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33

650-
Cepren CYARK
BLCTYHAEHHE MOAABAH HPOTHB
OBTEHHEHHR C BAAAXHEH
(O com1nnx, nponsomemnx 3 anpenn 1866 r. n Rccax)
Hepno oennennx xnxxecrn Monannn n Banaxnn n ennoe rocy-
apcrno, x coxanennm, ne namen o cnx nop onxnoro orpaxennx n
ncropnorpa]nn. K +romy npemenn uacrt Monancxoro xnxxecrna
Fyxonnna - tna npncoennena x Ancrpnn (1774), a reppnropnx mexy
Hpyrom n necrpom, nonyunnmax nasnanne Feccapanx, nomna n co-
cran Poccncxo nmnepnn (1812).
Hapnxcxax xonnennnx, nonncannax Bennxopnranne, Ancrpne,
upannne, Poccne, Hpyccne, Typnne n Htemonrom 7 (19) anrycra
1858 r., npeycmarpnnana, uro Monannx n Banaxnx yyr nocnrt na-
snanne Oennennte xnxxecrna c Henrpantno saxonoarentno
xomnccne n uoxmanax n omnm Kaccannonntm cyom. B ro xe npemx
xaxoe xnxxecrno onxno tno nmert cnoero rocnoapx, cnon npann-
rentcrno, saxonoarentnoe copanne n apmnm [1. C. 100]. Knxxecrna
npoonxann ocranartcx no cmsepennrerom Orromancxo Hoprt.
Hsnparentnoe copanne Monannn 5 xnnapx 1859 r. nspano na npe-
cron nonxonnnxa Anexcanpy Hona Kysy, npnnanexanmero x pennemy
oxpcxomy poy. 24 xnnapx 1859 r. A. Kysa tn nspan n na npecron
Banaxnn. Cnoxnax mexynaponax ocranonxa n noepxxa co cropo-
nt Poccnn cnococrnonann npnsnannm Hapnxcxo xon]epennne no-
noro nspannx npn ycnonnn ero coxpanennx rontxo na nepno npannennx
A. Kyst. Onaxo 11 (23) ]enpanx 1866 r. A. Kysa tn cneprnyr c npe-
crona saronopmnxamn. B Fyxapecre tno cosano rax nastnaemoe na-
mecrnnuecrno xnxxecrna (locotenenta domneasc - perenrcxn coner),
xya nomnn H. Ionecxy (npecrannrent Mynrennn), H. Karapxny (nn-
epan, npecrannrent Monannn) n xomanymmn aprnnnepne nonxon-
nnx H. Xapanamne. Bpemennoe npannrentcrno nosrnannn H. Inxa, an-
nn npar A. Kyst. H. Inxa cosnan napnamenr, xoropt oxnnn xnxsem
rpa]a unnnnna unanpcxoro, nroporo ctna entrncxoro xoponx [2. C.
110]. Hocne orxasa unnnnna unanpcxoro or npecrona saronopmnxn
namnn nonym xannarypy, Kapna Iorennonnepna, xoropt cocroxn n
pocrne c nmneparopom Hanoneonom III. 10 (22) max Kapn Iorennon-
nepn cranonnrcx pymtncxnm xnxsem, n oxrxpe 1866 r. on nonyunn ]np-
man or Hoprt o ero npnsnannn n xauecrne xnxsx [1. C. 149-150].
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2009, N 2 (16)
Cotrnx, nponcxonnmne n Monannn nocne rocyapcrnennoro ne-
penopora, o cnx nop xnnxmrcx entm nxrnom ncropnn Pymtnnn n
Monannn. Pymtncxax ncropnorpa]nx (onoennax, nepnoa connanns-
ma n conpemennax) crapaercx oxonrt +ro nepno, nocnxmax, n nyu-
mem cnyuae, necxontxo crpox nonnennxm n cronnne Monancxoro xnx-
xecrna no pyxonocrnom oxp-cenaparncron no rnane c Hnxonae
Posnonany npornn rocnoapx-uyxesemna, noepxanntx mnrpononnrom
Kannnnxom Mnxnecxy, xoropte tnn xecroxo noannent [3. C. 526-
527]. Fonee pasnepnyro o monancxom cenaparncrcxom nnxennn nn-
mer pymtncxn ncropnx Hoann Hynam: H nce xe co cropont mona-
nan tno ncrpeueno cnntnoe npornnoecrnne, nacrontxo cnntnoe, uro
ntsnano n ccax xpononponnrnte cronxnonennx, n xoroptx tn panen
cam mnrpononnr Kannnnx Mnxnecxy. Perenrcxn coner tn oecnoxo-
en momntm npornnoecrnnem xnrene cc, n renepan Hnxonae Io-
necxy n Hacxap Karapxny yexann n cct c pemnmocrtm noannrt
nmym nontrxy cptna nnencnnra. Hexoropte ns monanan, onaxo,
ocmennnnct ntcrynnrt npornn nen nnocrpannoro npannrenx, oen-
nnnmnct noxpyr oxpnna Hnxonae Posnonany, no pyxonocrnom xoro-
poro tn cosan cenaparncrcxn xomnrer. C nomomtm ycepno npo-
narant neyxpornmte posnonannt cymenn npnnneut na cnom cropony
n mnrpononnra Kannnnxa Mnxnecxy. B nepnoe nocxpecente anpenx n
nepenonnennom nmtmn xa]epantnom coope mnrpononnn nocne co-
nepmennx oxecrnenno cnyxt on no neocropoxnocrn ntmen nnepe-
n pasrnenanno ronnt, nanpannxxct x nopny amnnncrpannn, re ror-
a pacnonaranoct npemennoe npannrentcrno. Hepe ntxoom no nope
mnrpononnn Teoop Fonyp H+necxy nponsnec nnamennym peut o npa-
nax Monont, npnstnax nme nocneonart sa mnrpononnrom Kannnn-
xom. 3arem onn ornpannnnct no snon xonoxonon, c ontmnm mymom.
Ho na nnoman nepe nopnom ronny ncrpernna xomana conar, xoro-
pte ne orcrynnnn n cropony axe nepe xpecrom mnrpononnra. Onn
conar cane pannn mnrpononnra. Hocne uero pasxpennax ronna,
nauan mntpxrt n conar xamnn, tna nmn orrecnena oparno xo nopy
mnrpononnn. Fecnopxxn npoonxannct o nyx uacon nononynn, npn-
an monancxo cronnne cxopnt nn; ncmy nnnennct cnet xpo-
nonponnrnx [4. C. 288-290].
Conercxne ncropnxn ncm ncropnm Monannn nocne 1812 r. nepenocn-
nn rontxo na Feccapanm, conepmenno ne xacaxct 3anpyrcxo Mono-
nt n Fyxonnnt, urot ne ntsnart rpenn c Pymtnne. Tax, n nepno
Hcropnn Monannn, ntmeme n 1951 r. no peaxnne unena-xop-
pecnonenra AH CCCP A.. Vantnona n npo]eccopa oxropa ncropn-
uecxnx nayx H.B. uepennnna, oennennm ynacxnx xnxxecrn no-
cnxmeno uyrt ontme crpannnt, nocne uero paccmarpnnaercx rontxo
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ncropnx Feccapann [5. C. 418-419]. B nocneymmnx paorax no ncro-
pnn Monannn (cranmnx nastnartcx Hcropne Monancxo CCP)
omax ncropnx Monannn (3anpyrcxo, Fyxonnnt n Feccapann) opt-
naercx c 1812 r. [6, 7].
Enncrnenntmn rpyamn, ntmemnmn no npemena CCCP, re, xort
xoporxo, nsnoxent cotrnx 1866 r. n ccax, xnnxmrcx paort
E.E. ueprana n B.. Ipocyna [1, 2]. E.E uepran, n uacrnocrn, yxastna-
er, uro 3(15) anpenx 1866 r. n ccax npncnannte ns Banaxnn npann-
rentcrnennte nocxa paccrpenxnn emoncrpannm croponnnxon camo-
croxrentnoro rocyapcrnennoro cymecrnonannx Monancxoro xnxxe-
crna [2. C.114]. Bmecre c B.. Ipocynom on, noxany, nepnt n coner-
cxo ncropnorpa]nn orxptro ntcxasan cnom rouxy spennx: Cenaparn-
crcxne renennnn n Monannn cymecrnonann, n +rom ner nnxaxoro co-
mnennx. Cronnna Monancxoro xnxxecrna cct snaunrentno nocrpa-
ana n pesyntrare oennennx, npenparnnact no nropocrenennt ro-
po. Hponrpann n xpynnte monancxne nomemnxn, nocxontxy onn ne
cmornn ycroxrt n xonxypennnn c nanamcxnmn. 3ro noponno cenaparn-
crcxne renennnn, ntnnnmnecx sarem n orxptrte ntcrynnennx [1.
C. 147-148].
Vuennxn ncropnn pymtn, yuenoro xypca, xoropt tn oxsarent-
no ncnnnnnno no ncex yuentx saneennxx Pecnynnxn Monona n
reuenne 17 ner, crapannct oxonrt
+ry remy. Xorx anropt Kparxoro
xypca nexnn no ncropnn pymtn yno-
mnnann, uro nonnrnuecxax nanpx-
xennocrt coxpanxnact nnnort o
1871 r., nastnax nepno npnunno
yrposy nosmoxnoro pasenennx xnx-
xecrn, yxastnax npn +rom, uro ne
tno enncrna mexy camnmn xnx-
xecrnamn Monono n Mynrenne
[8. C. 148].
Hs conpemenntx monancxnx nc-
cneonarene rontxo, noxany,
B. Crenanmx nocnxrnn annomy co-
trnm uyrt ontme crpannnt cno-
e monorpa]nn Iocyapcrnennocrt
monancxoro napoa, n ocnonnom
nponnrnponan pymtncxoro ncropnxa
H. Hynama [9. C. 132-131].
ymaercx, uro marepnant ena
no cexpe1nouy c1ony xannenn-
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2009, N 2 (16)
pnn eccapacxoro ryepna1opa "O nocnennx com1nnx n xnn-
aec1nax Monannn n Banaxnn, no cnyuam yanennn xnnsn Anex-
canpa Kysm. Hepenncxa eccapacxoro ryepna1opa c nonopoc-
cnncxnu renepan-ryepna1opou, c nncnex1opou Cxynnncxoro
xapan1nna, onecennn o o1nomennn nacenennn Coennennmx
xnnaec1n Monannn n Banaxnn x nnany osennennn nx no
+rnon Iorennonnepnon" na 54 nncrax, re npnnoxrcx cnnerent-
crna ouennnen, coomar nam nonte ]axrt o nocnennx nxx cyme-
crnonannx Monancxoro xnxxecrna. eno nauanoct 11 ]enpanx 1866 r.
Konunnoct 18 nmnx 1866 r. [10]. Taxxe nnrepec npecrannxer one-
cenne nncnex1opa npannennn Cxynnncxoro xapan1nna Becca-
pacxouy ryepna1opy "O o1nomennn napoa x Kapny Ioren-
nonnepny. Hepeno 1enerpaqnon enemn ns Byxapec1a o 1ou
ae" [11].
Tenerpauua ns Oeccm o1 nonopoccnncxoro n eccapacxoro
renepan-ryepna1opa H.E. Koney eccapacxouy noennouy ry-
epna1opy H.A An1ononnuy o1 11 qenpann 1866 r.: nonyunn
renerpammy or Ienepantnoro xoncyna n Fyxapecre, uro ncnecrnne nn-
xennx, n xoropom yuacrnonann nocxa, Kysa orxasancx or npecrona n
naxonrcx n nneny. Hponosrnamen npnnn nnocrpannoro xnxsx. Bpemen-
noe npannrentcrno ns rpex unenon yupexeno. Kpononponnrnx ne tno,
n cnoxocrnne marepnantnoe ne tno napymeno o nonynn cero uncna.
Koney [10. C. 1].
Hs xonnn onecennn poccnncxoro nunepa1opcxoro aren1a n
Hsuanne
1
o1 21 qenpann 1866 r. H. Pouanenxo: Tenerpamma, ns-
necrnnmax r. Hsmann o naennn xnxsx Kyst n nspannn rpa]a unanp-
cxoro npnnna Caxcen-Koypr-Iorcxoro no nmenem unnnnna I xnxsem
pymtn, tna nonyuena sect 11 ]enpanx n 8 uacon yrpa. B ror xe ent
nocxa npnneent x npncxre es manemnx sarpynenn, n cneymmee
sa rem uncno snamenarentnt ]axr nspannx nonoro xnxsx ornpasno-
nan monenom, a 13 ]enpanx na nepnocrt noancrna nonomy xnxsm
npncxrnynn rpaxancxne unnt ncex neomcrn sa ncxnmuennem npo]ec-
copon cemnnapnn n yunrene napontx mxon, orxasanmnxcx no npe-
norom nenonyuennx nenocpecrnenno na ro pacnopxxenn or cnoero mn-
1. B pesyntrare Bocrouno (Kptmcxo) nont (1853-1856 rr.) na mnpnom Ha-
pnxcxom xonrpecce n ]enpane 1856 r. mxnax uacrt Feccapann (Hsmanntcxn
yes) tna orroprnyra or Poccnn n nepeana naxoxmemycx no nnatuecrnom
Typnnn Monancxomy xnxxecrny. Ho Fepnnncxomy rpaxrary 1878 r. (npnnxromy
na Fepnnncxom mexynaponom xonrpecce (1 (13) nmnx - 1 (13) nmnx) 1878 r.,
cosnannomy nx nepecmorpa ycnonn Can-Cre]ancxoro mnpnoro oronopa 1878
r., sanepmnnmero pyccxo-rypenxym nony 1877-1878 rr.), mxnax Feccapanx es
entrt ynax tna nosnpamena Poccnn.
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nncrepcrna. K moneny tnn npnrnament nce mt, nnocrpannte aren-
rt, no ncnecrnne tnmero y menx na omy no +romy cnyuam npe-
napnrentnoro conera, xaxt ns nac orxasancx no pasntmn npenora-
mn, onn no nenmennm nncrpyxnn, pyrne no nesopontm.
Ho exrentnocrn npe]exra n nauantnnxa xnaprnpymmnx sect nocx
n npnnxrtm nmn mepam, ouennno: nacrpoennx ntnemnero npemennoro
ntcmero npannrentcrna xnonxrcx x ycrpanennm penonmnnn n ymnpor-
nopennm ncex n xaxoro. K uncny sacnyxnnammnx ontmoro nnnmannx
nonyuenntx sect ns Fyxapecra (oa.ee ovoem npu+eueuo coepe+eu-
uoe uanucauue - Bvxapecm - C.C.)enem cneyer ornecrn ony, ape-
conannym noenntm mnnncrpom xomannpy nocx, xacarentno copannx
ncex o]nnepon n nonoxnrentnoro osnannx or nnx roront nn onn na
camonoxeprnonannx, a noromy n cnyuae naonocrn x xomnannn, na uro
nce oxnnnn cnon narpnornuecxne uyncrna, cornaconanmnecx c sanpo-
com mnnncrpa cnom roronnocrt cpaxartcx c xem t ro nn tno, n
pyrym, ne menee nnrepecnym, apeconannym mnnncrpom nnyrpennnx
en npe]exry o nasnauennn n oromeme uacrn Feccapann +xcrpaop-
nnapntm xomnccapom Anexcanpa Manpoxoparo, ynonnomouennoro
rantmn nncrpyxnnxmn n oneuennoro neorpannuennom amnnncrpa-
rnnno nnacrtm. 3xcrpaopnnapnt xomnccap ecrt npxmo nepnt
opran nonoro mnnncrepcrna.
Hacrpoenne ymon n xnrenxx oromeme uacrn Feccapann noome
cnoxono. Hpn ncem rom nentsx ne samernrt n semnnx monananax n
nanaxax nexoroporo ecnoxocrna, neonepunnocrn n yntnnx, n pyccxom
+nemenre nocropr or naennx nenanncrnoro nm xnxsx Kyst n naexy
na uro-ro nyumee [10. C. 3-4].
Hs onecennn poccnncxoro xoncyna n Rccax, nanopnoro co-
ne1nnxa H. Aexca o1 14 qenpann 1866 r.: Tontxo uro nonyuent
tnn nepnte renerpammt ns Fyxapecra c nsnecrnem o naennn, nect
ropo npnmen n nonnenne, n n +rn nn ne tno, x ymam, nn onoro
uenonexa, neonontnoro cnepmnnmnmcx nepenoporom, xoneuno, xpome
unnonnnxon, xoropte rpannn esnaxasanno n npoonxennn cemn ner
xasny n napo Ha pyro ent c camoro pannero yrpa ornpannnnct no
nepxnxm cnyxnrt naroapcrnennte monent. yxonencrno c paoc-
rtm nocnemnno ncnonnnrt xenanne monanan, n n nexoroptx nepxnxx
camn enncxont orcnyxnnn mnororo poa monent B 11 uacon nce
nocxa, cocrannxmmne ccxn rapnnson, npncxrnynn na nepnocrt rpa]y
unanpcxomy. B uac orcnyxen tn n ccxom Ka]epantnom Coope
ropxecrnennt moneen no spanne nonoro xnxsx npn orpomnom cre-
uennn napoa.
Ho nsnecrnxm ns nponnnnnn, no ncex yesax Monannn paocrt nce-
omax.
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2009, N 2 (16)
Honxxn cnntno npnyntnn yxom, rax xax onn norepxnn rnannoro cno-
ero nporexropa, xpome roro, onn oxrcx pyccxoro sanxrnx, a noromy
nexoropte ns nnx naunnamr yxe ntnue xe conpartcx n Ancrpnm n
Typnnm.
.K cemy nmem uecrt npnconoxynnrt, uro ntop rpa]a unanpcxo-
ro Hanarom n Cenarom xnxsem Mono-Bnaxnn ne ecrt nacroxmee xe-
nanne monanan, xoropte nourn nce xorenn t pasennennx c Banaxn-
e, no onn ne ntcxastnamr +roro xnno, oxct trt nenocneonarent-
ntmn, rax xax onn ntpasnnn yxe n 1857 roy xenanne nmert nnocrpan-
noro npnnna xnxsem Mono-Bnaxnn, n, naxonen, mnorne noromy, uro onn
ynepent, uro noxponnrentcrnymmne epxant ne yrnepxr nnocrpan-
noro npnnna, n rora onn nocnemar oxnnrt xenanne cnoe nepnyrtcx x
rounomy cmtcny Hapnxcxo xon]epennnn, r.e. xon]eepannn, a nnxax
ne x ynnn c Banaxne no ynpannennem pymtna. Haxonen, cam ntop
rpa]a unanpcxoro ne ouent nonpannncx monananam, xoropte xorenn
t nyume nmert xnxsx npanocnannoro, no nonaramr, uro Bpemennoe
npannrentcrno npenoxnno n rocnoapn entrncxoro npnnna rontxo
noromy, urot oxasart Enpone, uro Fyxapecrcxoe nnxenne ecrt eno
nannonantnoe, a ne nponsneennoe no nnnxnnem xaxnx-nno noxponn-
rentcrnymmnx epxan [10. C. 11-12].
