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Bellingham, Washington USA

Bellingham, Washington USA

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Advances in information optics and photonics / Ari T. Friberg and René Dändliker. p. cm. -- (Press monograph ; PM183) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-8194-7234-2 1. Optical communications. 2. Photonics. I. Friberg, Ari T., 1951- II. Dändliker, René. TK5103.59.A35 2008

621.382'7--dc22

Published by

2008022953

SPIE P.O. Box 10 Bellingham, Washington 98227-0010 USA Phone: +1 360 676 3290 Fax: +1 360 647 1445 Email: spie@spie.org Web: http://spie.org

Copyright © 2008 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means without written permission of the publisher.

The content of this book reflects the work and thought of the author(s). Every effort has been made to publish reliable and accurate information herein, but the publisher is not responsible for the validity of the information or for any outcomes resulting from reliance thereon.

Printed in the United States of America.

validity of the information or for any outcomes resulting from reliance thereon. Printed in the United

Contents

List of Contributors

ix

Preface

xv

ICO International Trends in Optics Series History

xix

I. Beam Optics

1. First-Order Optical Systems for Information Processing Tatiana Alieva

1

2. Applications of the Wigner Distribution to Partially Coherent Light Beams Martin J. Bastiaans

27

3. Characterization of Elliptic Dark Hollow Beams Julio C. Gutiérrez-Vega

57

4. Transfer of Information Using Helically Phased Modes Miles Padgett, Graham Gibson, and Johannes Courtial

77

II. Laser Photonics and Components

5. Microoptical Components for Information Optics and Photonics Christof Debaes, Heidi Ottevaere, and Hugo Thienpont

89

6. Intracavity Coherent Addition of Lasers Vardit Eckhouse, Amiel A. Ishaaya, Liran Shimshi, Nir Davidson, and Asher A. Friesem

117

7. Light Confinement in Photonic Crystal Microcavities Philippe Lalanne and Christophe Sauvan

137

v

vi

Contents

8.

Limits to Optical Components David A. B. Miller

153

III. Electromagnetic Coherence

9. An Overview of Coherence and Polarization Properties for Multicomponent Electromagnetic Waves Alfredo Luis

171

10. Intrinsic Degrees of Coherence for Electromagnetic Fields Philippe Réfrégier and Antoine Roueff

189

IV. Imaging, Microscopy, Holography, and Materials

11. Digital Computational Imaging Leonid Yaroslavsky

209

12. Superresolution Processing of the Response in Scanning Differential Heterodyne Microscopy Dmitry V. Baranov and Evgeny M. Zolotov

229

13. Fourier Holography Techniques for Artificial Intelligence Alexander V. Pavlov

251

14. Division of Recording Plane for Multiple Recording and Its Digital Reconstruction Based on Fourier Optics Guoguang Mu and Hongchen Zhai

271

15. Fundamentals and Advances in Holographic Materials for Optical Data Storage Maria L. Calvo and Pavel Cheben

285

16. Holographic Data Storage in Low-Shrinkage Doped Photopolymer

317

Shiuan Huei Lin, Matthias Gruber, Yi-Nan Hsiao, and Ken Y. Hsu

Contents

vii

V. Photonic Processing

17. Temporal Optical Processing Based on Talbot’s Effects Jürgen Jahns, Adolf W. Lohmann, and Hans Knuppertz

343

18. Spectral Line-by-Line Shaping Andrew M. Weiner, Chen-Bin Huang, Zhi Jiang, Daniel E. Leaird, and Jose Caraquitena

359

19. Optical Processing with Longitudinally Decomposed Ultrashort Optical Pulses Robert Saperstein and Yeshaiahu Fainman

381

20. Ultrafast Information Transmission by Quasi-Discrete Spectral Supercontinuum Mikhail A. Bakhtin, Victor G. Bespalov, Vitali N. Krylov, Yuri A. Shpolyanskiy, and Sergei A. Kozlov

405

VI. Quantum Information and Matter

21. Noise in Classical and Quantum Photon-Correlation Imaging Bahaa E. A. Saleh and Malvin Carl Teich

423

22. Spectral and Correlation Properties of Two-Photon Light Maria V. Chekhova

437

23. Entanglement-Based Quantum Communication Alexios Beveratos and Sébastien Tanzilli

457

24. Exploiting Optomechanical Interactions in Quantum Information Claudiu Genes, David Vitali, and Paolo Tombesi

489

25. Optimal Approximation of Non-Physical Maps via Maximum Likelihood Estimation Vladimír Bužek, Mário Ziman, and Martin Plesch

513

viii

Contents

27.

