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.. , ..

,
.. , ..

-

,
090800, 170200, 553600

2002

534.01
-35
/ .. ,
.. , .. , .. . : , 2002. 108 .
ISBN 5-88179-285-8
, .
. , . .
, ,
.
, ,
.
: -
(. . . ., .. ); . . ., .. .

, 2002
.., .., .., .., 2002
ISBN 5-88179-285-8

..................................................................................................................... 4
I. ........................................ 5
1.1 ............................................................................... 5
1.2. ................................................................................ 6
1.3. ............................................................................................ 8
1.4. ................................................................................................ 9
1.5. ............................. 11
II. ......... 20
2.1. ...................................................................................................................... 20
2.2. . ............................................................. 21
2.3. ........................................................................ 23
2.4. ....................................................... 26
2.5.
.................................................................................................. 29
2.6.
............................................................................................................. 30
2.7. ........................ 31
III. ................ 39
3.1.
............................................................................................... 39
3.2.
, ......................................................... 42
3.3. ............ 46
IV. ........... 59
4.1.
................................................................ 59
4.2. ...................................................................................................... 63
4.3. .......................................................................................................... 66
4.4. ..................................................................................... 68
4.5.
............................................................................................... 70
V. ................ 78
5.1.
........................................................................ 78
5.2. .................................................................................................. 80
5.3. ............ 81
VI. ........ 93
6.1.
................................................................................................................... 93
6.2. .......................................................................... 95
6.3. ..... 98
.......................................................................................... 107

.
, . ,
.
-, , .

.
.


, -.

5
I.

I.I.
s ,
,

= (q1 , q2 ,....., qs ) ,
q j

(1.1)

( j = 1, 2,K , s ) .


, qj . ,
, qj

1 S S 2
= () + (
)0 q j + (
)0 qi q j + K .

q
2

q
j =1
i =1 j =1
j
i
j
S

(1.2)

,
,
(0) = 0.

(1.3)

Qj =

q j

( j = 1, 2,K , s ) .

(1.4)

Qj = 0

( j = 1, 2,K , s ) ,

q j

= 0
0

( j = 1, 2,K , s ) ,

(1.5)

j =1 q
j

q j = 0 .
0

(1.6)

,
s

6
(1.2.)

1 S S 2
=
2 i =1 j =1 qi q j

qi q j .
0

(1.7)

qi q j

= cij = c ji ,
0

(1.8)

cij - .

1 S S
= cij qi q j .
2 i =1 j =1

(1.9)

(1.9.) , .
1.2.
, n ,
[1]

1 n
T = mk vk2 ,
2 k =1

(1.10)

mk v k - .
,
_

(k = 1, 2,..., n) ,

= r k ( q1 , q2 ,..., qs )

(1.11)

r k - k - .

vk2 = v k v k

v k
_

drk
dt

r k
q1

q1 +

r k
q2

q 2 + ... +

r k
qs

qs .

(1.10)

(1.12)

7
2
2
2

1
T = ( A11 q1 + A22 q 2 + ... + ASS q S + 2 A12 q1 q 2 + ... + 2 AS 1,S q S 1 q S ) ,(1.13)
2

_
rk
A11 = mk
q1
k =1

_
rk
Ass = mk
qs
k =1

_
n
, A22 = mk r k

q2
k =1

,...,

_
_

r
r

, A12 = mk k k ,...,

q1 q2

As 1,s = mk
k =1

rk rk
.

qS 1 qS

Aij
Aij = ( Aij )0 +

j =1 A j
S

q j + ...
0

(i = j = 1, 2,..., s ) .

(1.14)

0 .
, (1.14) [2]

(i = j = 1, 2,..., s ) .

Aij = ( Aij )0 = aij

(1.13)
2
2


1 2
T = a11 q1 + a22 q 2 + ... + aSS q S + 2a12 q1 q 2 + 2aS 1,S q S 1 q S (1.15)
2

1 S
T=
2 i=1

j =1

aij q i q j .

(1.16)

aij .
(1.16) , o
.

8
1.3.
,
. .

, R k (k = 1, 2,..., n) ,
,
_

R k = k v k

(k = 1, 2,..., n) ,

k .
[1]
n

Q j R = Rk
k =1

rk
r
= k vk k
q j
q j
k =1
n

( j = 1, 2,..., s ) .

(1.17)

vk =

rk
rk
rk
q1 +
q 2 + ... +
qS ,
q1
q2
qS

vk

qj

rk
.
q j

(1.18)

(1.18), (1.17)
n

Q = v
R
j

k =1

qj

qj

vk2

k =1

( j = 1, 2,..., s ) .

(1.19)

, [2]
n

vk2

k =1

(1.20)

Q Rj =

( j = 1, 2,..., s ) .

(1.21)

qj


[2]

1 S S
= ij q i q j ,
2 i =1 j =1

(1.22)

ij .
1.4.
, s , s qj ( j = 1, 2,..., s ) .

[1]
S

(Q

+ Q j ) q j = 0 ,

(1.23)

j =1

Qj , j- ;
Q uj , j- ;
q j j - .
, q j ( j = 1, 2,..., s ) ,
(1.23) , q j , ..

Q j + Qj = 0 ( j = 1, 2,..., s )

Q j = Q j

( j = 1, 2,..., s ) .

Q uj .
[1],

(1.24)

10
n

Q j = k
k =1

rk
d vk r k
= mk

1
=
k
q j
dt q j
n

( j = 1, 2,K , s ) ,

(1.25)

d vk
- .
k = mk a k = mk
dt
_

_ _
d vk r k d r k

=
vk

q j
dt q j dt

_
_
vk d r k

dt q j

(1.26)

r k = r k ( q1 , q2 ,..., qs ) ,
_

d rk rk
rk
rk
vk =
=
q1 +
q 2 + ... +
qs ,
dt
q1
q2
qs
_

vk

qj

_
d rk
dt q j

rk

(1.27)

qj

_
_

d
r
v

k
k
=
=
.
q j dt
q j

(1.28)

(1.27) (1.28) (1.26),


_
_
vk r k d
vk
vk

=
t q j dt
qj

_
_

vk2

v
d
k

vk
=

q j dt 2 q
j

2
vk .
2q j

(1.29) (1.25)


d vk2

Q j = mk
dt
k =1
2 q j
n

q j

2
v

d
k

dt q
q
2

j
j

mk vk2 d
=

dt q
2
k =1
j

.
q j

mk vk2

2
k =1

(1.29)

11
, ,
n m v2
k k = T .
k =1
2
(1.24),

d
dt q
j

= Q
j
q j

( j = 1, 2,K , s ) .

(1.30)

(1.30) .
.
, , ,
[1]

Qj =

q j

( j = 1, 2,K , s ) ,

(1.31)

.
, :

d
dt q
j

=
q j
q j

( j = 1, 2,K , s ) .

(1.32)

1.5.
1. ,
, (. 1.1).
, ,
m1.
m2
,
.
.
.

. 1.1
.

12

1
1
T = m1 z 2 + J x 2 .
2
2

J x = m2 R
2

z
= ,
R

1
T = ( m1 + m2 ) z 2 .
2

1 2:
2

c
z c
2 = f + f 2 ,
2
2 2

1 = m1 gz;

f .
C,

cfz cz 2
= 1 + 2 = m1 gz +
+
.
2
8
z = 0

z=0

1
= m1 g + cf = 0 ,
2

1
8

.. 2m1 f = cf , , = cz 2 .

d T T

=
.

dt z z
z
,

T
= (m1 + m2 ) z ,

T
= 0,
z

d T

= ( m1 + m2 ) z ,
dt z

1
= cz.
z 4

13

1
( m1 + m2 ) z + cz = 0 z + k 2 z = 0,
4

k 2 =

(1)

c
.
4(m1 + m2 )

(1)
.
2. m (. 1.2) , 1 2.
l 1 l 2 . ,
J,
, .

)
. 1.2

.
, .
y (. 1.2,).
[1]

1 2 1 2
T = m y + I .
2
2


1 2

= 1 + 2 .
:

14

1 = mgy .
:

2 = C1 + 2 ;

1 =

1
1
c1 ( f1 + y + l1 ) 2 f12 c1 ;
2
2

1
1
C2 = c2 ( f 2 + y l 2 )2 f 22 c2 ,
2
2
f1 f2 .

1
= mgy + c1 ( y + l1 )2 + c1 f1 ( y + l1 ) +
2
(1)
1
+ c2 ( y l 2 )2 + c2 f 2 ( y l 2 ).
2
y = 0 = 0 [1]

y =0
=0

= 0;

y =0
=0

= 0.

(2)

y =0

= mg + c1 ( y + l1 ) + c1 f1 + c2 ( y l 2 ) + c2 f 2 y =0, =0 =

=0

= mg + c1 f1 + c2 f 2 ,

y =0

= c1l1 ( y + l1 ) + c1 f1l1 c2 l 2 ( y l 2 ) c2 f 2 l 2 y =0, =0 =

=0

= c1 f1l1 c2 f 2 l 2 .

