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Homeostasis

By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:


2.77 understand that organisms are able to respond to

changes in their environment 2.78 understand that homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant internal environment and that body water content and body temperature are both examples of homeostasis 2.79 understand that a coordinated response requires a stimulus, a receptor and an effector 2.68 recall that the lungs, kidneys and skin are organs of excretion

Starter:
Make a brainstorm of some things which need to be maintained or controlled within the body.

CARBON DIOXIDE

UREA

How its formed Why it has to be removed Where its removed

How its formed Why it has to be removed Where its removed

Blood Sugar Water and Ion content need to be controlled Body temperature Carbon Dioxide
What organs are involved?

blood carbon dioxide constant controlled environment enzymes homeostasis glucose temperature urea water The internal of your body is kept relatively by a whole range of processes that together are known as . Waste products such as and have to be removed from your .. all the time. The . and ion concentration in your blood are constantly . and so is your blood .. level. Your body .. is kept within a narrow range so your . work effectively.

The Urinary System

By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:


2.69 understand how the kidney carries out its

roles of excretion and osmoregulation 2.70 describe the structure of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra
Kidney Structure and Function
Flash Version

How the Kidney Works

The Kidneys

By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:


2.72 describe ultrafiltration in the Bowmans capsule and

the composition of the glomerular filtrate 2.71 describe the structure of a nephron 2.74 understand that selective reabsorption of glucose occurs at the proximal convoluted tubule 2.73 understand that water is reabsorbed into the blood from the collecting duct 2.76 understand that urine contains water, urea and salts.

Starter:

Filtering the blood urea, glucose, mineral ions, amino acids and water diffuse from the blood and into the kidney tubules. 2. Large molecules such as proteins and red blood cells are too large and remain in the blood. 3. All the sugar is reabsorbed back into the blood by active transport 4. Mineral ions are selectively reabsorbed by active transport depending on the body needs 5. Water is selectively reabsorbed depending on the body needs 6. Excess ions, water and Urea are stored in the bladder and released as urine.
1.

Capillary pressure forces fluid from blood into the bowman's capsule. The Glomerular filtrate consists of water, ions and small molecules. The proteins and blood cells are too large and the selective process is known as Ultrafiltration. All glucose is reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubules

1. 2. 3. 4.

What is the function of the kidneys? (2) How do they carry out their job (3) What is contained in Urine and how is it created? (3) Explain how your kidney would maintain the water and mineral balance of your blood on:
a: A cool day when you stayed indoors and drank lots of tea. (2) b: A hot sports day when you ran three races and forgot your drinks bottle. (2)

Control of Water

By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

2.90 understand the source, role and effect of the hormone ADH in regulating the water content of the blood. 2.75 describe the role of ADH in regulating the water content of the blood
Starter:

Too Much Water

1) Hypothalamus detects too much water in blood.


2) Pituitary gland releases less ADH

5) Blood water level returns to normal

3) Kidneys reduce blood water level

4) So more water reaches bladder (urine more dilute)

Too little Water

1) Hypothalamus detects too little water in blood.


2) Pituitary gland releases ADH

5) Blood water level returns to normal

3) Kidneys maintain blood water level

4) So less water is lost in urine (urine more concentrated)

Internal Environment Normal

Change in Internal Environment

Detector Senses Change

Correcting Action

Internal Environment Returns to Normal

Control of Body Temperature

By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

2.89 describe the role of the skin in temperature regulation, with reference to sweating, vasoconstriction and vasodilation

Starter: