gb;q=0.8, en;q=0.7

Alert-Info
Alert-Info, INVITE,
UAS.
180 (Ringing),
UAC. -
.
.
SIP ,
. :
27

Alert-Info: <http://www.niits.ru/sounds/moo.wav>

Allow
Allow c ,
, . , UA,
ACK CANCEL, . Allow
, UA
; ,
, .
Allow (
OPTION) . :
Allow: INVITE, ACK, OPTIONS, CANCEL, BYE

Allow-Events
Allow-Events ,

- event package, (
) ( ). ,
, Allow-Events, ,
SUBSCRIBE NOTIFY
, event package .
, event package,
Allow-Events,
(events), , ,
INVITE, , OPTIONS.
, Allow-Events -.
:
Allow-Events: refer

Authentication-Info
Authentication-Info
HTTP Digest. UAS
2 , ,
, Authorization. :
Authentication-Info: nextnonce="47364c23432d2e131a5fb210812c"

Authorization

Authorization
. Proxy-Authorization
, .
.
,
, .
2.6.3.
Authorization: Digest username="Anton", realm="niits.ru",
28

nonce="84a4cc6f3082121f32b42a2187831a9e",
response="7587245234b3434cc3412213e5f113a5432"

Call-ID
Call-ID
. ,
. :

Call-ID.
- ,
. @.
Call-ID . :
Call-ID: f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6@loniis.ru
i:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6@192.0.2.4

Call-Info
Call-Info
, :
. URI, ,
purpose. icon ,
.
info , , web-.
card ,
, , , ..,
, Vcard ("vCard MIME Directory Profile", RFC 2426) LDIF
("The LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) Technical Specification", RFC 2849).
Call-Info
. URI,
,
, .. ,
, UA Call-Info ,
SIP , ,
SIP . UA;
-. :
Call-Info: <http://www.serv1.niits.ru/anton/photo.jpg> ;purpose=icon,
<http://www.serv1.niits.ru/anton/> ;purpose=info

Contact
Contact URI,
. Contact
, .
Contact (display name),
.
Contact q expires.
, REGISTER,
3.
, URI
< >. ,
URI, .
,
, .
29

, URI , ,
, .
< (LWS).
To From.
Contact , Location HTTP.
HTTP ,
. URI
,
.
:
Contact: "Alexander" <sip:alexander@loniis.ru>
;q=0.7; expires=3600,
"Alexander" <mailto:alexander@loniis.ru> ;q=0.1

Content-Disposition
Content-Disposition ,
, -
multipart ( ) - . SIP
, ContentType.
SIP Content-Disposition.
session ,

. render ,
. ContentDisposition , application/sdp
Content-Disposition session, render.
icon , ,

; UA
,
. alert ,
,
, ,
; ,
,
180 (Ringing).
MIME Content-Disposition,
, ,
.
handling-param UAS
Content-Disposition Content-Type.
: optional required.
handling-param ,
required.
Content-Disposition , MIME-
ontent-Disposition.
render. :
Content-Disposition: session
30

Content-Encoding
Content-Encoding
. , ,


, Content-Type.
Content-Encoding ,
.
,
, .
.
.
. , UAS
, Accept-Encoding
.
:
Content-Encoding: gzip

Content-Language
Content-Language

( ).
, .
Content-Language ,
.
Content-Language ,
.
:
Content-Language: fr

Content-Length
Content-Length
, , .
, ,
. -
( TCP), Content-Length .
,
. Content-Length ,
. ,
Content-Length .
Content-Length
cgi- , .
:
Content-Length: 349

Content-Type
31

Content-Type , .
Content-Type , .
, Content-Type , ,
(, -).
:
Content-Type: application/sdp
c: text/html; charset=ISO-8859-4

CSeq
CSeq - ,
. ,
.
: 1 232 .
.
CSeq , ,
. .
:
CSeq: 4711 INVITE

Date
Date .
HTTP/1.1, SIP , RFC 1123,
, GMT, RFC 1123
. Date

.
GMT.
:
Date: Sat, 13 Nov 2010 23:29:00 GMT

Error-Info
Error-Info
, .
SIP

, . ,

,
, ErrorInfo. ,
.
UAC SIP SIPS URI Error-Info ,
Contact ,
INVITE, .
,
, , ,
sip, tel.
:
SIP/2.0 404 The number you have dialed is not in service
Error-Info: <sip:not-in-service-recording@niits.ru>

32

Event
(
- event package), (subscription)
(notification).
NOTIFY SUBSCRIBE
(event-type) id ( )
. Event, id,
.
.
.
Event: refer; id=1234

Expires
Expires ,
.
. REGISTER INVITE. REGISTER
, . INVITE
, URI
- -.
, .
, , 0 (232 1),
.
:
Expires: 5
From
From URI . ,
.
From .
.
,
display name ( ) Anonymous. , URI
, ,
, .
From , URI
. ,
, . ,
.
:
From: "Vladimir" <sip:vladimir@protei.ru> ;tag=a48s
From: sip:+79213434329@gateway.protei.ru;tag=887s

In-Reply-To
In-Replay-To
(Call-ID), .

33

In-Replay-To .

.
.. ,
,
. ,
.
:
In-Reply-To: 70710@lonis.ru, 17320@loniis.ru

Max-Forwards
Max-Forwards SIP ,
, .
0 255,
, .
, .
70.
Max-Forwards ,
.
:
Max-Forwards: 6

Min-Expires
Min-Expires ,
SIP .
Contact,
registrar.
0 (232 1). 423 (Interval Too Brief).
:
Min-Expires: 60

MIME-Version
MIME-Version
.
:
MIME-Version: 1.0

MIME-,

Organization
Organization , SIP, .
.
:
Organization: Niits

Path
UA , ,
-. REGISTER
-. REGISTER

34

.
Path.
REGISTER 2 .
Path REGISTER SIP
, . Path
: -
, . ,
Route .
REGISTER
, .
UA ,
, .
Path Record-Route , Path
REGISTER 2 , ,
Record-Route . ,
Record-Route ,
Path .
Path ,
Route.
Path SIP,
option-tag path
Supported. :
Path: <sip:P3.niits.ru;lr>,<sip:P1.niits.ru;lr>

Priority
Priority .
SIP- UA.
,
. , Priority,
, normal. Priority
, ,
.
: non-urgent (), normal (), urgent ()
.
emergency ();
, emergency
.
:
Subject: !
Priority: emergency

Subject:
Priority: non-urgent

Privacy
SIP-,
,
,
35

. ,
, .
,
(privacy services).
Privacy. UA Privacy,
, .
: header,
session, user, none, critical. header ,
( Via Contact),
.
session ,
(), , , SDP-,
. , IP-,
, . user
-,
, ,
,
, .
user REGISTER. none ,
. critical
,
, .
, none
user, header session,
; () critical.
Privacy: none

Proxy-Authenticate
Proxy-Authenticate , ,
, ,
-
Request-URI. 407 (Proxy
Authentication Required) 401 (Unauthorized).
2.6.3.
:
Proxy-Authenticate: Digest realm="niits.ru",
qop="auth", nonce="f84f1cec41e6cbe5aea9c8e88d359",
opaque="", stale=FALSE, algorithm=MD5

Proxy-Authorization
Proxy-Authorization -,
.
,
-, .
,
,
.
Proxy-Authorization Authorization ,
.
,
36

, .
2.6.3.
:
Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="Anton", realm="niits.ru",
nonce="c60f3082ee1212b402a21831ae",
response="245f23415f11432b3434341c022"

Proxy-Require
Proxy-Require -,
.
:
Proxy-Require: 100rel

P-Asserted-Identity
P-Asserted-Identity
SIP, (
), , (
). URI
. URI sip, sips, tel.
; sip
sips, tel.
(Trust Domain).
- ,
.
, - P-Asserted-Identity,

, ,
P-Asserted-Identity . -
, , P-AssertedIdentity, .
-, - UA, c
, PAsserted-Identity,
. :
P-Asserted-Identity: "Anton" <sip:anton@niits.ru>
P-Asserted-Identity: tel:+79213434329

P-Preferred-Identity
P-Preferred-Identity ,
-,
. ,
,
P-Asserted-Identity,
. P-Preferred-Identity
sip, sips, tel. ;
sip sips, tel. .
P-Preferred-Identity: "Anton" <sip:anton@niits.ru>
37

P-Media-Authorization
P-Media-Authorization
QoS SIP.
denial-of-service ( ).
,
. P-Media-Authorization
-, QoS,
( 100), 1 2
UA
INVITE, ACK, UPDATE PRACK - UAS.
P-Media-Authorization
QoS. UA
/ -, QoS,
, (
RSVP SIP ,
P-Media-Authorization
PATH).
QoS
(). P-Media-Authorization
SIP , offer answer
(SDP- SDP- ).

The P-Associated-URI
, SIP,

. P-Associated-URI
200 (OK) REGISTER
. registrar ,
P-Associated-URI 200 (OK) REGISTER
, UA : ,

.

P-Called-Party-ID
P-Called-Party-ID - ( INVITE).
Request-URI -
( Request-URI ).
Request-URI, , .
, P-Called-Party-ID, UAS
(,

). ,

, .
.
P-Called-Party-ID: sip:anton-work@niits.ru

38

P-Visited-Network-ID
, 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Progect),
(home network)
(visited network).
(roaming agreements)
. ,
, ,
.
UA,
,
, UA.
,
.
UA .
P-Visited-Network-ID ,
UA, -
(home proxy); -
. ,
- , -
UA. , P-Visited-Network-ID
REGISTER, .
, ,
, P-Visited-Network-ID
. .
.
P-Visited-Network-ID: "Visited network number 1"

P-Access-Network-Info

UA SIP , , (
) SIP -,
UA, P-Access-Network-Info.
, UA IP. , -,
UA SIP -, . , , P-Access-Network-Info
, ,
.
;
, (
). ,
, - P-Access-Network-Info .
UA, -,
, -
, . .

39

P-Charging-Function-Addresses

.
SIP -, ,
SIP , .
-.
3GPP ,
: Charging Collection Function (CCF) Event
Charging Function (ECF). CCF (postpaid),
ECF (prepaid).
SIP -, SIP ,
P-Charging-Function-Addresses
, .
,
F ECF, - ,
. -,
, ,
.
. .
P-Charging-Function-Addresses: ccf=192.1.1.1; ccf=192.1.1.2;
ecf=192.1.1.3; ecf=192.1.1.4

P-Charging-Vector
.
,
-, ,
SIP, .

() , .
,
.
( SIP -) .
: IMS
Charging Identity (ICID), -, ICID
Inter Operator Identifiers (IOI). ICID ,
.
. ICID
. :
IP- SIP -,
. IOI ,
.
P-Charging-Vector. SIP P-Charging-Vector
,
. SIP -, ,
P-Charging-Vector, ICID
.
, ,
. .
40

P-Charging-Vector: icid-value=1234bc9876e;
icid-generated-at=192.0.6.8;
orig-ioi=home1protei.ru

P-DCS-Trace-Party-ID
, ,
- ustomer originated trace,

. SIP

, .
,
, UAC,
INVITE
P-DCS-Trace-Party-ID.
P-DCS-Trace-Party-ID .
, Request-URI,

, ,
P-DCS-Trace-Party-ID. UAC,
, P-DCS-Trace-Party-ID.

P-DCS-OSPS
,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
, .
(BLV) (EI),
Operator Services Position System (OSPS) .
, SIP ,
, P-DCS-OSPS.
, .
: BLV (busy line
verification), EI (emergency interrupt) RING (operator ringback).
INVITE, P-DCS-OSPS BLV EI,
, UAS UAC , c ,
. EI RING
UPDATE. P-DCSOSPS UAC, .
- (Media Gateway Controller).
.
P-DCS-OSPS: BLV

P-DCS-BILLING-INFO

. SIP
-. , - ,
,
41

, .
(Accounting records) ,
, . PDCS-BILLING-INFO ,
, ,
, , ,
(billable account).
,
.
- UA

.

P-DCS-LAES P-DCS-REDIRECT
P-DCS-LAES ,
(Lawfully Authorized Electronic Surveillance).
,
,
, .
SIP,
, -, .
- ,
.
P-DCS-Redirect ,

. ,
.
-

, .

RAck
RAck PRACK
.
. - , RSeq
.
CSeq . RAck
. :
RAck: 776656 1 INVITE

Reason
SIP . ,
CANCEL -, ,

. ,
,
. , ,
Reason, CANCEL
42

; ,
.
, SIP-.
Reason. Reason
.
, HERFP
(Heterogeneous Error Response Forking Problem) - ,
,
, ,
,
.
Reason ,
, CANCEL ,
. SIP cause,
SIP-. Q.850
cause,
ITU-T Q.850
DSS1 OKC7 ( ISUP). SIP-
Reason,
(, SIP Q.850).
Reason, .
,
. .
Reason: SIP ;cause=200 ;text="Call completed elsewhere"
Reason: Q.850 ;cause=16 ;text="Terminated"

Record-Route
Record-Route - ,
.
:
Record-Route: <sip:serv10.protei.ru;lr>,
<sip:site3.niits.ru;lr>

Refer-To
Refer-To REFER. URI
(call transfer). , ,
,
REFER. .
Refer-To Contact,
Route/Record-Route, 2.4.1,
. :
Refer-To: sip:alexander@loniis.ru

Reply-To
Reply-To URI,
From. , URI

, . ,
43

, Reply-To ,
, . URI
, ,
, .
:
Reply-To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>

Require
Require UAC , UAS
, .

() option-tag; SIP, .
:
Require: 100rel

Retry-After
Retry-After 500 (Server Internal Error)
503 (Service Unavailable), ,
, 404 (Not
Found), 413 (Request Entity Too Large), 480 (Temporarily Unavailable), 486 (Busy Here),
600 (Busy) 603 (Decline), ,
. -
( ).
duration ,
, .
, ,
.
.
:
Retry-After: 18000;duration=3600
Retry-After: 120 (I'm in a meeting)

Route
Route
-. , Route
2.4.1.
:
Route: <sip:site5.niits.ru;lr>,
<sip:serv3.protei.ru;lr>

RSeq
RSeq
. 1 (232-1).
(
) RSeq .
RSeq
. :
RSeq: 988789
44

Security-Client, Security-Server, Security-Verify


,
UAC SIP
UAS, - ,
.
SIP.
, SecurityClient , -,
. ,
. 494 (Security
Agreement Required) Security-Server
, .
. ,
q ,
.
.
SIP , ,
.
Security-Verify, ,
Security-Server.
Security-Verify
,
, ,
.
: digest, tls, ipsecike, ipsec-man. .
Security-Client: digest
Security-Server: tls;q=0.2
Security-Verify: ipsec-ike;q=0.1

Server
Server ,
.

, .
.
:
Server: HomeServer v2

Service-Route
Service-Route, SIP,
REGISTER , ,

(service route) .. ,
, . UA
,
,
.
45

Service-Route
-. UA
, -,
. Service-Route
, Route. ,
lr.
,
(R), -, HSP (home
service proxy), (DBMS) - ,
(P2). UA1 P1 REGISTER ;
Service-Route, , UA1
, ,
, P2 HSP .. , INVITE
UA2 Service-Route Route. .
UA1----P1-----|
|--R-------|
|
|
|
P2---|
DBMS
|
|
|
|--HSP-----|
UA2-----------|
2.2. , Service-Route
Service-Route: <sip:p2.home.protei.ru;lr>,
<sip:hsp.home.protei.ru;lr>

Subject
Subject
, .
:
Subject:
s:

Subscription-State
Subscription-State NOTIFY
(subscription). active, pending
terminated. active , .
pending , ,
- . terminated ,
. - active pending,
expires,
;
.
terminated,
reason retry-after, ,
. :
Subscription-State: terminated;reason=noresource
46

Supported
Supported UAC
UAS.
option-tag, UAC UAS. ,
. ,
, ACK.
:
Supported: sip-cc, sip-cc-02, timer


SIP .

Timestamp
Timestamp , UAC UAS.
SIP RTT (
).
:
Timestamp: 54

To
To .
,
. tag
.
To From.
:
To: The Operator <sip:operator@server10.protei.ru>;tag=287447
t: sip:+79213434329@gateway.protei.ru

Unsupported
Unsupported ,
UAS. 420 (Bad Extension).
:
Unsupported: 100rel

User-Agent
User-Agent ,
. UA
,
. UA
.
:
User-Agent: Softphone Beta1.5

Via
Via SIP,
. , ,
, ,
,
. , :
- . branch
47

Via .
Via ,
, , ,
, .
: maddr, ttl, received branch.
: UDP, TCP, TLS
SCTP (TLS TLS TCP). SIPS URI,
SIP, TLS.
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK87asdks7
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.0.2.1:5060 ;received=192.0.2.207
;branch=z9hG4bK77asjd

(multi-homed host)
192.0.2.1 192.0.2.207. ,
. ,
serv1.niits.ru Via,
. ,
.
-
SIP URI. ,
: /, :
Via: SIP / 2.0 / UDP serv3.niits.ru: 4000;ttl=16
;maddr=224.2.0.1 ;branch=z9hG4bKa7c6a8dlze.1
Via , :
, , ,
(, SIP/2.0/UDP
serv3.niits.ru:4000) - , ,
.

Warning
Warning
. Warning
,
.
, .
,
, Accept-Language
Content-Language .
(warn-code)
(warn-text) .
, .
3, ,
SIP. 300 329
(keywords) , 330 339
, , 370 379
,
, 390 399 ,
.
48

2.2

300
301

302
303

304
305
306

307
330
331

370

399


,
.
, .

.
.

, .
.

,
,

.
.
- .
,
, .

-,
-.
, .
.

-,

.
.
Multicast-
multicast-
.

.
Unicast-

.
unicast-
(,
firewall).
,

-,
.
.

log-.
,
,

.

IANA.
:
49

Warning: 307 serv1.niits.ru " example "


Warning: 301 serv1.niits.ru " E.164"

WWW-Authenticate
WWW-Authenticate ,
, , ,
-
Request-URI. 407 (Proxy
Authentication Required) 401 (Unauthorized).
2.6.3.
:
WWW-Authenticate: Digest realm="niits.ru",
qop="auth", nonce="f84f1cec41e6cbe5aea9c8e88d359",
opaque="", stale=FALSE, algorithm=MD5

SIPv2.0
- 2.3.
- ,
- .
a
- .
m
- .
d
- .
r
- ,
.

.
C
.
M
.
M*
, /
.
O
.
T
, /
.
-
, .
*
, .
F
50

.
N/A
.

51

2.3 SIPv2.0.

ACK

BYE

CAN

INV

OPT

REG

IFO

SUB

NOT

PRK

UPD

REF

MSG

Accept

M*

Accept

M*

N/A

Accept

415

N/A

M*

AcceptEncoding

AcceptEncoding

M*

N/A

AcceptEncoding

415

N/A

M*

AcceptLanguage

AcceptLanguage

M*

N/A

AcceptLanguage

415

N/A

M*

52

Alert-Info

a, r

N/A

Alert-Info

180

a, r

N/A

Allow

N/A

Allow

M*

M*

Allow

N/A

Allow

405

Allow-Events

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Allow-Events

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Allow-Events

489

N/A

Authenticatio
n-Info

N/A

Authorization

Call-ID

53

Call-Info

a, r

N/A

N/A

N/A

Contact

Contact

Contact

Contact

Contact

485

Contact

4xx-6xx

ContentDisposition

N/A

ContentEncoding

ContentLanguage

N/A

ContentLength

A, r

Content-Type

54

Cseq

Date

Error-Info

300-699

N/A

Event

N/A

N/A

Expires

Expires

From

/ R

In-Reply-To

N/A

MaxForwards

a, m, r

Min-Expires

423

N/A

N/A

MIMEVersion

N/A

N/A

Organization

A, r

55

Path

Path

Priority

a, r

Privacy

a, r

a, m, r, O

N/A

2 -

d
ProxyAuthenticate

407

a, r

ProxyAuthenticate

401

a, r

N/A

N/A

N/A

ProxyAuthorization

d, r

ProxyRequire

a, r

P-AccessNetwork-Info

D, r

P-AssertedIdentity

A, d, r

N/A

P-AssociatedURI

56

P-CalledParty-ID

A, m, r

P-ChargingVector

A,

P-ChargingFunctionAddresses

A, d, r

P-DCSBilling-Info

A, d, m, F

N/A

P-DCS-LAES

A, d, r

N/A

P-DCSRedirect

A, d, r

N/A

P-DCS-OSPS

D, r

N/A

P-DCS-Trace-
Party-ID

D, r

N/A

P-MediaAuthorization

A, d

N/A

N/A

P-MediaAuthorization

A, d

N/A

N/A

P-MediaAuthorization

101-199

A, d

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

d,m,r

57

P-PrefferedIdentity

A, d, r

N/A

P-VisitedNetwork-ID

A, d

RAck

N/A

Reason

Record-Route

A, r

N/A

Record-Route

18

M, r

N/A

Record-Route

M, r

N/A

Record-Route

401, 484

M, r

Refer-To

Reply-To

N/A

Require

a, r

Retry-After

404, 413, 480, 486, 500,


503, 600 603

58

Route

a, d, r

RSeq

N/A

N/A

SecurityClient

A, r, d

N/A

SecurityServer

421, 494

N/A

SecurityVerify

A, r, d

N/A

Server

SubscriptionState

N/A

Subject

Supported

M*

N/A

N/A

Supported

M*

M*

N/A

N/A

Timestamp

/ R

59

Unsupported

420

User-Agent

Via

a, m, r

Via

/ d, r

Warning

Warning

WWWAuthenticate

401

a, r

WWWAuthenticate

407

a, r

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

60

2.2.3.
SIP- Request-Line . RequestLine , Request-URI ,
(, ACK
sip:anton@niits.ru
SIP/2.0). Request-Line
(CRLF). ,
, .
(LWS
. . RFC 822) .

Request-
URI

RLF

2.3 Request-Line


IETF RFC 3261 6 : REGISTER
, INVITE, ACK ANCEL
, BYE , OPTION
.
, SIP,
, ,
. ,
.

Request-URI
Request-URI SIP SIPS URI. ,
. Request-URI
, <>.
SIP Request-URI ,
sip sips, tel; SIP URI
.
SIP URI, SIPS URI, .
Request-URI , ,
, Request-URI -,
.


, SIP-,
, .
, SIP-, SIP-Version
"SIP/2.0". SIP-Version ,
.
INVITE -
. ,
( ),
, ,
. INVITE
, ,
, ,
( ).
61


, , , SIP-.

INVITE .
INVITE,
.
ACK INVITE. ,
INVITE, ..
,
INVITE. ACK
, .
CANCEL ,
CANCEL Call-ID, To, From CSeq,
, . , CANCEL
, -
. ,
, CANCEL.
BYE
. , BYE,
() 200 ().
REGISTER
. :

,
.
From .
, ,
.
Contact ,
INVITE. REGISTER
Contact , .
*.
Expires ,
. ,
1 , .
REGISTER Expires,
0 Contact.
OPTIONS
.
.
,
.
.
SIP,
INVITE (. 2.4.).