Hs onecennn H. Aexca o1 21 qenpann 1866 r.: Paocrt, ona-
pyxennax monananamn npn naennn Kyst, naunnaer mano-nomany nc-
uesart no nnnxnnem ecrnn nacroxmero Bpemennoro npannrentcrna,
xoropoe, cxontxo samerno, crpemnrcx no uro t ro ne crano coxpannrt
onpornnenmym sect ncem ynnm. Ho+romy monanane xpane nsnonno-
nant, naunnamr onapyxnnart cxptrym npornn nacroxmero npannrent-
crna onnosnnnm. uacrt semnnx oxp ymana tno na nxx npn coe-
crnnn nocxa, xoropoe yer na nx cropone, oxnnrt n ccax Bpemen-
noe npannrentcrno, nasnaunrt orentnym xamaxamnm (epe+euuoe ua-
+ecmuu:ecmeo oo eioopoe eocnooap - C.C.), urot raxnm opasom
conepmenno orennrtcx or nanaxon, no mecrnte nnacrn ysnann o +rom,
npnnxnn mept x coxpanennm nacroxmero nopxxa neme.
3acnm pyrax naprnx, cocroxmax ns monotx anoxaron, npo]ecco-
pon ynnnepcnrera n cryenron, pexmax nee pymtncxo nannonant-
nocrn, xenaer npoonxart ynnm, no nnxax ne c nnocrpanntm npnnnem,
n nnne onoro pymtncxoro rocnoapx.
Haxonen, nocnenxx naprnx, x xoropo npnmxnynn nmn onee nnn
menee connnte, ne ntcxastnaer xnno cnon xenannx sa ynnm n rontxo
oxnaer, uro pemnr xon]epennnx, yyun ynepena, uro noxponnrent-
crnymmne epxant nn n xoem cnyuae ne yrnepxr nnocrpannoro npnn-
na n npeocranxr nm nspart cnoero rocnoapx n Monannn. Haprnx
+ra, sameuax, uro ymt cnnmxom nsnonnonant, onrcx xaxnx-nno ec-
nopxxon, morymnx ntsnart n nacroxmee npemx nnocrpannoe noennoe
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sanxrne, xoropoe, no nx mnennm, eme onee pasopnr crpany, ncntran-
mym n nocnenne rot rono n nonantnt rpaex npannrentcrna Kyst.
Mne xaxercx onaxo xe, uro Monannx ne nsexnr ecnopxxon, no
n nacroxmee npemx ecnopxxn +rn ne nosyxamrcx nn onom naprn-
e, noromy uro nce c nerepnennem xyr pesyntraron xon]epennnn, xo-
ropax onxna pemnrt yuacrt mono-nanaxon. Ha cnyua, ecnn xon]e-
pennnx pemnr coxpannrt oennenne xnxxecrn c onnm pymtncxnm
rocnoapem, rora x nourn ynepen, uro semnee nacenenne ne npemn-
ner ntpasnrt cnoe neonontcrno nocpecrnom emoncrpann, xoropte
moryr ntsnart axe noennoe sanxrne [10 . C. 9-10].
Hs onecennn H. Aexca eccapacxouy ryepna1opy o1 3 an-
penn 1866 r.: Ceronx yrpom, no oxonuannn oenn, orpomnax ronna,
nmex no rnane mnrpononnra, ornpannnact ns Coopa no nopen c name-
pennem oxnnrt cex orxptro npornn coennennx xnxxecrn n rpeyx
pasennennx Monannn or Banaxnn. Kananepnx pocnnact na eso-
pyxnym ronny n nauana nrt nme nanamamn, npnuem mnrpononnr tn
panen ceptesno. Bnx, uro xananepnx ne n cnnax oonert maccy, Bpe-
mennoe npannrentcrno ornpannno npornn nnx nexory, xoropax crana ror-
uac xe crpenxrt no esopyxntm monananam. Hocne necxontxnx san-
non ronna nauana paserartcx, no ynrtx n panentx tno mnoro, cxontxo
nmenno, o cnx nop nensnecrno.
Tontxo uro mt ysnann o penonmnnn, mt, nnocrpannte xoncynt co-
pannct y crapmero ns nac npyccxoro xoncyna, no ne mornn roruac xe
cornct mexy coo na cuer ecrnn. Bnpouem, ncxope nocne roro x
nam npnexan nocnannnx or Bpemennoro npannrentcrna c nopyuennem
oxnnrt, uro cnoxocrnne n ropoe noccranonneno. Ho cnonam ero,
nepnte ntcrpent tnn cenant co cropont napoa, no +ro necnpane-
nnno, ecnn n tnn ntcrpent no nocxam, ro yxe nocne roro, xax onn
nauann crpenty.
Bpemennoe npannrentcrno xouer renept ntcrannrt emoncrpannm
cenaparncron xax nnxenne, nponsneennoe Poccne, ono ntcrannxer
n ocoennocrn nnepe xnxsx Koncranrnna Mopysn (e opueuua.e - Mv-
pvsu - C.C.) xax rnannoro exrenx, uro conepmenno necnpanennno, a
noromy ono nosnonxer cee apecrontnart ncex nnn, npeanntx nam, n
axe pyccxnx noanntx.
Hecxontxo uacon nocne roro yxe, xax nnxenne tno norymeno, x
an mo +xnnax xene onoro pyccxoro noannoro nx roro, urot or-
nesrn ee omo. Bosnpamaxct oparno, mo xyuep tn ocranonnen na-
namcxnm o]nnepom n crpamno nsnr, necmorpx na ro, uro on oxnnn,
uro on xyuep pyccxoro xoncyna, a moxer trt nmenno no+romy.
nocnan paromana x xamaxamam, npocx oxcnenn, no onn ox-
nnnn emy, uro no nocnenemy cnyuam yer nponsneeno cnecrnne,
40
2009, N 2 (16)
apecrannn ne nponsnoxrcx no ynnxam; nmecre c rem, onn oemann mne
oxastnart onxnoe ynaxenne apecronannomy mnrpononnry.