, (2)

mg + c1 f1 + c2 f 2 = 0,

c1 f1l1 c2 f 2 l 2 = 0.

(3)

15
(3),
(1)

1
1
= (c1 + c2 ) y 2 + (c1l1 c2 l 2 ) y + (c1l12 + c2 l 22 ) 2 .
2
2

d T T

y
dt y y

d T T

dt

= m y,

d T
= m y,
dt y

T
= 0,
y

= (c1 + c2 ) y + (c1l1 c2 l 2 ) ,
y
T

= I,

d T
= I,
dt

T
= 0,

= (c1l1 c2 l 2 ) y + (c1l 12 + c2 l 22 ) .

m y + (c1 + c2 ) y + (c1l 1 c2 l 2 ) = 0,
(4)

I + (c1l 1 c2 l 2 ) y + (c1l 12 + c2 l 22 ) = 0.
(4)
.

3. , ,
(. 1.3), J1, J2, J3.

16
, , ,
, .
.
.
1 , 2 3 .

. 1.3

1 2 1
1 .2
2
T = I1 1 + I 2 2 + I 3 3 .
2
2
2

1
1
c(1 2 ) 2 + c(3 2 ) 2 .
2
2

d T T

=
,
1
dt 1
1

d T T

=
,

2
dt 2
2


d T T
.

3
dt 3
3

.
T

d T
=
J

=
0
;
;
;
= c(1 2 ) ;
J

=
1
1
1
1

dt
1
1
1
1

= J2 2 ;

T
d T
;
= 0;
=
J

2
2

dt
2
2

= c(1 2 ) c (3 2 ) ;
2

(1)

17

d T
= J 3 3 ;
dt
3

= J3 3 ;

T
= 0;
3

= c(3 2 ) .
3

3
(1),
:

J1 1 + c1 c2 = 0,

J 2 2 c1 + 2c2 c3 = 0,

J 3 3 c2 + c3 = 0.

(2)

4. .
l , m.
, R = v ,
.
(. 1.4).

. 1.4

.
.


, .. q1 = x A , q2 = .

1
1 2 2
2
T = (3M + 2m) xA + ml + ml x A cos .
4
2

(1)

= 1 + 2 ,

1 , 2
. , .
,

18

1 = mg l ( l cos ) ; 2 =

1 2
cx A ,
2

1
= mg l ( l cos ) + cxA2 .
2

(2)

(1.20)

1 2
= xA.
2

(3)

d T T

,

x A x
dt x x A
A
A


d T T
.


dt

1
l

=
(3
M
+
2
m
)
x
+
m
cos ;
A

2
xA

d T 1
= (3M + 2m) x A + ml cos ml 2 sin ;

dt x 2
A
T
= 0;
x A

= cx A ;
x A

xA

= xA ;

= ml + ml x A cos ;
2

d T
2
= ml + ml xA cos ml x A sin ;
dt

(4)

19

= mg l sin ;

T
= ml x A sin ;

= 0.

(4),

(1.5 + m) x A + ml cos ml sin + xA + cxA = 0,

ml 2 + ml x x A cos ml xA sin ml x A sin + mg l sin = 0.

20
II.

2.1.

.

.
,
. , ,
, , . , - , ,
.
, , , .
, . ,
, .
, , ,
: , , , .
.
.

. IX
, .
, , , .

21
2.2. .
.

W = W ( x1 , x2 ,K , xn ) , [3]
n

x
i =1

2
i

(2.1)

.
, (2.1) , , x1 , x2 ,K , xn ,

W (0) = 0 .

(2.2)

, W
.
, x1 ,K , xn , W ( - -). W,
, .
x1 = 0 (i = 1, 2,K , n) ( -
- ).
W(x),
. x1 = 0 (i = 1, 2,K , n)
, , , , ,

= 0 (i = 1, 2,K , n) .
xi 0
W x1 , x2 ,K , xn

W
1 n n 2W
W = W (0) +
xi +
xi xk + ...,

x
2
x
x
i =1
i =1 k =1
i 0
i
k 0
n

.
(2.2) (2.3),

(2.3)

22

1 n n 2W
1 n n
W =
xi xk + ... = cik xi xk + ... ,
2 i =1 k =1 xi xk 0
2 i =1 k =1

(2.4)

2W
cik = cki =
(k = 1, 2,K , n) .
xi xk 0

(2.5)

1 n

2 i =1

c
k =1

xx

(2.6)

ik i k


x1 = K = xn = 0 , xi W
x1 = K = xn = 0 . , (2.6) -, W .
, - :
-, ,
, :
1 > 0, 2 > 0, , n > 0.

(2.7)

(2.6)

C=

c11

c12

K c1n

c21

c22 K c2 n

K K K

(2.8)

cn1 cn 2 K cnn
(2.7), :

1 = c11 > 0, 2 =

c11

c12

c21

c22

c11 c12
c21 c22
> 0 ,..., n =
K K
cn1 cn 2

K
K
K
K

c1n
c2 n
. (2.9)
K
cnn

23
W -, W
-. W .
:
1 < 0,

2 > 0,

< 0, ... ,

(2.10)

,
1= c11 .
2.3.
, [3].
,

y j = Yi ( y1 , y2 ,..., yn , t )

( j = 1, 2,K , n) .

(2.11)

Y i y1 ,K , yn t.

y1 = f1 ( t ) ,K , yn = f n ( t )

(2.12)

(2.11),
(2.13)
t = t0 yi = f i ( t0 ) (i = 1, 2,K , n) .
(2.13), y i
i , t = 0:

yi = fi ( t0 ) + i

(i = 1, 2,K , n) .

(2.14)

,
(2.14), , 1 , 2 ,K , n
.
yi

yi ( t ) , fi ( t ) -

xi = yi ( t ) fi ( t )

(i = 1, 2,K , n) .

(2.15)

xi yi . , ..

24

xi = 0

(i = 1, 2,K , n) ,

(2.16)

yi ( t ) f i ( t ) .

x1 , x2 ,K , xn ,
. . xi = 0 .
xi .
xi ,
n

x + x + K + x = xi2 ,
2
1

2
2

2
n

(2.17)

i =1

,
(2.17) .
(2.17).
(2.14)
(2.15), t = t0

xi = xi 0 = i

(i = 1, 2,K , n) ,

(2.18)

xi 0
.

(2.15) yi ( t )

yi ( t ) = fi ( t ) + xi ( t )

(i = 1, 2,K , n) .

yi ( t ) (2.11)

df i dxi
+
= Yi ( f1 + x1 ,..., f n + xn , t )
dt dt

(i = 1, 2,K , n) .

(2.19)

(2.19) xi
n
Y
df i dxi
+
= Yi ( f1 , f 2 ,..., f n , t ) + i xk + X i* ,
dt dt
k =1 xk 0

(2.20)

X i * , xi
.

25

f i ( t )
(2.11),

df i
= Yi ( f1 , f 2 ,..., f n , t )
dt

(i = 1, 2,K , n) .

(2.21)

(2.21) (2.20)

dxi
= i1 x1 + K + in xn + X i*
dt
Yi

xk 0

ik =

(i = 1, 2,K , n) ,

(i = 1, 2,K, n).

(2.22)

(2.23)

(2.22)
.
, X* i ,

dxi
= i1 x1 +K in xn
dt

(i = 1, 2,K , n)

(2.24)

.
,
.
,
, .
,
(2.22) (2.24) X i , :

dxi
= X i ( x1 ,...xn )
dt

(i = 1, 2,K , n) ,

(2.25)

dxi
= X i ( xi ,..., xn,t ) .
dt

(2.26)


(2.25) (2.26) .
x1 ,K , xn x .

dxi
= X i ( x)
dt

(i = 1, 2,K , n) ,

(2.27)

26

dxi
= X i ( x, t )
dt

(i = 1, 2,K , n) .

(2.28)


.
x1 ,K , xn . ,

vi =

dxi
dt

(i = 1, 2,K , n) .

(2.29)

(2.27)

vi = X i ( x )

(i = 1, 2,K , n) .

(2.30)

,
(2.27) (2.28)

v
(. 2.1).
,
x = 0 , X i -

. 2.1
,

X i ( 0, t ) = 0.

(2.31)

2.4.
, [3].
,
, ,
xi 0 ,
n

x
i =1

i0

t t0

(2.32)

27
n

i =1

(2.33)

, . .
n

i =1

= , r1 =

. , n

x
i =1

= r2 = ,

. , 0,
,
, (. 2.2). ,



. 2.2
0
.
.
W,

W , [3].
. , > 0

x
i =1

= .

W = C , (. 2.3) ( , ..
).
n

x
i =1

= -

W = C , . ,
, , ,
.

28
W -, , , , ..

W 0.

(2.34)

W W0 0

W W0 .