62

INVITE sip: alexander@serv1.loniis.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/UDP kton.loniis.ru
From: Anton <sip: anton@loniis.ru>
To: Alexander <sip: alexander@loniis.ru>
Call-ID: 3298420296@kton.loniis.ru
Cseq: 1 INVITE
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: ...
v=0
o=bell 53655765 2353687637 IN IP4 128.3.4.5
C=IN IP4 kton.loniis.ru
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 3 4

2.4. INVITE
Anton (anton@loniis.ru)
Alexander (alexander@loniis.ru). - (serv1.loniis.ru).
From ,
.
SDP,
3456 , RTP
, : 0 PCMU, 3
GSM 4 G.723.
SIP ,
. IETF

. : INFO, PRACK, UPDATE,
SUBSCRIBE, NOTIFY, REFER, MESSAGE.

INFO
INFO SIP
. INFO
SIP , ,
SIP.
,

,
SIP .
INFO ,
.

SIP -,

Record-Route INVITE.
INFO,
.
63

INFO :



DTMF ,


( )

, INFO,
, .
INFO
.
, 200 (OK).
, 415
(Unsupported Media Type).
INFO . UAS, CANCEL
INFO, 487 (Request Cancelled),
.
INFO -,
, , BYE.
INFO RFC 2976.

PRACK
SIP ,
.
( ).
,
. , , ,
.

SIP (
option tag 100rel).
,
2 INVITE.
TU ( )
, .
, PRACK. PRACK
, ACK, .
PRACK SIP-, BYE.
.. (hop-by-hop)
stateful -. BYE ( ACK) PRACK
.
UAS 1 (
100) , Supported option tag 100rel.
, UAC
.
64

UAC
. UAC Require option tag
100rel. ,
RSeq ( 1 (231 1)).
UAS .
, .
UAC PRACK
, , .
PRACK RAck,
. PRACK
1, .. UAC PRACK,
.

UAS PRACK. PRACK
, 2.
, , UAS
. RSeq
.
PRACK RFC 3262. .
Anton

Vladimir
INVITE
180 (Ringing)
PRACK
200 (OK)

< PRACK>

. 2.5. PRACK

UPDATE
,
(, ) INVITE.
, (early media) - ,
, INVITE
. , ,
. re-INVITE
(INVITE, . 2.3.7)
, re-INVITE ,
. UPDATE
(
) .
UPDATE .
INVITE-. Allow INVITE
UPDATE ,
. INVITE-
. ( )
Allow UPDATE.
( ),
UPDATE, offer
( SDP),
. answer (
65

SDP).
UPDATE
offer, answer 2
UPDATE. UA -2 UPDATE,
.
UPDATE offer (
) , offer,
INVITE, ,
, PRACK UPDATE, answer.
, INVITE- .
, answer,
offer, re-INVITE UPDATE.
UPDATE ,
(target refresh request).
UPDATE RFC 3311. :

INVITE <c offer 1>


180 Ringing <c answer 1>
UPDATE <c offer 2>
200 OK <c answer 2>
UPDATE <c offer 3>
200 OK <c answer 3>
200 OK < INVITE>
ACK

. 2.6 UPDATE

SUBSCRIBE NOTIFY
SIP ,
,
. :
(
), buddy lists (
), (
)
Internet .
SIP
, ,
66

( , ), ,
. :
UA

UA

SUBSCRIBE (1)
200 OK (2)
NOTIFY (3)
200 OK (4)
NOTIFY(5)
200 (OK) (6)

. 2.7
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
SUBSCRIBE
. SUBSCRIBE ,
. (subscriber ,
)
, SUBSCRIBE.
SUBSCRIBE ,
,
UAC.
, ,
SUBSCRIBE: Request URI, Event
.

Request URI ,
(notification),
,
(, sip:vladimir@protei.ru
URI
(user presence state),
).

SUBSCRIBE Event,
, .
, ,
. event package
. Event
67

id.
.

event package SUBSCRIBE


( event package).
, , ,
/ .

SUBSCRIBE Allow, ,
event package .
,
SUBSCRIBE
id Event ,
. .
, ,
, Expires .
SUBSCRIBE .
(notifier ,
) ,
. ,
event package, (subscriber)
,
,
200 (OK). 202 (Accepted).
, , .
, ,
NOTIFY,
. NOTIFY ,
SUBSCRIBE (
). , ,
NOTIFY. NOTIFY
SIP , ,
SUBSCRIBE, .
, .
NOTIFY , SUBSCRIBE Event
event package, ; id
SUBSCRIBE. NOTIFY
, event package.

.
NOTIFY Subscription-State
active, pending, terminated. active ,
. pending , ,
- . terminated
, .
NOTIFY ,
( ,
NOTIFY
Event).
, ,
200 (OK). SUBSCRIBE NOTIFY
RFC 3265.
68

REFER
REFER, ,
( Request-URI) ,
, .
, (Call Transfer).
, Anton Vladimir ,
Vladimir Alexander, Anton
SIP UA REFER SIP Vladimir,
Alexander. Vladimir ,
UA Alexander, . UA
Vladimir UA Anton,
Alexander.
, REFER
, BYE. REFER Refer-To. ,
, ,
REFER. , sip:anton@niits.ru.
, UAS 202 (Accepted) ,
REFER-. UA
. , REFER ,
, SUBSCRIBE. REFER ,
- refer.
NOTIFY.
NOTIFY UA, REFER,
. To, From Call-ID
NOTIFY
REFER , REFER SUBSCRIBE.
NOTIFY Event refer.
NOTIFY message/sipfrag (
message/sipfrag RFC 3420),
;
.
NOTIFY ,
. refer
, . ,
NOTIFY NOTIFY
NOTIFY, .
NOTIFY Subscription-State terminated (
) reason - noresource.
Agent A Agent B ,
Agent B -. REFER
RFC 3515.

69

Anton

Alexander

REFER (1)
202 Accepted (2)
NOTIFY (3)
200 OK (4)

NOTIFY(5)
200 (OK) (6)

. 2.8 REFER
F1 F5
1 (F1)
REFER sip:alexander@loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ant.loniis.ru;branch=z9hG4bK2293940223
To: <sip:alexander@loniis.ru>
From: <sip:anton@loniis.ru>;tag=193402342
Call-ID: 898234234@ant.loniis.ru
CSeq: 93809823 REFER
Max-Forwards: 70
Refer-To: ( URI)
Contact: sip:anton@loniis.ru
Content-Length: 0

5 (F5)
NOTIFY sip:anton@loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP alx.loniis.ru;branch=z9hG4bK9323394234
To: <sip:anton@loniis.ru>;tag=193402342
From: <sip:alexander@loniis.ru>;tag=4992881234
Call-ID: 898234234@ant.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1993403 NOTIFY
Max-Forwards: 70
Event: refer
Subscription-State: terminated;reason=noresource
Contact: sip:alexander@loniis.ru
Content-Type: message/sipfrag;version=2.0
Content-Length: 16

70

MESSAGE
(Instant Messaging)
, . ,
. IM-
,
( ), ,
.
SIP MESSAGE
(instant massages), ,
SMS.
. (IM)
, , ,

.
,
.

(IM), MESSAGE .
Request-URI
, ,
. ,
,
,
. ,
. MIME- ( - text/plain),
message/cpim. , message/cpim
IM-, , IM-,

message/cpim,

. MESSAGE Contact.
MESSAGE -
. , UA
200 (OK); ,
, ,
.
MASSAGE . UAC
MESSAGE .
, .
(IM) Instant Message
URI "im:user@domain". URI im ,
URI (
SIP URI). UA-
IM URI, SIP URI Request-URI
MESSAGE .
. Anton
Alexander ,
niits.ru; -.
MESSAGE RFC 3428.

71

-
An to n

A le xa nde r

MESSAGE (1)
MESSAGE (2)
200 OK (3)
200 O K (4)

. 2.9 MESSAGE
F1:
MESSAGE sip:alexander@niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv3.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bK776sgdkse
Max-Forwards: 70
From: sip:anton@niits.ru;tag=49583
To: sip:alexander@niits.ru
Call-ID: asd88asd77a@1.2.3.4
CSeq: 1 MESSAGE
Content-Type: text/plain
Content-Length: 18
, .

2.4.
2.4 SIP.

INVITE

ACK

INVITE

BYE

. ,
.

CANCEL

Call-ID,
To, From CSeq CANCEL

REGISTER

OPTION


72


INFO

PRACK

UPDATE


( ).

SUBSCRIBE

NOTIFY

REFER

,
,

MESSAGE

(instant massages)

2.2.4.
SIP- StatusLine . Status-Line : (StatusCode) (Reason-Phrase),
(SP). (R) (LF)
CRLF.

Status-Line

Statusode

ReasonPhrase

RLF

. 2.10 Status-Line
,
. Reason-Phrase
Status-Code,
. Reason-Phrase
: -
, Accept-Language .
.
.
,
.
, (-)
. , :
, ,
73

.. SIP
.
,
. : .
, .
,
- 1. ,
2, 3, 4, 5 6. ,
- .
(1xx)
,

.
1, , 200
.
ACK; UA
100rel 1 PRACK.
, .
2.5. SIP

100

180
181
182

183

Trying. . , ,
.
, ,
INVITE . 1 , ,
stateful -.
, , - SIP .
Ringing. .
UA.
Call Is Being Forwarded. - .
- , ,
.
Queued. ,
. ,
. Reason-Phrase ,
, 5 . 15 .
182 (Queued)
, .
Session Progress. ,

,
, . ,
, SIP ,
Session Progress SDP-
.

.

74

(2xx)

2 , .
2.6 SIP-

200

OK. .
200 INVITE ,
,
.
200 BYE ,
.
200 CANCEL ,
.
200 REGISTER , .
200 OPTIONS
, .

202

Accepted. , .
,
.
202 .
,
.
,
.

(3xx)
3
,
.
2.7. SIP-

300
Multiple Choices. .
,
. ,
. UA
,
Accept.

75

301

302

305

380

Moved Permanently.

, Contact .
,
,
.
,
404 (Not Found).
Moved Temporarily.
, Contact .
,
( ). Request-URI
, Contact .
Expires
expires Contact. -
URI .
,
- . URI
, .
Use Proxy. ,
-.
, -,
Contact. UAS.
Alternative Service. ,
, .

(4xx)

4 , .
,
4, .
2.8 SIP-

400

401
402
403

404

Bad Request. . ,
.
. Reason-Phrase
, : Call-ID.
.
Unauthorized. .
UAS registrar. ,
.
Payment Required. .
.
Forbidden.
. , .
, , ,
.
Not Found. .
, Request-URI.
, ,
.

76

405
406

407
408

410

413

414
415

416
420
421

423

480

481

Method Not Allowed. ,


Request-URI. Allow
.
Not Acceptable. ,
.
, Accept , ,
.
Proxy Authentication Required.
-.
Request Timeout. ,
Expires .
.
.
Gone. , ,
. ,
.
, ,
404 (Not Found).
Request Entity Too Large. .
, .
,
Retry-After. ,
.
Request-URI Too Long. ,
Request-URI, .
Unsupported Media Type. - ,
.
,
Accept, Accept-Encoding, Accept-Language .
Unsupported URI Scheme. - , URI
Request-URI .
Bad Extension. SIP,
Proxy-Require Require.
Unsupported .
Extension Required. UAS
, Supported .
Require
. 421 ,
.
, Supported
, 421 ,
SIP ,
.
Interval Too Brief. , ,
, . registrar,
, Contact
.
Temporarily Unavailable.
, ( ,
, ,
, ).

Retry-After.
, . Reason-Phrase
.
Call/Transaction Does Not Exist. ,
. .

77

482

483

484

485

Loop Detected. . ,
Via, ,
.
Via ,
, , - .
Too Many Hops.
-, .
Max-Forwards.
.
Address Incomplete. Request-URI.
Reason-Phrase.

.
Ambiguous. Request-URI .

Contact, .
.

.
,
404 (Not Found)
Contact.
sip:anton@niits.ru:
SIP/2.0 485 Ambiguous
Contact: Anton Zarubin <sip:anton-zarubin@niits.ru>
Contact: Anton Ivanov <sip:anton-i@niits.ru>
Contact: Petrov Anton <sips: anton-petr@niits.ru>

486

487
488

489
491
493

494

Busy Here. ,
. RetryAfter . ,
, , ,
.
Request Terminated. BYE CANCEL.
Not Acceptable Here. ,
, , ,
.
.
Bad Event. , , event
package, Event.
Request Pending. ,
, .
Undecipherable. , UAS, MIME-
,
. ,
;
UA.
Security Agreement Required.
.
Security-Client option-tag
sec-agree Supported, 494.
Security-Server ,
.
.

(5xx)

78

5 , -
.
2.9 SIP-

500

501
502
503

504

505

513
580

Server Internal Error. . ,


.
. ,
Retry-After ,
.
Not Implemented. ,
. , UAS
.
Bad Gateway. -
. ,
.
Service Unavailable.
.
Retry-After , .
UAC -, 503,
. ,
503 .
Server Time-out. , -,
,
, ,
.
Version Not Supported.
SIP, .
.
, SIP
.
Message Too Large. -
.
Precondition Failure. UAS ,
- offer, ,
580 answer .
(offer),
INVITE UPDATE. SDP-,

offer answer, . SDP-
answer, offer,
.

(6xx)
.
.
2.10 SIP-

600

Busy Everywhere.
. .
, ,
, 486 (Busy Here).

79

603
604
606

Decline.
.
Does Not Exist Anywhere. .
Not Acceptable. ,
, , ,
. Warning
.

2.3.
2.3.1

SIP, .
UA
.
.

(dialog ID), Call-ID,
(local tag) (remote tag).
. , UA
.
, tag To.
,
SIP . UAC CallID Call-ID ,
tag To, tag
From. UAS Call-ID
Call-ID ,
tag From, tag To.
,
. ,
( UA,
), (
UA), URI, URI,
(remote target) , secure (route set),
URI.
, ,
.
,
;
2 ,
. , ,
.
2.3.1.1
, ,
.
101-199 2 tag To INVITE.
80

, ,
(early dialog).
UAS
UAS ,
(, , 2 INVITE), UAS
Record-Route ( ,
)
. UAS
Contact;
. , URI, , IP FQDN. URI, Contact, SIP
URI, SIPS URI. , , SIPS URI
Request-URI Record-Route
Contact ( Record-Route),
SIPS URI. , URI
. , , URI Contact
INVITE
.
UAS ,
.
TLS, Request-URI SIPS URI,
secure TRUE.
(route set) URI
Record-Route
URI. Record-Route ,
. ,

.
(remote target) URI
Contact .

CSeq . .
all-ID Call-ID .
(local tag) tag To
( ) , (remote tag)
tag From . UAS
tag From; 0.
URI From, URI
To.
UAC
UAC ,
(, INVITE), SIP SIPS URI
Contact . Request-URI
Route SIPS URI, Contact
SIPS URI.
UA , ,
.
81

TLS, Request-URI SIPS URI,


secure TRUE.
URI Record-Route
, URI.
Record-Route ,
. ,
.
(remote target) URI
Contact .
CSeq .
.
all-ID Call-ID .
tag From
, tag To . UA
tag To;
0.
URI To, URI
From.
2.3.1.2
,
, . UA,
, UA,
, . , ,
.
Record-Route Contact.
(route set),
(remote target).
remote target ,
. ,
(target refresh requests).
re-INVITE UPDATE.
UAC


(. 2.3.1), . URI To
URI , tag To
. URI From
URI , tag
From .
, tag
To From .
Call-ID Call-ID .

( ), Cseq,
ACK CANCEL,
82

. ,
, ,
CSeq .
, .
CSeq
.
- 232, ,
136
.
,
.
. ,
, 31 32-
.
UAC remote target route set Request-URI
Route . UAC
remote target Request-URI, Route .
URI lr,
UAC remote target Request-URI
Route,
. URI
lr, UAC URI
Request-URI, .
Route, .
remote target Route
.
, remote target - sip:user@remoteua route set
: <sip:proxy1>,<sip:proxy2>,<sip:proxy3;lr>,<sip:proxy4> ,
Request-URI Route :
Request-URI - sip:proxy1
Route: <sip:proxy2>,<sip:proxy3;lr>,<sip:proxy4>,<sip:user@remoteua>

URI lr,
, -
Request-URI Route .
- strict router. Request-URI
Route , ,
strict router.
UAC Contact ,
,
remote target UA
. , secure TRUE,
SIPS URI.
,
, (.
2.1.1.1). ,
Route , Request-URI,
Route .

83

UAC .
,
408 (Request Timeout). UAC 3
, ( 2.1.1.2). UAC
2 , remote target, remote target
URI Contact . 481
(Call/Transaction Does Not Exist) 408 (Request Timeout), UAC . UAC
, .
UAS
UAS . To
tag, UAS ,
. UAS
,
, (. 2.1.2.1). To
tag, ,
, UAS
, , , UAS.
. UAS,
tag To, . ,
tag To, ,
.
,
(, OPTION). ,
.
UAS ,
CSeq .
,
, , ;
500 (Server Internal Error).
CSeq . ,
UAS CSeq,
,
.
CSeq .
- ,
. UAC
, .
CSeq. UAS
. .
UAS , ,
remote target URI Contact .
2.3.1.3
,
2, , ,
, .
84


2.8.3 ) .

BYE (.

2.3.2
SIP , :
.
(
).
INVITE ( INVITE-), ACK ,
, 2; ACK
INVITE-.
UAC 200 (OK) INVITE.
200, UAS ,
UAC
ACK.
,
.
, .
- (stateful).
2.11, , UAC ,
- .
,
-. - ,
UAS.

UAC

UAS

-
-

2.11 .
- ,
. UA -
UA -
. ,
( - Transaction User (TU);
UA - )
.
TU, , ,
(, ACK). ,
85

INVITE ACK
2.
SIP
TU. .
TU
SIP ; INVITE-, ACK
, 2.
2 ACK . 2
UA, ACK
. ,
, . (-
) 2 ,
ACK, UA, .
- 2
INVITE ACK.
2.3.2.1
(TU)
. TU ,
SIP-, , IP, ,
.

, TU.
INVITE ( INVITE-).
, INVITE ACK ( -INVITE). ACK:
TU ( 2
INVITE), SIP
.
INVITE- -
:
( 2) .

(three-way handshake).
. TU -INVITE ,
, .

INVITE-
INVITE- .
, ,
ACK.
(, UDP)
T1,
. T1 ..
(RTT), T1 500 .
T1, ,
T1.
. ( 1)
, .
86

1 , (
). .
,
.
ACK,
.
INVITE
( ) INVITE
. 2.12. Calling , TU
INVITE.
SIP .
,
A T1. ( A
).
64T1
(
INVITE-). ,
, SIP,
, 2T1. ,
, .
,
Calling.
, 1 500 . T1 RTT
. SIP- ,
T1 ,
. T1 ,
, RTT (round-trip time) .
Calling,
, TU
. 64T1
.
, Calling,
, Proceeding.
.
, TU.
, Proceeding.
300-699
Completed. TU
, ACK SIP. ACK
, ,
. Completed D
32 0
. ,
Completed, .
D H INVITE ,
64T1. T1,
, D 32 .
,
Completed, ACK,
TU.
87

INVITE TU

INVITE

,
INVITE

TU

Calling

2 TU

300-699

ACK,
TU

1 TU

1 TU

Proceeding

2 TU

300-699

ACK,
TU
300-699

ACK

Completed

TU

Terminated
. 2.12 INVITE-.
D
Terminated. 2 Calling Proceeding
Terminated,
TU. , TU:
- . UAC
ACK , - 200
(OK) .

Terminated. ,
. , 2 INVITE -.
2 - ( ,
) UAC ( , ).
88

. , SIP
,
TU.
2, 2 .
ACK
ACK,
. UAC, ACK 2,
, 2.3.1. ACK,
, Call-ID,
From, Request-URI, ,
- , (
INVITE). To
, ,
tag. ACK
Via, Via .
CSeq , ,
ACK.
, INVITE,
, Route, ACK.
, ACK
- (stateless).
, ACK .
, , ACK ,
.
ACK , 2, ,
, INVITE, ,
415. , 415,
ACK , Accept
. .

INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bKkjshdyff
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=88sja8x
Max-Forwards: 70
Call-ID: 987asjd97y7atg
CSeq: 986759 INVITE
ACK , 2
ACK sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bKkjshdyff
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=99sa0xk
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=88sja8x
Max-Forwards: 70
Call-ID: 987asjd97y7atg
CSeq: 986759 ACK
89

-INVITE
-INVITE ACK.
-.
T1,
2. ,
, T2.
/
.
,
.
-INVITE
( ) -INVITE
. 2.13. C Trying , TU
. F
641. SIP .
E
T1. , ,
MIN(2T1, T2).
MIN(4T1, T2).
,
; T2.
2 4 . INVITE ,
. 1 2
: 500 , 1 , 2 , 4 , 4 , 4 ..
F
TU Terminated.
Trying, TU,
Proceeding.
( 200-699) Trying, TU,
Completed.
Proceeding,
SIP, T2.
F Proceeding TU
Terminated.
( 200-699) Proceeding,
TU, Completed.
Completed,
4 0
. Completed
,
. 4 ,

. 4 5 .
, .
K, Terminated.
, .

90

TU

Trying

TU
200-699

TU

1 TU
F

TU

Proceeding

1 TU

200-699

TU

Completed

TU

Terminated

. 2.13 -INVITE

, ,
. ,
, . branch
Via. :

91

1. Via branch,
, .
2. CSeq ,
. , CANCEL
, branch, ..
.

.
branch Via, tag
To. , , ,
, .

SIP ,
SIP ,
. TU
Terminated.
2.3.2.2
TU
.
. ,
.
.

INVITE
( ) INVITE
. 2.14. ,
Proceeding. 100
(Trying), , TU
200 . ,

. TU.
TU .
Proceeding,
SIP. ..
,
.
. ,
SIP TU .
,
, .
TU Proceeding
2,
SIP .
2 , TU.
Terminated. TU 300-699
SIP,
92

Completed. G
T1.
, Completed,
H 64T1 . H ,
.
B, ,
. G,
SIP , G
MIN(2T1, T2).
G ; ,
T2; 2.
, Completed ,
SIP .
ACK
Confirmed. G ,
.
H Completed , ACK
; Terminated
TU .
Confirmed - ACK
. ,
I 4 ,
0 . I
Terminated.
Terminated .
,
2 INVITE.

93

INVITE

INVITE TU,
100, TU
200

INVITE

101-199 TU

Proceeding

TU
300-699 TU

2 TU

INVITE

Completed
H
ACK

TU

Confirmed

TU

Terminated

. 2.14 C INVITE

-INVITE
( ) -INVITE
. 2.15. ( INVITE ACK)
Trying. TU,
( ,
). TU ,
94

Proceeding.
SIP .
TU.
Proceeding SIP
, .
Completed TU ( 200-699),
SIP.
Completed J 64T1
0 .