Tax xax x ynepen, uro mox enema ne yer nocnana ns cc, ro x
noxopneme npomy Bame npenocxonrentcrno yneomnrt nemenenno
no renerpa]y oo ncem, uro nponcxonr n Monannn, rr. mnnncrpa nno-
crpanntx en, renepan-atmranra Koney n nocnannnxa namero n Kon-
cranrnnonone [10. C. 13-14].
Hs panop1a nncnex1opa npannennn cxynnncxoro Hen1pantno-
ro xapan1nna A. Banana (? - qa+u.u uepasoop:uea - C.C.) o1 5
anpenn 1866 r.: Buepamnero nx n rpn uaca nononynn npntnn ns
cc es ncxxnx nnctmenntx nnon eccapacxn nomemnx xnxst Kon-
cranrnn Mopysn n monancxn oxpnn Ara nmnrpn Manonny. Onn
oxnnnn, uro nuepamnero uncna n 11 uacon yrpa n ccax no oxonuannn
orocnyxennx ramomnnm mnrpononnrom napo, copanmncx onee nyx
rtcxu uenonex, n no rnane nx mnrpononnr ornpannnnct tno x npntn-
mnm ns Fyxapecra unenam Bpemennoro npannrentcrna renepany Hnxo-
nam Ionecxo (Huro.ae Io.ecrv), Hacxapm Karapxn (Hacrop Kamap-
ruv) nx saxnnennx cnoero xenannx ornocnrentno ycrpocrna xnxxe-
crna, n uro na nyrn cneonannx tnn nacrnrnyrt nocxamn, xoropte
es ncxxo npnunnt nauann crpenxrt n ynnart napo; cnnn c pyx
mnrpononnra xpecr canem n pannnn ero nnxom. Knxst Mopysn nonyunn
raxxe caentnt yap n cnnny n sartnox. Taxoe nonoxenne en sacra-
nnno nx ntexart c nocnemnocrtm ns r. cc, oannxx npn +rom, uro
nepe ntesom onn ocrannnn ecnopxxn n camom pasrape: mnrpononn-
ra panentm n o rpexcor uenonex ynrtmn n panentmn.
O +rom xapanrnnnoe npannenne onrom nocrannxer onecrn Bame-
my npenocxonrentcrny n nocnecrnne cexpernoro npenncannx, an-
noro npemecrnennnxom Bamero npenocxonrentcrna xapanrnnnomy
nncnexropy or 8 anpenx 1860 r. sa N 98.
Ho cneennxm, nonyuenntm cero uncna n 10 uacon yrpa, ecnopxxn
n penonmnnx n ccax eme npoonxamrcx, renerpa]nte nnrn opyne-
nt, n ncxxoe renerpa]nuecxoe cnomenne cc c uyxnmn crpanamn npe-
pnano. Bcnecrnne +roro xapanrnnnoe npannenne npnsnano sa nyumee
ornpannrt nacroxmee onecenne x Bamemy npenocxonrentcrny c na-
pountm [10. C. 17-18].
Hs opamennn nun1pnn Manonn-arn (u+umpue Mauo.uv
aea) x eccapacxouy ryepna1opy (a1nponano 3(15) anpenn
1866 r., Cxynnnm, nepeno c uonancxoro): Ceronx 3(15) anpenx
1866 r. n nocxpecnt npasnnx cn. anocrona uomt napo ropoa cct
xnnncx n cnoxocrnnn n Ka]epantnym nepxont mnrpononnn, urot npn-
cyrcrnonart npn conepmennn cn. nnryprnn npeocnxmennemnm mnrpo-
nonnrom monancxnm. uacrt napoa croxna n nepxnn, a uacrt n nepxon-
no orpae n axe na ynnne. Bce c orxptrom rononom n es opyxnx,
41
650-
noromy uro xorenn no oxonuannn orocnyxennx ornpannrtcx no rnane c
mnrpononnrom x tnmemy xnxxecxomy nopny, urot ram cnonecno
ntpasnrt naponoe xenanne, conepmenno cornacnoe c Hapnxcxo xon-
nennne or 7(19) anrycra 1858 roa, na uro ncnpamnnanoct paspeme-
nne, ]opmantntm npomennem, y uyaa-namn, nennxoro nnsnpx Orro-
mancxo nmnepnn eme 11(23) ]enpanx nacroxmero roa, nocne yane-
nnx xnxsx Kyst, n o uem coomeno tno n rr. xoncynam.
K 12 uacam, no oxonuannn nnryprnn, napo c mnrpononnrom no rnane
n xpecrom n pyxe n c entmn nnarxamn, snaxom mnpa, a ne penonmnnn,
ornpannncx x nopny.
Ho npntrnn x nemy ncrpeuena tna monancxax nexora, cocran-
nennax ns nanaxon n raxnx xe xomannpon, xnnnmnxcx no pacnopxxe-
nnm Bpemennoro npannrentcrna. He opamax nnnmannx na naponoe
xenanne, ntpaxennoe n yxe Hapnxcxo xonnennnn, npornn npetna-
nnx n Monannn nanamcxo mnnnnnn, xomannpt cxomanonann nann,
n n +ro xe mrnonenne orxptncx pyxent oront no napoy, xax no coa-
xam, nomnn n eno mrtxn, rax uro na mecre ocranoct meprntmn ont-
moe xonnuecrno nennnonntx nme, n mnrpononnr nonyunn pany ca-
nem.
Kora napo pasexancx n yxace, nnx nanaenne nocxa, pyxenax
nanta rpemena, xonoxona nensnecrno nx uero snonnnn, npyr xnnnact
xananepnx, crana pynrt nanpano n naneno, nanox yxac, xaxo mor trt
npn rarapax n xntuapax.
Coporamct npn nocnomnnannn nxoro ecrnnx noopyxenntx nana-
xon n nacroxmero npannrentcrna, or mep, ynorpenenntx n +ror ent
npornn necuacrnoro napoa monancxoro. Honropxm, x coporamct npn
mtcnn, uro namepennx npannrentcrna n nocxa ero tnn noxasart nce
Enpone penonmnnonnt axr, axr esoxnx, axr ecnornsma, axr nap-
napcrna, axr ymnpornopennx nponnrnem xponn. 3rnm camtm cornacnrt
ncex x nspannm nnosemnoro npnnna, r.e. npnnna Kapna I Iorennonnep-
ncxoro, xoroporo nmx name npannrentcrno ntnnnyno na nepnt nnan n
nasnano xnxsem Monannn n Banaxnn, npornn xenannx napoa, npornn
mnponmnnoro pesyntrara, xaxoro oxnamr or Hapnxcxo xon]epen-
nnn, cosnanno cnemno n nnrepecax name crpant.