Strongly Correlated Quantum Phases of Ultracold Atoms in

Optical Lattices Immanuel Bloch

555

VII. Communications and Networks

28. The Intimate Integration of Photonics and Electronics Ashok V. Krishnamoorthy

581

29. Echelle and Arrayed Waveguide Gratings for WDM and Spectral Analysis Pavel Cheben, André Delâge, Siegfried Janz, and Dan-Xia Xu

599

30. Silicon Photonics—Recent Advances in Device Development Andrew P. Knights and J. K. Doylend

633

31. Toward Photonic Integrated Circuit All-Optical Signal Processing Base on Kerr Nonlinearities David J. Moss and Benjamin J. Eggleton

657

32. Ultrafast Photonic Processing Applied to Photonic Networks Hideyuki Sotobayashi

687

Index

713

List of Contributors

Tatiana Alieva Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain

Mikhail A. Bakhtin State University of Information Technologies, Russia

Dmitry V. Baranov General Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Martin J. Bastiaans Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, The Netherlands

Victor G. Bespalov State University of Information Technologies, Russia

Alexios Beveratos Alcatel de Marcoussis, France

Immanuel Bloch Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Germany

Vladimír Bužek Research Center for Quantum Information and QUNIVERSE, Slovakia

María L. Calvo Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain

Jose Caraquitena Purdue University, USA

ix

x

List of Contributors

Pavel Cheben National Research Council Canada

Pavel Cheben National Research Council Canada

Maria V. Chekhova M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia

J. Ignacio Cirac

Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Germany

Johannes Courtial University of Glasgow, Scotland

Nir Davidson Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel

Christof Debaes Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium

André Delâge National Research Council Canada

J. K. Doylend

McMaster University, Canada

Vardit Eckhouse Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel

Benjamin J. Eggleton University of Sydney, Australia

Yeshaiahu Fainman University of California San Diego, USA

Asher A. Friesem Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel

Claudiu Genes Università di Camerino, Italy

List of Contributors

xi

Graham Gibson University of Glasgow, Scotland

Matthias Gruber Fern Universität Hagen, Germany

Julio C. Gutiérrez-Vega Optics Center Tecnológico de Monterrey, México

Yi-Nan Hsiao National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan

Ken Y. Hsu National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan

Chen-Bin Huang Purdue University, USA

Amiel A. Ishaaya Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel

Jürgen Jahns FernUniversität Hagen, Germany

Siegfried Janz National Research Council Canada

Zhi Jiang Purdue University, USA

Andrew P. Knights McMaster University, Canada

Hans Knuppertz FernUniversität Hagen, Germany

Sergei A. Kozlov State University of Information Technologies, Russia

Ashok V. Krishnamoorthy Sun Microsystems, USA

xii

List of Contributors

Vitali N. Krylov State University of Information Technologies, Russia

Philippe Lalanne Université Paris-Sud, France

Daniel E. Leaird Purdue University, USA

Shiuan Huei Lin National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan

Adolf W Lohmann University of Erlangen, Germany

Alfredo Luis Universidad Complutense, Spain

David A. B. Miller Stanford University, USA

David J. Moss University of Sydney, Australia

Guoguang Mu Nankai University, China

Christine A. Muschik Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Germany

Heidi Ottevaere Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium

Miles Padgett University of Glasgow, Scotland

Alexander V. Pavlov St. Petersburg State University for Information Technologies, Russia

List of Contributors

xiii

Martin Plesch Research Center for Quantum Information and QUNIVERSE, Slovakia

Diego Porras Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Germany

Philippe Réfrégier Institut Fresnel, Aix-Marseille Université, France

Antoine Roueff Institut Fresnel, Aix-Marseille Université, France

Bahaa E. A. Saleh Boston University, USA

Robert Saperstein University of California San Diego, USA

Christophe Sauvan Université Paris-Sud, France

Liran Shimshi Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel

Yuri A. Shpolyanskiy State University of Information Technologies, Russia

Hideyuki Sotobayashi Aoyama Gakuin University and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan

Sébastien Tanzilli Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, France

Malvin Carl Teich Boston University, USA

Hugo Thienpont Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium

xiv

List of Contributors

Paolo Tombesi Università di Camerino, Italy

Inés de Vega Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Germany

David Vitali Università di Camerino, Italy

Andrew M. Weiner Purdue University, USA

Dan-Xia Xu National Research Council Canada

Leonid Yaroslavsky Tel Aviv University, Israel

Hongchen Zhai Nankai University, China

Mário Ziman Research Center for Quantum Information and QUNIVERSE, Slovakia

Evgeny M. Zolotov General Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Preface

This volume is the sixth in a series of books that the International Commission for Optics (ICO) edits for publication at the time of its triennial congresses. The earlier volumes have covered a broad scope of interests in optics at the time and have dealt with fundamental subjects, while the later editions have increasingly addressed advances in applied optics and photonics. The books previously published in the series are

International Trends in Optics, ed. J. W. Goodman, USA (Academic Press, 1991)

Current Trends in Optics, ed. J. C. Dainty, UK (Academic Press,

1994)

Trends in Optics – Research, Developments and Applications, ed. A. Consortini, Italy (Academic Press, 1996)

International Trends in Optics and Photonics, ed. T. Asakura, Japan (Springer, 1999)

International Trends in Applied Optics, ed. A. H. Guenther, USA (SPIE Press, 2002)

The complete history of the ICO Book series, including the Tables of Contents of the previous volumes, can be found on p. xix of this book. Besides highlighting the main developments of international optics and photonics, the aim of this book series is to promote the general awareness of the ICO and raise funds for its global activities, in particular the travelling lecturer program, which is aimed at enhancing optics in developing nations. Therefore all royalties will go to the ICO for that purpose. In today’s ‘age of light,’ optical information science and technology play a central role. The ICO has a long tradition in the subjects of information optics, dating back to the ICO topical meetings in Kyoto, Japan 1994 (Frontiers in Information Optics) and Tianjin, China 1998 (Optics for Information Infrastructure). The ICO has also been a permanent sponsor of the Optical Computing/Optics in Computing conferences, a series of meetings spanning well over a decade. In 2006, the ICO organized two key events on information optics: the ICO topical

xv

xvi

Preface

meeting on Optoinformatics / Information Photonics in St. Petersburg, Russia (Chairs A. V. Pavlov, M. L. Calvo, and J. Jahns) and the ICO/ICTP Winter College on Optics in Trieste, Italy, with title “Quantum and Classical Aspects of Information Optics” (Directors P. Tombesi, M. L. Calvo, and P. Knight). Additionally, the recent ICO Prizes – most notably those in 2003 (B. J. Eggleton), 2004 (A. V. Krishnamoorthy), 2005 (I. Bloch), and 2006 (H. Sotobayashi) – have dealt with various basic and applied aspects of optical information. Hence it was quite natural to take

advantage of these developments and focus the current volume of the ICO Book series on Advances in Information Optics and Photonics. The present volume VI differs from the previous ones in at least three respects: it concentrates on a specific, though extremely important, topic within the broad field of optics and photonics, it does not contain the words ‘International Trends’ explicitly in the title, and it is published as a paperback. We hope that with these changes the book will find its way as

a standard reading and reference material on the topic. The volume

consists of 32 invited contributions from scientists or research groups working throughout the world on optical information science, technology, and applications. Many of the authors have actively participated in the ICO conferences and other activities and all of them are internationally recognized leaders in their respective subjects.

Many new concepts in classical and quantum-entangled light, coherent interaction with matter, novel materials and processes have led to remarkable breakthroughs in information science and technology. While it

is difficult, and sometimes even dangerous, to group the contributions

under separate headings, we have divided the chapters of this book into 7 sections:

1. Beam Optics

2. Laser Photonics and Components

3. Electromagnetic Coherence

4. Imaging, Microscopy, Holography, and Materials

5. Photonic Processing

6. Quantum Information and Matter

7. Communications and Networks

The sections contain chapters that address optical information sciences

broadly in the linear, nonlinear, classical, and quantum regimes and describe the foundations, state-of-the-art devices and technologies, as well

as the diverse applications of information optics and photonics. It is hoped

that the reader will find chapters that are directly relevant to his/her own

Preface

xvii

work or otherwise will create interest in this fascinating, rapidly advancing, and highly potential subject. We would like to express our sincere appreciation to all of the authors who have devoted their time, effort, and expertise to write the superb and timely contributions for this volume. We would also like to thank the staff of SPIE Press, and especially Merry Schnell, Gwen Weerts, and Eric Pepper, for their professional work to produce this high-quality publication for the benefit of the global optics and photonics community.