SIP , .
, TU Completed,
. ,
J;
Terminated. .

95

TU

200-699 TU

Trying

1 TU

1 TU

Proceeding

TU

200-699 TU

ompleted

TU
J

Terminated

. 2.15 -INVITE

,
. .
branch Via.
"z9hG4bK" (magic cookie), ,
96

SIPv2.0. ,
branch , .
, :
1. branch
Via , .
2. Via
Via , .
3. , ,
ACK, , , INVITE.
INVITE-, -INVITE .
Via

branch:
.
Via branch
magic cookie, ; ,
.
INVITE , Request-URI,
tag To From, Call-ID, CSeq Via
INVITE, .
INVITE.
ACK , Request-URI, tag
From, Call-ID, CSeq
Via INVITE,
, tag To tag To
, . tag To
- ACK 2
ACK .
, ,
Request-URI, tag To From, Call-ID, CSeq
Via ,
. -INVITE .

97

2.11 SIP

T1
T2

500 ( )
4

T4

5c

= 1

64*T1

> 3

D
E

32 UDP
0 TCP/SCTP
= 1

RTT ( )

-INVITE
INVITE
,

INVITE
( UDP)

INVITE-.

INVITE- -

64*T1

= 1

H
I

64*T1
4 UDP
0 TCP/SCTP
64*T1 UDP
0 TCP/SCTP
T4 UDP
0 TCP/SCTP

J
K

-INVIITE
( UDP)
INVITE

INVITE
ACK

ACK
INVITE

2.3.2.3 SDL-
INVITE

98

S0

(TU)

Idle

INVITE
B
T = 64*T1

INVITE
TCP

S1

UDP

A
T = T1

Calling

D: =0

S1

Calling

.2.16. Calling.

(TU)

S1

Calling

SIP

INVITE

A
D
T = 2 * T1

300 - 699

ACK

300 - 699

D:=D+1

D<6

SIP

S2

Proceeding

B
S4

S1

Calling

Terminated

S3
S1

Calling

1. 2
SIP TU.

ACK UA. - 2
.

Completed

.2.17. Proceeding.

99


(TU)

S2

SIP

Proceeding

300 - 699

ACK

300 - 699

S2

Proceeding

S4

Terminated

S3

Completed

.2.18. Completed.

(TU)

S4

S3

SIP

Compleeted

SIP

300 - 699

ACK

Terminated

S3

Completed

S4

Terminated

.2.19. Terminated.
:
S0 Idle - -
S1 Calling - - INVITE,
.
S2 Proceeding - 1 ,
INVITE , .
S3 Completed - -
300-699, ACK.
S4 Terminated - .
100

-INVITE
S0

(TU)

SIP

Idle

F
T = 64*T1

TCP

UDP

S1

E
T = T1

Trying

D:=0

S1

Trying

.2.20. Trying.

(TU)

S1

SIP

Trying

SIP

D:=D+1

200 - 699

200 - 699

S2

Proceeding

E
D
T = MIN(2 * T1, T2)

S4

S1

Trying

Terminated
S3

Completed

101

.2.21. Proceeding.

S2

(TU)

SIP

Proceeding

SIP

E
T = T2

200 - 699

200 - 699

S2

Proceeding

S2

Proceeding

S4

Terminated
S3

Completed

.2.22. Completed.

(TU)

200 - 699

S3

SIP

Compleeted

200 - 699
S3

S4

Terminated

Completed

.2.23. Terminated.
:
S0 Idle - -
S1 Trying - - ,
.
S2 Proceeding - 1 ,
, .
S3 Completed - -
200-699.

102

S4 Terminated - .

INVITE
S0

SIP

(TU)

Idle
INVITE
INVITE

1

TU 200

S1

Proceeding

SIP

300 - 699

300 - 699


T = 64*T1


2

2

INVITE

S2

Completed

101-199

101-199

S1

S4

Terminated
TCP

Proceeding

UDP

G
T = T1

D:=0

S2

1. 2
TU SIP. TU
ACK
SIP.
2. INVITE
1 ,
TU.

Completed

.2.24. Proceeding.

103


SIP

300 - 699

S2

(TU)

Completed

SIP

D:=D+1

INVITE

ACK

ACK

S2

ompleted

G
T = MIN(2 * T1, T2)

S4

S2

Terminated

Completed

S3

Comfirmed

.2.25. Completed.


SIP

ACK

S3

(TU)

Confirmed


ACK 300-699

I
c

S3

Confirmed

S4

Terminated

.2.26. Confiimed.
S0 Idle - -
S1 Proceeding - INVITE,
.
S2 Completed - -
300-699, ACK.
S3 Confirmed - ACK
300-699.
S4 Terminated - .
-INVITE

104


SIP

S0

(TU)

Idle

S1

Trying

200 - 699

101-199

200 - 699

101-199

S3

S2

Completed

Proceeding

.2.27. Proceeding.
S0 Idle - -
S1 Trying - ,
.
S2 Proceeding - - TU 1 ,
.
S3 Completed -
, 200-699 .
S4 Terminated - .

SIP

200 - 699

200 - 699


J = 64*T1

S2

Proceeding

SIP

S4

Terminated

(TU)

101-199

101-199

S2

Proceeding

S3

Completed

1. INVITE
1 ,
TU.

.2.28. Completed.

105


SIP

S4

S3

(TU)

Compleeted

SIP

200 - 699

Terminated

S3

Completed

S4

Terminated

.2.29. Terminated.

2.3.3
,
(), .
SIP, , ,

.
(location server),

.
, ,
sip:anton@niits.ru,
,

sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru. , -
() ,
.

,
(binding) - URI (address-of-record)
. , -
, Request-URI
, , ,
.

, .
,
URI .
. SIP
.
. REGISTER
, (registrar).
REGISTER
, . ,
, -,
.

106

. 2.16. ,
- .
. ,
UAS -,
.
Anton
UA

loniis.ru
registrar

1. REGISTER

wstation234

UA

2.

4.

3. INVITE
alexander@loniis.ru

sip.loniis.ru

5.

6. INVITE
alexander@wstation234.loniis.ru

Alexander

. 2.30 .
SIP
.
, -
. Registrar
SIP - .
2.3.3.1 REGISTER
REGISTER ,
. REGISTER
(
).
( , ,
).
, ,
REGISTER , ,
UAC.
REGISTER . UAC
REGISTER Route, .
Record-Route
. , UAC
(route set) RecordRoute REGISTER.
REGISTER :
Request-URI

107

Request-URI ,
( , sip:niits.ru). userinfo (
) @ SIP- .
To
To ,
. To Request-URI , ..
. SIP, SIPS URI.
From
From , .
To, ,
.
Call-ID
UAC
Call-ID registrar.
CSeq
CSeq REGISTER.
CSeq REGISTER
Call-ID.
Contact
REGISTER Contact,
.
(,
Contact),

REGISTER.
action expires Contact
REGISTER .
ction
action
.
, ,
, UA. ,
UAC . SIP
.
expires

( ).
. ,
Expires. (232 1)
(4294967295 136 ) , (232 1).
3600.


108

REGISTER, ,
(), SIP-
. To . Contact
SIP SIPS URI, SIP (
, sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru),
URI. UA ( URI
tel) ( URI mailto)
.
,

Vladimir

sip:vladimir@protei.ru c
protei.ru.
- , Vladimir,
.
, ,

. 2 REGISTER
Contact ,
.
To REGISTER SIPS URI,
Contact SIPS URI.
-SIPS URI SIPS URI ,
, ,
. URI, ,
SIP, SIP-, , TLS.

REGISTER,
( registrar
).
: Expires expires
Contact.
, REGISTER
,
, Contact expires.
,
, .

REGISTER Contact,
, UA, ,
To.
Contact q. q
Contact
.


109


, .
, ,
. UA
, ,
REGISTER.
,
.
Contact - *
, ,
Expires - 0. *
Contact UA ,
, .


UA , .
, UA. 2 registrar
Contact ,
. UA
. , UA

expires - Expires. UA REGISTER
, ;
REGISTER.
UA Call-ID
.
, ,
.

registrar
UA ,
: ,
,
. UA registrar.
UA registrar, UA ,
@ ; Request-URI
, SIP- ,
, UA
"SIP: Locating SIP Servers", RFC 3263.
sip:vladimir@protei.ru REGISTER sip:protei.ru.
UA
.
. .
UAC.


, REGISTER ,
, UAC ,
UAC .
, REGISTER,
110

UAC REGISTER registrar;


.

.
UA 423 (Interval Too Brief),
,
REGISTER
Min-Expires .

2.3.3.2 REGISTER
Registrar UAS, REGISTER
, - ,
. Registrar
, UAS, REGISTER. Registrar
6.
REGISTER Record-Route, registrar
( REGISTER,
-, Record-Route).
Record-Route
REGISTER.
Registrar REGISTER .
REGISTER .. ,
.
.
REGISTER
:
1. Registrar Request-URI,
, Request-URI. , Request-URI
, registrar ,
-.
2. UAS , registrar
Require ,
.
3. Registrar UAC. SIP
2.6.
SIP-.
, registrar From
.
4. Registrar ,
. ,
,
,
. , registrar
403 (Forbidden) .
111

5. registrar To .
, Request-URI, registrar
404 (Not Found) .
, escaped- (%
+ )
. , ,
.
6. Registrar Contact. ,
REGISTER (. 8). Contact
, registrar , Contact
- *, Expires.
Contact ,
, 400 (Invalid Request)
. registrar
Call-ID , .
, ; - ,
CSeq , .
.
7. Registrar Contact.
,
:
-

expires,
.

expires , Expired,

.

expires, Expires
,
.

Registrar
. ,
,
, registrar 423 (Interval Too
Brief). Min-Expires,
. .

. - follow-me service,
.
registrar ;
, ,
registrar.
registrar ,
URI. ,
, Call-ID.
Call-ID ,
, , , .
112

, Call-ID , registrar
CSeq: ,
, .
.
Call-ID CSeq .
-
,
. , 500
(Server Error), .
8. Registrar 200 (OK). Contact
.
expires, ,
registrar. Date.

Vladimir .
. 2.17. , ,
, .
protei.ru

Vladimir

REGISTER (1)
200 OK (2)

. 2.31
REGISTER (1)
REGISTER sip:registrar.protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP serv3.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
Max-Forwards: 70
To: Bob <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
From: Bob <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=456248
Call-ID: 843817637684230@998sdasdh09
CSeq: 1826 REGISTER
Contact: <sip:vladimir@192.0.2.4>
Expires: 7200
Content-Length: 0

. Registrar 200 (OK):


200 (OK) (2)
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP serv3.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
;received=192.0.2.4
To: Bob <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=2493k59kd
From: Bob <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=456248

113

Call-ID: 843817637684230@998sdasdh09
CSeq: 1826 REGISTER
Contact: <sip:vladimir@192.0.2.4>
Expires: 7200
Content-Length: 0

2.3.4
SIP- OPTIONS UA
- .
, ,
, ,
, . , , INVITE
Require, option-tag ,
UA , OPTIONS.
Supported option-tag, UAS
. OPTIONS UA.
OPTIONS Request-URI.
OPTIONS -, URI Request-URI
Request-URI
REGISTER.
, - OPTIONS
Max-Forwards 0, , ,
Request-URI .
HTTP/1.1; (
traceroute HTTP) UA
OPTIONS MaxForwards, .
OPTIONS,
TU
. ,
.
OPTIONS
UA ,
.

Anton

Vladimir
OPTIONS
200 (OK)
114

. 2.32
2.3.4.1 OPTIONS
OPTIONS
UAC. Contact OPTIONS
. Accept,
, UAC .
application/sdp, .
,
Request-URI, , ,
OPTIONS, , OPTIONS
. OPTIONS:
OPTIONS sip:alexander@loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.niits.tu;branch=z9hG4bKhjhs8ass877
Max-Forwards: 70
To: <sip:alexander@loniis.ru>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=1928301774
Call-ID: a84b4c76e66710
CSeq: 63104 OPTIONS
Contact: <sip:anton@pc33.niits.ru>
Accept: application/sdp
Content-Length: 0

2.3.4.2 OPTIONS
OPTIONS
UAS SIP-. ,
INVITE .. - 200 (OK) UAS , 486 (Busy
Here) UAS .. OPTIONS
UAS OPTIONS ,
UAS INVITE.
OPTIONS, ,
200 (OK), , ,
.
, INVITE, OPTIONS
, -
200 (OK) ( INVITE
). , INVITE
-,
.
OPTIONS -,
200 (OK), -.
.
200 (OK) OPTIONS Allow, Accept,
Accept-Encoding, Accept-Language, Supported. -,
Allow, ,
115

. Contact 200 (OK);


, 3, ..
, .
Warning.
, Accept OPTIONS (
Accept application/sdp).
Accept OPTIONS ,
, UAS
. UAS OPTIONS
( ).
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bKhjhs8ass877
;received=192.0.2.4
To: <sip:alexander@loniis.ru>;tag=93810874
From: Alice <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=1928301774
Call-ID: a84b4c76e66710
CSeq: 63104 OPTIONS
Contact: <sip:alexander@loniis.ru>
Contact: <mailto:alexander@loniis.ru>
Allow: INVITE, ACK, CANCEL, OPTIONS, BYE
Accept: application/sdp
Accept-Encoding: gzip
Accept-Language: en
Supported: 100rel
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 274

2.3.5
CANCEL, ,
, . UAS
. CANCEL
, UAS .
,
.
CANCEL INVITE,
. UAS,
CANCEL INVITE, ,
INVITE
(487).
CANCEL -,
. 2.3.2. UAC
INVITE, 2.4.1. CANCEL .

2.3.5.1.
CANCEL INVITE.
, CANCEL -INVITE
116

,
- , CANCEL .
CANCEL .
Request-URI, Call-ID, To, CSeq From CANCEL
, tag. CANCEL,
, Via,
Via .
CANCEL
. , CSeq CANCEL.
, ,
.
Route, CANCEL
. , stateless -
CANCEL.
CANCEL Require Proxy-Require.
CANCEL ,
( ) .
, CANCEL ;
, ,
CANCEL. ,
CANCEL, ,
. CANCEL,
,
. ,
CANCEL ,
. CANCEL
, CANCEL .
, , , CANCEL . , UAC,
487 (Request Terminated)
, UAS,
, .
64*T1 ,

.

2.3.5.2
CANCEL TU
. , TU
CANCEL, ,
2.3.2.2
.
CANCEL . Stateless , stateful -
CANCEL, UAS . CANCEL 2.4.1.8.
UAS CANCEL
UAS, 2.1.2. , CANCEL

117

, ( ,
Authorization).
, CANCEL Require.
UAS, ,
CANCEL, 481 (Call Leg/Transaction Does Not
Exist) CANCEL.
, UAS CANCEL ,
. , CANCEL
,
,
. UAS ,
. INVITE, UAS
INVITE 487 (Request Terminated).
CANCEL .
,
CANCEL , UAS 200 (OK).
, 2.1.2.2, ,
tag To CANCEL tag To
. CANCEL
. . 2.19
CANCEL.

INVITE (1)
180 Ringing (2)


INVITE

CANCEL (3)
200 OK (4)
487 Request Terminated(5)
ACK (6)

2.33

2.3.6.
( ),
INVITE. INVITE .
- UAS,
. UAS
.
118

UAS 2xx (OK);


. ,
3xx, 4xx, 5xx 6xx .
UAS (1)
, UAC .
UAC
2 -2 . - ,
INVITE ,
INVITE-
(, OPTIONS). , UAC
, ACK
. ACK .
300 699 ACK
, 2.3.2.
2 ACK UAC.
2 INVITE ,
UA, INVITE UA,
2. 2 UA (-
INVITE -),
. .

INVITE. UA, INVITE, ACK,
CANCEL BYE.
2.3.6.1. UAC

INVITE
INVITE
, 2.1.1.1.
.
INVITE Allow. ,
.
Supported. ,
. Accept,
UA
. Accept
. UAC
Expires,
. , Expires
INVITE, UAC CANCEL. UAC
Subject, Organization User-Agent;
, INVITE.
UAC INVITE .
, Content-Disposition
session. SIP /
(offer/answer), UA .
(, ), (
) - . UA
, , ,
, -
119

. offer/answer ,
INVITE ,
. offer/answer INVITE :
offer INVITE
UAS, (
2).
offer INVITE, answer
INVITE UAS.
(answer) ,
. UAC answer,

INVITE.
offer UAS,
, answer ACK 2.
answer offer UAC
offer , ,
answer offer offer,
answer .
, UAS answer offer,
offer INVITE.
, UAS offer
.
:
1. Offer INVITE answer 2 (
1 ).
2. Offer 2 answer ACK.
, INVITE,
.
Session Description Protocol (SDP) (RFC 2327),
, UA.
offer/answer
, Content-Disposition session.
, INVITE, ACK (,
INVITE (Content-Disposition: render), ACK
(Content-Disposition: session)).
Content-Disposition ,
Content-Type application/sdp
Content-Disposition - session, render.
INVITE UAC , ,
.
,
.
120

INVITE
UAC INVITE ,
. INVITE
,
(TU) 408 (Request Timeout).
1

. INVITE
, .
,
INVITE-. ,
,
(, Allow
, ,
).
3
3
Contact, ,
. 3 UAC
.

4xx, 5xx 6xx


INVITE
2. 4xx, 5xx 6xx
Contact, .
, 2, ,
, . ,
, 2, Completed,
,
.

2
UAC 2
INVITE, -,
. tag
To .
2
, route set
Record-Route 2 (

).
UAC ACK 2xx.
ACK ,
, Seq ,
. CSeq
INVITE,
121

ACK. ACK
, INVITE.
2 offer ( )
, , ACK
answer ( ). offer 2
, UAC answer ACK
BYE.
ACK ,
.
SIP, . ,
ACK , UAC.
ACK
SIP , 2.
2 INVITE, UAC
, BYE.
2.3.6.2. UAS

INVITE
UAS INVITE .
UAS ( INVITE ,
INVITE ).
, ,
UAC :
1. INVITE, Expires, UAS
, .

. , UAS
, 487 (Request
Terminated).
2.
, 2.3.1.2
(. 2.3.7).
3. tag To,
, , UAS
, ,
UAS.
,
INVITE , ,
.
INVITE , UAS
offer . ,
, INVITE
. ,
multicast- . UAS
122

,
. , SDP- (session id)
SDP-, , origin
. ,
, SDP- INVITE, , UAS
INVITE, , 2
.
INVITE , , UAC
UAS offer. UAS
offer ,
( 2).
UAS , ,
offer.
.

UAS ,
UAC
(, ,
). 101
199. ,
. UAS
.
(dialog ID).
UAS , INVITE,
,
-. -
, .
, UAS ( 100)
, (..
). INVITE-
,

, (,
IVR).
INVITE
UAS , 3.
300 (Multiple Choices), 301 (Moved Permanently) 302 (Moved Temporarily)
Contact ,
. INVITE ,
.
INVITE
,
.
123

486 (Busy Here). UAS ,


,
600 (Busy Everywhere). , UAS
, 600 .
INVITE ,
.
UAS, offer, INVITE,
488 (Not Acceptable Here).
Warning , .
INVITE
UAS 2, .
2 INVITE Allow Supported
Accept. UAC
, UAS , .
INVITE offer, UAS answer, 2
answer. INVITE offer, 2
offer , UAS offer.
, INVITE .
, INVITE ,
SIP. ,

SIP, ACK. 2
SIP , T1
, 2 ( T1 2 2.3.2).
,
ACK. ,
. 2 ,
, UDP
. ,
2 UAS
, TCP.
2, 64T1,
ACK , , .
BYE, 2.3.8.

2.3.7.
INVITE
, offer/answer. 2.3.1. ,
, ,
(remote target).
.
, ..
INVITE , .
INVITE, , re-INVITE.
, re-INVITE
, . ,
.
124

UAC
offer/answer,
INVITE, re-INVITE.
UAC, , , ,
offer, ,
INVITE . ,
, .
, UAC re-INVITE ;
re-INVITE, ( 2),
offer.
SDP-, ,
, .
To, From, Call-ID, CSeq, Request-URI
.
UAC Alert-Info
alert Content-Disposition re-INVITE, UAS
re-INVITE.
INVITE, re-INVITE
, , .
, Request-URI
, .
, UAC INVITE- ,
INVITE- :
1. INVITE , TU
, Completed Terminated,
, INVITE.
2.

INVITE , TU
, Confirmed Terminated, ,
INVITE.

UA , INVITE,
ACK CANCEL INVITE-. , UA
INVITE- ,
INVITE, ACK CANCEL.
UA , 2, reINVITE, , re-INVITE
. 481 (Call/Transaction Does Not Exist)
408 (Request Timeout) re-INVITE (
), UAC . UAC
re-INVITE 491, T,
.
1. UAC Call-ID , T
2,1 4 10 .
2. Call-ID UAC, T
0 2 10
125

, UAC reINVITE, . ,
,
BYE, re-INVITE .
re-INVITE ACK 2
re-INVITE , INVITE.

UAS
UAS, INVITE ,
INVITE CSeq
, 500 (Server Internal Error) INVITE
Retry-After 0
10 .
UAS, INVITE
INVITE, UAS, 491
(Request Pending) .
UAS re-INVITE ,
,
, , .
, UAS ,
.
, UAS ,
488 (Not Acceptable Here) re-INVITE.
Warning.
UAS 2
ACK, BYE .
UAS 180 (Ringing) re-INVITE,
UAC . UAS
Alert-Info , ContentDisposition alert, re-INVITE.
UAS, offer 2 (- , re-INVITE
offer), offer , UAS ,
offer, ,
"An Offer/Answer Model with SDP", RFC 3264
SDP. .. , offer
-, UA. UAS ,
, , ,
UAC. ,
UAC. UAC,
answer BYE
.

2.3.8.
,
SIP. .
INVITE, 1 2 UAS
126

, , offer/answer, . ,
. INVITE -2
, ( ),
. , -2
INVITE.
BYE .
UA, .
BYE, ,
. UA BYE . UA
BYE , ,
, UA BYE
. UA
BYE , ACK 2.
SIP, ,
, BYE .
, 2, INVITE
CANCEL. UAS
-2 INVITE ( 487).
UAC ,
CANCEL. INVITE 2 (),
, UAS ,
CANCEL. UAC ,
2, BYE.
, ,

. UA
CANCEL, 2 INVITE ,
BYE, . UA
BYE.
ACK 2
BYE SIP
ACK .
, ,
403 (Forbidden) 486 (Busy Here),
BYE .

BYE
UAC
BYE , .
BYE , UAC -INVITE
. UAC
, , , BYE .
BYE UAC 481 (Call/Transaction Does Not Exist) 408 (Request
Timeout) BYE , UAC
.
UAS
127

UAS BYE
UAS. UAS, BYE,
. , UAS
481 (Call/Transaction Does Not Exist)
. , UAC BYE tag
, UAS .
UAS, BYE ,
. UAS
-. UAS
2
.

2.4. -
SIP - SIP, SIP-
SIP- .
- UAS.
,
.
-, , .
- SIP. , ,
-, ,
. , ,
-
-.
. , SIP- UAS
UAS .
- , (stateful)
(stateless) .
.
, ,
. . ,
. -
( )
, . Stateful
- ,
, .
, SIP-,
.
-
(, TCP),
. , -
TCP
,
, ,
. , , TU ,
.
Stateful - stateless
, ,
128

stateless (, 100).
.
stateless stateful .
- stateful . ,
stateless , stateful
.

2.4.1. -
-
SIP-. -
,
- ,
. (. 2.20).
. . - , ,
.

-
-

. 2.34 stateful -.
, ,
,
. -
.
Stateful -
.
. -
UAS
( 100 (Trying)). , stateful -
100 (Trying) -INVITE .
, -,
:
1.
2.
129

3. ()
4.
5.
2.4.1.1
, - ,
. :
1.
2. URI
3. Max-Forwards
4. ()
5. Proxy-Require
6. Proxy-Authorization
,
.
- , ,
;
. , , (.
2.1.2.1)
1.
,
. ,
,
. , ,
. , , Date.
, - .
SIP .
. -
- ,
.
2. URI
Request-URI URI, -,
, 416 (Unsupported URI Scheme).
3. Max-Forwards
130

Max-Forwards ,
SIP, . MaxForwards, Max-Forwards ,
. Max-Forwards
, - .
- OPTIONS, - .
483 (Too many hops).
4.
- ()
. Via,
, -
, -
, . ,
-,
. Request-URI .
branch , (
),
Via. , ,
, ,
. -
482 (Loop Detected).
5. Proxy-Require
SIP
, - .
Proxy-Require , ,
- ,
.
Proxy-Require
, -, 420 (Bad
Extension). Unsupported,
option-tag, -.
6. Proxy-Authorization
- ,
Proxy-Authorization;
407 (Proxy
Authentication Required).
2.4.1.2
- Request-URI .
, -,
Request-URI Route
Route (. 2.4.4.2). , .
SIP-, -, strict-router
131

(. ). ,
Request-URI strict-router.
Request-URI maddr, -

.
, RequestURI, - maddr ,
, , ,
. , maddr,
-,
, URI. .
Route , .
2.4.1.3
- .
(target set) ,
.
Request-URI maddr, Request-URI
, , -
. Request-URI ,
- ,
. , -
, , . - ,
( HTTP -, )
, .
, ,
, Request-URI,
, , .
.
,
, (presence server),
Request-URI.
Request-URI
.
(target
set).
Request-URI ,
, - 485 (Ambiguous).
, URI
. , INVITE, sip:vladimir@protei.ru
-,
Vladimir.
,
, -.
,
132

, ,
, ,
-. -
, .
URI .
- URI , RequestURI , . - Request-URI
, , Request-URI.
- 3xx
416, .
Request-URI ,
, -
. ,
. , -
, 3.
-
( , SIP ),
.
, ,
.
Request-URI -, ,
404 (Not Found).

, - 480 (Temporarily
Unavailable).
2.4.1.4
, - .
Stateful - .
URI ,
.
URI . -
, ,
.
,
q,
Contact. q
. , ,
.
Stateful -

. (response
context, . ). -
.
- ,
:
1. .
2. Request-URI.
133

3. Max-Forwards.
4. Record-route.
5. .
6. .
7. , .
8. Via.
9. Content-Length .
10. .
11. .
1.
- .
, ,
.
. - ,
.
2. Request-URI
Request-URI URI
. URI , Request-URI,
. Request-URI
, . URI
.
3. Max-Forwards
Max-Forwards, -
. -
70, UA
Max-Forwards.
4. Record-Route ()
- , ,
, ,
Record-Route
, Route. ,
, Route.
, -
Record-Route, ,
134

.
route set, . ,
Record-Route , . ,
.
- Record-Route .
, .
-
Record-Route Record-Route
- .
URI, Record-Route, SIP
SIPS URI. URI lr, ,
- ,
RFC 3261. -
, . URI ,
, , -
, , ,
.
URI, -, SIP-
. -
,
Record-Route SIP: SIP URI TCP UDP. URI,
Record-Route, SIP -, ,
-.
Request-URI SIPS URI Route (
, .6) SIPS URI, ,
Record-Route SIPS URI. ,
TLS, -
Record-Route. -, TLS,
, SIPS URI Request-URI
Route ( , 6),
Record-Route SIPS URI.
URI, - Record-Route,
. -,
, , URI
Request-URI . -,
, , ,
, ;
(dialog ID) , -
, .
URI, Record-Route ,
. 2.3.1 , ,
Record-Route.
Record-Route
, -
. ;
- ,
.
5.
135

-
.
6.
- , ,
- ,
. - ,
Route,
( Request-URI) -
( Route).
, - .
- URI,
lr. URI Route
. Route ,
URI.
- , ,
-,
Route ,
10, , ,
-. Route,
, ,
- Route,
. Route
- , ,
. , Request-URI SIPS URI
TLS -.
Route, - URI
. lr, -
:
- Request-URI
Route.
Route Request-URI
Route.
Request-URI Route
Request-URI strict-router.
Route Request-URI
, strict-router (
URI Request-URI URI Route).
7. ,

-
IP-,
Route Request-URI. ,
- , IP-,
,
136

Route.
;
Route.
, -
SIP , (Locating SIP Servers
RFC 3263). - strict-router
2.4.1.2,
Request-URI. ,
Route. DNS-
(, , ).
, URI , Request-URI SIPS
, - ,
SIPS URI. -
,
, .
-
, ,
8 10. ,
. , branch,
Via , 8- ,
.

, - ,
.
, ,
(target set). - ,
, 408 (Request
Timeout).
8. Via
- Via
. , -
branch ,
magic cookie.
-, , ,
,
branch. -
branch, .
, 2.1.1.1.,
.
,
, - ( ,
). ,
branch, ( Route, Proxy-Require
Proxy-Authorization). ,
- , , .

tag To From,
Call-ID, Request-URI ( ),
Via Cseq.
Proxy-Require Proxy137

Authorization . ,
, ,
MD5 (RFC 1321), .
- , branch,
, , ,
Request-URI ( ) ,
. ,
,
(, ).
branch.
, CANCEL ACK , 2,
, ,
. branch
, .
9. Content-Length
(, TCP),
Content-Length, -
.
10.
Stateful -
, ,
, 7.
11. C
, INVITE
, TU .
, -.
3 . 2.4.1.5 ,
, 2.4.1.6
.
2.4.1.5
-
, . -
, ( ) stateless
-. , .
, (
, )
. , , 2
INVITE .
-,
.
1.
138

2. .
3. Via.
4. .
5. .
6. .
, ,
, , -
, .

.
7. Authorization ( ).
8. Record-Route ().
9. .
10. CANCEL.
1.
- ,
. .
2.
INVITE- 101 199
, - C
. , 3
.
3. Via
- Via .
Via ,
. , ,
, UAC
( SIP ).
4.
.

, . ,

.
139

- ,
Contact 3, (target
set), 3
. Request-URI SIPS URI, -
, sips.
- ,
3, ,
.
SIP ,
- .
3 SIP, SIPS SIP URI. sip sips
; ,
.
- 416 (Unsupported URI Scheme) ,
Request-URI , sip,
sip sips (.. -
), - URI (target set).
URI Request-URI ,
sip. tel
tel URL SIP URI
SIP URI , .
3 -
SIP SIPS URI, 416,
.
5.
-
, :
, 100 (Trying)
2
6, ,
stateful -
.
-
CANCEL, 487
,
6.

2 INVITE.
Stateful - .
, 4 2.4.1.5.
.
, , ,
7 8.
, , , stateful -
-INVITE -2
2 INVITE.
140

6.
Stateful -
, ,
, ,
. Stateful -
, .
, -
408 (Request Timeout).
- , .
6, .
, -
, .
- ,
, , 401, 407, 415, 420
484, 4 .
-, 503 (Service Unavailable),
, ,
, , 503.
, 503 , -
, , Request-URI ,
503.
503, - 500
(Server Internal Error).
, - 4
503 (Service Unavailable), 407 (Proxy Authentication Required), 501 (Not
Implemented), 404 (Not Found), 407.
, 7 8.
1 2 .
tag To, UAC tag
, ,
. - tag
To 1 2 , . -
tag To 1 2 .
- tag To
1 , tag,
100 (Trying) ( 101-199
tag To). -
. UAS ,
.
3 6 ,
(hop-by-hop). - UAS,
; ,
, . - tag
To 3-6 , tag.
- tag ,
tag To.
, SIP , ,
- tag To 3-6 ,
tag .
141

-
, tag To
, tag To
. , ,
401 (Unauthorized) 407 (Proxy Authentication Required)
Contact
3.
7. Authorization
401 (Unauthorized) 407 (Proxy Authentication
Required), - WWW-Authenticate
Proxy-Authenticate 401 (Unauthorized) 407 (Proxy
Authentication Required), ,
. 401 407
WWW-Authenticate Proxy-Authenticate.
, , ,
. ,
.
8. Record-Route
Record-Route,
- , -
. - -
SIP-,
.
- TLS, TLS, URI Record-Route ,
SIPS URI. - TLS-
TLS, - URI Record-Route ,
SIP URI.
URI, -,
, Record-Route ( 4
2.4.1.4) : URI
transport , - , e SIP,
, .
- Record-Route
, , Record-Route,
. Record-Route ,
.
, ,
URI , -.
Record-Route,
, -
URI -.
Record-Route -
, Record-Route.
Record-Route, , -.
9.
142

- , .
, - ,
Via, 3 2.4.1.5. , received,
Via , . , .
,
Via.
, (statelessly),
SIP.

.
.
- ,
, .
10. CANCEL
, -
CANCEL ,
. - ,
6. ,
, (
Proceeding) CANCEL.
CANCEL 2.3.5.

, 200 (OK)
INVITE. 200 (OK) ,
CANCEL .
2.4.1.6
, -
, .
, -
CANCEL, . , 408
(Request Timeout).
-
, , .
2.4.1.7 SIP
SIP - ,
(. 2.10.4), - ,
503 (Service Unavailable).
- , .
- ,
, .
143

2.4.1.8 CANCEL
Stateful - CANCEL
, . -
, ,
CANCEL.
Stateful - CANCEL INVITE ,
Expires INVITE. , ,
, ,
-.
CANCEL stateful -
, . ,
-
, CANCEL. ,
- 200 (OK)
CANCEL. -
UAS, 2.1.2. , -
CANCEL ,
, 2.4.1.5, 10.
, - ,
CANCEL.
( , ,
, - ).

2.4.2.

-
. , stateful
- stateless -.
.
stateless -
, stateful -.
stateless -
SIP ( 2.10.).
, .
, ;
, stateless -
. , -
100 (Trying)
.
Stateless - ,
2.4.1.1.
Stateless - ,
2.4.1.2 2.4.1.3. :

Stateless - target set.


,
. ,
144

.
, ACK, Route, CANCEL
, INVITE.
Stateless - ,
2.4.1.4 :

, branch
stateless -. , stateless -
,
branch, 8
2.4.1.4. - ,
, stateless -
. ,
branch, ,
, stateless - branch
,
.
Stateless - ,
branch
. , . -
branch Via .
, magic cookie,
branch
branch.
branch
Via, tag To From, Call-ID,
CSeq Request-URI .

.
, 2.4.1.4,
.
, - Record-Route
Route,
. branch Via
,
- ,
.

Stateless - , ,
stateful - 10 2.4.1.4.
SIP ,
.
stateless -

branch ,
. (,
), ,
, ,
.
.
145


.
Stateless -
CANCEL. ,
. , - Route
CANCEL , .
, 2.4.1.5., , .
stateless -,
Via. , -
,
, Via. -
, .
, - .
-, .

2.4.3 Route Request-URI


, - ,
Route, .
1. - Request-URI. ,
-, URI,
.
- Request-URI.
2. - URI Route. URI
-, Route.
3. - ,
Route Request-URI Route. -
,
URI
(Locating SIP Servers RFC 3263).
strict-router, Request-URI
URI .

2.4.4
2.4.4.1 -

P1

U1

P2

U2
146

U1

P1
INVITE

200 OK
BYE

P2
INVITE
200 OK

U2
INVITE
200 OK

BYE

BYE

. 2.35. -
: - U1 -> P1 -> P2 -> U2, -
Record-Route.
U1 ( 1) P1:
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Contact: sip:anton@u1.niits.ru

P1 -. P1 protei.ru,
-, protei.ru DNS-
. Record-Route.
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Contact: sip:anton@u1.niits.ru
Record-Route: <sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>

P2 ( -) . protei.ru,

Request-URI. Record-Route. Route
, Request-URI , :
INVITE sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru SIP/2.0
Contact: sip:anton@u1.niits.ru
Record-Route: <sip:p2.protei.ru;lr>
Record-Route: <sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>

Vladimir u2.protei.ru
200 (OK):
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Contact: sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru
Record-Route: <sip:p2.protei.ru;lr>
Record-Route: <sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>

U2 remote target
sip:anton@u1.niits.ru, - route set
<sip:p2.protei.ru;lr>,<sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>.
147

- 2 - 1 1.

UA

remote
target

sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru, route set <sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>,<sip:p2.protei.ru;lr>


route set lr, U1
BYE:
BYE sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru SIP/2.0
Route: <sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>,<sip:p2.protei.ru;lr>

, SIP ( -), U1
URI Route DNS-,
, . P1. - P1
, , Request-URI,
. - ,
Route,
P2:
BYE sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru SIP/2.0
Route: <sip:p2.protei.ru;lr>

P2 , , Request-URI
( protei.ru, u2.protei.ru),
. - Route,
u2.protei.ru DNS
Request-URI:
BYE sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru SIP/2.0

2.4.4.2 strict-router
4 -,
Record-Route. - - strict-router.
strict-router

P1

U1

P2

P3

P4

U2

148

. 2.36 strict-router
INVITE, U2, :
INVITE sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru SIP/2.0
Contact: sip:anton@u1.niits.ru
Record-Route: <sip:p4.protei.ru;lr>
Record-Route: <sip:p3.loniis.ru>
Record-Route: <sip:p2.niits.ru;lr>
Record-Route: <sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>

U2 200 (OK). U2 BYE - 4


Route.
BYE sip:anton@u1.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Route: <sip:p4.protei.ru;lr>
Route: <sip:p3.loniis.ru>
Route: <sip:p2.niits.ru;lr>
Route: <sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>

P4 , Request-URI, .
- , Route
.
Route - sip:p3.loniis.ru, , URI
lr.
:
BYE sip:p3.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Route: <sip:p2.niits.ru;lr>
Route: <sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>
Route: <sip:anton@u1.niits.ru>

- 3 strict-router, - 2
:
BYE sip:p2.niits.ru;lr SIP/2.0
Route: <sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>
Route: <sip:anton@u1.niits.ru>

149

P2 , Request-URI ,
Record-Route.
:
BYE sip:anton@u1.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Route: <sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>

P2 u1.niits.ru, P1
Route.
P1 Route,
, :
BYE sip:anton@u1.niits.ru SIP/2.0

P1 u1.niits.ru Route , P1
u1.niits.ru Request-URI.
2.4.4.3 -
Record-Route
U1 U2 ;
- P1, ,
.

P1

U1

U2

. 2.37 -
Record-Route
U1 :
150

INVITE sip:vladimir@gateway.niits.ru SIP/2.0


Contact: <sip:anton@u1.niits.ru>

P1 U2 :
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Contact: <sip:anton@u1.niits.ru>
Record-Route: <sip:gateway.protei.ru;lr>

U2 P1 200 (OK):
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Contact: <sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru>
Record-Route: <sip:gateway.protei.ru;lr>

P1 Record-Route, ,
U1, U1:
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Contact: <sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru>
Record-Route: <sip:gateway.niits.ru;lr>

U1 P1 BYE:
BYE sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru SIP/2.0
Route: <sip:gateway.niits.ru;lr>

P1 U2 :
BYE sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru SIP/2.0

2.5.

-, ,
, .
,
. ,
, , , ,
().

,
, URI
, ,
URI. .
, CANCEL,
, ,
;
3. CANCEL 2.
SIP-.
.
151

3 Contact,
.
expires, .
Contact
.
, 301 (Moved Permanently) 302 (Moved Temporarily)
, ,
, , multicast-,
,
UDP TCP, .
URI,
, Request-URI ,
.
, 404 (Not found),
, -.
Contact URI,
, SIP-.
URI , , .
Contact , .
, SIP , ,
, .
expires Contact ,
. - ,
. , Expires.
3600.
,
,
option-tag Require ,
.

2.6. HTTP
SIP stateless
,
HTTP. , - UA ( ,
),
.
SIP
Digest.
SIP RFC 3261 Basic
. ,
Basic,
.
SIP UAS 401 (Unauthorized) ,
UAC. , registrar
401 (Unauthorized), , 407 (Proxy Authentication
Required).

, .. ,
. realm
152

, . realm
:
realm . realm
.
realm
, .
:
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Authorization: Digest realm="protei.ru", <...>
(usernames)
(passwords). ,
anonymous .
, ,
, ,
.
UAC ,
realm, ,
UAC ,
.
,
SIP-, ,
- ACK CANCEL.
,
(, Digest),
, ;
ACK.
INVITE, ,
ACK. , ACK,
Authorization Proxy-Authorization
INVITE, .
ACK.
, CANCEL ,

, .
,
.
, , ,
- ,
403 (Forbidden). UAC
, .

2.6.1 -
UAS UAC,
.
Authorization , UAS
153

401
(Unauthorized).
401 (Unauthorized) WWWAuthenticate. ,
() ,
. WWW-Authenticate
401.
WWW-Authenticate: Digest
realm="protei.ru",
qop="auth,auth-int",
nonce="dcd98b7102dd2f0e8b11d0f600bfb0c093",
opaque="5ccc069c403ebaf9f0171e9517f40e41"

UAC 401 (Unauthorized), ,


, ,
. UAC
.
( , , UA
- ,
To realm
.
, UAC
, anonymous .
, UA, UAS
(,
401 (Unauthorized)), , Authorization.
Authorization ,
,
, ,
. Authorization
( REGISTER, ).
Authorization: Digest username="anton",
realm="niits.ru",
nonce="dcd98b7102dd2f0e8b11d0f600bfb0c093",
uri="sip:anton@niits.ru",
qop=auth,
nc=00000001,
cnonce="0a4f113b",
response="6629fae49393a05397450978507c4ef1",
opaque="5ccc069c403ebaf9f0171e9517f40e41"

, UAC ,
,
CSeq.

2.6.2 - -
, - UAC,
,
. ProxyAuthorization , -
407
154

(Proxy Authentication Required). -


Proxy-Authenticate , ()
,
UAC , Proxy-Authorization
, -,
. UAC
407 (Proxy Authentication Required), , ,
, .
realm ,
2.6.1 401.
, UAC
anonymous
.
UAC - ,
.
Call-ID.
Proxy-Authorization -,
realm.
-,
Proxy-Authorization
-, realm.
- UAC
. -, ,
.

WWW-Authenticate Proxy-Authenticate,
, ,
- .
.
- , 407 UAC
, . , ,
-, ,
, UAC
. UAC
, ,
, ,
.
, UAC
Authorization WWWAuthenticate Proxy-Authorization
Proxy-Authenticate.
realm.
,
, 401 (Unauthorized) 407 (Proxy
Authentication Required). , , ,
realm, . ,
UAC
Authorization Proxy-Authorization realm.
.

2.6.3 Digest
155

HTTP Digest,
SIP. SIP
HTTP. Digest
RFC 2617 "HTTP/1.1" "SIP/2.0"
: URI SIP, SIPS;
nonce HTTP- Etag;
, P.
. Anton
Vladimir INVITE. UAS,
,
Authorization Anton 401
(Unauthorized). WWW-Authenticate
, - Digest, realm,
protei.ru nonce.
UAC , , ,
nonce ,
. Authorization INVITE
UAS. ,
.
, UAS .

INVITE (1)
401 Unauthotized (2)
INVITE (3)

. 2.38
,
.
WWW-Authenticate (challenge).
(Digest) ,
: realm, domain, nonce, opaque,
stale, algorithm, qop. realm nonce.
realm
, ,
(username) (password). ,
, , .
domain
URI, .
URI,
. domain ,
, ,
. domain ProxyAuthenticate, -.

156

nonce
, ,
401.
base64. nonce
. , nonce
. nonce Authorization
; nonce
. .
nonce (time-stamp),
nonce. nonce
.
opaque
, ,
Authorization , URI,
. ,
base64.
stale
, , ,
nonce . TRUE,

. stale TRUE
, , nonce,
(,
). FALSE, ,
TRUE, stale , , /
.
algorithm
, .
MD5. ,
(
,
).
qop

RFC 2069. Qop , ,
quality of protection ( ), .
auth ,
auth-int .
Authorization .
(Digest) ,
: username, realm, nonce, uri,
response, algorithm, cnonce, opaque, qop, nc.
username, realm, nonce, uri, response. opaque algorithm
WWW-Authenticate . realm,
nonce, algorithm, opaque .
username
.
uri
URI Request-URI, Request-Line. URI
Request-URI
157

-. SIP URI

- .
response
, 32 , ,
.
: nonce, nc, cnonce, qop, uri, username, realm,
password.
MD5.
qop
, .
,
WWW-Authenticate.
.
cnonce
cnonce , ,
,

. , qop,
, WWW-Authenticate qop.
nc
nc (nonce count) ( )
,
nonce, . ,
nonce, nc
nc=00000001.
(replay attack): nc ,
.
, qop, ,
WWW-Authenticate qop.
, ,
400 (Bad Request). response ,
,
, , ,
.
Digest- Authentication-Info.
Authentication-Info ,
, .
: nextnonce, qop, rspauth, cnonce, nc.
nextnonce.
nextnonce
nextnonce nonce,
. nextnonce
,
nonce .
nextnonce
Authorization,
"stale=TRUE".
qop
158

, .
, .
rspauth
rspauth
- ,
, auth-int qop
.
, ,
, .
uri, cnonce, nc Authorization .
Digest
- -, - - -, -
. Proxy-Authenticate Proxy-Authorization.
Proxy-Authenticate
Proxy-Authorization
WWW-Authenticate Authorization.

2.7. S/MIME
SIP- MIME, MIME
MIME-
( multipart/signed application/pkcs7-mime
MIME- RFC 1847, RFC 2630, RFC 2633).
, (
SIP -),
SIP (, SDP);
MIME- ,
, (firewalls).
SIP RFC 2543
PGP. .

2.7.1 S/MIME
SIP
. (
),
.
.
UA .

.
,
,
.
. .
,
.

159

- .
,
, , .
,
S/MIME, , , ,
,
. SIP SIPS URI:
userinfo ( ), @ domainname ( ) (,
anton@niits.ru); .
, S/MIME,
, .

. ,
URI ( From)
, .
, ,
, ,

. ,
.
, (selfsigned certificates).
SIP,
.

( ).
.
(
) ,
SIP .

2.7.2 S/MIME
SIP.
S/MIME ,
, ,
.
UAC ,
S/MIME, ,
- multipart/signed.

, UAC ,
.
UAS , ,
, UAS
. UAS ,
, From .
, UAS

- .
,
, From ,
160

( ) , UAS
;
.
UAS , , ,
, S/MIME, UAC
,
- multipart/signed.
, UAC
,
.
UAC ,
S/MIME, , UAC
. UAC ,
To ;
, UA
. ,
, To,
( ) , UAC
. UAC
UAS ,
, S/MIME,
.
, UA ,
From , UA
, ,
. , UA
( , ,
)
, .
,
.

(self-signed) ,
. , ,
.
UA ,
, 493 (Undecipherable).
(
, , To
); ,
smime-type Content-Type - certs-only. 493
(Undecipherable) ,
S/MIME.
, ,
S/MIME , handling Content-Disposition
- required, , 415 (Unsupported Media Type),
. , ,
,
S/MIME. S/MIME.
, 415 ,
.
161

, S/MIME
, , , UAC
, S/MIME .
, UA, S/MIME,
,
, S/MIME
.

, .
, ,
, ,
.
;
,
(call back). ,
, ,
. ,

,
.
UA ,
, , UA
, ,
.

2.7.3
S/MIME
- application/pkcs7-mime multipart/signed.
.
application/pkcs7-mime
multipart/signed. ,
,
.
application/pkcs7-mime, application/sdp.
smime-type Content-Type enveloped-data,
, . ,
(*), .
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bKnashds8
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru> tag=1928301774
Call-ID: a84b4c76e66710
CSeq: 314159 INVITE
Max-Forwards: 70
Contact: <sip:anton@pc33.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/pkcs7-mime; smime-type=enveloped-data;
name=smime.p7m
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=smime.p7m
handling=required
*******************************************************

162

* Content-Type: application/sdp
*
*
*
* v=0
*
* o=anton 53655765 2353687637 IN IP4 pc33.niits.ru
*
* s=*
* t=0 0
*
* c=IN IP4 pc33.niits.ru
*
* m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 1 3 99
*
* a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
*
*******************************************************

application/sdp
multipart/signed.
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bKnashds8
To: Vladimir <vladimir@protei.ru>
From: Anton <anton@niits.ru>;tag=1928301774
Call-ID: a84b4c76e66710
CSeq: 314159 INVITE
Max-Forwards: 70
Contact: <sip:anton@pc33.niits.ru>
Content-Type: multipart/signed;
protocol="application/pkcs7-signature";
micalg=sha1; boundary=boundary42
--boundary42
Content-Type: application/sdp
v=0
o=anton 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 pc33.niits.ru
s=Session SDP
c=IN IP4 pc33.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
--boundary42
Content-Type: application/pkcs7-signature; name=smime.p7s
Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=smime.p7s;
handling=required
ghyHhHUujhJhjH77n8HHGTrfvbnj756tbB9HG4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6
4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6jH77n8HHGghyHhHUujhJh756tbB9HGTrfvbnj
n8HHGTrfvhJhjH776tbB9HG4VQbnj7567GhIGfHfYT6ghyHhHUujpfyF4
7GhIGfHfYT64VQbnj756
--boundary42-

2.7.4 SIP S/MIME (SIP-)


SIP S/MIME
SIP message/sip
,
SIP. SIP
, ,
163


.
UAS , message/sip,
message/sip .
,
, message/sip
multipart/mixed.
2.7.4.1 SIP
SIP S/MIME
SIP , ,
message/sip, .
, ,
.


. ,
- : Via, Record-Route, Route, Max-Forwards, ProxyAuthorization; Request-URI.
,
, .
,
. Date, UA,
,
. (
),
.
,
403 (Forbidden), ,
.
message/sip:
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bKnashds8
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru> ;tag=1928301774
Call-ID: a84b4c76e66710
CSeq: 314159 INVITE
Max-Forwards: 70
Date: Fri, 30 Apr 2004 13:02:03 GMT
Contact: <sip:anton@pc33.niits.ru>
Content-Type: multipart/signed;
protocol="application/pkcs7-signature";
micalg=sha1; boundary=boundary42
Content-Length: 568
--boundary42
Content-Type: message/sip
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bKnashds8
To: Vladimir <vladimir@protei.ru>
From: Anton <anton@niits.ru>;tag=1928301774
Call-ID: a84b4c76e66710
CSeq: 314159 INVITE

164

Max-Forwards: 70
Date: Fri, 30 Apr 2004 13:02:03 GMT
Contact: <sip:anton@pc33.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 147
v=0
o=anton 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 pc33.niits.ru
s=Session SDP
c=IN IP4 pc33.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
--boundary42
Content-Type: application/pkcs7-signature; name=smime.p7s
Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=smime.p7s;
handling=required
ghyHhHUujhJhjH77n8HHGTrfvbnj756tbB9HG4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6
4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6jH77n8HHGghyHhHUujhJh756tbB9HGTrfvbnj
n8HHGTrfvhJhjH776tbB9HG4VQbnj7567GhIGfHfYT6ghyHhHUujpfyF4
7GhIGfHfYT64VQbnj756
--boundary42-

2.7.4.2
,
message/sip,
,
S/MIME , SDP.
.

. ,
From , ( ,
sip:anonymous@anonymizer.invalid). From,
,
message/sip, .
, ,
message/sip .
multipart/signed, ,
message/sip, ,
application/pkcs7-mime.
;
, (*), .
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bKnashds8
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
From: Anonymous <sip:anonymous@niits.ru>;tag=1928301774
Call-ID: a84b4c76e66710
CSeq: 314159 INVITE
Max-Forwards: 70

165

Date: Thu, 30 Apr 2004 13:02:03 GMT


Contact: <sip:pc33.niits.ru>
Content-Type: multipart/signed;
protocol="application/pkcs7-signature";
micalg=sha1; boundary=boundary42
Content-Length: 568
--boundary42
Content-Type: application/pkcs7-mime; smime-type=enveloped-data;
name=smime.p7m
Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=smime.p7m
handling=required
Content-Length: 231
***********************************************************
* Content-Type: message/sip
*
*
*
* INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
*
* Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bKnashds8
*
* To: Vladimir <vladimir@protei.ru>
*
* From: Anton <anton@niits.ru>;tag=1928301774
*
* Call-ID: a84b4c76e66710
*
* CSeq: 314159 INVITE
*
* Max-Forwards: 70
*
* Date: Thu, 30 Apr 2004 13:02:03 GMT
*
* Contact: <sip:anton@pc33.niits.ru>
*
*
*
*
* Content-Type: application/sdp
*
*
*
* v=0
*
* o=anton 53655765 2353687637 IN IP4 pc33.niits.ru
* s=Session SDP
*
*
* t=0 0
* c=IN IP4 pc33.niits.ru
*
* m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 1 3 99
*
* a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
*
***********************************************************
--boundary42
Content-Type: application/pkcs7-signature; name=smime.p7s
Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=smime.p7s;
handling=required
ghyHhHUujhJhjH77n8HHGTrfvbnj756tbB9HG4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6
4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6jH77n8HHGghyHhHUujhJh756tbB9HGTrfvbnj
n8HHGTrfvhJhjH776tbB9HG4VQbnj7567GhIGfHfYT6ghyHhHUujpfyF4
7GhIGfHfYT64VQbnj756
--boundary42-

2.8
, ,
SIP
-
166

. , c SIP,
,
.
SIP
, SIP, RTP,
, SIP.
,
SIP. ,
, ,
. ,
,
SIP.

2.8.1
,
SIP. ,
, SIP.
SIP; ,
,
,
.
,
,
SIP , .
(
). ,
, .
2.8.1.1
SIP
, ,
( ). Registrar
, From REGISTER,
,
, To. ,
, SIP,
.
, From SIP-
UA, . ,
,
, , ,

, ,
, .
,
. SIP UAS,
(, , SIP-
),
. UA
167

, SIP-,
.

, SIP
.
2.8.1.2.
, ,
Request-URI.
, . , ,

.
, , ,
loniis.ru , protei.ru.
protei.ru, loniis.ru
, SIP- protei.ru.
UA

protei.ru.
, .
, , ,
protei.ru, loniis.ru,
301 (Moved Permanently). ,
, , protei.ru, loniis.ru
. REGISTER
UA, loniis.ru.
,
, .
2.8.1.3.
SIP UA -, .
, , UA
- , ,
.
UA, SIP ,
. , , UA
,
. , -
, , , ,
, UA.
,
, SIP.
MIME ,
, SDP .
SDP-, , ,
RTP
.
, SIP
, Subject.
168

, (, ,
Subject, , ).
-
,
.
, UA
SIP, .

, .
,
, -.
2.8.1.4.
,
, / .
, ,
.
, ,

, (tag To From
) BYE.
, , .
BYE , .
, ,
re-INVITE, (

).

BYE. ,
BYE , ,
, . ,
-
, BYE .
( -)
.
2.8.1.5 (DoS-)
, (Denial-of-service attacks),

.

, ,
,
.
SIP -
, IP-.
SIP ,
,
SIP-.
,
IP- Via,
169

, , ,
SIP-, SIP
- ,
.

Route , ,
-, ,
, .
Record-Route,
,
, .
denial-of-service , REGISTER
.

,
.
,
. ,
registrar -,
.

.
,
denial-of-service .

2.8.2
, , SIP
:
, (replayattacks) (message spoofing),
, denialof-service . , SIP-
, ,
.
, , SIP
, SIP
, HTTP SMTP.

, ,
. , SIP

(end-to-end), , Request-URI, Route Via
- ,
SIP- .
SIP -
(, Via). -
- SIP .
SIP ,
SIP
. -,
.
170

SIP
. SIP , ,
, , -,
, .
, SIP
.
,
SIP
,
.
2.8.2.1.


.

, TLS IPSec .
IPSec ,

IP . IPSec
,
. IPSec
,
,
( VPN). IPSec
.
IPSec SIP . IPSec,
, SIP,
SIP- .
-, ,
IPSec.
TLS ,
(, TCP); tls ( TLS TCP)
, Via
SIP URI. TLS ,
,
. , UA Anton
- ,
- , UA
Vladimir. Vladimir -
Vladimir Anton .
TLS SIP .
, SIP
; UA,
- TLS, ,
TLS .
2.8.2.2. SIPS URI

171

SIPS ,
. SIPS URI
SIP URI, ,
sips sip. , SIPS
SIP URI.
SIPS URI
.. ,
From . SIPS URI
Request-URI , ,
, TLS. ,
, ,
UAS (
TLS). SIPS URI
, SIPS ,
-, , .
SIPS , Request-URI
, , - ,
Contact, Route. SIPS
URI .
SIPS URI (
transport) , TLS ,
sips:anton@niits.ru;transport=tcp sips:anton@niits.ru;transport=sctp .
UDP
SIPS).
2.8.2.3 HTTP
SIP
, HTTP-.
401 407, ,
, -,
. Digest
SIP
.
Digest SIP 2.6.
2.8.2.4. S/MIME
, SIP
, (, )

SIP

.
S/MIME SIP MIME,
.
S/MIME
, .
S/MIME SIP
SIP. S/MIME SIP
2.7.

2.8.3
172

2.8.3.1 SIP
-,
TLS .
, TLS-;
,
TLS. -,
,
-.
TLS.
SIP, TLS,
, TLS-.

, .
SIP-, TLS,
SIPS URI.
-, ,
IPSec
.
-, ,
Digest.
2.8.3.2

Web E-Mail
.
(, -, ),
(username) (password).
-,
, UA -
, , TLS.

S/MIME, UA SIP .
,
,
.

UA ,
TLS
. Registrar
. ,
, UA . , UA
anton@niits.ru,
,
niits.ru
( , sip.niits.ru). , UA TLS ,
,
, . ,
, UA REGISTER
.
173

registrar , UA , registrar
, UA ,
.
UA REGISTER, Request-URI ,
, . ,
UA REGISTER TLS , registrar
, 401 (Proxy
Authentication Required). realm Proxy-Authenticate
, . UAC
,
, ,
realm . (username)

(userinfo) URI, To REGISTER. ,
Proxy-Authorization,
REGISTER .
registrar ,
REGISTER
. , REGISTER
TLS ,
REGISTER,
(replay-).
, , registrar , UA
, registrar -,
, ,
. TLS
,
. UA
TLS , ,
, -
, -.

, Anton
,
vladimir@protei.ru.
(niits.ru) -.
-,
, , -; niits.ru
( UA
TLS , ). ,
, ,
TLS - INVITE
. UA , -,
INVITE, .
- UA
INVITE,
Request-URI, , .
Request-URI (niits.ru),
protei.ru, - ,
.
,
anton@niits.ru
174

alexander@niits.ru.
- TLS ,
Alexander .
Alexander ,
, Anton -
.
, Request-URI .
, - niits.ru TLS
- protei.ru.
TLS , ,
.

, , , SIP
. , - niits.ru ,
, , protei.ru.
, TLS ,
-, , - niits.ru
INVITE protei.ru.
- protei.ru niits.ru , ,
From INVITE. - protei.ru
, ,
, .
, , .
, , ,
; protei.ru , niits.ru
Anton. protei.ru
niits.ru, , Anton
. protei.ru
, , ,
protei.ru.
, INVITE protei.ru, TLS ,
, , (
vladimir@protei.ru). INVITE
Vladimir. TLS ,
, - protei.ru, Vladimir ,
niits.ru
Anton, , .
, -
Record-Route ,
-. -
.
- Record-Route,
- Anton Vladimir
- (
,
S/MIME).
, , ,
BYE Vladimir
Anton, , ,
Anton Vladimir.
175

-
UA,
-. UA Alexander
alexander@loniis.ru. Alexander INVITE
vladimir@protei.ru, UA TLS
- protei.ru ( , "SIP: Locating SIP Servers",
RFC 3263). UA Alexander -
protei.ru, , UA
INVITE TLS . UA Alexander
- protei.ru,
, message/sip (.
2.7.4) INVITE. - protei.ru
, , protei.ru
From. -

.
Vladimir - protei.ru
:
<sip:vladimir@192.0.2.4>,
vladimir@protei.ru. Alexander TLS ,
- protei.ru;
.
Alexander TCP
INVITE Request-URI,
( , ). Vladimir
INVITE , , UA ,
, From
,
INVITE. Vladimir ,
, Alexander;
.
NAT (Network Address Translation)
TCP
UA. -
, , ,
TLS TCP, .
(DoS-)
, ,
.
, SIP -,
,
, (
, ping-).
,
, denial-of-service
, , SIP-
.
176

, ,
, -,
-;
. -
SIP-; stateful - ,
stateless -. , stateful -
, stateless -.
-
401 (Unauthorized)
407 (Proxy Authentication Required),
,
stateless . 401 407
, (
Via), .
, -
TLS
,
- .

2.9
2.9.1 -
Anton Vladimir
- Proxy 1 Proxy 2. INVITE (F1)
Route Proxy 1. Proxy 1
- Anton.
, Proxy 1 407 (Proxy
Authorization), .
INVITE (F4),
. ,
Vladimir BYE.
- Proxy 1 Record-Route INVITE,
, .
Proxy 2 Record-Route. ACK (F15) BYE
(F18) Route.

177

. 2.39 -


F1 INVITE

Anton -> Proxy 1

INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74b43
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=anton 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 serv1.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.101
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

- Proxy 1 .
178

F2 407 (Proxy Authorization Required) Proxy 1 -> Anton


SIP/2.0 407 Proxy Authorization Required
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74b43
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=3flal12sf
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Proxy-Authenticate: Digest realm="niits.ru", qop="auth",
nonce="f84f1cec41e6cbe5aea9c8e88d359",
opaque="", stale=FALSE, algorithm=MD5
Content-Length: 0

F3 ACK Anton -> Proxy 1


ACK sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74b43
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=3flal12sf
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0

Anton INVITE,
.
F4 INVITE Anton -> Proxy 1
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="anton",
realm="niits.ru",
nonce="wf84f1ceczx41ae6cbe5aea9c8e88d359", opaque="",
uri="sip:vladimir@protei.ru",
response="42ce3cef44b22f50c6a6071bc8"
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=anton 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 serv1.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.101
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

179

Proxy 1 INVITE -
Proxy 2. Anton
49172 .
F5 INVITE

Proxy 1 -> Proxy 2

INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=anton 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 serv1.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.101
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

F6 100 (Trying)

Proxy 1 -> Anton

SIP/2.0 100 Trying


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Content-Length: 0

F7 INVITE

Proxy 2 -> Vladimir

INVITE sip:vladimir@serv3.protei.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss2.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e4.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 68
Record-Route: <sip:ss2.protei.ru;lr>,
<sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151

180

v=0
o=anton 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 serv1.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.101
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

F8 100 (Trying)

Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1

SIP/2.0 100 Trying


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Content-Length: 0

F9 180 (Ringing)

Vladimir -> Proxy 2

SIP/2.0 180 Ringing


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss2.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e4.1
;received=192.0.2.222
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss2.protei.ru;lr>,
<sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
Contact: <sip:vladimir@serv3.protei.ru;transport=tcp>
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Content-Length: 0

F10 180 (Ringing)

Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1

SIP/2.0 180 Ringing


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss2.protei.ru;lr>,
<sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
Contact: <sip:vladimir@serv3.protei.ru;transport=tcp>
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Content-Length: 0

F11 180 (Ringing)

Proxy 1 -> Anton

181

SIP/2.0 180 Ringing


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss2.protei.ru;lr>,
<sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
Contact: <sip:vladimir@serv3.protei.ru;transport=tcp>
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Content-Length: 0

F12 200 (OK) Vladimir -> Proxy 2


SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss2.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e4.1
;received=192.0.2.222
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss2.protei.ru;lr>,
<sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:vladimir@serv3.protei.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 147
v=0
o=vladimir 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 serv3.protei.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.201
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

F13 200 (OK)

Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1

SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss2.protei.ru;lr>,
<sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:vladimir@serv3.protei.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 147
v=0
o=vladimir 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 serv3.protei.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.201

182

t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

F14 200 (OK)

Proxy 1 -> Anton

SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss2.protei.ru;lr>,
<sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:vladimir@serv3.protei.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 147
v=0
o=vladimir 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 serv3.protei.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.201
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

F15 ACK

Anton -> Proxy 1

ACK sip:vladimir@serv3.protei.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74b76
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>,
<sip:ss2.protei.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 ACK
Content-Length: 0

F16 ACK

Proxy 1 -> Proxy 2

ACK sip:vladimir@serv3.protei.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74b76
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Route: <sip:ss2.protei.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 ACK
Content-Length: 0

F17 ACK

Proxy 2 -> Vladimir

ACK sip:vladimir@serv3.protei.ru SIP/2.0

183

Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss2.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e4.1


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74b76
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 68
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 ACK
Content-Length: 0

Anton Vladimir RTP .


Vladimir . , CSeq 3.
Anton Vladimir
CSeq.
F18 BYE

Vladimir -> Proxy 2

BYE sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv3.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss2.protei.ru;lr>,
<sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0

F19 BYE

Proxy 2 -> Proxy 1

BYE sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss2.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e4.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv3.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
;received=192.0.2.201
Max-Forwards: 69
Route: <sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0

F20 BYE

Proxy 1 -> Anton

BYE sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss2.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e4.1
;received=192.0.2.222
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv3.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
;received=192.0.2.201
Max-Forwards: 68
From: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE

184

Content-Length: 0

F21 200 (OK)

Anton -> Proxy 1

SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss2.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e4.1
;received=192.0.2.222
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv3.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
;received=192.0.2.201
From: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0

F22 200 (OK)

Proxy 1 -> Proxy 2

SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss2.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e4.1
;received=192.0.2.222
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv3.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0

F23 200 (OK)

Proxy 2 -> Vladimir

SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv3.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
;received=192.0.2.201
From: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0

2.9.2
Anton Vladimir
. INVITE
. 302 (Moved Temporarily),
Contact SIP- Vladimir. Anton
INVITE Vladimir -
. INVITE
SDP , ACK.
, Vladimir BYE.

185

. 2.40

F1 INVITE

Anton ->

INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/UDP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbf9f44
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru>
Content-Length: 0

F2 302 (Moved Temporarily) -> Anton


SIP/2.0 302 Moved Temporarily
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbf9f44
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=53fHlqlQ2
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:vladimir@loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Length: 0

F3 ACK

Anton ->

186

ACK sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/UDP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbf9f44
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=53fHlqlQ2
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0

F4 INVITE

Anton -> Proxy 3

INVITE sip:vladimir@loniis.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Length: 0

F5 INVITE

Proxy 3 -> Vladimir

INVITE sip:vladimir@serv5.loniis.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss3.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route:
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Length: 0

F6 100 (Trying)

Proxy 3 -> Anton

SIP/2.0 100 Trying


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Content-Length: 0

F7 180 (Ringing) Vladimir -> Proxy 3


SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss3.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e.1
;received=192.0.2.233
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss3.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru

187

CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:vladimir@serv5.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Length: 0

F8 180 (Ringing)

Proxy 3 -> Anton

SIP/2.0 180 Ringing


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss3.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:vladimir@serv5.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Length: 0

F9 200 (OK)

Vladimir -> Proxy 3

SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss3.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e.1
;received=192.0.2.233
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss3.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:vladimir@serv5.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 148
v=0
o=vladimir 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 serv5.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.100
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

F10 200 (OK)

Proxy -> Anton

SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss3.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:vladimir@serv5.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 148
v=0
o=vladimir 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 serv5.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.100
t=0 0

188

m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0


a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

ACK SDP Anton,


INVITE.
F11 ACK Anton -> Proxy 3
ACK sip:vladimir@serv5.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bq9
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss3.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 ACK
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=anton 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 serv1.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.101
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

F12 ACK Proxy 3 -> Vladimir


ACK sip:vladimir@serv5.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss3.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bq9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 ACK
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=anton 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 serv1.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.101
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

Vladimir ACK,
Anton Vladimir RTP . - Vladimir .
F13 BYE

Vladimir -> Proxy 3

BYE sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv5.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKfgaw2
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss3.loniis.ru;lr>

189

From: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159


To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0

F14 BYE

Proxy 3 -> Anton

BYE sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss3.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e.1
;received=192.0.2.100
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv5.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKfgaw2
Max-Forwards: 69
From: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0

F15 200 (OK)

Anton -> Proxy 3

SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss3.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e.1
;received=192.0.2.233
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv5.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKfgaw2
;received=192.0.2.100
From: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0

F16 200 (OK)

Proxy 3 -> Vladimir

SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv5.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKfgaw2
;received=192.0.2.100
From: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0

2.10. SIP
SIP
.

SIP .
SIP
TCP SCTP. SIP
,
.
, ,
. SIP,
190

IP-,
. SIP,
IP-, .
, (
, DNS-,
Locating SIP servers, RFC 3263), - ,
SIP, . -,

, - ,
.
,
,
.
, ,
(Terminated). ,
,
. 64*T1.
, , SIP ,
TU, (. 11
2.4.1.4.)
SIP UDP TCP.
.