(2.35)

(2.35) ,
t t0

W = W0 = C1 ( W = 0 ),
(. 2.3). , , 0,

, W = C1 -

. 2.3

x 1 = x 2 + 3 x12 x 22 4 x15 ,

x 2 = x1 x 23 + x13 x 2 .
- W =

1 2
( x1 + x22 ) 2

W = x1 x1 + x2 x2 .
x1 x2
,

W = x1 ( x2 + 3x12 x22 4 x15 ) + x2 ( x1 x23 + x13 x2 ) = ( 2 x13 x22 ) .


2

29
W -,

W ,
. , x1 = 0 ,
x2 = 0 .
2.5.

s , s q1 ,K , qs .
Qj [1]

( j = 1, 2,K , s ) .

Qj = 0

(2.36)

Qj =

q j

( j = 1, 2,K , s ) ,

(2.37)

= 0

q
j 0

( j = 1, 2,K , s ) .

(2.38)

, ,
.
(2.38) , .
:
, .
. , . ,

( 0) = 0 .

(2.39)

30

(q1 , q2 ,..., qs ) > 0 .

(2.40)

, q j .

W =T +

(2.41)

q1 ,K , qs q1,K, qs1, qs , .
,

T + = 0 + 0 = h ,

(2.42)

0 0 .
W
(2.42) . , , .
2.6.

,
,
.

,

2
2 > 0,
q 0

(2.43)

2
2 = 0 ,
q
.

k
k .
q 0

31
, , , q = 0 , ,
.
, , , q = 0 , .
. 2.4 , ,
.
. 2.5 , ,
.

. 2.4

. 2.5

. 2.6 ,
.

. 2.6
2.7.

1. ,
, . , -

32
,
(. 2.7). , ?
.

1
= mg l cos + c 2 , m ,
2

l
, c .

= mg l sin + c = 0 .

. 2.7


= 0 . ,

2
> 0,

mg l + c > 0 .
c > mg l .

2. G l . l1 , , .
BO = l / 2 (. 2.8).
.
.
, . ,
, 0.
. 2.8

= Gh + Ph1 ,

h1 = OB BE = OB ( l1 BC ) =

l
h = cos ;
2

l1 l sin .
2
2

33
,

Gl
l

cos + P ( l 1 + l sin ) .
2
2
2

Gl
P

=
sin + l cos ,
2
2
2

Gl
Pl
2

.
cos

sin
=

2
4
2
2

=0 ,

Gl
Pl

sin +
cos = 0 .
2
2
2

P 2G sin cos = 0 .
2
2

.
1.

cos

1
2

= 0,

1
2

1 = 180 .

= 90 ,

2.

P 2G sin

2
2

= 0,

sin

2
2

P
.
2G

G,
.
(2.43) 1 = 180
,

..

1
1
Gl Pl > 0 ,
2
4
1
G > P.
2

34
sin

2
2

P
2G

P2
2G 2 P 2
cos 2 = 1 2sin
= 1 2 2 =
,
2
4G
2G 2
2

2
P 2 4G 2
=
l.
2

8
G

=2
:

P 2 4G 2
l > 0 , .. P > 2G .
8G
G sin
.

2
2

> 1,

3. 1 2 m1 m2, 3 4, l 2l
, .

G1 = 2G2 = cl, b = 2l + l 0 ,
l 0 ,
b
. (. 2.9). 1
= 1 + 2 .
(1)
1 , 0.
. 2.9

35

1 = 2G1l cos G2 l cos = l(2G1 G2 ) cos .


2 =

c 2
,
2

= b l 0 2l cos ,
2 =

c
(b l 0 2 l cos ) 2 .
2

(1)

c
= l ( 2G1 G2 ) cos + (b l 0 2l cos ) 2 .
2

(2)

G1 = 2G2 = 2cl ,

b = 2l + l 0 .

(2), ,

= cl 2 (2 cos 2 cos + 2) .
cos 2 cos , , ..
( ) = ( ) . , ( ) .
( ) 0 0 , , .

= cl 2 (1 4 cos ) sin ,

2
= cl 2 (cos 4 cos 2 ).
2

36

= 0,

sin (l 4 cos ) = 0.

sin = 0, 1 = 0, 2 = .
1
1 4 cos = 0, 3 = arccos , 3 = 7531' .
4
(2.43) ,

2
> 0.
2

2
= 3 < 0 .
1 = 0 ,
2
2
= 5 < 0 .
2 = 180 ,
2
2
= 3, 75 > 0 .
3 = 7531' ,
2

, 3 = 7531' .
4.

(. 2.10) m1 m2.
1 2
.
.
.

1 2.
. 2.10
1 2 ,
m1, 1 = 2 = 0

37

= 1 + 2 .

1 = m1 g l1 (1 cos 1 ) + l 2 (1 cos 2 ) m2 g l 2 (1 cos 2 ) ,

1
1
2
2 = c222 + c1 (1 2 ) .
2
2
,

1
1
2
= c1 (1 2 ) + c222 m1 g l1 (1 cos 1 )
2
2
( m1 + m2 ) g l 2 (1 cos 2 ) .

cos = 1

2
2!

+ ...,

1
( c1 m1 gl1 ) 12 2c112 + c1 + c2 ( m1 + m2 ) gl 2 22 + K,
2

, 1 2 .

c11 = c1 m1 g l1 , c12 = c21 = c1 , c22 = c1 + c2 ( m1 + m2 ) g l 2 .



,

1
c1112 + 2c1212 + c2222 ) .
(
2

, :
1. 1 = c11 > 0 c1 m1 g l1 > 0 .
(1)
2. 2 =

c11

c12

c21 c22

> 0

c1 m1 g l1
c1

c1

c1 + c2 ( m1 + m2 ) g l 2

> 0,

( c1 m1 g l1 ) c1 + c2 ( m1 + m2 ) g l 2 c12 > 0 .

(2)

38
(1) (2) 1 2 ,

c1 > m1 g l1 ,
c12
c2 >
+ (m1 + m2 ) g l 2 .
c1 m1 g l1

(3)

m1 g l1 = A ;

( m1 + m2 ) g l 2 = B ,

(3)

c1 > A ,

c12 A
c2 >
+ B.
c1 A

. 2.11

. 2.11

(4)

39
III.

3.1.



- . ( ) .

, . , . . ,
(. 3.1, ) ,
(. 3.1, ). .

,

d dT T

.
dt q q
q

(3.1)

)
. 3.1

40

1
1 2
T = a q ; = q 2 .
2
2
T ,
T

= aq,

d T
= aq,
dt q

T
= 0,
q

(3.2)

= cq ,
q

a q + cq = 0 .

c
= k2,
a
k2 ,

q+ k 2q = 0 .

(3.3)

(3.3) .
(3.3) 2 + k 2 = 0 ,
1 = ik , 2 = ik .
,
(3.3)

q = C1 cos kt + C2 sin kt ,

(3.4)

q = C1k sin kt + C2 k cos kt .

(3.5)

1 2 t = 0 :

q = q0 ,

q = q0 .

(3.6)

(3.6) (3.4) (3.5),

c1 = q0 ,

c2 =

q0
.
k

41
,

q
q = q0 cos kt + 0 sin kt .
k

(3.7)

C1 = A sin ,

C2 = A cos ,

q = A sin cos kt + A cos sin kt

q = A sin( kt + ) .

(3.8)

q = Ak cos(kt + ) .

(3.9)

(3.6) (3.8) (3.9),

q0 = A sin ,

q0 = kA cos ,


q
A = q02 + 0 ,
k

tg =

kq0

(3.10)

(3.11)

q0
, , .
(kt + ) , .

c
,
a

(3.12)

2
a
= 2
.
k
c

(3.13)

k=

T=

42
(3.12) (3.13) ,
, .
.
. 3.2.

. 3.2
3.2.
,
, ,
, ,

R k = k v k .
1.3 (1.21)

QR =

d

.

dt q q
q q

43

1 2
T = aq ,
2

1 2
= bq .
2

1
= cq 2 ,
2

a q = cq b q .

(3.14)

c
= k2,
a

b
= 2n .
a

(3.14)

q + 2n q + k 2 q = 0 .

(3.15)

(3.15) .

2 + 2n + k 2 = 0 ,
1,2 = n n 2 k 2 .
: n < k ; n > k ; n = k .
, n < k . , ..

1,2 = n i k 2 n 2
(3.15)

q = e nt (C1 cos k1t + C2 sin k1t ) ,

(3.16)

k1 = k 2 n 2 .
1 2 .
,

C1 = A sin , C2 = A cos .

q = Ae nt sin(k1t + ) .

(3.17)

44
: t = 0 , q = q0 ,

q = q0 .

(q0 + nq0 ) 2
2
A = q0 +
,
k 2 n2

tg =

q0 k 2 n 2

(3.18)

(3.19)

q0 + nq0

. 3.3.

. 3.3

T1 =

T =

2
=
k1

n
k 1
k

T
n
1
k

(3.20)

2
k

.
(3.20) , T1 > T , .
, , n << k , n / k T1 T . ,
.

45
n ( ti +

A
Ae
= i +1 =
Ai
Ae nti

T1
)
2

=e

T1
2

(3.21)

.
(3.21),
.

T1
.
(3.22)
2
. n > k
ln = n

1 = n + n 2 k 2 ,

1 = n n 2 k 2 .

, (3.15)

q = e nt (C1e

n2 k 2 t

+ C2 e

n2 k 2 t

(3.23)

q = Ae nt sh( n 2 k 2 t + ) .

(3.24)


. 3.4.

.
n = k , :

1 = 2 = n .

. 3.4

(3.15)

q = e nt (C1t + C2 ) .

(3.25)

, 1 2
.

46
3.3.

I. m 3l ,
c (. 3.5).

: t = 0 , = 0 , = 0 .
.
. .

1 2
T = J .
2

J = m ( 3l ) = 9ml 2 ,
2

. 3.5

9 2 2
T = ml .
2
1 2 .

1 = mg 3l(1 cos ) .

,

cos = 1

1 = mg 3l(1 1 +
2 =
,

2
2!

2
2

+ ... ,

)=

3
mg l 2 ,
2

1 2 2 4 2 2 5 2 2
cl + cl = cl .
2
2
2

47

= 1 + 2 =

2
2

(3mg l + 5cl 2 ) .

q
dt q q

d T
T

2
,
9
l

,
=
0
,
= (3mg l + 5cl 2 ) .
m
=
m
9
l

dt q

9ml 2 + (3mg l + 5cl 2 ) = 0

3mg l + 5cl 2
+
= 0.
9ml 2

(1)

3mg l + 5cl 2
= k2.
2
9ml

(2)

(1)

+ k 2 = 0 .

(3)

(3)
.
(3) 2 + k 2 = 0 ,
:

1 = ik , 2 = ik .
,
(3)

= C1 cos kt + C2 sin kt ,

(4)

48

= C1k sin kt + C2 k cos kt .

(5)

1 2

: t = 0 , = 0 , = 0 .
(4) (5),

C1 = 0 ,

C2 =

0
k

0
k

sin kt .

(6)

k=

1g 5 c
.
+
3l 9m

(7)

2.
, ,
(. 3.6). M ,

;

c=

GJ
l

G ( ), J p
( 4).
.

. . 3.6

.

1 2
T = J ,
2

49
J = M 2 .
,
,

1
= 2 .
2
T
d

,
=

dt

J + c = 0 ,

+ k 2 = 0 ,
k =

GJ p
c
. =
J
lJ

2
M 2
= 2
.
T=
k
c
3. (. 3.7)
, ,
k = 16c 1 ,
l1 = 1 , l 2 = 1,5 , c = 2 105 / .

. 3.7

50

.

.

1
T = Jz 2 .
2

(1)

1 2

c
c
1 = mg l 2 , 2 = [( f + l ) 2 f 2 ] = (2 f l + l 2 2 ) .
2
2
,

c
= mg l 2 + cf l + l 2 2 .
2
= 0


= 0 ,

mg l 2 + cf l = 0 .

1
= cl 2 2 .
2

,

= J,

d T
= J,
dt

T
= 0,

= cl 2 ,

J + cl 2 = 0 .

(1)

51

cl 2
= k2 .
J

(2)

(1)

+ k 2 = 0 .

(3)

, , (2)

cl 2 2 105 6, 25
J= 2 =
= 4883 2 .
k
256
4. (. 3.8)
m , .
, , ( t = 0 ) v0 = 1 / .
, c = 3 103 / ,
D = 0,1 , z = 25 , m = 2, 77 ,
H = 0, 05 , = 6 102 / .
. G F ,
.
, ,

R = v .

. .

y.

. 3.8

T=

my
2

52
1 2

1 = mgy ,

c
1
2 = [( f + y ) 2 f 2 ] = cfy + cy 2 .
2
2

1
= mgy + cfy + cy 2 .
2
y = 0

y = 0 ,

mg + cf = 0 .
,

1
= cy 2 .
2

QR = v = y .
,

=
+ QR

y
dt y y

m y + y + cy = 0 ,

y + 2n y + k 2 y = 0 ,

(1)

53

c
= k2 .
m

= 2n ,

(1)

1,2 = n n 2 k 2 .

k > n,

1,2 = n i k 2 n 2 .
, (1)

y = e nt (C1 cos k 2 n 2 t + C2 sin k 2 n 2 t ) ,

(2)

y = ne nt (C1 cos k 2 n 2 t + C2 sin k 2 n 2 t ) +


+e

nt

(3)

(C1 k n sin k n t + C2 k n cos k n t ).


2

(t = 0, y = 0, y = y0 ) (2)
(3), C1 C2

C1 = 0 ,

y0

C2 =

k n
2

y=

y0
k n
2

e nt sin k 2 n 2 t.

n k 2

4 g H
n=
Gz
k2 =

D
2
5, 42 c ,
d

c
= 1080 c 1 .
m

(4),

(4)

54

y = 0, 03e 5,42t sin 32, 4t .


ln = n

T1

=n
= 0,52 .
2
2
2
k n

5. m l (. 3.9),
.

R = v ,
v .
,
m = 10 ; l = 0,5 ; a = 0, 2 ; D = 5 102 ;

d = 5 103 ; i = 5 ;

E = 8 1010 / 2 ;
= 100 / .
. . . .

1
T = Jz 2 .
2

1 2 2
J z = ml , T = ml .
2
2


1
2

1 = mg l(1 cos ) .


,
. 3.9

cos = 1

2
2!

+ ... ,

55

1 = mg l
2 =

2
2

1 2 2
ca .
2

c 2 2 mg l 2 2
= 1 + 2 = a
= (ca 2 mg l) .
2
2
2

QR = l 2 .
,

+ QR ,

dt

ml + (ca mg l) + l = 0 .
2

(1)

ca 2 mg l
2
=
.
k
ml 2

= 2n ,

(1)

+ 2n + k 2 = 0 .
[4]

E d 4 8 1010 (5 103 ) 4
c=
=
= 104 / .
3
3
8i d
8 5 (0, 05)
n = 0

k 2 = 140,38 k = 11,85 c 1 .

n=

2m

100
= 5 c 1 .
2 10

(2)

56

k1 = k 2 n 2 = 140,38 25 = 10, 74 c 1 .

T1 =

2
6, 28
=
= 0,585 c .
k1 10, 74

T1
0,585
=5
= 1, 46 .
2
2
6. r m -

=n

(. 3.10). , R = v , .
, ,
m = 2 , c = 4 103 / , = 40 / , r = 0,3 .
v = 2 / .

. 3.10

. .
.

.

+ QR .

dt

(1)

1
T = J p 2 ,
2

J p ,
. -

J p = J c + mr 2 = 2mr 2 ,

57
J c = mr 2 , .
,

T = mr .
2

(2)

= 1 + 2 ,
1 , 2 .
:

cr 2 2
1 = mghc = 0 , 2 =
,
2

(3)

hc .

QR = vr 2 = 2 r .
2

(4)

T , QR (1),

2mr 2 + 2 r 2 + cr 2 = 0

+ 2n + k 2 = 0 ,

(5)

cr 2
c
=
= 1000 , k = 31, 62 .
n = = 10 , k =
2mr 2 2m
m
2

(5)

2 + 2n + k 2 = 0 .

1,2 = n n 2 k 2 = 10 30i .
,
(5)

= e 10t (C1 cos 30t + C2 sin 30t ) .


(6)

(6)

58

= 10e 10t (C1 cos 30t + C2 sin 30t ) + e10t (30C1 sin 30t + 30C2 cos 30t ) .

(t = 0, 0 = 0, 0 =
(2) (3), C1 C2

v0
)
r

C1 = 0 , C2 = 0, 22 .
,

= 0, 22e 10t sin 30t ,


k1 = k 2 n 2 = 30 c 1 , T1 =

2
= 0, 21 c .
k1

(7)

59
IV.

4.1.


, __

() P k , __

__

R k , vk , F k , .
T ,

1 2
1 2
1 2
T = a q , = q , = q .
2
2
2
Q p QR ,
,

Qp =

= cq ,
q

QR =

= q .

QF , ,
n

__

QF = F k
k =1

r k
.
q

, QF = QF (t ) .
QF , T ,

QF = a0 + (ai cos ipt + bi sin ipt ) ,


i =1

2
.
T
a0 , ai , bi

p =

60
T

1
2
2
a0 = QF (t )dt , ai = QF (t ) cos iptdt , bi = QF (t ) sin iptdt .
T 0
T 0
T 0

+ QF (t ) .
q q
dt q q

a0 1
q + 2n q + k q = + (ai cos ipt + i sin ipt ) .
a a i =1

(4.1)

(4.1)

q = q + q ,

(4.2)

q + 2n q + k 2 q = 0 ;

q** - (4.1).
n < k ( ),
q = e nt (c1 cos k1t + c2 sin k1t ) ,
k1 = k 2 n 2 .
q

q = A0 + ( Ai cos ipt + Bi sin ipt ) ,

i =1

A0 , Ai Bi , .
q
(4.1).