Ari T. Friberg President, International Commission for Optics Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Espoo, Finland University of Joensuu, Finland

René Dändliker Past President, International Commission for Optics President of the Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland

ICO International Trends in Optics Series History

The first book in the series appeared in 1991 under the title “International Trends in Optics” in the Lasers and Optical Engineering series of Academic Press. The Editor was 1987–1990 ICO President, Prof. J.W. Goodman of Stanford University, USA. It includes the following chapters:

Integrated Optics, OEICs, or PICs? H. Kogelnik

Quantum Optoelectronics for Optical Processing, D.A.B. Miller

Optics

in

Telecommunications:

Beyond

Transmission,

P.W.E.

Smith

Microoptics, Kenichi Iga

Holographic Optical Elements for Use with Semiconductor Lasers, H.P. Herzig and R. Dändliker

Fibre-Optic Signal Processing, B. Culshaw, I. Andonovic

Optical Memories, Yoshito Tsunoda

How Can Photorefractives Be Used? H. Rajbenbach and J.-P. Huignard

Adaptice Interferometry: A New Area of Applications of Photorefractive Crystals, S.I. Stepanov

Water Wave Optics, J. J. Stamnes

About the Philosophies of Diffraction, A.W. Lohmann

The Essential Journals of Optics, J.N. Howard

Optics in China: Ancient and Modern Accomplishments, Z.-M. Zhang

Unusual Optics: Optical Interconnects as Learned from the Eyes of Nocturnal Insects, Crayfish, Shellfish, and Similar Creatures, P. Greguss

The Opposition Effect in Volume and Surface Scattering, J.C. Dainty

xix

ICO International Trends in Optics Series History

xx

Influence of Source Correlations on Spectra of Radiated Fields, E. Wolf

Quantum Statistics and Coherence of Nonlinear Optical Processes,

J. Peřina

One-Photon Light Pulses versus Attenuated Classical Light Pulses,

A. Aspect and P. Grangier

Optical Propagation through the Atmosphere, A. Consortini

Are the Fundamental Principles of Holography Sufficient for the Creation of New Types of 3-D Cinematography and Artificial Intelligence? Y. Denisyuk

Medical Applications of Holographic 3-D Display, J. Tsujiuchi

Moiré Fringes and Their Applications, O. Bryngdahl

Breaking the Boundaries of Optical System Design and Construction, C.H.F. Velzel

Interferometry: What’s New Since Michelson? P. Hariharan

Current Trends in Optical Testing, D. Malacara

Adaptive Optics, F. Merkle

Triple Correlations and Bispectra in High-Resolution Astronomical Imaging, G. Weigelt

Phase-Retrieval Imaging Problems, J.R. Fienup

Blind Deconvolution—Recovering the Seemingly Irrecoverable! R.H.T Bates and H. Jiang

Pattern Recognition, Similarity, Neural Nets, and Optics, H.H. Arsenault, Y. Sheng

Towards

Nonlinear

Optical

Processing,

T.

Szoplik

and

K.

Chalasinska-Macukow

New Aspects of Optics for Optical Computing, V. Morozov

Digital Optical Computing, S.D. Smith and E.W. Martin

Computing: A Joint Venture for Light and Electricity? P. Chavel

The second book in the series appeared under the title “Current Trends in Optics” in the Lasers and Optical Engineering series of Academic Press Limited, London, 1994 (ISBN 0-12-20720-4). The Editor is ICO Past President, Prof. J.C. Dainty of Imperial College, London. It includes the following chapters:

Atomic Optics, S.M. Tan and D.F. Walls

Single Atoms in Cavities and Traps, H. Walther

xxi

ICO International Trends in Optics Series History

Meet a Squeezed State and Interfere in Phase Space, D. Kr hmer,

E. Mayr, K. Vogel and W.P. Schleich

Can Light Be Localized? A. Lagendijk

Time-resolved Laser-induced Breakdown Spectrometry, G. Lupkovics, B. Nemet and L. Kozma

Fractal Optics, J. Uozumi and T. Asakura

On the Spatial Parametric Characterization of General Light Beams, R. Martinez-Herrero and P.M. Mejias

To See the Unseen: Vision in Scattering Media, E.P. Zege and I.L. Katsev

Backscattering

Through

Turbulence,

A.S.