2.10.1
2.10.1.1
SIP
. SIP,
, SIP-,
SIP , IP-, ,
TTL .
200 path MTU(
) 1300 , path MTU ,
,
, , TCP.
( , Via),
Via .
, UDP,
. ,
.
UDP 65,535 IP UDP .
200- MTU
, SIP . ,
Record-Route INVITE.
1300 , path MTU , ,
Ethernet MTU 1500 .
SIP TCP -
(
UDP). TCP-
, ICMP , SIP
191

, UDP.
,
TCP. ,
.
, ,
maddr Via, URI
, IPv4 ttl
1.
, SIP
, IP-/ ,
Via. ,
. 5060
UDP, TCP SCTP, 5061 TLS.

, .
SIP ,
.
.
, SIP
IP- , , ,
Via. SIP
,
, Section 5, Locating SIP servers, RFC 3263.

IP- ,
( )
, Via. ,
,
. ,
, Section 5, Locating SIP
servers, RFC 3263.

SIP multicast- ,
( , ,
multicast-, ).
IP-, ,
, ,
.
,
, TTL,
SIP.
, IP- ,
.

, SIP
Via. ,
,
.
192

,
SIP , 2.3.2.1,
.
, .
( , stateless -,
stateful - UA) . ,
, (, , , UA ).

2.10.2

IP-,
,
DNS- .
Contact REGISTER, 3
Record-Route . ,
SIP- (5060 TCP UDP, 5061 TLS TCP)
.
, ,
. ,

UDP ,
TCP . ,
, TCP, UDP. .
UDP ,
TCP .
, UDP .
SIP ,
,
Via. URI, ,
IP-, ,
received Via.
, .
SIP ,
IP- , .
, , .
:
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP serv3.protei.ru:5060
IP- 192.0.2.4.
, SIP Via
received , .
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP serv3.protei.ru:5060;received=192.0.2.4
, SIP
. ,
193

2.3.2.2. ,
. , ,

. , UAS 2 INVITE,
. , ,
ACK, .
ACK UAS, .


Via , , . SIP
.

Via ,
TCP, SCTP TLS ( TCP SCTP),
,
, .
SIP
. ,
IP- received
( ), , , ,
( ,
Via).
,
, RFC 3263 SIP: Locating SIP servers,
.

, Via maddr,
, , ,
5060, .
,
TTL, ttl, TTL, 1,
.

, Via received (
unicast ), ,
, ,
5060, . , ,
ICMP port unreachable ( ),
, Section 5, Locating SIP servers, RFC
3263, , , .

,
, , Section 5, Locating SIP
servers, RFC 3263.

2.10.3
,
( UDP), Content-Length,
194

, .
Content-Length, , ,
.
, , .
,
. ,
. , 400
(Bad Request).
- , TCP, ContentLength, , .

2.10.4.
,
. SIP, ,
,
, ICMP-, ICMP
. , , (host, network, port,
protocol unreachable) , ,
SIP
. ICMP Source quench TTL exceeded
.
SIP ,
,
, SIP
.

195

3. SIP (SIP-T)
3.1. SIP-T
IP, SIP. SIP
,
.
SIP SIPT.
SIPT (SIP )
(, 7 DSS) SIP. SIPT
, .
SIPISUP, ISUP 7
SIP, , . ,
, , -,
SIP , ISUP.
, ISUP
SIP, SIP
.
, SIP
:
3.1

-SIP

SIPT

SIP ISUP

ISUP
SIP

SIP ,
ISUP

ISUP
SIP

ISUP

INFO

,
SIP ISUP (
7). ISUP
.

3.2

.

3.2.1 SIP-T (-IP-)


, SIP , ..
, SIP bridging. ISUP SIP
, .. SIP, .
ISUP SIP .

3.1 VoIP.

3.1 .
, SIP, , ISUP
MGC (Media Gateway Controller),
SIP. MGC
SIP . SIP
, (
MGC) . ,
. MGC,
SIP , ISUP ,
ISUP, SIP, (..
, ).
3.2

3.2 VoIP.

3.2.2 IP-
,
SIP.

3.3 VoIP.

3.3
. MGC, ISUP
SIP , .
SIP
MGC -, SIP.
3.4.

3.4 VoIP.

3.2.3 IP-
SIP,
.

3.5 VoIP .

3.5.
, ISUP
SIP ,
MGC, SIP,
SIP ISUP.
3.6.

3.6 VoIP .

SIP INVITE, - SIP


MGC. MGC ,
.
SIP ISUP IAM.

, SIP 100 (Trying).
(ACM)
180 (Ringing) 183 (Session Progress).
, ANM MGC.
MGC 200 (OK). MGC
ACK.

3.3 SIPT
3.3.1 SIP
SIPT SIP, 2
[RFC 3261].

3.3.2

SIPT. SIPT
MIME, SIP
( SDP, ISUP ..). ISUP
MIME - ISUP
Media Type, ISUP.
ISUP Media Type :
3.2
Media type name:
application
Media subtype name:
ISUP
Required parameters:
version
Optional parameters:
base
Encoding scheme:
binary
Security considerations: SIP
version
ISUP. SoftSwitch/MGC
, , ISUP
. ,
version; .
version ISUP
(, X-NetxProprietaryISUPv3),
ISUP, ITU-T ANSI.
base ,
, ISUP,
5

.. version . 3.3
base, application/ISUP.
3.3
base
ITU-T Q.761-4 (1988)
Itu-t88
ITU-T Q.761-4 (1992)
Itu-t92+
ANSI T1.113-1988
Ansi88
ANSI T1.113-2000
Ansi00
ETS 300 121
Etsi121
ES 300 356
Etsi356
BELLCORE GR-317
Gr317
JT-Q761-4(1987-1992)
Ttc87
JT-Q761-4(1993-)
Ttc93+
Content-Disposition
ISUP, ,
Content-Type.
Content-Disposition ISUP - signal. ,
,
.
Content-Disposition 2 [RFC 2046].
ISUP Content-Disposition
:
signal,
handling, optional required (. 2,
2.2.2).
( base
):
Content-Type: application/ISUP; version=nxv3; base=etsi121
Content-Disposition: signal; handling=optional
INVITE,
SDP ISUP IAM.
. ,
boundary (. [RFC 2046]).
unique-boundary-1.
INVITE sip:78123877658@max.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP anton.loniis.ru
From: sip:78124513355@anton.loniis.ru
To: sip:78123877658@max.loniis.ru
Call-ID: MAX1231999021712095500999@max.loniis.ru
CSeq: 8348 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@loniis.ru>
Content-Length: 436
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=unique-boundary-1
MIME-Version: 1.0
6

--unique-boundary-1
Content-Type: application/SDP; charset=ISO-10646
v=0
o=jpeterson 2890844526 2890842807 IN IP4 126.16.64.4
s=SDP seminar
c=IN IP4 MG122.loniis.ru
t= 2873397496 2873404696
m=audio 9092 RTP/AVP 0 3 4
--unique-boundary-1
Content-Type: application/ISUP; version=nxv3;
base=etsi121
Content-Disposition: signal; handling=optional
01 00 49 00 00 03 02 00 07 04 10 00 33 63 21
43 00 00 03 06 0d 03 80 90 a2 07 03 10 03 63
53 00 10 0a 07 03 10 27 80 88 03 00 00 89 8b
0e 95 1e 1e 1e 06 26 05 0d f5 01 06 10 04 00
--unique-boundary-1

3.3.3

ISUP SIP. :
1. ISUP SIP . SIPT
MGC, ISUP
SIP .
ISUP SIP,
ISUP SIP.
, IAM INVITE, REL BYE ..
2. ISUP SIP :
SIP, ,
- ,
, .

ISUP SIP (, Called Party Number ISUP IAM
To Request-URI ..).
SIP ,
ISUP, SIP,
. MGC ( SIP)
, SIP
ISUP. , , To
Request-URI SIP Called Party Number (
) ISUP.
, ..
SIP,
ISUP, .
7

3.3.4
SIP
.
INFO [RFC 2976].
, (overlap
dialing).
DTMF. DTMF [RFC2833 RTP
Payload for DTMF Digits, Telephony Tones and Telephony Signals].

3.4 SIP
, , ,
: , SDP
ISUP.
( multipart/mixed) / ISUP
MIME (application/ISUP),
415 (Unsupported Media Type), (
- application/SDP). , ,
,
ISUP (.. SDP) .
, ,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
: , ,
, , .
, , SIP ,
ISUP, .
:
ISUP . UA 2 INVITE,
ISUP .

3.6.1 SIP. ISUP


.

UA1
INVITE-->

UA2

(Content-type:multipart/mixed;
Content-type: application/sdp;
Content-disposition: session; handling=required;
Content-type: application/isup;
Content-disposition: signal; handling=optional;)
<--18x
2. ISUP . UA 2 ISUP ,
415 (Unsupported Media Type). UA 1
ISUP , SDP
UA 2.

3.6.2 SIP. ISUP


.

UA1
UA2
INVITE--> (Content-type:multipart/mixed;
Content-type: application/sdp;
Content-disposition: session; handling=required;
Content-type: application/isup;
Content-disposition: signal; handling=required;)
<--415
(Accept: application/sdp)
ACK-->
INVITE-->
(Content-type: application/sdp)
<--18x
3. ISUP . UA2 ISUP
415 (Unsupported Media Type). UA1
UA 3.
9

3.6.3 SIP. ISUP


.

UA1
UA2
INVITE--> (Content-type:multipart/mixed;
Content-type: application/sdp;
Content-disposition: session; handling=required;
Content-type: application/isup;
Content-disposition: signal; handling=required;)
<--415
(Accept: application/sdp)
ACK-->
UA1
UA3
INVITE--> (Content-type:multipart/mixed;
Content-type: application/sdp;
Content-disposition: session; handling=required;
Content-type: application/isup;
Content-disposition: signal; handling=required;)

3.5
SIPT ,
.
ISUP
, SIPT
.
, SIPT, ,
,
, ISUP
.
ISUP, SIP, ,
S/MIME [RFC 2976].
Security Considerations
SIP [RFC 3261] 2. S/MIME
, ISUP .
10

, ISUP
, .

3.6 ISUP SIP


3.6.1
SIP IP,
, .
ISUP 7 MTP,
IP [RFC 2960]. ISUP
, .
,
ISUP SIP Media Gateway Controller (MGC),
softswitch call agent. MGC
, ISUP SIP. ,
SIP Media Gateway (MG)
E1/T1 ( ) IP ( IP). MGC MG
.
MGC SIP,
IP ,
SIP.
:
ISUP SIP
ISUP, , SIP.
ISUP, SIP,
SIP, ,
ISUP, , ,
ISUP SIP (,
).

3.6.2 SIP
ISUP SIP
, ,
. SIP UAC/UAS ,
, ,
.
3.6.2.1 ISUP
,
SIP (SIP-), SIP
ISUP .
3.6.2.2 MIME
11

, SIP
- (
SDP), ISUP / .
multipart/mixed,
[RFC 2046].
multipart/mixed Accept.
3.6.2.3 DTMF
SIP ISUP
DTMF. SIP ,
.
, SIP
DTMF, .. DTMF .
. [RFC 2833
RTP Payload for DTMF Digits, Telephony Tones and Telephony Signals].
3.6.2.4

.
,
, .. 2

,
. , INVITE
SDP, ,
, .. SDP UA
,
INVITE. SIP
.
, ,
SDP, INVITE, ,
RTCP, ,
.
. [RFC 3311].
3.6.2.5 ,
SIP,
,
, , .
INFO, 6
SIP . INFO
[RFC 2976] 2 2.2.3.
.
405 (Method Not Allowed)
501 (Not Implemented), INFO,
INFO, .
12

3.6.2.6
ISUP , ,
, .
c ,
.
SIP .
,
,
.
. ,
[RFC 3323] 2.
3.6.2.7 ,
CANCEL
ISUP ,
REL .
SIP CANCEL
. CANCEL ,
REL CANCEL.
, REL ,
, .
, .., ,
REL 16 (Normal clearing).
.
- Reason [RFC3326.] 2 2.2.2.

3.6.3 ISUP SIP


3.6.3.1


, .
100 (Trying), , INVITE,
, .
, (ISUP SIP) MGC;
(, ) MG
MGC. ,
MGC/MG.

( ).

13

3.7 .

1. SIP,
IAM .
2. IAM INVITE SIP.
3. , SIP
18.
4. 18 ACM.
, 180 (Ringing), ACM
called party status ( ) no indication
( ).
5. SIP ,
.
6. , ACM ,
ISUP CPG, 3.2.3.2.
7. SIP , 200
(OK).
8. 200 (OK) ANM.
9. SIP ACK
INVITE.
( ).

14

3.8
.

1. SIP,
IAM
2. IAM INVITE
SIP,
.
3. SIP ,
200 ().
4. 200 () CON ISUP,
.
5. SIP ACK
INVITE.
SIP

15

3.9 SIP.

1. SIP,
IAM .
2. IAM INVITE
SIP,
. ISUP 11 SIP
1.
3. 1 INVITE .
RFC SIP [RFC 3261] , INVITE
7 .
4. 11 ISUP ACM
. ISUP
7. ACM Called Party Status
no indication [ ].
5. INVITE,
ISUP REL
.
6. CANCEL SIP
.
7. REL ISUP RLC
.

16

ISUP T9

3.10 T9 .

1. SIP,
IAM.
2. IAM INVITE
SIP,
. ISUP 11 SIP 1
.
3. 1 INVITE ,
7 . 1 0.5 ,
. 1 500
, , 7 INVITE ,
ISUP T11 + ISUP T9.
4. 11 ISUP ACM
. ISUP
7. ACM Called Party Status (
) no indication ( ).
5. 9 ,
REL.
6. REL RLC
.
7. REL , CANCEL
SIP.

17

SIP

3.11
SIP.

1. SIP,
IAM.
2. IAM INVITE
SIP,
.
3. SIP , 400 (Bad Request)
.
4. SIP ACK ,
INVITE.
5. REL ,
SIP.
6. RLC REL.
SIP

18

3.12 SIP.

1. SIP,
IAM
2. IAM INVITE
SIP,
.
3. 3, SIP , ,
, .
, Contact URL ,
.
4. CPG ,
3. ,
, .. ISUP CPG ,
ACM.
5. SIP ACK ,
INVITE.
6. , Contact
3.
7. SIP
,
18, .
8. 180 (Ringing) SIP
ACM .
9. SIP , 200 ().
10. 200 () ANM
.
11. SIP ACK ,
INVITE.
19

3.13
.

1. SIP,
IAM.
2. IAM INVITE
SIP,
.
3. SIP
INVITE,
180 (Ringing) .
4. 180 (Ringing) ACM
5. (.. ) ,
SIP , REL.
6.
, RLC.
7. REL INVITE
SIP CANCEL.
8. CANCEL SIP 200
().
9. SIP 487 (Call Cancelled)
INVITE.
10. SIP ACK ,
INVITE.

20

3.6.3.2. SIP-T ISUP-SIP

3.14 SIP-T ISUP-SIP.


IAM,
, , DSP
, IP
.
IAM INVITE
IAM, INVITE
SIP. ,
INVITE, IAM.
INVITE , IAM
(URI), ,
SIP.
From INVITE,
ISUP, ,
, Request URI.
tel
URL , Request URI INVITE.
[Telephone
Number Mapping (ENUM)[RFC 2916]]
SIP URI. URI
ISUP, :
21

(),
.
'number translated' FCI ,
. SIP.
tel URL 'npdi=yes', IAM
GAP,
(CPN) ( Location Routing Number - LRN)
ISUP 'rn=',
tel URL. GAP
ISUP
tel URL (.. tel URI).
(, ANSI) (LRN
) CPN
tel URL. LRN
, , , 'rn=' '+'.
. [Number Portability in the
Global Switched Telephone Network (GSTN): An Overview, RFC 3482].
,
(). [RFC
3398].

, , tel URL,
To Request-URI. IAM
OCN, To OCN,
To Request-URI .
From ISUP Calling
Party's Number (CIN). CIN ,
From, SIP URI, ,
(, sip:gw.protei.ru). CIN ,
tel URI, From.
100 (Trying)
100 (Trying)
; , ,
INVITE.
18
18, ISUP,
, ,
.
18, Progressing
Alerting ( ).
3.4

,
180 (Ringing)
ACM (BCI = subscriber free)
181 (Call is being forwarded)
Early ACM and CPG, event=6
182 (Queued)
ACM (BCI = no indication)
183 (Session progress message)
ACM (BCI = no indication)

22

, 18
ISUP, .
3.5

180 (Ringing)
181 (Call is being forwarded)
182 (Queued)
183 (Session progress message)

,
CPG, event = 1 (Alerting)
CPG, event = 6 (Forwarding)
CPG, event = 2 (Progress)
CPG, event = 2 (Progress)

18
( , ,
).
- ,
INVITE SDP,
18. ,
( ,
, -).
183 (Session progress) ,
-,
, ISUP.
, , (, Event Information ( ) CPG
Optional Backward Call Indicators ( ,
) ).
,
Backward Call Indicators (
, BCI)
. 18
ISUP,
, ,
BCI, ,
. BCI
:
3.6
Message type:
Backward Call Indicators
Charge indicator:
Called party's status indicator:
Called party's category indicator:
End-to-end method indicator:
Interworking indicator:
End-to-end information indicator:
ISDN user part indicator:
Holding indicator:
ISDN access indicator:
Echo control device indicator:
SCCP method indicator:

ACM
10 charge
01 subscriber free or
00 no indication
01 ordinary subscriber
00 no end-to-end method
0 no interworking
0 no end-to-end info
1 ISUP used all the way
0 no holding
0 No ISDN access
It depends on the call
00 no indication
23

BCI Interworking indicator (


) interworking encountered (
), , ISDN ,
, ISDN,
, .
2
3.7

200 (OK)

,
ANM, ACK

, 200 (),
, ANM
ACK SIP.
200 () , ACM,
ANM CON, ISUP
.
200 ()
ANM,
ANM, .
, 200 ()
IVNITE, , , INFO. ,
, 200 (),
INVITE. 200 () INVITE,
.
3
3,
,
. , Contact
. 3 .
Contact 3 URI,
(.. ),
( SIP).
, 3xx,
REL , redirection indicator ( )
diagnostic field ( ) URI.
SIP URI, MGC IAM
INVITE,
Contact.
Contact (
INVITE), CPG
6 (), ISUP.
,
, .

24

4 6
4-5, ,
INVITE .
, REL
SIP. , ,

. , REL ,
RLC .
SIP [Cause Code] ISUP
4 , ,
REL, Cause Indicator (
, CAI),
REL, .
, SIP
ISUP.
SIP, ,
31 (Normal, unspecified). . BYE
CANCEL, ,
16 (Normal clearing).
, , CAI,
, 6 ,
4 5 . .
, ISUP,
SIP, SIP
ISUP. (+)
3.8

400 Bad Request
401 Unauthorized
402 Payment required
403 Forbidden
404 Not found
405 Method not allowed
406 Not acceptable
407 Proxy authentication required
408 Request timeout
410 Gone
413 Request Entity too long
414 Request-URI too long
415 Unsupported media type
416 Unsupported URI Scheme
420 Bad extension
421 Extension Required
423 Interval Too Brief
480 Temporarily unavailable

REL
41 Temporary Failure
21 Call rejected (*)
21 Call rejected
21 Call rejected
1 Unallocated number
63 Service or option unavailable
79 Service/option not implemented (+)
21 Call rejected (*)
102 Recovery on timer expiry
22 Number changed (w/o diagnostic)
127 Interworking (+)
127 Interworking (+)
79 Service/option not implemented (+)
127 Interworking (+)
127 Interworking (+)
127 Interworking (+)
127 Interworking (+)
18 No user responding
25

481 Call/Transaction Does not Exist


482 Loop Detected
483 Too many hops
484 Address incomplete
485 Ambiguous
486 Busy here
487 Request Terminated
488 Not Acceptable here
500 Server internal error
501 Not implemented
502 Bad gateway
503 Service unavailable
504 Server time-out
504 Version Not Supported
513 Message Too Large
600 Busy everywhere
603 Decline
604 Does not exist anywhere
606 Not acceptable

41 Temporary Failure
25 Exchange - routing error
25 Exchange - routing error
28 Invalid Number Format (+)
1 Unallocated number
17 User busy
--- (no mapping)
--- by Warning header
41 Temporary failure
79 Not implemented, unspecified
38 Network out of order
41 Temporary failure
102 Recovery on timer expiry
127 Interworking (+)
127 Interworking (+)
17 User busy
21 Call rejected
1 Unallocated number
--- by Warning header

(*) SIP UAS


SIP, INVITE, .. - .
,
.
21 (Call rejected).
(+) , ,
.
,
.
606 (Not acceptable) 488 (Not Acceptable here)
Warning, ISUP
.
31 (Normal, unspecified). Warning
, - ,
(.. ),
65 (Bearer Capability Not Implemented).
REL
, ,
, .
SIP CANCEL, BYE
, .. SIP.
CANCEL 200 ().
INVITE 487 (Request Terminated).

, 200 () INVITE
( 200 () CANCEL). ,
BYE, .
26

, SIP ,
REL CANCEL ( CANCEL
). , REL CAI 16 (Normal
clearing). CAI 16 (Normal clearing),
.
ISUP T11
ISUP T7
. ISUP T11.
11 ,
7 , .
11,
(early ACM) (.. called party
status ( ) no indication),
7 ISUP,
ISUP .
180 (Ringing),
CPG,
18.

3.6.3.3 SDL-
SIP
SIP

S0

Idle

IAM

ISUP 11

INVITE
S5

100 (Trying)

S1

Trying
3.15 Trying

27

SIP

REL


ISUP 11

S1

Trying


18x

200 OK

RLC
CANCEL


4 - 5

CON
E.ACM


181

S5

ACK

ACK

REL

ACM

200

E.ACM

CPG

S5

RLC

S5

487 (Request
Terminated)

ACK

S3

S2

Progressing

Alerting

S4

Connected

1. Early ACM - ACM.


ISUP.

S0

Idle

2. CPG
6 (Forwarding).
S0

Idle

3. REL ,
.

3.16 Trying

28

S2

SIP

REL

Progressing


18x

RLC

CPG

200 OK


4 - 5

ANM

CANCEL

ACK

ACK

REL

S5

S5

200

RLC

S5

S3

487 (Request
Terminated)

Alerting

S4

Connected
S0

ACK

Idle
1. CPG ,
.