A0 k + [(k 2 i 2 p 2 ) Ai + 2nipBi ]cos ipt +


2

i =1

a0 1
+ [(k i p ) Bi 2nipAi ]sin ipt = + (ai cos ipt + bi sin ipt ).
a a i =1
i =1
2

61

A0 k 2 =

a0
a

, (k 2 i 2 p 2 Ai + 2nipBi = i , (k 2 i 2 p 2 ) Bi 2nipAi = i ,
a
a
a

a0
a0
(k 2 i 2 p 2 )ai 2nipi
,
A0 = 2 = , Ai =
ak
c
a[(k 2 i 2 p 2 ) 2 + 4n 2i 2 p 2

(k 2 i 2 p 2 )i + 2nipai
.
Bi =
a[(k 2 i 2 p 2 ) 2 + 4n 2i 2 p 2
(4.2)
(4.1)

q = A0 + e (C1 cos k1t + C2 sin k1t ) + ( Ai cos ipt + Bi sin ipt ) . (4.3)
nt

i =1

C1 C2

: t = 0 , q = q0 , q = q0 .
(4.1)

q + 2nq + k q = h0 + hi sin(ipt + i ) ,
2

(4.4)

i =1

h0 =

a0
,
a

hi =

1 2 2
ai + i ,
a

tg i =

ai
.
i

(4.4)

q = q + q .
n < k , q :

q = Ae nt sin(k1t + ) .
:

q = A0 + Ai sin(ipt + i i ) .

(4.5)

i =1

A0 , Aib , i q
(4.4)

62

k A0 + (k i p ) Ai sin(ipt + i i ) + 2nipAi cos(ipt + i i ) =


2

i =1

i =1

= h0 + hi sin(ipt + i ).
i =1

i =1

i =1

h0 + hi sin(ipt + i ) = h0 + hi sin(ipt + i i + i ) =

i =1

i =1

= h0 + hi cos i sin(ipt + i i ) + hi sin i cos(ipt + i i ).

k A0 + (k i p ) Aib sin(ipt + i i ) + 2nipAib cos(ipt + i i ) =


2

i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

= h0 + hi cos i sin(ipt + i i ) + hi sin i cos(ipt + i i ).


,

k 2 A0 = h0 , (k 2 i 2 p 2 ) Aib = hi cos i , 2nipAib = hi sin i .


A0 =

2nip
h0
hi

=
tg
A
=
,
,
.
i
ib
2
2 2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
k2

k
i
p
( k i p ) + 4n i p

(4.4)

q = A0 + Ae

nt

sin(k1t + ) + Aib sin(ipt + i i ) .

(4.6)

i =1

(4.6) ,
a0 , , , .

,

q = Ai sin(ipt + i i ) .
i =1

(4.7)

63
Ai (ipt + i i ) , pi = ip (i = 1, 2,..., ) .
, n = 0 , , (4.4) (4.6)

q + k 2 q = h0 + hi sin(ipt + i ) ,

(4.8)

q = A0 + A sin(kt + ) + Ai sin(ipt + i ) .

(4.9)

Ai =

hi
.
2
2
k i p2

(4.10)

4.2.

,

pi = ip = k

(i = 1, 2,..., ) ,

i - .

Ai =

hi
,
2nk

tg i = , i =

(4.11)

, n << k , Ai
(4.7), , .
(4.7), ,

q=

h1

sin(kt + 1 ) .
2nk
2

(4.12)

i ,
pi = k , pi .

64

Ai =

hi

( k p ) + 4n p
2

2 2
i

2
i

(4.13)

(4.13).
f = (k 2 pi2 ) 2 + 4n 2 pi2 pi

4 pi (k 2 pi2 ) + 8n 2 pi = 0 ,
pi2 = k 2 2n 2 .
, k 2 2n 2 > 0 ,

n<
n >

2
k.
2

(4.14)

2
k Ai 2

.
(4.13) pi2 = k 2 2n 2 ,

Aimax
=

hi

2n k n
2

(4.15)

Aimax
=

hi
.
2nk

(4.16)

(4.16) (4.11), ,
Ai .

q=

hi
sin(ipt + i ) .
k 2 i2 p2

n = 0 (ip = k ) ,

Ai =

hi
,
k 2 i2 p2

(4.17)

65
, (4.17)
.
, , -
, .

q + k 2 q = h sin( pt + ) .

(4.18)

(4.18)

q = q + q .

q + k 2 q = 0 , ,

q = C1 cos kt + C2 sin kt .
p = k , q (4.18) - q . q

q = Bt cos(kt + ) .

(4.19)

B q
(4.18)

2 Bk sin( kt + ) Bk 2t cos(kt + ) + Bk 2t cos( kt + ) = h sin(kt + ) ,

B=

h
.
2k

(4.18)
q = C1 cos kt + C2 sin kt

h
t cos(kt + )
2k

h
t sin(kt + ) .
2k
2

q = C1 cos kt + C2 sin kt +

(4.20)

66

q =

t sin(kt + ) .
2k
2

(4.21)

k
.

. (4.21), -

.

. 4.1.

. 4.1
4.3.
,
pi k ,
pi k , , .
, , .
n = 0 ,

q + k 2 q = h sin( pt + ) ,

q = C1 cos kt + C2 sin kt +

h
sin( pt + ) ,
k 2 p2

(4.22)
(4.23)

67

q = C1k sin kt + C2 k cos kt +

hp
cos( pt + ) .
k 2 p2

(4.24)

(4.23) (4.24) : t = 0 , q = q0 ,

q = q0 ,
C1 = q0

h
sin ,
k 2 p2

q
hp
C2 = 0
cos .
k k (k 2 p 2 )
(4.23)

q0
h
sin kt 2
(sin cos kt +
2
k
k p
p
h
+ cos sin kt ) + 2
sin( pt + ).
k
k p2

q = q0 cos kt +

(4.25)

(4.25) ,

( q0 = 0, q 0 = 0 ) ,
,

h
p
(sin

cos
kt
+
cos sin kt ) .
2
2
k p
k
p k , , , .

p
1, (4.25) q0 = 0 , q 0 = 0
k
h
q 2
[sin( pt + ) sin(kt + )] .
2
k p

sin sin = 2sin


,

p+k
p ,
2

cos

+
2

68

q2

h
pk
sin
t cos( pt + ) .
k 2 p2
2

(4.26)

. 4.2.

. 4.2
, , ,
.

TA =

2
4
=
.
pk pk
2

4.4.
, ,

Ai =

hi

(k

i p
2

2 2

=
+ 4n i p
2 2

Ai 0
2

p
n pi
1
+4 2 2

k
2
i
2

ip = pi .
(4.7)

i =1

i =1

QF ( t ) = a hi sin ( ipt + i ) = H i sin ( ipt + i ) .

(4.27)

H i = ahi , .. pi = 0 ,

69

Aio =

hi
Hi Hi
=
=
,
k 2 k 2a c

k 2 =

c
.
a

Ai Ai 0

i =

Ai
=
Aio

(1 )

2 2
i

+ 4
2

(4.28)

2
i

pi
n
, = .
k
k
n = 0 ,

i =

i =

1
.
1 i2

(4.29)

. 4.3 i = fi ( i ) .
n 0
i ,
.
i

tgi =

2npi
n pi
2
=
k 2 pi2
k k

pi

. 4.3

= 2 i

1
.
1 i2

(4.28)

70
. 4.4 i = i ( i ) . i 0 i 0 .
pi = k i =

. 4.4
4.5.

1. ,
, ( )
.
, . 4.5,
. , , , . m .

. 4.5

71
.
.
,
:
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
= J 0 = m4l = 2ml ,
= cl 2 2 .
2
2
2

+ Q ,
dt

Q =

A P0 sin t 2l
=
= 2 p0 l sin t ,

4ml + cl 2 = 2 P0 l sin t
2

+ k 2 = h sin t ,
k 2 =

P
c
, h= 0 .
4m
2ml

(4.29) n = 0
i =

1
.
1 2

, =
2

2
k2

, k2 =

c

4m

1
c
.
=
4m 2 c 4m 2
1
c

2.

= 0 sin

x
l

(1)

72
c , m (. 4.6). c , ,
0, 050 .

. 4.6
. y
, ,

m y = c( y ).

(2)

, x = vt ,

= 0 sin

v
l

t.

(3)

(3) (2)

m y + cy = c0 sin

v
l

t.

(4)

Q = c0 sin

v
l

t , .. Q0 = c0 .

, ,

(.. ) 0 .
v 0 (4.29)

1
,
1 2

73
=

p
,
k

k=

c
v
, p=
.
l
m

=
1

2v 2 m

cl 2

A 0, 050 , ,

1
0, 05 ,
vm
1
cl 2
2 2

0, 47 mv 2
.
c
l2
3. m c = 7200 / (. 4.7). - - ,
x = x0 sin t ,
x0 = 1,55 10 2 ,
m. , = 270 Hc / , 90, , .
.
. 4.7
x, y. ,

F = c( y x) .

y + 2n y + k 2 y = h sin t ,

2n =

, k2 =

cx
c
, h= 0.
m
m

74
= k , (4.11),

A=

x
h
= 0 cm = 0, 0148 .
2nk

(4.11)

ymax = A + yc ,
y
;

ymax = A +

G
= 0, 048 + 0, 0125 = 0, 0273 .
c

Pmax = c ymax = 7200 0, 0273 = 197 H .