Gurvich

and

A.N.

Bogaturov

Why is the Fresnel Transform So Little Known? F. Gori

Fourier Curios, A.W. Lohmann

The Future of Optical Correlators, D. Casasent

Spectral Hole Burning and Optical Information Processing, K.K. Rebane

Holographic Storage Revisited, G.T. Sincerbox

Colour Information in Optical Pattern Recognition, M.J. Yzuel and

J. Campos

The Optics of Confocal Microscopy, C.J.R. Sheppard

Diffraction Unlimited Optics, A. Lewis

Super-resolution in Microscopy, V.P. Tychinsky and C.H.F. Velzel

Fringe Analysis: Anything New? M. Kujawinska

Diagnosing the Aberrations of the Hubble Space Telescope, J.R. Fienup

Laser Beacon Adaptive Optics:Boom or Bust? R.Q. Fugate

The third book in the series appeared in August 1996 under the title Trends in Optics—Research, Developments and Applications, ISBN 0-12- 186030-2. Like its two predecessors, it was published by Academic Press. The Editor is ICO Past President, Prof. Anna Consortini of Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Italy. The Museo ed Istituto della Scienza in Florence deserves thanks for its permission to use the photography of one of its Galileo Galilei lenses as cover illustration. The book includes the following chapters:

A Short History of the Optics Group of the Willow Run Laboratories, E.N. Leith

Bio-speckles, Y. Aizu and T. Asakura

ICO International Trends in Optics Series History

xxii

Photon Migration and Imaging of Biological Tissues, G. Zaccanti and D. Contini

Direct Image Processing Using Artificial Retina Chips, E. Lange,

Y. Nitta and K. Kyuma

Principles and Development of Diffraction Tomography, E. Wolf

Diffractive Optics: From Promise to Fruition, J. Turunen and F. Wyrowski

Planar Diffractive Elements for Compact Optics, A.A. Friesem and

Y. Amitai

Resonant Light Scattering from Weakly Rough Metal Surfaces, K.A. O'Donnell

Femtosecond Time-and-Space-Domain Holography, A. Rebane

Holographic 3D disks Using Shift Multiplexing, D. Psaltis, G. Barbastathis and M. Levene

Dense Optical Interconnections for Silicon Electronics, D.A.B. Miller

Fan-in Loss for Electrical and Optical Interconnections, J.W. Goodman and J.C. Lain

Signal Processing and Storage Using Hybrid Electro-Optical Procedures, J. Shamir

Young’s Experiment in Signal Synthesis, J. Ojeda-Castaeda and A.W. Lohmann

Resolution Enhancement by Data Inversion Techniques, C. de Mol

Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry: An Aid in Cultural Heritage Protection, G. Schirripa Spagnolo

Numerical Simulation of Irradiance Fluctuations for Optical Waves Through Atmospheric Turbulence, S.M. Flatte

Optical Scintillation Methods of Measuring Atmospheric Surface Fluxes of Heat and Momentum, R.J. Hill

Coherent Doppler Lidar Measurements of Winds, R. Frehlich

Doing Coherent Optics with Soft X-Ray Sources, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle and A. l'Huillier

Axially Symmetric Multiple Mirror Optics for Soft X-Ray Projection Microlithography, S.S. Lee, C.S. Rim, Y.M. Cho, D.E. Kim and C.H. Nam

Olmec Mirrors: An Example of Archaeological American Mirrors, J.J. Lunazzi

Galileo Galilei: Research and Development of the Telescope, G. Molesini and V. Greco

xxiii

ICO International Trends in Optics Series History

GRIN Optics: Practical Elements, C. Gomez-Reino and J. Linares- Beiras

Photorefractive Fibers: Fabrication and Hologram Construction, F.T.S. Yu and S. Yin

Optical Morphogenesis: Dynamics of Patterns in Passive Optical Systems, F.T. Arecchi, S. Boccaletti, E. Pampaloni, P.L. Ramazza and S. Residori

High Sensitivity Molecular Spectroscopy with Diode Lasers, K. Ernst

Sub-micrometre Optical Metrology Using Laser Diodes and Polychromatic Light Sources, C. Gorecki and P. Sandoz

A Physical Method for Colour Photography, G.G. Mu, Z.L. Fang, F.L. Liu and H.C. Zhai