S0

Idle

2. REL ,
.

3.17 Progressing

29

SIP

S3

Alerting

REL

200 OK

RLC

ANM

CANCEL


4 - 5

ACK

ACK

REL

S5

S5

200

RLC
S5

487 (Request
Terminated)

ACK

S4

Connected
S0

Idle

S0

Idle

1. REL ,
.

3.18 Alerting

30

SIP

S4

Connected

BYE

REL

200 OK

RLC

REL

BYE

S5

S5

RLC

200 OK

S0

Idle

S0

Idle

3.19 Connected

:
S0 Idle - -
S1 Trying - - INVITE,
.
S2 Progressing - ,
18.
S3 Alerting - -
, ,
200 .
S4 Connected -
.
S5 - .

3.6.3.4 SIP

. Maxim ,
ISUP SIP
(NGW 1).

-, .. -
.
SIP

31

3.20 SIP.

Maxim Network Gateway NGW 1


Proxy 1 Anton. , Anton
,
SIP. , Maxim
, REL NGW1, BYE
SIP.

F1 IAM -> NGW 1


IAM
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
F2 INVITE Maxim -> Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
32

To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
Proxy 1

Anton.
Anton. NGW1
3456 Maxim.
F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Anton
INVITE sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F4 100 (Trying) Anton -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
33

;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
F5 180 (Ringing) Anton -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru>
Content-Length: 0
F6 180 (Ringing) Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru>
Content-Length: 0

F7 ACM NGW 1 ->


ACM
F8 200 (OK) Anton -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
34

Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru>
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=Anton 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.b.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.b.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F9 200 (OK) Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=Anton 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.b.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.b.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F10 ACK NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
ACK sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
35

F11 ACK Proxy 1 -> Anton


ACK sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Max-Forwards: 69
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
F12 ANM Anton -> NGW 1
ANM
Maxim Anton RTP ( GW)
Maxim .
F13 REL Maxim -> NGW 1
REL CauseCode=16 Normal
F14 RLC NGW 1 -> Maxim
RLC
F15 BYE NGW 1-> Proxy 1
BYE sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F16 BYE Proxy 1 -> Anton
BYE sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
36

Max-Forwards: 69
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F17 200 (OK) Anton -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F18 200 (OK) Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0

SIP,

37

3.21 SIP.
.

. ,
Anton . ..
Anton 200 (),
180 (Ringing). ANM,
ACM. , ISUP ETSI
ISUP ANM CON.

F1 IAM (Maxim) -> NGW 1
IAM
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
F2 INVITE NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
38

Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
Proxy 1
Anton.
. NGW1 3456
Maxim.
F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Anton
INVITE anton@b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F4 100 (Trying) Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.201
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0

39

F5 200 (OK) Anton -> Proxy 1


SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=Anton 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.b.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.b.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F6 200 (OK) Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=Anton 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.b.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.b.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F7 ACK NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
ACK anton@client.b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
40

Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
F8 ACK Proxy 1 -> Anton
ACK anton@client.b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=130.131.132.14
Max-Forwards: 69
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
F9 ANM NGW1 -> Maxim
ANM.
RTP ( GW).

Maxim Anton

Maxim .
F10 REL Maxim -> NGW 1
REL CauseCode=16 Normal.
F11 RLC NGW 1 -> Maxim
RLC.
F12 BYE NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
BYE sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F13 BYE Proxy 1 -> Anton
BYE sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
41

Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2


;received=192.0.2.103
Max-Forwards: 69
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F14 200 (OK) Anton -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F15 200 (OK) Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0

,
SIP

42

3.22
SIP.

Maxim Anton , GW1


Proxy 1. (GW) ,
, .
GW
, .
,
, .
SIP URI
sip:551313@gw1.a.loniis.ru.

-> GW 1

GW 1 -> PBX (Maxim)

-> GW 1
F2 INVITE GW 1 -> Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
43

Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65


Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:551313@gw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 gw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Anton
INVITE sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65
;received=192.0.2.201
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:551313@gw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 gw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 gw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F4 100 (Trying) Proxy 1 -> GW 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.201
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.loniis.ru
44

CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
F5 180 (Ringing) Anton -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.201
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru>
Content-Length: 0
F6 180 (Ringing) Proxy 1 -> GW 1
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65
;received=192.0.2.201
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru>
Content-Length: 0
F7 200 (OK) Anton -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65
;received=192.0.2.201
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.loniis.ru
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru>
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=Anton 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.b.loniis.ru
45

s=c=IN IP4 client.b.loniis.ru


t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F8 200 (OK) Proxy 1 -> GW 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65
;received=192.0.2.201
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=Anton 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.b.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.b.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F9 ACK GW 1 -> Proxy 1
ACK sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
F10 ACK Proxy 1 -> Anton
ACK sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65
;received=192.0.2.201
Max-Forwards: 69
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
46

Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
F11 BYE GW 1 -> Proxy 1
BYE sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F12 BYE Proxy 1 -> Anton
BYE sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65
;received=192.0.2.201
Max-Forwards: 69
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F13 200 (OK) Anton -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65
;received=192.0.2.201
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F14 200 (OK) Proxy 1 -> GW 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65
;received=192.0.2.201
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
47

Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0

SIP. .

3.23
SIP. .

Maxim Anton GW1 Proxy1.


-
,
REL Maxim .

F1 IAM -> GW 1
IAM
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CdPN=812-100-2516,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
F2 INVITE Maxim -> Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78121002516@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@gw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=076342s
To: <sip:+78121002516@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact:
<sip:+70953864515@gw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 144
48

v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 gw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 gw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
Proxy 1
+7-812-100-2516.
, Proxy 1
.
F3 604 (Does Not Exist Anywhere) Proxy 1 -> GW 1
SIP/2.0 604 Does Not Exist Anywhere
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.201
From: <sip:+70953864515@gw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=076342s
To: <sip:+78121002516@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=6a34d410
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Error-Info: <sip:does-not-exist@ann.a.loniis.ru>
Content-Length: 0
F4 ACK GW 1 -> Proxy 1
ACK sip:+78121002516@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@gw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=076342s
To: <sip:+78121002516@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=6a34d410
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
F5 REL GW 1 -> Maxim
REL CauseCode=1
F6 RLC Maxim -> GW 1
RLC
SIP. .

49

3.24
SIP. .

Maxim Anton NGW1


Proxy1. - Anton .
Anton , 600 (Busy Everywhere).
REL,
.
IAM (F1) Interworking,
(, ).
, ,
. [RFC 3398].

F1 IAM -> NGW 1
IAM
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
F2 INVITE Maxim -> Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 144
v=0
50

o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 gw1.a.loniis.ru


s=c=IN IP4 gw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F3 INVITE F3 Proxy 1 -> Anton
INVITE anton@b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.201
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 144
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 gw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 gw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F4 100 (Trying) Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.201
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
F5 600 (Busy Everywhere) Anton -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 600 Busy Everywhere
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.201
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
51

To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
F6 ACK Proxy 1 -> Anton
ACK anton@b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
F7 600 (Busy Everywhere) Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
SIP/2.0 600 Busy Everywhere
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.201
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
F8 ACK NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
ACK anton@b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
F9 REL NGW 1 -> Maxim
REL CauseCode=17 Busy
F10 RLC Maxim -> NGW 1
RLC
. . IAM
interworking.

52

3.25
SIP. . IAM interworking.

Maxim Anton Network Gateway NGW1


Proxy 1. - Anton .
, . NGW 1
Maxim .
.
, .. IAM (F1)
interworking. REL
, .. interworking
.

F1 IAM -> NGW 1
IAM
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
Interworking=encountered
F2 INVITE NGW1 -> Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
53

Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Anton
INVITE anton@b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F4 100 (Trying) Anton -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
F5 600 (Busy Everywhere) Anton -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 600 Busy Everywhere
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
54

;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
F6 ACK Proxy 1 -> Anton
ACK anton@b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
F7 600 (Busy Everywhere) Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
SIP/2.0 600 Busy Everywhere
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
F8 ACK NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
ACK sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
F9 ACM NGW 1 -> Maxim
ACM
NGW1 Maxim.
, Maxim .
F10 REL Maxim -> NGW 1
REL CauseCode=16
55

F11 RLC NGW 1 -> Maxim


RLC
. .

3.26 .
.

Maxim Anton NGW1 Proxy 1.


INVITE , Anton
T1. Anton .
, ,
REL. CANCEL.

F1 IAM -> NGW 1
IAM
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
F2 INVITE Maxim -> Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
56

Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Anton
INVITE sip:anton@b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
c c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F4 100 (Trying) Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0

57

F5 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Anton


F3
F6 INVITE Proxy 1 ->Anton
F3
F7 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Anton
F3
F8 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Anton
F3
F9 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Anton
F3

F10 REL Maxim -> NGW 1
REL CauseCode=16 Normal
F11 RLC NGW 1 -> Maxim
RLC
F12 CANCEL NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
CANCEL sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 CANCEL
Content-Length: 0
F13 200 (OK) Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 CANCEL
58

Content-Length: 0
. . -
.

3.27 .
. - .

Maxim Anton NGW1


Proxy1. - ,
100 (Trying). NGW1 INVITE,
SIP T1. Anton .
REL
(CauseCode=102 Timeout).

F1 IAM -> NGW 1
IAM
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
F2 INVITE NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
59

Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Anton
INVITE sip:anton@b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.201
Max-Forwards: 69
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F4 INVITE NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
F2
F5 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Anton
F3
F6 INVITE NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
F2
F7 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Anton

60

F3
F8 INVITE NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
F2
F9 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Anton
F3
F10 INVITE NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
F2
F11 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Anton
F3
F12 INVITE NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
F2
F13 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Anton
F3

F14 REL Maxim -> NGW 1
REL CauseCode=102 Timeout
F15 RLC NGW 1 -> Maxim
RLC

.
.

61

3.28 .
.

Maxim Anton
NGW1 Proxy1. , . NGW1
Maxim
, .. IAM interworking.
Maxim , , REL,
CANCEL. Anton
200 () , REL, NGW1
ACK, BYE
.

F1 IAM -> NGW 1


IAM
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
62

CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
F2 INVITE Maxim -> Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> Anton
INVITE sip:anton@b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F4 100 (Trying) Anton -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
63

;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.201
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
F5 180 (Ringing) Anton -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Length: 0
F6 180 (Ringing) Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.loniis.ru>
Content-Length: 0
F7 ACM NGW 1 -> Maxim
ACM
Maxim
F8 REL Maxim -> NGW 1
REL CauseCode=16 Normal
F9 RLC NGW 1 -> Maxim
RLC
64

F10 CANCEL NGW 1 -> Proxy 1


CANCEL sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 CANCEL
Content-Length: 0
F11 200 (OK) Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 CANCEL
Content-Length: 0
F12 CANCEL Proxy 1 -> Anton
CANCEL sip:anton@b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 CANCEL
Content-Length: 0
F13 200 (OK) Anton -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 CANCEL
Content-Length: 0
F14 487 (Request Terminated) Anton -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 487 Request Terminated
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
65

From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
F15 ACK Proxy 1 -> Anton
ACK sip:anton@b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
F16 487 (Request Terminated) Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
SIP/2.0 487 Request Terminated
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
F17 ACK NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
ACK sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0

66

3.6.4 SIP ISUP


3.2.4.1

SIP. INVITE
100 (Trying),
SIP.
, , (SIP ISUP)
MGC; (,
, ..) MG MGC.
, MGC/MG.
( )

3.29 SIP .

1. SIP , SIP
INVITE.
2. , SIP,
IAM , .
3. ,
,
ACM.
4. called party status ( ) ACM
SIP
. SDP
( ). SDP
, 8 .
5. ISUP ,
CGP , .
67

6. CGP ,
.
7. ( )
ANM.
8. , ANM, 200 ()
SIP.
9. SIP ACK
.
( )

3.30 SIP .
.

ISUP ANSI
1. SIP
INVITE.
2. INVITE IAM,
.
3. -,
CON IAM.
4. CON 200
SIP.
5. SIP ,
, ACK.
7

68

3.31 7 .

1. SIP ,
INVITE.
2. INVITE IAM,
. 7.
3. , ACM CON
REL.
4. SIP 504 (Version Not Supported)
.
5. , SIP ACK.

SIP

69

3.32 1 SIP.

1. SIP ,
INVITE.
2. INVITE IAM,
.
3. ,
CON, IAM. ISUP ANSI CON
ANM ( ACM).
4. CON SIP 200 (OK)
1.
5. , .
6. ,
REL 102 (recover on timer expiry).
7. SIP BYE
.
, SIP.
8. REL RLC.

70

3.33 SIP .

1. SIP
INVITE.
2. INVITE IAM,
.
3. ,
REL.
4.
RLC .
5. SIP ,
REL.
6. SIP
ACK.

71

3.34 . .

1. SIP
INVITE.
2. INVITE IAM,
.
3. (,
), ACM
. .
4. ( CAI)
SIP 183 (Session progress),
SDP
.
5. INVITE
SIP
.
6. REL
. SIP
, ( CANCEL),
.
7. REL RLC.
8. SIP ,
.
SIP

3.35 . .

1. SIP
INVITE.
72

2. INVITE IAM,
.
3. ,
,
ACM.
4. called party status ( ) ACM
SIP
. SDP
.
5. ,
, SIP CANCEL.
6. 200 ().
7. CANCEL REL.
8. 487 (Request Terminated) SIP,
INVITE.
9. REL RLC.
10. SIP 487 (Call Cancelled) ACK.

3.6.4.2 SIP-T SIP-ISUP

3.36 SIP-T SIP-ISUP.

73

INVITE
INVITE SIP
100 (Trying), , .

, IAM .
- 1/1 RTP/UDP
SIP.
.
, IAM 7.
INVITE IAM
IAM : Called
Party Number (CPN), Nature of Connection Indicator (NCI), Forward Call Indicators (FCI),
Calling Party's Category (CPC), ,
- ISUP
Transmission Medium Requirement (TMR), User Service
Information (USI) . IAM
.
,
INVITE . (
NCI USI) ,
. , CPN, ,
INVITE.
IAM .
SIP ISUP ,
. , SIP
, ISUP
. ,
-SIP- SIP,
.
: Calling Party's Number (CIN, ), Transit Network
Selection (TNS), Carrier Identification Parameter (CIP, ANSI), Original Called
Number (OCN), Generic Digits ( Generic Address Parameter
(GAP)).
INVITE,
IAM ISUP, . ,
IAM
.
, ISUP
.
, IAM
, SIP
, . ,
ISUP-SIP-ISUP SIP
.
SIP, ,
.

74

, INVITE
IAM CPN, +78125332699, RequestURI INVITE tel:+70955550110.
IAM ,
Request-URI, , CPN IAM.
SIP ISUP .

ISUP ,
( SIP) (
NCI TMR), ISUP . FCI
, M
, ,
.
INVITE
IAM Request-URI.
,
npdi rn Request-URI.
. [Number Portability in the Global Switched
Telephone Network (GSTN): An Overview, RFC 3482].
Request-URI npdi=yes,
tel URL ( tel:)
ISUP CPN.
npdi=yes , number translated FCI,
IAM, ,
.
npdi=yes rn,
tel URL ( tel:)
ISUP CPN. ,
, .
npdi=yes rn,
rn ISUP
CPN. tel URL
ISUP Generic Digits Parameter ( GAP ANSI
ISUP). ISUP , rn
( ,
) CPN.

,
.
,
tel URL ISUP
CPN.
Request-URI To
, o OCN.
o .
SIP-T
().
[RFC 3398].

75

SIP , Request-URI
tel URL ( SIP URI tel URL).
, Request-URI
, ,
.
, From
. , SIP,
user@host.
IAM CIN .
SIP URI
.

ISUP, IAM
FCI ,
ISUP.
no interworking. , ,
ISUP, IAM
Interworking Indicator FCI 'no interworking', ISDN User Part
Indicator ISUP used all the way;
Originating Access Indicator Originating access non-ISDN.
FCI 'interworking encountered',
, ISUP ,
, ISUP. ISUP
, ,
[cause code] .
, ,
, FCI
, .
ISUP 7
, MG
. SIP 504 (Server Timeout).
REL 102 ( ,
). RLC
SIP ACK, .
CANCEL BYE
CANCEL BYE ,
, SIP 200 ()
CANCEL BYE;
487 (Request Terminated) INVITE.
, REL 16
(normal clearing). RLC ,
.
, SIP , REL
BYE. BYE
16 (normal clearing), REL

76

. Cause Indicator
REL, .
CANCEL BYE Reason,
Cause Indicator. BYE
Reason, ISUP, Reason
.
REL
REL
,
REL , . ,
.
,
RLC.
INVITE, ,
ISUP,
ISUP INVITE. ,
REL SIP.
ISUP,
ISUP INVITE.
- ISUP
IAM Blocking Message (BLO), Reset Message (RSC)
.
ISDN SIP
REL 7
, . SIP
, , REL
BYE, CANCEL, . ISUP REL
(BYE SIP),
, (CANCEL SIP),
, (
SIP).
ISUP SIP, ..
ISUP .
44 (Request circuit or channel not available). , CIC,
IAM, .
IAM CIC, . ,
, SIP, ..
.
, ISUP 44 (Request circuit or channel
not available) SIP .
,
500 (Server internal error).
ISDN CAI,
location, , .
location SIP;
77

. ISDN
, ,
.
:
3.9
ISUP
SIP
1 unallocated number
404 Not Found
2 no route to network
404 Not found
3 no route to destination
404 Not found
16 normal call clearing
--- (*)
17 user busy
486 Busy here
18 no user responding
408 Request Timeout
19 no answer from the user
480 Temporarily unavailable
20 subscriber absent
480 Temporarily unavailable
21 call rejected
403 Forbidden (+)
22 number changed (w/o diagnostic)
410 Gone
22 number changed (w/ diagnostic)
301 Moved Permanently
23 redirection to new destination
410 Gone
26 non-selected user clearing
404 Not Found (=)
27 destination out of order
502 Bad Gateway
28 address incomplete
484 Address incomplete
29 facility rejected
501 Not implemented
31 normal unspecified
480 Temporarily unavailable
(*) ISUP 16 (normal call clearing)
BYE CANCEL
(+) location user,
4 6 ( 403 603)
(=) ANSI ANSI 26
misrouted ported number. ,
. 26
ISUP.
REL ISUP 22 (number changed)
diagnostics.
,
Contact SIP (301).

,
. SIP
Retry-After.
3.10
ISUP
34 no circuit available
38 network out of order
41 temporary failure
42 switching equipment congestion

SIP
503 Service unavailable
503 Service unavailable
503 Service unavailable
503 Service unavailable
78

47 resource unavailable

503 Service unavailable

.
,
, - .
3.11
ISUP
SIP
55 incoming calls barred within CUG
403 Forbidden
57 bearer capability not authorized
403 Forbidden
58 bearer capability not presently
503 Service unavailable
available

3.12
ISUP
65 bearer capability not implemented
70 only restricted digital avail
79 service or option not implemented

SIP
488 Not Acceptable Here
488 Not Acceptable Here
501 Not implemented


3.13
ISUP
87 user not member of CUG
88 incompatible destination

SIP
403 Forbidden
503 Service unavailable


3.14
ISUP
102 recovery of timer expiry
111 protocol error

SIP
504 Gateway timeout
500 Server internal error


3.15
ISUP
127 interworking unspecified

SIP
500 Server internal error

ACM
, ,
ISUP,
Alerting. , , ,

. ,
Alerting , 7 9.
,
Called Party's Status Indicator 00 (no indication).
79

, , ISUP
CPG, .
, 183
(Session Progress) SIP. , SIP
.
183 (Session Progress) ,
() SIP (SIP
bridging), , , .


( 18) SIP. INVITE,
,
ISUP, ,
, SIP.
Backward Call Indicators subscriber
free, 180 (Ringing).
, (SIP
user agent) . .
Backward Call Indicators (BCI) ,
(
,
),
( ). , ,
.
, ACM
Optional Backward Call Indicators ,
. ,
, 183 (Session Progress)
SIP.
ISUP
9, 90 3
. ,
, ,

(, ) ISUP
.
. ,
9, ANM,
.
ISUP
ANM. 9.
CON ANM
CON ANM ,
SIP 200 ().
, SIP ( INVITE
)
80

CON ANM 200 (),


SIP. ,
.
,
ISUP, ANM
( CPG ),
( ). SIP
18 ( .)
, .
(
, SDP).
9
. ,
ANM (
). ,
, .
,
(, ) .
,
. ,
. SIP 480
(Temporarily Unavailable), - REL 19 (no answer
from the user). RLC ACK SIP
.
CPG
CPG , :

;
;
.

CPG , ,
.
SIP, CPG
18, SIP
CPG :
3.16
ISUP
1 Alerting
2 Progress
3 In-band information
4 Call forward; line busy
5 Call forward; no reply
6 Call forward; unconditional

SIP response
180 Ringing
183 Session progress
183 Session progress
181 Call is being forwarded
181 Call is being forwarded
181 Call is being forwarded
183 Session progress
81

CPG , ,
.


. ISUP .

3.6.4.3 SDL-
SIP
SIP

S0

Idle

INVITE
100 (Trying)

IAM

ISUP T7

S1

Trying
3.37 Trying

82

S1

SIP

REL


ISUP 7

E.ACM

RLC
507 (Server
Timeout)

REL

487 (Request
Terminated)

ACM

183 (Session
Progress)


18


ISUP 7


ISUP 9

CON
ANM

CANCEL
200 OK

200 OK

487 (Request
Terminated)

REL

S6

S6

Trying


ISUP 9

S6

ACK

ACK
S6

ACK
S4

S0

Idle

S2

Progressing

S3

Alerting

S6

RLC

RLC
1. REL
102 (Recovery Of Timer Expiry).
2. Early ACM - ACM.
ISUP.

S0

Idle

S0

Idle

3. REL
16 (Normal Clearing)

3.38 Trying

83

S2

SIP

Progressing

CPG


ISUP T9

CANCEL


18

480 (Temporarily
Unavailable)

REL

200 OK
487 (Request
Terminated)

REL

S6

S6

ACK
ACK
S6

S6

S3

Alerting
RLC

S0

Idle

1. REL
19 (No Answer
From The User).
2. REL
16 (Normal Clearing).

RLC

S0

Idle

3.39 Progressing

84

SIP

RLC

480 (Temporarily
Unavailable)
1

Alerting

REL


ISUP T9

REL

S3

CPG

ANM

CANCEL

200 OK

180 (Ringing)

200 OK
487 (Request
Terminated)

487 (Request
Terminated)

REL

S6
S6

S6

ACK

ACK

ACK
S6

S4
S3

S0

Idle

Alerting

S6

RLC

RLC
1. REL
19 (No Answer From The User).
2. REL
16 (Normal Clearing).

S0

Idle

S0

Idle

3.40 Alerting
S4

SIP

ACK

REL
RLC
487 (Request
Terminated)
S6

S5

ACK

Connected
S0

Idle
3.41 ACK
85

SIP

S5

Connected

BYE

REL

200 OK

RLC

REL

BYE

S6

S6

RLC

200 OK

S0

S0

Idle

Idle

3.42 Connected

:
S0 Idle - -
S1 Trying - - INVITE,
.
S2 Progressing - ,
18.
S3 Alerting - -
, ,
200 .
S4 ACK -
, .
S5 Connected -
.
S6 - .