4. , , . (. 4.8.) m1,
m2 . . m3 e .
, . 4.8,.
,
, .

. 4.8

75
.
q = y , .

+ QY .

dt y y
y y

= 1 + 2 2 + 2 3 .

2
2
1 2
1
1
1
1
2
1 = m1 y ; 2 = m2 y + J 22 = m2 y + m2 r 222 ;
2
2
2
2
4
2

1
1
2
3 = m3v3 = m3 ( y + e 2 2 2 y e sin t ) ;
2
2

2 = 3 = = = const .
C,
2
2

1
= (m1 + 2m2 + 2m3 ) y + ( J 2 + J 3 ) 2m3e y sin t.
2

= 1 + 2 + 3 + .

1 = m1 gy ; 2 = 2m2 gy ; 3 = 2m3 g[y-e(1 cos )] ;

= [( f + y ) 2 f 2 ] = ( y 2 + 2 fy ) .
2
2
,

c
= (m1 + 2m2 + 2m3 ) gy + 2mge(1 cos ) + ( y 2 + 2 fy ) .
2
,

(1)

76

= 0 , (m1 + 2m2 + 2m3 ) g + cf = 0 ,

y =0

1
= cy 2 + 2m3 ge(1 cos ) .
2
, ,

1 2
= y .
2
, y

Qy = 0 .
T , , Qy (1),

(m1 + 2m2 + 2m3 ) y + y + cy = 2m3e 2 cos t = 2m3e 2 sin( t +

),

y + 2n y + k 2 y = h sin t + ,
2

c
= k2,
M

= 2n ,

2m3e 2
= h,
M

(2)

m1 + 2m2 + 2m3 = M .

(2) (.
4.6.)

y = Ae nt sin(k1t + ) + sin t + ,
2

(3)

k1 = k 2 n 2 ,

,
.

77

y = A sin t + .
2

(4)

A =

h
( k ) + 4n
2

2 2

2m3e 2
M ( k ) + 4n
2

( = k )

2m3e 2 m3e
=
.
A =
Mn
2Mn

tg =

2n
.
k 2 p2

( = k )

tg = , =

2 2

78
V.

5.1.


() .
, , .


d T T
,

=
q1
dt q q1
1


d T T

=
.
dt q q2
q2
2

(5.1)

, (1.16)
(1.9), :

2
1 2
T = a11 q1 + 2a12 q1 q 2 + a22 q 2 ,
2

1
= c11 q12 + 2c12 q1 q 2 + c22 q22 .
2

(5.2)

T (5.1), :

a11 q1 + a12 q 2 + c11 q1 + c12 q 2 = 0,

a21 q1 + a22 q 2 + c21 q1 + c22 q 2 = 0,

(5.3)

a21 = a12 , c12 = c21 .

, , ,
:

c11 > 0 , c11c22 c122 > 0.

(5.4)

79
(5.4) ,
(5.3)
:

q1 = A1 sin ( kt + ) , q2 = A2 sin ( kt + ) .

(5.5)

(5.5) (5.3),

(c
(c

a11k 2 ) A1 + ( c12 a12 k 2 ) A2 = 0,

2
2

=
a
k
A
c
a
k
A
0,
) 1 ( 22 22 ) 2
12
12
11

(5.6)

A1 A2. , , , , :

c11 a11k 2 c12 a12 k 2


c12 a12 k c22 a22 k
2

= 0.

(5.7)

( c11 a11k 2 )( c22 a22 k 2 ) ( c12 a12 k 2 ) = 0 .


2

(5.8)

(5.8) . k12 k22 k1 k2 .


(5.8) . (5.4),
.
k1 k2 ( k1 < k2 ).

. k1 , , , . .
ki (5.5), , (5.3)

80

q1 = A11 sin ( k1t + 1 ) + A12 sin ( k 2t + 2 ) ;

q2 = A21 sin ( k1t + 1 ) + A22 sin ( k 2t + 2 ) ,

(5.9)

A :
, .
(5.9) ,
, , k1 k2 . .
5.2.
,
(5.5) (5.3) :

q2 A2
=
= ,
q1 A1

(5.10)

q1 = A1 sin(kt + ) , q2 = A2 sin(kt + ) ,
A2 = A1 .

(5.11)

(5.11) (5.6) 1

(c
(c

a11k 2 ) + ( c12 a12 k 2 ) = 0;

2
2

a
k
c
a
k
0.
) ( 22 22 )
12
12
11

k1 k2 (5.8), , :

c11 a11k12
c12 a12 k12
=
1 =
;
c12 a12 k12
c22 a22 k12

c11 a11k2 2
c12 a12 k2 2
2 =
=
.
c12 a12 k2 2
c22 a22 k2 2

(5.13)

1 2 ,
, -

81
, . (5.13) ,
,
.
(5.9)

q1 = A11 sin ( k1t + 1 ) + A12 sin ( k2t + 2 ) ;

q2 = 1 A11 sin ( k1t + 1 ) + 2 A12 sin ( k2t + 2 ) .

(5.14)

11, 12, 1 2

: t = 0 , q1 = q , q2 = q20 , q1 = q10 , q 2 = q 20 .
5.3.

1.
m
(. 5.1)
,
c1
c2 . l1 l 2 .
,

. 5.1
J , , :

,
c2 = 2,5 105 , l1 = 1 ,

2
J = 300 . .

c1 = 2 105

l 2 = 1,5 ,

m = 1500 ,

. , .
(. 5.1.)
.

82

y
, .. q1 = y , q2 = .
2 1
:

1 2 1 2
= my + J ;
2
2
1
( 1 + 2 ) y 2 + ( c1l1 c2l 2 ) y + ( c1l 21 c2l 2 2 ) 2 .
2
T
=

dt y y
y

dt

m y + ( c1 + c2 ) y + ( c1l1 c2 l 2 ) = 0;

2
2
J + ( c1l1 c2 l 2 ) y + ( c1l1 + c2 l 2 ) = 0.

(1)

y = A sin ( kt + ) ; = B sin ( kt + ) .

(2)

,
( 2 )

A
= ,
B

(3)

y = B sin ( kt + ) ;

= B sin ( kt + ) ; A = B.

(4)

83
y (1), sin(kt + ) ,

(c
(c

a11k 2 ) + ( c12 a12 k 2 ) = 0,

2
2
12 a12 k ) + ( c22 a22 k ) = 0,

11

(5)

c11 = c1 + c2 ; c12 = c1l1 + c2 l 2 ; c22 = c1l12 + c2 l 2 2 ;


(6)

a11 = m; a12 = 0 ; a22 = J .


(5),

(c

2
2
2
11 a11k )( c22 a22 k ) ( c12 a12 k ) = 0,
2

c11a22 + c22 a11 2 c11c22 + c12 2


k
k +
= 0.
c11a22
c11a22
4

(7)

(6) (7),

k12 = 270,

k22 = 2572

k1 = 16, 43c 1 ,

k2 = 50, 71c 1 .

c12 a12 k12

1 =
3,9
6,8
;
=

c11 a11k22

c12 a12 k22

2 =
0,
05
0,
09
.
=

c11 a11k22

,
6, 8 ,
. 0,09
. . 5.2.

84

5.2
(1)
(5.14)

= B1 sin ( k1t + 1 ) + B2 sin ( k2t + 2 ) ;

y = 1 B1 sin ( k2t + 1 ) + 2 B2 sin ( k2t + 2 ) .

(8)

B1, 2, 1 2
.

t = 0 ; = y = 0; = 0,

y = v0 = 2

0 = B1 sin 1 + B2 sin 2 ;

0 = 1 B1 sin 1 + 2 B2 sin 2 ;

0 = B1k1 cos 1 + B2 k2 cos 2 ;

v0 = 1 B1k1 cos 1 + 2 B2 k2 cos 2 .

(9)

(9),

1 = 2 = 0 ;
B1 =

v0
= 0, 253 ;
k1 (1 2 )

B2 =

v0
= 0, 08.
k2 (1 2 )

y = 0, 25sin16, 43t 0, 007 sin 50, 71t ;

85

= 0, 253sin16, 43t + 0, 08sin 50, 71t.


2. , , (. 5.3),
J1 J2 .
, , ,
. 5.3
,
, .. c1 = c2 = c .
, , .
J1 = 2 J 2 , J 2 = 30 2 , c = 2, 0 105 .
. . 1 2 .

=
;
1
dt 1
1

=
.
2
dt 2
2

(1)

1 2 1 2
= J1 + J 2 2 ;

2
2

2
1 2
= c11 + c2 (2 1 ) .

2
T (1),

(2)

86

J1 1 + ( c1 + c2 ) 1 c2 2 = 0;

J 2 2 + c2 2 c21 = 0.

(3)

(3)

1 = A sin ( kt + ) ; 2 = B sin ( kt + ) .
,

2 B
= = ,
1 A

1 = A sin ( kt + ) ; 2 = A sin ( kt + ) .
1 2 (3),

2c J1k 2 c = 0;

c + ( c J 2 k 2 ) = 0.

(4)

2 J 22 k 4 4 J 2 ck 2 + c 2 = 0.

(5)

(5),

k1 = 44c 1 , k2 = 107c 1.
:

2c J1k12 4 105 60 1936


1 =
=
= 1, 42 ,
c
2 105
2c J1k 22 4 105 60 11449
=
= 1, 43 .
2 =
5
c
2 10
. 5.4 .

.
.
, .

87


.
3.
m1 m2 , c1 c2
(. 5.5).
,

. 5.4

m1 = 20, m2 = 5, c1 = 40 103

, c2 = 20 103 .

5.5
. x1 x2 .

2
1 2
T = m1 x1 + m2 x 2 .
2

, ,

1
1
2
= 1 x12 + c2 ( x2 x1 ) .
2
2
T

88


d
;

=
dt x x1
x1
1


d
,

x2
x2
dt x
2

m1 x1 + ( c1 + c2 ) x1 c2 x2 = 0;

(1)

m2 x2 + c2 x2 c2 x1 = 0.

x1 = A sin kt , x2 = B sin kt.

(2)

A x1 x2 (1).

[(c1 + c2 ) m1k 2 ]A c2 B = 0;

c2 A + ( c2 m2k 2 ) B = 0.

(3)

A ,

c1 + c2 m1k 2
c2

c2
c2 m2 k

= 0,

(c + c
1

m1k 2 )( c2 m2 k 2 ) c22 = 0.

k4

( c1 + c2 ) m1 + c2 m1 k 2 +
m1m2

c1c2
= 0.
m1m2

89

k1,2 =

( c1 + c2 ) m2 + c2 m1
2m1m2

( c1 + c2 ) m2 + c2 m1
c1c2
.


2m1m2

m1m2
2

k1 =

( c1 + c2 ) m2 + c2 m1

( c1 + c2 ) m2 + c2 m1
c1c2
= 37,9c 1 ,


2m1m2

m1m2

( c1 + c2 ) m2 + c2 m1 +

( c1 + c2 ) m2 + c2 m1
c1c2
= 74,5c 1 .


2m1m2

m1m2

2m1m2

k2 =

2m1m2

4. 1 2 m1 m2 ,
. 5.6.
,
2
v0 , .
: m1 = 200, m2 =10, c1 = 8 104 H/ ,

2 = 4 104 H/ , v0 = 1 / .
. . z1 z2 . . 5.6


d
;

=
dt z z1
z1
1

d

.

=
dt z z2
z2
2

(1)

90
2
1 2 1
= m1 z1 + m2 z 2 .
2
2

(2)

1
1
2
= m1 gz1 m2 gz2 + c1 ( z1 + f1 ) c1 f12 +
2
2
1
1
2
+ c2 ( z2 z1 + f 2 ) c2 f 22 = m1 gz1 m2 gz2 +
2
2
1
1
2
+c1 f1 z1 + c1 z12 + c2 ( z2 z1 ) + c2 ( z2 z1 ) f 2 ,
2
2

(3)

f1 , f 2 .

( z1 = z2 = 0 ) . :



=
0;

= 0.
z
z

1 0
2 0

(4)


0;
m
g
c
f
c
f
=
+

1
1 1
2 2
z1 0

= m2 g + c2 f 2 = 0.

z2 0

(5)

(4)

(5) (3)

1
1
2
= c1 z12 + c2 ( z2 z1 ) .
2
2
(1),

m1 z1 + ( c1 + c2 ) z1 c2 z2 = 0;

m2 z2 + c2 z2 c2 z1 = 0.

(7)

(7)

z1 = A sin ( kt + ) , z2 = B sin ( kt + ) .

(8)

91
,

z2 B
=
z1 A

(9)

z1 = A sin ( kt + ) , z2 = A sin ( kt + ) .
z1 z2 (7), ,

c1 + c2 m1k 2 c2 = 0;

c2 + ( c2 m2 k 2 ) = 0.

(10)

(10),

(c + c
1

m1k 2 )( c2 m2 k 2 ) c22 = 0.

(11)

k1 =

k2 =

( c2 m1 + c1m2 + c2 m2 ) ( c2 m1 + c1m2 + c2 m2 )

4c1c2 m1m2

2m1m2

( c2 m1 + c1m2 + c2 m2 ) + ( c2 m1 + c1m2 + c2 m2 )
2m1m2

4c1c2 m1m2

k1 = 44, 72c 1 ; k2 = 89, 44c 1.


,

1 =

c2
= 2,
c 2 m2 k12

2 =

c2
= 1 .
c 2 m2 k22

(9)

92

1 =

B1
,
A1

2 =

B2
.
A2

B1 = 1 A1 ,

B2 = 2 A2 .

(3) (8)

z1 = z1(1) + z1(2) = A1 sin ( k1t + 1 ) + A2 sin ( k2t + 2 ) ;


z2 = z2(1) + z2(2) = 1 A1 sin ( k1t + 1 ) + 2 A2 sin ( k2t + 2 ) .

t = 0 , z1 = z2 = 0 , z1 = 0 , z 2 = v0 = 1 .
,

0 = A1 sin 1 + A2 sin 2 ;

0 = 1 A1 sin 1 + 2 A2 sin 2 ;

0 = A1k1 cos 1 + A2 k2 cos 2 ;

v0 = 1 Ak
1 1 cos 1 + 2 A2 k2 cos 2 .

1 = 2 = 0 ,
A1 =
A2 =

v0
= 0, 0075 ,
k1 ( 1 2 )
v0
= 0, 0037 .
k2 ( 1 2 )

z1 = 0, 0075sin 44, 72t 0, 0037 sin 89, 44t ;


z2 = 0, 015sin 44, 72t + 0, 0037 sin 89, 44t .

93
VI.

6.1.

, __

, () Fk ,
__

PK , t .
.
q1 q2 ,

=
+
.
Q
Q
2F
2p
dt q q2

= Q1F + Q1 p ,
dt q q1
1

(6.1)

, Q1P Q2 P ,

Q1 p = H1 sin( pt + ) ,

Q2 p = H 2 sin( pt + ) .

(6.2)

2
T = (a11 q1 + 2a12 q1 q2 + a22 q22 );

1
2
2
= (c11 q1 + 2c12 q1 q2 + c22 q2 ).

Q2 F

(6.3)

() Q 1 F
:

Q1F =

;
q1

Q2 F =

.
q2

(6.4)

94
(6.1),

a11 q1 + a12 q2 + c11q1 + c12 q2 = H1 sin( pt + ),

a12 q1 + a22 q2 + c12 q1 + c22 q2 = H 2 sin( pt + ).

(6.5)

(6.5), , (5.3) ,

q1 = q1 + q1 , q2 = q2 + q2 .

(6.6)


(5.3), ,

q1 = A1(1) sin(k1t + 1 ) + A1(2) sin(k2t + 2 ),

q2 = 1 A1(1) sin(k1t + 1 ) + 2 A1(2) sin(k2t + 2 ).

(6.7)

(6.5)
:

q1** = A1b sin( pt + ) , q2** = A2b sin( pt + ) .

(6.8)

A1b A2b q1**


q2** (6.5).

(c11 a11 p 2 ) A1b + (c12 a12 p 2 ) A2b = H1 ,

(c12 a12 p 2 ) A1b + (c22 a22 p 2 ) A2b = H 2 .

(6.9)

H1 (c22 a22 p 2 ) H 2 (c12 a12 p 2 )


,
A1b =
(c11 a11 p 2 )(c22 a22 p 2 ) (c12 a12 p 2 ) 2

H 2 (c11 a11 p 2 ) H1 (c12 a12 p 2 )


,
A2b =
2
2
2 2
(c11 a11 p )(c22 a22 p ) (c12 a12 p )

(6.10)

A1b A2b .
(6.8) .
:

95
1.
.
2. , .
(6.5),
(6.6),

q1 = A1(1) sin(k1t + 1 ) + A1(2) sin(k2t + 2 ) + Aib sin( pt + ),


q2 = 1 A1(1) sin(k1t + 1 ) + 2 A1(2) sin(k2t + 2 ) + A2b sin( pt + ).

(6.11)

k1 k2 (5.8),
1 2 (5.13).
6.2.
, , Q2 p .
,

Q1 p = H1 sin( pt + ) , Q2 p = 0 ,
H 2 = 0 .
(6.10)

H1 (c22 a22 p 2 )
,
A1b =
(c11 a11 p 2 )(c22 a22 p 2 ) (c12 a12 p 2 ) 2

H1 (c12 a12 p 2 )
.
A2b =
2
2
2 2
(c11 a11 p )(c22 a22 p ) (c12 a12 p )

(6.12)

(c11 a11 p 2 )(c22 a 22 p 2 ) (c12 a12 p ) 2 = 0

(6.13)

.
k1 k2 .

c22 a22 p 2 = 0

(6.14)

96
. , , , (6.12)

A1 = 0,

A2 =

H1
.
c12 a12 p 2

(6.15)

. . . , m1 , c1 , ( 6.1),

Q1 p = H1 sin( pt + ).