Taxnm opasom, nnx onacnoe nonoxenne, x ntnyxen tn cnacrnct
ns xccxoro ornx, cnacrn pontx n npncnyry, noromy uro ne naexncx
cnona ynnert cemecrna, n ntexan x cxynxncxo rpannne (nnxame-
my norpannunomy nynxry or cc), nepenntn na napome, n nny norpa-
nnuno crpaxn, urot ne npnnxnn menx sa eseprnpa, uemy Foxe co-
xpann, noromy uro x no nce cnoe xnsnn ne sanxrnan cex nepe ome-
crnom. ponncx n ntpoc n Monannn n nponcxoxy or monanan.
nnnmnct n Cxynxnt, x ynnen cex no cnm cropony Hpyra, n naro-
cnonenno crpane Feccapann Poccncxo nmnepnn. nepexpecrnncx,
42
2009, N 2 (16)
narocnonnn Iocnoa, uro cnac cnom xnsnt, n n ro xe npemx tn npn-
nxr nncnexropom xapanrnna, xoropt menx npnmrnn xax pono n n
mnpnoe npemx. a narocnonnr Iocnot +ry crpany n ncex napoon ee,
nmemmnx cuacrte trt noanntmn nennxo npanocnanno Hmnepnn.
Bame npenocxonrentcrno! onomy o xanxom nonoxennn en n c-
cax, sacrannnmnx menx nepern rpannny es nacnopra, npn npocte o
nomomn n nporexropcrne Poccncxo nmnepnn, noxya ycrponrcx yuacrt
moero oreuecrna na xon]epennnxx n ycranonnrcx npounoe npannenne,
xaxnm nac narocnonnr Hponnenne.
A noromy npomy mnnocrnnoro pacnopxxennx Bamero npenocxon-
rentcrna o cnaxennn menx xaxnm-nnyt nnom, c xoroptm x mor t
cnoono npoxnnart n +ro crpane. nmnrpn Manonn ara (Dimitrie
Manoliu aga) [10. C. 22-23 o.].
Hs onecennn nncnex1opa npannennn cxynnncxoro Hen1pant-
noro xapan1nna eccapacxouy ryepna1opy o1 16 anpenn
1866 r.: Ho noccranonnennn cnoxocrnnx n ccax ycnnenntmn mepa-
mn, npnnxrtmn co cropont Bpemennoro npannrentcrna, no nacroxmee
npemx nopxox ne napymen, no cnntnoe poxenne ymon no nce Mona-
nnn, paspaxnrentnoe nacrpoenne xnrene n ccax ne moryr cnyxnrt
pyuarentcrnom sa nenonropenne ecnopxxon n ontmnx pasmepax. Xn-
renn cc ne nepecramr ntcxastnart cnom nenanncrt x nanaxam. Onn
mcrxr nm cmeprtm sa cotrnx 3 anpenx, n ncnecrnne +roro, nepexo n
nounoe npemx, naxoxr ynrtmn croxnmnx na uacax conar nanamcxo
mnnnnnn. Kpome roro, orentnte emoncrpannn mcrnrene n mantx
pasmepax ne nepecramr. O cnnxnnn xnxxecrn no nnatuecrnom nnoc-
rpannoro npnnna monanane cntmart ne xorxr. oxasarentcrnom romy
cnyxnr npexnnxemt npn cem c nepenoom Fmnnerent, pasocnan-
nt noncemecrno n Monannn, npornnoecrnnx arenram Bpemennoro
npannrentcrna, conpammnm nonncn n nontsy coennennx.
Buepamnero uncna nonyunn ns cc cneymmne nsnecrnx: ronopxr,
uro xora omnn n Fyxapecre cnyxn o npomemem n ccax xpononponn-
rnn, ocrananmncx n Fyxapecre unen namecrnnuecrna nonxonnnx Xap-
namnn (Xapa.a+oue) oran npnxas ne npnsnanart ontme ero coune-
namn naxonnmnxcx n ccax Hnxonax Ionecxo n Hacxapn Karapxn.
Hocnenne no nonyuennm o +rom nsnecrnx nocnemnnn ntexart ns cc
neuepom 11 anpenx, no no npntrnn n Fyseo (Bvsov) no pacnopxxennm
ramomnero nauantcrna saepxant. Taxxe, uro n Fyxapecre nponsom-
no mexy naxonnmnmncx ram nanamcxnmn n monancxnmn nocxamn
cronxnonenne, xoropoe oparnnoct n xponanym crtuxy, npoonxanmy-
mcx noe cyrox (11 n 12 anpenx), n n xaxono npnnxnn yuacrne n mecr-
nte xnrenn (nocnennmn saxnauen yxapecrcxn apcenan), n uro n +rom
om nano ynrtmn n panentmn o 3000 uenonex. Hpnunny npnnnctna-
43
650-
mr pacnpxm, nos-
nnxmnm mexy npn-
nepxennamn non-
xonnnxa Xapnamnnx
n noennoro mnnn-
crpa Hoxa, nperen-
enron na sanxrne
mecra Bnaerent-
noro xnxsx n coen-
nenntx xnxxe-
crnax, n uro no-
cnecrnnem +roro
tno, uro yro t
nonxonnnx Xapnan-
nn n coyuacrnn c
peaxropom rasert
Pymtnyn Pocce-
rn oxnnnn n coennenntx xnxxecrnax ynpannenne pecnynnxancxoe.
Ho cneennxm ns Fyxapecra, rypenxne nocxa nauann yxe nepenpan-
nxrtcx n Banaxnm uepes yna n Kanra]an [10. C. 29-30 o.].