3.6.4.4 SIP
Maxim (sip:max@loniis.ru) SIP
SIP. Anton
+78122625326.
Maxim Proxy1, Network Gateway.
Maxim Aleksey,
2 : 444 3333 [private extension]
+7-812-100-2516. , Maxim From INVITE

86

+7-812-262-5326. ,
calling party number ISUP.
.
. ,
(
, . ).
, ,
. 183
(Session Progress), SDP.
,
.
ISUP SIP.
,
SIP UAC.
SIP

3.43 . SIP .

Maxim +78122625326
E.164 , Anton. 7
87

( ). , SIP
UA SIP
URI. SIP URI tel URI.
Maxim From SIP (sip:max@loniis.ru)
SIP (sip:+70953864515@ss1.loniis.ru;user=phone).
, NGW1
(calling party identification).
.
Anton ,
Maxim .
F7 F11, ,
Contact sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru. , NGW1
, Proxy1
. Contact
, URI Contact NGW1
Proxy1. URI DNS Proxy1 (sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru),
sip:ngw1.a.loniis.ru, NGW1.
TCP.
:
F1 INVITE Maxim -> Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="Max", realm="a.loniis.ru",
nonce="dc3a5ab25302aa931904ba7d88fa1cf5", opaque="",
uri="sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone",
response="ccdca50cb091d587421457305d097458c"
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

F2 100 (Trying) Proxy 1 -> Maxim


88

SIP/2.0 100 Trying


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
Proxy 1
. NGW1.
, Maxim
49172 .
F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F4 100 (Trying) NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0

89

F5 IAM NGW 1 ->


IAM
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
F6 ACM -> NGW 1
ACM
F7 183 Session Progress NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
NGW 1 () RTP Maxim
F8 183 (Session Progress) Proxy 1 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
90

Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F9 ANM -> NGW 1
ANM
F10 200 (OK) NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 gw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F11 200 (OK) Proxy 1 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
91

;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F12 ACK Maxim -> Proxy 1
ACK sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
F13 ACK Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
ACK sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
Maxim , Anton.
F14 BYE Maxim -> Proxy 1
BYE sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
92

Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F15 BYE Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
BYE sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F16 200 (OK) NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F17 200 (OK) Proxy 1 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0

93

F18 REL NGW 1 ->


REL CauseCode=16 Normal
F19 RLC -> NGW 1
RLC
SIP .

3.44 . SIP
, .

Maxim SIP, Alexey .


DSS.
ISDN. Maxim (+7-812-387-5333),
SIP URI.
94

, Request-URI INVITE F3,


,
(, ) 444-3333. ,
INVITE F3 .
Proxy 1 ,
. Alexey 444-3333,
Request-URI , .
, Contact GW 1,
F8, F9, F12, F13 - sips:4443333@gw1.a.loniis.ru,
.
SIPS URI.

F1 INVITE Maxim -> Proxy 1
INVITE sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.loniis.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sips:max@client.a.loniis.ru>
Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="Max",
realm="a.loniis.ru", nonce="qo0dc3a5ab22aa931904badfa1cf5j9h",
opaque="", uri="sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone",
response="6c792f5c9fa360358b93c7fb826bf550"
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F2 100 (Trying) Proxy 1 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.loniis.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
95

F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> GW 1


INVITE sips:4443333@gw1.a.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS ss1.a.loniis.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.loniis.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sips:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sips:max@client.a.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F4 100 (Trying) GW -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS ss1.a.loniis.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
F5 SETUP GW 1 ->
Protocol discriminator=Q.931
Message type=SETUP
Bearer capability: Information transfer capability=0 (Speech) or 16
(3.1 kHz audio)
Channel identification=Preferred or exclusive B-channel
Progress indicator=1 (Call is not end-to-end ISDN;further call
progress information may be available inband)
Called party number:
Type of number unknown
Digits=444-3333

96

F6 CALL PROCeeding -> GW 1


Protocol discriminator=Q.931
Message type=CALL PROC
Channel identification=Exclusive B-channel
F7 PROGress -> GW 1
Protocol discriminator=Q.931
Message type=PROG
Progress indicator=1
F8 180 (Ringing) GW 1 -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS ss1.a.loniis.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.loniis.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sips:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sips:4443333@gw1.a.loniis.ru>
Content-Length: 0
F9 180 (Ringing) Proxy 1 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.loniis.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sips:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sips:4443333@gw1.a.loniis.ru>
Content-Length: 0
F10 CONNect -> GW 1
Protocol discriminator=Q.931
Message type=CONN

97

F11 CONNect ACK GW 1 ->


Protocol discriminator=Q.931
Message type=CONN ACK
F12 200 (OK) GW 1 -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS ss1.a.loniis.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.loniis.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sips:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sips:4443333@gw1.a.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 144
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 gw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 gw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F13 200 (OK) Proxy 1 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.loniis.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sips:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sips:4443333@gw1.a.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 144
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 gw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 gw1.a.loniis.ru
98

t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F14 ACK Maxim -> Proxy 1
ACK sips:4443333@gw1.a.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.loniis.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sips:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 ACK
Content-Length: 0
F15 ACK Proxy 1 -> GW 1
ACK sips:4443333@gw1.a.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS ss1.a.loniis.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.loniis.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 ACK
Content-Length: 0
Maxim , Alexey.
F16 BYE Maxim -> Proxy 1
BYE sips:4443333@gw1.a.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.loniis.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sips:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 3 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F17 BYE Proxy 1 -> GW 1

99

BYE sips:4443333@gw1.a.loniis.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/TLS ss1.a.loniis.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.loniis.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 3 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F18 200 (OK) GW 1 -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS ss1.a.loniis.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.loniis.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 3 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F19 200 (OK) Proxy 1 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.loniis.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 3 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F20 DISConnect GW 1 ->
Protocol discriminator=Q.931
Message type=DISC
Cause=16 (Normal clearing)
F21 RELease -> GW 1
Protocol discriminator=Q.931
Message type=REL

100

F22 RELease COMplete GW 1 ->


Protocol discriminator=Q.931
Message type=REL COM
SIP

3.45 . SIP
.

Maxim Anton Proxy 1. Proxy 1


Network Gateway NGW 1.
( ) ,
503 (Service Unavailable). Proxy 1
Network Gateway NGW 2. Anton .
, Maxim .
UDP.
101


F1 INVITE Maxim -> Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.loniis.ru>
Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="Max",
realm="a.loniis.ru", nonce="b59311c3ba05b401cf80b2a2c5ac51b0",
opaque="", uri="sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone",
response="ba6ab44923fa2614b28e3e3957789ab0"
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
Proxy 1
Anton. Proxy 1
NGW 1 NGW 2. NGW 1
F2 INVITE Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
102

t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F3 100 (Trying) Proxy 1 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
F4 503 (Service Unavailable) NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 503 Service Unavailable
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=123456789
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
F5 ACK Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
ACK sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru>;user=phone>
;tag=123456789
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
Proxy 1 NGW 2
F6 INVITE Proxy 1 -> NGW 2

103

INVITE sip:+78122625326@ngw2.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

F7 IAM NGW 2 ->


IAM
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
F8 ACM -> NGW 2
ACM
F9 183 (Session Progress) NGW 2 -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw2@a.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
104

v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw2.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw2.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
Maxim RTP ().
F10 183 (Session Progress) Proxy 1 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw2@a.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw2.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw2.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F11 ANM -> NGW 2
ANM
F12 200 (OK) NGW 2 -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
105

CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw2@a.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw2.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw2.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F13 200 (OK) Proxy 1 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw2@a.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw2.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw2.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F14 ACK Maxim -> Proxy 1
ACK sip:ngw2@a.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
F15 ACK Proxy 1 -> NGW 2
106

ACK sip:ngw2@a.loniis.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
Maxim Anton RTP ( GW).
Maxim , Anton.
F16 BYE Maxim -> Proxy 1
BYE sip:ngw2@a.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F17 BYE Proxy 1 -> NGW 2
BYE sip:ngw2@a.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0

F18 200 (OK) NGW 2 -> Proxy 1


SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2
107

;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F19 200 (OK) Proxy 1 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F20 REL NGW 2 ->
REL c CauseCode=16 Normal
F21 RLC -> NGW 2
RLC

SIP ENUM Query

108

3.46 . SIP
ENUM Query.

Maxim Anton,
(9722625326). UA Maxim
E.164 (+78122625326), ENUM
.164 (2.2.2.2.5.5.5.2.7.9.1.e164.arpa).
Naming Authority Pointer (NAPTR) DNS UA Maxim
Anton (sip:+78122625326@b.loniis.ru).
, Anton
SIP. , UA Maxim
INVITE SIP, .
, Anton BYE.
.
F1 ENUM Query Maxim -> DNS Server
2.2.2.2.5.5.5.2.7.9.1.e164.arpa
F2 ENUM NAPTR Set DNS Server -> Maxim
$ORIGIN 2.2.2.2.5.5.5.2.7.9.1.e164.arpa.
IN NAPTR 100 10 "u" "sip+E2U"
"!^.*$!sip:+78122625326@b.loniis.ru!".
F3 INVITE Maxim -> Proxy 3
109

INVITE sip:+78122625326@b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@a.loniis.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: <tel:+78122625326>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:+70953864515@client.a.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F4 INVITE Proxy 3 -> Anton
INVITE sip:+78122625326@client.b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss3.b.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss3.b.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@a.loniis.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: <tel:+78122625326>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:+70953864515@client.a.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F5 100 (Trying) Proxy 3 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: <sip:+70953864515@a.loniis.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: <tel:+78122625326>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
110

CSeq: 2 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
F6 180 (Ringing) Anton -> Proxy 3
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss3.b.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1
;received=192.0.2.233
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss3.b.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@a.loniis.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: <tel:+78122625326>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:+78122625326@client.b.loniis.ru>
Content-Length: 0
F7 180 (Ringing) Proxy 3 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss3.b.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@a.loniis.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: <tel:+78122625326>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:+78122625326@client.b.loniis.ru>
Content-Length: 0
F8 200 (OK) Anton -> Proxy 3
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss3.b.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1
;received=192.0.2.233
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss3.b.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@a.loniis.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: <tel:+78122625326>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:+78122625326@client.b.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=Anton 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.b.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.b.loniis.ru
t=0 0
111

m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0


a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F9 200 (OK) Proxy -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss3.b.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@a.loniis.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: <tel:+78122625326>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:+78122625326@client.b.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=Anton 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.b.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.100
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F10 ACK Maxim -> Proxy 3
ACK sip:+78122625326@client.b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bq9
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss3.b.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@a.loniis.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: <tel:+78122625326>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 ACK
Content-Length: 0
F11 ACK Proxy 3 -> Anton
ACK sip:+78122625326@client.b.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss3.b.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bq9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
From: <sip:+70953864515@a.loniis.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: <tel:+78122625326>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 2 ACK
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 0

112

Maxim Anton RTP . Anton


, Maxim.
F12 BYE Anton -> Proxy 3
BYE sip:+70953864515@client.a.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.b.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKfgaw2
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss3.b.loniis.ru;lr>
From: <tel:+78122625326>;tag=314159
To: <sip:+70953864515@a.loniis.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F13 BYE Proxy 3 -> Maxim
BYE sip:+70953864515@client.a.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss3.b.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1
;received=192.0.2.100
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.b.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKfgaw2
Max-Forwards: 69
From: <tel:+78122625326>;tag=314159
To: <sip:+70953864515@a.loniis.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F14 200 (OK) Maxim -> Proxy 3
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss3.b.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1
;received=192.0.2.233
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.b.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKfgaw2
;received=192.0.2.100
From: <tel:+78122625326>;tag=314159
To: <sip:+70953864515@a.loniis.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0
F15 200 (OK) Proxy 3 -> Anton
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.b.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKfgaw2
;received=192.0.2.100
From: <tel:+78122625326>;tag=314159
To: <sip:+70953864515@a.loniis.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0
113

SIP :

3.47 . SIP .
.

Maxim Anton Proxy 1 Network Gateway NGW


, Maxim
( ). Maxim,
, , CANCEL
. CANCEL, BYE, ..
INVITE.

F1 INVITE Maxim -> Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
114

From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>


;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.loniis.ru>
Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="Max",
realm="a.loniis.ru", nonce="01cf8311c3b0b2a2c5ac51bb59a05b40",
opaque="", uri="sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone",
response="e178fbe430e6680a1690261af8831f40"
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F2 100 (Trying) Proxy 1 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
Proxy 1
Anton. NGW
1. Maxim 49172 .
F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
115

Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F4 100 (Trying) NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
F5 IAM NGW 1 ->
IAM
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
F6 ACM -> NGW 1
ACM
F7 183 (Session Progress) NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
116

v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F8 183 (Session Progress) Proxy 1 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
, .
F9 CANCEL Maxim -> Proxy 1
CANCEL sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 CANCEL
Content-Length: 0
F10 200 (OK) Proxy 1 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 200 OK
117

Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9


;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 CANCEL
Content-Length: 0
F11 CANCEL Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
CANCEL sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 CANCEL
Content-Length: 0
F12 200 (OK) NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 CANCEL
Content-Length: 0
F13 REL NGW 1 ->
REL CauseCode=18 No user responding
F14 RLC -> NGW 1
RLC
F15 487 (Request Terminated) NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 487 Request Terminated
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
118

Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
F16 ACK Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
ACK sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
F17 487 (Request Terminated) Proxy 1 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 487 Request Terminated
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
F18 ACK Maxim -> Proxy 1
ACK sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0

119

SIP : ,
REL

3.48 . SIP .
, REL .

Maxim Anton Proxy 1 NGW 1.


, REL .
SIP 404 (Not Found),
Maxim.
.
F1 INVITE Maxim -> Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="Max",
realm="a.loniis.ru", nonce="j1c3b0b01cf832da2c5ac51bb59a05b40",
opaque="", uri="sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone",
response="a451358d46b55512863efe1dccaa2f42"
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
120

o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru


s=c=IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F2 100 (Trying) Proxy 1 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
Proxy 1 ,
Anton. NGW 1.
Maxim 49172.
F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
INVITE sip:+44-1234@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F4 100 (Trying) NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
121

Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1


;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
F5 IAM NGW 1 ->
IAM
CdPN=44-1234,NPI=E.164,NOA=International
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
F6 REL -> NGW 1
REL CauseValue=1 Unallocated number
F7 RLC NGW 1 ->
RLC
CauseValue=1 SIP 404 (Not Found)
F8 404 (Not Found) NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 404 Not Found
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Error-Info: <sip:not-found-ann@ann.a.loniis.ru>
Content-Length: 0
F9 ACK Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
ACK sip:+44-1234@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Max-Forwards: 70
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
122

CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
F10 404 (Not Found) Proxy 1 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 404 Not Found
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Error-Info: <sip:not-found-ann@ann.a.loniis.ru>
Content-Length: 0
F11 ACK Maxim -> Proxy 1
ACK sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
SIP :
ANM

3.49 . SIP .
ANM.
123

Maxim Anton Proxy 1 NGW 1.


,
ANM (..
).
REL 480 (Temporarily Unavailable)
Maxim SIP.
:
F1 INVITE Maxim -> Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="Max",
realm="a.loniis.ru", nonce="da2c5ac51bb59a05j1c3b0b01cf832b40",
opaque="", uri="sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone",
response="579cb9db184cdc25bf816f37cbc03c7d"
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
Proxy 1
Anton.
NGW 1. Maxim
49172 .
F2 100 (Trying) Proxy 1 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
124

F3 INVITE Proxy 1 -> NGW 1


INVITE sip:+78122625326@ngw1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F4 100 (Trying) NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
F5 IAM NGW 1 ->
IAM
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
F6 ACM -> NGW 1
ACM
F7 183 (Session Progress) NGW 1 -> Proxy 1

125

SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
F8 183 (Session Progress) Proxy 1 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.loniis.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
, , REL
480 (Temporarily Unavailable) SIP.

126

F9 REL NGW 1 ->


REL CauseCode=18 No user responding
F10 RLC -> NGW 1
RLC
F11 480 (Temporarily Unavailable) NGW 1 -> Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 480 Temporarily Unavailable
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Error-Info: <sip:temp-unavail-ann@ann.a.loniis.ru>
Content-Length: 0
F12 ACK Proxy 1 -> NGW 1
ACK sip:ngw1@a.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
F13 480 (Temporarily Unavailable) Proxy 1 -> Maxim
SIP/2.0 480 Temporarily Unavailable
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Error-Info: <sip:temp-unavail-ann@ann.a.loniis.ru>
Content-Length: 0
F14 ACK Maxim -> Proxy 1
127

ACK sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0


Max-Forwards: 70
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.loniis.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.loniis.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0

3.6.7 URI
- SIP
, .
Request-URI. To From .
SIP , -
, URI.
SIP SIP URI
. ISUP
SIP URI.
, SIP,
tel URL. tel URL
URI, .. tel URL
URI,
SIP URI. , To :
To: tel:+78123875605
:
To: sip:+78123875605@protei.ru
+ tel URL ,
E.164. ,
. + ,
,
. + ,
URI, SIP URI
- ;user=phone, :
To: sip:83000@sip.loniis.net;user=phone
SIPT
E.164, ,
. ,
SIP,
. ,
/ , ,
, .
128

, SIP
, .
, ,
, .
ISUP
, , , Called Party Number (CPN) Calling Party's Number
(CIN); ,
.
[RFC 3398 ISUP to SIP Mapping] CPN ISUP format,
CIN - ISUP calling format. ,
[Nature of Address (NoA) indicator],
,
[Numbering Plan Indicator (NPI)].
, [Binary Coded
Decimal (BCD)]. , NPI
, Presentation Indicator,
, Screening Indicator, ,
.

3.50 ISUP format ISUP calling format.

NPI 'ISDN (Telephony) numbering plan


(Recommendation E.164)', , , ,
; NoA
. ,
, NoA ,

,
. NPI , 'ISDN numbering plan', tel
URI ,
.
3.6.7.1 ISUP tel URL
, ISUP tel URL
. , , NPI ,
.164, NoA.
, ,
tel:+.
NoA , ,
129

tel URL,
.
,
(, Generic Name Parameter
ANSI), , Presentation Indicator presentation
restricted, From.
ISUP calling format,
: presentation indicators screening indicators.
presentation indicators 'presentation restricted',
URI, ,
. URI SIP URI,
Anonymous, :
From: Anonymous <sip:anonymous@anonymous.invalid>
presentation indicators 'address unavailable',
IAM CIN .
screening indicators .
3.6.7.2 tel URL ISUP
tel URL ISUP . URI
,
URI. (
, ,
), NoA national
(significant) number, URI .
, , , NoA
international number URI.
NPI ISDN numbering plan.
URI ,
URI,
.
,
SIP, , URI
( URI Request-URI, 484 (Address
incomplete)).
tel URL ISUP calling format
, presentation indicator
presentation allowed, screening indicator network
provided,
.

130


MD5 ( )

. MD5
; , ,
, .
MD5 .
,
,
, , md5( )
,
.

SIP,
.
UA
.

.
ISUP SIP

SDP,

SIP
answer
.
offer SDP,
SIP .
7
7
q ,
q

0 1.
-

, .
ISUP

SIP

- .
Stateless
.
-
,
, .
. -
,
.
Stateful
- - .
( )

,
.
Backward Call Indicators

BCI

313

called party status


CIC
CIN
CON
CPG
CPN
event package
FCI
GAP
IM
Interworking
indicator
ISUP

. ISUP.
. ISUP.
Carrier Identification Code ().
Calling Party's Number .
ISUP.
Connect Message IUSP.
Call Progress ISUP.
Called Party Number .
ISUP.

()
, .
Forward Call Indicators -
. ISUP.
Generic Address Parameter ISUP.
(Instant
Messaging)

, ,

, BCI

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) User Part


7
Media Gateway -
MG
, SIP .
.
Media Gateway Controller .
MGC
.
Naming Authority Pointer
NAPTR
SIP URL DNS .
Nature of Connection Indicator ISUP.
NCI
Original Called Number ISUP.
OCN

option-tag
SIP SIP,
RFC.
(path Maximum Transfer Unit)
path MTU
,
,
. Path
MTU MTU .
SIP. ,
registrar
,
.
.
remote target
, .
( ) ,
route set
,
. ,
.
Session Initiation (SIP - T)
Protocol
for
Telephones (SIP-T)
314

strict router
TMR
TNS

-, Request-URI
Route.
Transmission Medium Requirement ISUP.
Transit Network Selection ISUP.

315


1. Rosenberg J., Schulzrinne H., Camarillo G., Johnston A., Peterson J., Sparks R., Handley M.,
E. Schooler "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261
2. M.Handley, H. Schulzrinne, E. Schooler, J. Rosenberg " SIP: Session Initiation Protocol"
RFC 2543
3. J. Franks, P. Hallam-Baker, J. Hostetler, S. Lawrence, P. Leach, A. Luotonen, L. Stewart
"HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" RFC 2617
4. Donovan S. "The SIP INFO Method", RFC 2976
5. J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne "Reliability of Provisional Responses in SIP" RFC 3262
6. A. B. Roach "SIP - Specific Event Notification" RFC 3265
7. J. Rosenberg "SIP UPDATE Method" RFC 3311
8. R. Sparks "SIP Refer Method" RFC 3515
9. A. Johnston, A. Johnston, R. Sparks, C. Cunningham, K. Summers "SIP Basic Call Flow
Examples" RFC 3665
10. J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne "SIP: Locating SIP Servers" RFC 3263
11. J. Peterson " Privacy Mechanism for SIP" RFC 3323
12. H. Schulzrinne, D. Oran, G. Camarillo "The Reason Header Field for SIP" RFC 3326
13. G. Camarillo, W. Marshall, J. Rosenberg "Integration of Resource Management and SIP"
RFC 3312
14. W. Marshall "Private SIP Extensions for Media Authorization" RFC 3313
15. C. Jennings, J. Peterson, M. Watson "Private Extensions to SIP for Asserted Identity within
Trusted Networks" RFC 3325
16. D. Willis, B. Hoeneisen
Contacts" RFC 3327

"SIP Extension Header Field for Registering Non-Adjacent

17. J. Arkko, V. Torvinen, G. Camarillo, A. Niemi, T. Haukka "Security Mechanism Agreement


for SIP" RFC 3329
18. B. Campbell, J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, C. Huitema, D. Gurle "SIP Extension for Instant
Messaging" RFC 3428
19. M. Garcia-Martin, E. Henrikson, D. Mills "Private Header (P-Header) Extensions to SIP for
the 3rd-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)" RFC 3455
20. W. Marshall, F. Andreasen "Private SIP Proxy-to-Proxy Extensions for Supporting the
PacketCable Distributed Call Signaling Architecture" RFC 3603
21. D. Willis, B. Hoeneisen "SIP Extension Header Field for Service Route Discovery During
Registration" RFC 3608
22. .. .. .. IP . .: ,
2001.
316