)
. 6.1

(. 6.1, )

1 2
1
T = m1 z 1 ; = c1 z 21 .
2
2
T , Q1 p

d T T

+ Q1 p
z1
dt z z1
1

97

m1 z 1 + c1 z1 = H1 sin( pt + ).

(6.16)

, (4.7),

z1 =

h1
sin( pt + ) .
(k 2 p 2 )

(6.17)

, (. 6.1,) .
z1 .
(. 6.1,) :

1
2
T = (m1 z 1 + m2 z22 ) ,
2

1
= [(c1 + c2 ) z12 2c2 z1 z2 + c2 z22 ] .
2

m1 z1 + (c1 + c2 ) z1 c2 z2 = H1 sin( pt + ),

m2 z2 + c2 z2 c2 z1 = 0.

(6.18)

a11 = m1 , a12 = 0 , a22 = m2 ,


(6.19)

c11 = c1 + c2 , c12 = c2 , c22 = c2 .

p2 =

c22 c2
,
=
a22 m2
(6.20)

z1 = 0 , z2 =

H1
sin( pt + ) .
c2

98
(6.20), .
,
(6.14)
.
. , . . , .
6.3.

1. , (. 6.2), v . , h = h0 (1 cos

2 x
) ,
l0

.
: m = 1500 ,

J = 300 2 ,

c1 = 1,5 105 / ,

c2 = 2 105 / , l 0 = 5 , h0 = 0,1 , v = 50 / .

. 6.2

99
. y (.
1 5).

:

1 2 1 2 1 2
T = m y + J + mv ,
2
2
2
=

c1
c
( y + l1 h1 ) 2 + 2 ( y l 2 h2 ) 2 ,
2
2

h1 h2 .
, x = v t , L = l1 + l 2 ,

h1 = h0 (1 cos
h2 = h0 (1 cos

2 vt
),
l0

2 (vt + L)
).
l0

d T T

,
y
dt y y

d T T

=
,

dt

2
2
J + (c1l1 + c2 l 2 ) + (c1l1 c2 l 2 ) y = c1l1h1 c2 l 2 h2 .

m y + (c1 + c2 ) y + (c1l1 c2 l 2 ) = c1h1 + c2 h2 ,

h1 h2 (1),

(1)

100

y + a1 y + a2 = b1 + b2 cos

2 vt
2 vt
,
+ b3 sin
l0
l0

2 vt
2 vt
,
+ 1 + 2 y = 1 + 2 cos
+ 3 sin
l0
l0

(2)

a1 =

c1 + c2
,
m

a2 =

c1l c2 l
,
m

c1l12 + c2 l 22
c l c l
1 =
, 2 = 1 1 2 2 ,
J
J
b1 =

(c1 + c2 )h0
2 L h0
, b2 = (c1 + c2 cos
) ,
m
l0 m

b3 =

2 =

h
c2 h0
2 L
, 1 = 0 (c1l 1 c2 l 2 ) ,
sin
J
l0
m

h0
h
2 L
2 L
.
(c1l1 c2 l 2 cos
) , 3 = 0 c2 l 2 sin
J
J
l0
l0

(2), , (5.3) .
, , 1 5

= B1 sin(k1t + 1 ) + B 2 sin(k2t + 2 ),
y = 1 B1 sin(k1t + 1 ) + 2 B2 sin(k2t + 2 ).

(3)

(2),
,

2 vt
2 vt
+ D1 sin
,
l0
l 0

2 vt
2 vt

y = y0 + A cos
.
+ D sin

l0
l0

= 0 + A1 cos

(4)

101
y (2),
y0 , 0 , A , A1 , D , D1

b11 a2 1
a b
, 0 = 1 1 1 2 ,
a11 a2 2
a11 a2 2

2
2

(1 ) 2 b2 2
b2 (1 ) a2 2
,
,
A=
A
=

1
(a1 2 )(1 2 ) a2 2
(a1 2 )(1 2 ) a2 2

(1 2 ) 3 b3 2
b3 (1 2 ) a2 3
D=
, D1 =
,
2
2
2
2
(a1 )(1 ) a2 2
(a1 )(1 ) a2 2

2 v

=
.

l0
y0 =

(5)

(4)

= 0 + H1 sin(t + ),

6)

y = y0 + H sin(t + ),

H = A2 + D 2 , H1 = A12 + D12 , = arctg

A
.
D

y = H sin(t + ) , = H1 sin(t + ) ,

7)

H H1 .

H = 0, 06 , = 0, 07 .
2. (. 6.3)

p = p0 sin t ,
1. ,
m1 = 6 ,
m2 = 2 ,
R = 0,15 ;
c1 = 4 103 / ,
:

c2 = 1 103 / , P0 = 10 .

102
.
.
x1 x2
.

. 6.3

3
1
2
T = m 1 x1 + m2 x22 ,
4
2

1
1
= c1 ( x1 x2 ) 2 + c2 x22 .
2
2
T

d T T

Q1 ;
x1
dt x x1
1

d T T

Q2 ,
x2
dt x x2
2

a11 x1 + c11 x1 + c12 x2 = P0 sin t ;

a22 x2 + c21 x1 + c22 x2 = 0,

(1)

a11 =

3
m , a22 = m2 , c11 = c1 , c12 = c1 , c21 = c1 , c22 = c1 + c2 .
2

(1)

x1 = A sin pt , x2 = B sin pt .
(1),

(c11 a11 2 ) A + c12 B = P0 ,

c21 A + (c22 a22 2 ) B = 0.

(2)

103

P0 (c22 a22 2 )
;
A=
(c11 a11 2 )(c22 a22 2 ) c122

P0 c12
.
B=
2
2
2
(c11 a11 )(c22 a22 ) c12

(3)

(3) 2 ,
k12 k22 , (3)

P0 (c22 a22 2 )
,
A=
a11a22 ( 2 k12 )( 2 k22 )

P0 c12
.
B=
2
2
2
2
a11a22 ( k1 )( k2 )

(4)

(c11 a11k 2 )(c22 a22 k 2 ) c122 = 0 ,


k1 = 20, 45 c 1 ,

k2 = 50, 26 c 1 .

(4) A B (.6.4).
A B
:

0 < k1 , k1 < < k2 , k2 < < .


. 6.4 0 < k1 , A B , .
= k1 = 20, 45 c 1 A B .
k1 < < k2 A B ,
A , B 1,3 103 = 39 c 1 ,
.
.

104

. 6.4

105

c22
= 50 c 1
a22
. m2 =

.
= k2 = 50, 26 c 1 .
k2 < < A B . A ,
B , , , .
3. ,

,
(. 6.5).
J1 = 60 2 ,

M = 200 .

. 6.5
J 2 , .
: c1 = 1, 2 106 , c2 = 7, 0 105 ,

c3 = 2, 0 105 . .
.
1 2 .
:

1 2 1 2
T = J1 1 + J 2 2 ;

2
2

1 2 1
1
2
= c11 + c2 ( 2 1 ) + c3 22 .

2
2
2

=
+ Q1 ;

dt 1
1
1

(1)

106

+ Q2 ,

2
2 2
dt
2

a11 1 + c11 1 + c12 2 = H sin160 t ;

(2)

a21 2 + c21 1 + c22 22 = 0,

a11 = J1 ; c11 = c1 + c2 ; c12 = c1 ;


a22 = J 2 ; c22 = c2 + c3 ; c21 = c1 ;
Q1 = H sin160t ; Q2 = 0 H = 300 .
(2)

1 = A sin t ; 2 = B sin t ,

(3)

= 160c 1 .
1 2 (2),

(c

11

a11 2 ) A + c12 B = H ; c21 A + ( c22 a22 2 ) B = 0.

(4)

A=

H ( c22 a22 2 )

( c11 a11 2 )( c22 a22 2 ) c122

B=

Hc21
.
2
2
2
c

a
c

( 11 11 )( 22 22 ) 12

,
,

A = 0 , ..

c22 c2 + c3
=
= 2.
a22
J2

107

J2 =

c2 + c3

= 22,5 2 .

B=

H c21
H
=

= 4,3 104 .
2
c12
c12

c11a22 + c22 a11 2 c11c22 + c12 2


k
k +
= 0.
c11a22
c11a22
4

k1 = 128c 1 ; k2 = 235c 1.

1. .., .., .. .
.2. .: , 1979.
2. .., .. . .:
, 1975.
3. .. . .: ,
1986.
4. .., .. .
.: , 1973.
5. .. . .: ,
1971.

..
..
020827 29 1998 .
2002 ., 63. 29.11.2002.
. Times New Roman.
6084 1/16. . .
. . . 6,2. .-. . 5,0. 150. 141.

.
169300, . , . , . 13.
.
00578 25.05.2000 .
169300, . , . , . 13.