Multiwavelength Vertical Cavity Laser Arrays by Molecular Beam Epitaxy, C.J. Chang-Hasnain, W. Yeun, G.S. Li and L.E. Eng

Compact Blue-Green Laser Sources, W.J. Kozlovsy

The fourth book in the series appeared in August 1999 under the title International Trends in Optics and Photonics. It was editored by Prof. T. Asakura and published by Springer-Verlag as Volume 74 of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences. The book includes the following chapters:

Optical Twist, A.T. Friberg

Principles and Fundamentals of Near Field Optics, M. Nieto- Vesperinas

Spin-Orbit Interaction of a Photon: Theory and Experiment on the Mutual Influence of Polarization and Propagation, N.D. Kundikova and B.Ya. Zel'dovich

Atoms and Cavities: the Birth of a Schroedinger Cat of the Radiation Field, J.-M. Raimond and S. Haroche

Quantum Tomography of Wigner Functions from Incomplete Data, V. Buzek, JG. Drobny and H. Wiedemann

Some New Aspects on the Resolution in Gaussian Pupil Optics, S.S. Lee, M.H. Lee and Y.R. Song

Multichannel Photography with Digital Fourier Optics, G.-G. Mu, L. Lin and Z.-Q. Wang

Holographic Optics for Beamsplitting and Image Multiplication, A.L. Mikaelian, A.N. Palagushkin and S.A. Prokopenko

Image Restoration, Enhancement and Target Location with Local Adaptive Linear Filters, L. Yaroslavsky

ICO International Trends in Optics Series History

xxiv

Fuzzy Problem for Correlation Recognition in Optical Digital Image Processing, G. Cheng, G. Jin, M. Wu and Y. Yan

All-Optical Regeneration for Global-Distance Fiber-Optic Communications, E. Desurvire and O. Leclerc

Non Quantum Cryptography for Secure Optical Communications, J.P. Goedgebuer

Pulsed Laser Deposition: An Overview, I.N. Mihailescu and E. Gyorgy

Absolute Scale of Quadratic Nonlinear-Optical Susceptibilities, I. Shoji, T. Kondo and R. Ito

Femtosecond Fourier Optics: Shaping and Processing of Ultrashort, Optical Pulses, A.M. Weiner

Aperture Modulated Diffusers (AMDs), H.P. Herzig and P. Kipfer

Optical Properties of Quasi-Periodic Structures: Linear and Nonlinear Analysis, M. Bertolotti and C. Sibilia

Diffractive Optical Elements in Materials Inspection, R. Silvennoinen, K.-E. Peiponen and T. Asakura

Multiple-Wavelength Interferometry for Absolute Distance Measurement, R. Dandliker and Y. Salvade

Speckle Metrology—Some Newer Techniques and Applications, R.S. Sirohi

Limits of Optical Range Sensors and How to Exploit Them, G. Hausler, P. Ettl, M. Schenk, G. Bohn and I. Laszlo

Imaging Spectroscopy for the Non-Invasive Investigations of Paintings, A. Casini, F. Lotti and M. Picollo

Optical Coherence Tomography in Medicine, A.F. Fercher and C.K. Hitzenberger

The Spectral Optimization of Human Vision: Some Paradoxes, Errors and Resolutions, B.H. Soffer and D.K. Lynch

Optical Methods for Reproducing Sounds from Old Photograph Records, J. Uozumi and T. Asakura

The fifth book in the series appeared in August 2002 under the title International Trends in Applied Optics. It was edited by Past President of ICO, Arthur H. Guenther and published by SPIE. The book includes the following chapters:

Ultrashort-Pulse Laser-Matter Interaction and Fast Instabilities, M. N. Libenson

xxv

ICO International Trends in Optics Series History

Ultrafast Mode-locked Lasers for the Measurement of Laser Frequencies and as Optical Clockworks, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch

Ablation of Metals with Femtosecond Laser Pulses, S. I. Anisimov

Laser Microprocessing and Applications in Microelectronics and Electronics, Y. Feng Lu

There are No Fundamental Limits to Optical Lithography, S. R. J. Brueck

Prototyping

Laser-produced

Rapid

in

Manufacturing,

Y.

P.