Anc1onxa, naxonmancn n ene (nepeno): Cooreuecrnennnxam
monananam, tnmnm xeprnam necuacrnoro nx 3 anpenx! Honoxn-
rect na Fora, n npoonxenne cornn ner samnmanmero nac or nparon
nnemnnx n rnpanon nnyrpennnx. Hponosrnamenne nnocrpannoro npnnna
npecrannxer nont samtcen Hoxorenenron (unent namecrnnuecrna),
npntnmnx n r. cct, urot ornem n meuom npornnoecrnonart xe-
nannm napoa, xenammero onoro rontxo npnmenennx Konnennnn
1858 r. , enncrnenno eme nx cnacennx namero.
Vepxnnarect or nponsnecennx (v:acmu) n nnencnnre. Hpnmene-
nne xonnennnn ecrt saxonnoe rpeonanne Monannn, xoroporo, acr For,
mt ocrnrnem uepes nocpennuecrno noxponnrentcrnymmnx epxan.
a spancrnyer cnoonax Monannx! [10. C. 31-31 o.].
Hs onecennn nncnex1opa npannennn cxynnncxoro Hen1pant-
noro xapan1nna eccapacxouy ryepna1opy o1 23 anpenn
1866 r.: Ho cneennxm, nonyuenntm ns cc, cnoxocrnne ram ne na-
pymeno, no paspaxenne xnrene npornn Bpemennoro npannrentcrna n
noome npornn nanaxon npoonxaercx c npexnem cnnom. Monanane
no-npexnemy npornnxrcx coennennm xnxxecrn. Btopt enyraron n
3axonoarentnoe copanne raxxe nyr esycnemno Hs 720 uenonex,
uncnxmnxcx no ropoy cct c npanom ronoca, rontxo 130 uenonex co-
rnacnnoct npnnxrt yuacrne n ntopax (n rom uncne 20 npo]eccopon, 20
cryenron n o 40 unnonnnxon). A ocrantnte 590 uenonex conepmenno
44
2009, N 2 (16)
orxasannct or +roro. K 25 anpenx oxnaercx npntrne n cct xomnc-
capon co cropont rapanrnpymmnx epxan nx nponeennx cnecrnnx
no nponcxonnmnm n ccax 3 anpenx cotrnxm.
Hpn cem nmem uecrt npeocrannrt Bamemy npenocxonrentcrny
+xsemnnxp mnernna (nmecre c nepenoom), ntxoxmero no npemenam
n ccax, n oxnnenne xccxoro npe]exra, onponeprammero pacnycxae-
mte no ropoy cnyxn [10. C. 38-39].
Anc1onxa (nepeno c uonancxoro): Harpnoram Monannn! For
sa namn npana x ocnooxennm nac or pacrna nanaxon. B nnocrpan-
nom xypnane ns Fepnnna nnmyr, uro xnxst Iorennonnepncxn, ysnan-
mn o yncrnax monanan, yunnenntx nanaxamn 3 (15) anpenx n c-
cax, ornpannncx na pyro ent x ero nennuecrny xoponm Hpyccxomy n
oxnnn, uro ne moxer npnnxrt rocnocrna na napoom, xoropt xax
Kann ynnaer cnonx parten. Knxst Iorennonnepncxn cnpamnnan nm-
neparopa Hanoneona, moxer nn on npnnxrt rpon Pymtnnn, na uro +ror
ornernn, uro ner, a Poccnx nonce orcrynaer or xoannnnn. Hoxorenenrt
nocnemno ntexann nuepa orcma n Fyxapecr n, nnno, ncnecrnne o-
no enemn ns xon]epennnn. B Fyxapecre ncntxnyna penonmnnx. Bana-
xn nommr mexy coo. Ionopxr, uro o]nnep Xapnamnn nponosrnacnn
cex xnxsem.
a spancrnyer Monannx, ennax n ocnooxennax or nra nanaxon
n ocranammaxcx cnoonom cornn ner! [10. C. 40-40 o.].
Hynnxannn (nepeno c uonancxoro): C nexoroporo npemenn
neopoxenarenn n nnrpnrant pacnpocrpanxmr pasnnunoro poa ne-
cnpanennnte cnyxn, yro t n Fyxapecre penonmnnx n uro npnnn
Kapn I oxnnn, uro ne npnnnmaer rpon Pymtnnn.
He yonnernopxxct rontxo +rom nnsxom pontm n n naexe nonno-
nart ymt rpaxan, nnrpnrant +rn neuaramr noonym noxt n manent-
xnx neryunx nncrxax.
Hnxenonncanmncx cunraer cnonm onrom n onponepxenne +rnx
cnyxon oxnnrt, uro n Fyxapecre rocnocrnyer conepmennoe cnoxo-
crnne n uro npnnn Kapn ne anan noonoro oxnnennx o nenpnnxrnn
yro t nm rpona Pymtnnn.
Bmecre c rem oxnnxm, uro x cymem orxptrt n noneprnyrt naxa-
sannm co nce crporocrtm saxonon xax +rnx nnrpnranon, rax n rnnor-
pa]mnxa, ocmennnammerocx trt opynem noontx nnsxnx neopo-
xenarene. Hpe]exr ccxoro yesa . Kosannn. cct. 14 anpenx
1866 r. [10. C. 41-41o.].
Hs onecennn nncnex1opa npannennn cxynnncxoro Hen1pant-
noro xapan1nna eccapacxouy ryepna1opy o1 10 uan 1866 r.:
Buepamnero uncna nonyunn ns cc cneymmne nsnecrnx: ncnecrnne
nonyuennoro ns Fyxapecra npnxasannx nce naxonnmnecx n ccax na-
namcxne nexornte nocxa (oxono 3 000) co nce aprnnepne (12 opyn)
45
650-
6 uncna cero max ntcrynnnn c nocnemnocrtm ns cc x Iananam (Iana-
ny). Ipannuept (noepauu:uuru) nonyunnn npnxasanne ocrannrt norpa-
nnunt nasop n npntrt n cct nx sanxrnx no ropoy rapnnsonno
cnyxt, no npntrnn xonx n cct ornpannrcx n Ianan n ncx naxoxma-
xcx n ccax xananepnx. Ipannuept ntcrynnnn ns copntx nynxron nx
cneonannx n cct 9 max. Kpome roro, n ncx perynxpnax mnnnnnx, sann-
manmax n pasntx ropoax Monannn rapnnsonnym cnyxy, ornpannnact
n Ianan. Hpnunny raxoro nocnemnoro cocpeorouennx mono-nnaxnc-
xnx nocx n Ianan npnnnctnamr nonyuenntm nsnecrnxm, uro n cxopom
npemenn n Ianan naunyr nepenpannxrtcx uepes yna copanmnecx na
npanom epery onoro rypenxne nocxa n uro pymtnt npenounramr
cnnom nocnpenxrcrnonart nepexoy rypenxo apmnn n xnxxecrna.
8 uncna cero mecxna ropo cct tn nn]opmnponan, ncnecrnne
nonyuenno ns Fyxapecra renerpammt, uro npnnn Kapn Iorennonnepn-
cxn npntnaer roro uncna n Typno-Cenepnn. Hpnnn Kapn no npntrnn
na pymtncxym reppnropnm nsan npoxnamannm x pymtncxomy napoy
c saxnnennem o npntrnn cnoem n crpany, cocrannxmmym c nacroxme-
ro npemenn nropoe ero oreuecrno, o narococroxnnn napoa xoe nnue-
ro ne nomanr [10. C. 47-48].
Hs onecennn nncnex1opa npannennn cxynnncxoro Hen1pant-
noro xapan1nna eccapacxouy ryepna1opy o1 14 uan 1866 r.:
Bcx mnnnnnx, naxonnmaxcx n ccax, oxonuarentno ntcrynnna ns cc.
Ipannuept, sacrynnnmne na ee mecro n ccax, nauann yxonrt ecxr-
xamn n Poccnm.
Bcnecrnne nonyuennoro no renerpa]y npnxasannx ns Fyxapecra, 11
cero max ocnooxent ns-no apecra mnrpononnr Mnxnecxo, Posnonan
n nce nnna, apecronannte nnocnecrnne cotrn, nponsomemnx n
ccax 3 anpenx. Mnrpononnra ntnec napo na pyxax ns +xnnaxa n nep-
xont c xpnxamn: a spancrnyer Monannx! Posnonana conponoxa-
nn or mecra apecra o xnaprnpt copanmnecx o 10000 uen. napoa, c
xpnxamn: a spancrnyer Monannx! ono coennenne! He xornm
nnocrpannoro npnnna! [11. C. 1-2].
Marepnant Hannonantnoro apxnna Pecnynnxn Monona eme pas
noxastnamr, uro nponecc oennennx xnxxecrn nponcxonn nectma
onesnenno, snaunrentnoe uncno xnrene 3anpyrcxo Monont ntcry-
nano sa coxpanenne Monancxoro xnxxecrna n npexpamenne ynnn c
Banaxne. Fyxapecrcxoe Bpemennoe npannrentcrno npnmennno noen-
nym cnny nx pasrona mnpno emoncrpannn n ccax 3 anpenx 1866 r.,
apecronano px axrnnntx anrnynnonncron. Ho, necmorpx na xecrxne
mept, cenaparncrcxoe nnxenne n Monone ne yracno.
B cnoem ntcrynnennn n Fyxapecre (1937) Haun1n 24 nnnapn 1859
roa npo]eccop H. Hopra rax xommenrnpyer nocnecrnnx xponanoro
46
2009, N 2 (16)
cronxnonennx n ccax: Ecnn omno o nponeccnn, xoropax, no pen-
nemy otuam, ntmna ns mnrpononnn c nnatxo no rnane, n o nacro-
xme noopyxenno nrnt c rem mynrxncxnm nonxom, xoropt npnme-
nnn opyxne n nponnn ocrarouno xponn, nce +ro tno cenano no py-
ro npnunne: +ro tno cenano ns-sa cmemennx Kysa Bot, xoropt
nx nonepxenno Monont tn ropocrtm n yremennem. 3ror neuant-
nt ent n ccax npecrannxer coo, raxnm opasom, naxasanne sa
]enpantcxym nout roro xe roa n xnnxercx nennxnm axrom myxecrna,
noromy uro naroapx napymennm npncxrn monancxnm o]nnepom, no-
nnrnxom Hacx+pom Karapxny, nonx ocmennncx samnmart axe opyxn-
em ena cnepmnnmeecx nannonantnoe oennenne, pncxyx norepxrt
cnmnarnn monanan. H, nocne ncero, uro morno ocrannrt n yme +ro
rparnuecxoe cotrne, no ornomennm x Fyxapecry, a ro n xo ncem mx-
ntm pymtnam, npoonxnnoct conpornnnenne Hserann esnrt n no-
nym cronnny, n ecnn t ram ne naxonncx ennt napnamenr, +rn noes-
xn tnn t eme pexe. Kyntrypnte nmn tnn c ne eme ne snaxomt.
Anrnnarnx, onaxo, tna ropaso cnntnee y xenmnn n cpen camtx
opasonanntx n naropontx nme. [4. C. 290].
HPHMEHAHHR
1. Ipocv. B.B., Uepmau E.E. Poccnx n ]opmnponanne pymtncxoro nesanncn-
moro rocyapcrna. M.: Hayxa, 1969. - 267 c.
2. Uepmau E.E. Bennxne epxant n ]opmnponanne pymtncxoro nesanncnmo-
ro rocyapcrna. Knmnnen: Brnnnna, 1980. - 283 c.
3. Istoria Romniei. Vol. IV. Bucuresti: Editura Academiei Republicii Populare
Romne, 1964. - 860 p.
4. Istoria unirii romnilor de I. Lupas. Bucuresti: Fundatia cultural regal
Principele Carol, 1938. - 408 p.
5. Hcropnx Monannn. T. 1. Or pennemnx npemen o Bennxo Oxrxptcxo
connanncrnuecxo penonmnnn. Ho pe. A.. Vantnona n H.B. uepennnna. Kn-
mnnen: Bxoana conernx+, 1951. - 654 c.
6. Hcropnx Monancxo CCP. T. 1. Knmnnen: Kaprx Mononenxcx+, 1965. - 814 c.
7. Hcropnx Monancxo CCP. Knmnnen: Brnnnna, 1984. - 552 c.
8. Oroe H.A., Lapoe H.M. Kparxn xypc nexnn no ncropnn pymtn. Knmn-
nen: Cartdidact, 1997. - 214 c.
9. Cmenaumr B. Iocyapcrnennocrt monancxoro napoa. Hcropnuecxne, no-
nnrnuecxne n npanonte acnexrt. Knmnnen, 2006. - 632 c.
10. HAPM. u. 2. On. 1. . 7877. - 54 n.
11. HAPM. u. 2. On. 1. . 7862. - 4 n.