Kathuria

Computer Numerically Controlled Optics Fabrication, H. Pollicove and D. Golini

Interference Coatings for the Ultraviolet Spectral Region, N. Kaiser

Standardization in Optics Characterization, D. Ristau

Advances in Thin Films, K. Lewis

Micro-Optics for Spectroscopy, R. Dändliker, H. P. Herzig, O. Manzardo, T. Scharf, and G. Boer

Defense Optics and Electro-Optics , G. J. Simonis, G. Wood, Z. G. Sztankay, A. Goldberg, and J. Pellegrino

Recent Progress in System and Component Technologies for Fiber Optic Communication, N. Shibata

Short-Distance Optical Interconnections with VCSELs, H. Thienpont and V. Baukens

Spontaneous Emission Manipulation, M. O. Scully, S. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy

Progress in Fiber Optics and Optical Telecommunication, A. K. Ghatak and B. P. Pal

Nano- and Atom Photonics, M. Ohtsu

Binary Image Decompositions for Nonlinear Optical Correlations, H.H. Arsenault and P. García-Martínez

Optical Pattern Recognition of Partially Occluded Images, K. Chałasińska-Macukow

Optical Sensing by Fiber and Integrated Optics Devices, G. C. Righini

Wave-optical Engineering, F. Wyrowski and J. Turunen

Neutron Optics, Neutron Waveguides, and Applications, M. L. Calvo and R. F. Alvarez-Estrada

Polarimetric Imaging, P. Réfrégier, F. Goudail, and P. Chavel

Atmospheric Compensation, R. Q. Fugate

ICO International Trends in Optics Series History

xxvi

Coherent Imaging Metrology in Life Sciences and Clinical Diagnostics, G. von Bally

Optical Data Storage, H. Coufal and G. W. Burr

Archaeological Optics, J. M. Enoch

Thirty Years of Laser Applications in Conservation, R. Salimbeni, Roberto Pini, and S. Siano

Chapter 1

First-Order Optical Systems for Information Processing

Tatiana Alieva

Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Canonical Integral Transforms: Definition and Classification

1.2.1 Definition

1.2.2 Generalized imaging transforms

1.2.3 Orthosymplectic canonical transforms

1.2.4 Canonical transforms for the case det B = 0

1.3 Main Properties of the Canonical Integral Transforms

1.3.1 Parseval theorem

1.3.2 Shift theorem

1.3.3 Convolution theorem

1.3.4 Scaling theorem

1.3.5 Coordinates multiplication and derivation theorems

1.4 Canonical Integral Transforms of Selected Functions

1.4.1 Plane wave, chirp, and Gaussian functions

1.4.2 Periodic functions

1.4.3 Eigenfunctions for the canonical integral transforms

1.5 Generalized Convolution for Analog Optical Information Processing

1.5.1 Analog optical information processing

1.5.2 Generalized convolution: Definition

1.5.3 Filtering in fractional Fourier domains

1.5.4 Pattern recognition

1.5.5 Localization of the generalized chirp signals

1.5.6 Security applications

1.6 Other Optical Computing Approaches via Orthosymplectic Transforms

2

Chapter 1

1.6.2 Orbital angular momentum manipulation

1.6.3 Geometric phase accumulation

References

1.1 Introduction

During the last decades, optics is playing an increasingly important role in acqui- sition, processing, transmission, and archiving of information. In order to underline the contribution of optics in the information acquisition process, let us mention such optical modalities as microscopy, tomography, speckle imaging, spectroscopy, metrology, velocimetry, particle manipulation, etc. Data transmission through optical fibers and optical data storage (CD, DVD, as well as current advances of holographic memories) make us everyday users of optical information technology. In the area of information processing, optics also has certain advantages with respect to electronic computing, thanks to its massive parallelism, operating with continuous data, possibility of direct penetration into the data acquisition process, implementation of fuzzy logic, etc. The basis of the analog coherent optical information processing is the ability of a thin convergent lens to perform the Fourier transform (FT). More than 40 years ago, Van der Lugt introduced an optical scheme for convolution/correlation operation, based on a cascade of two optical systems performing the Fourier transform with filter mask between them, initiating an era of Fourier optics. 1 This simple scheme realizes the most important shift-invariant operations in signal/image processing, such as filtering and pattern recognition. Nowadays, the Fourier optics area has been expanded with more sophisticated signal processing tools such as wavelets, bilinear distributions, fractional transformations, etc. Never- theless, the paraxial optical systems (also called first-order or Gaussian ones, which consist for example from several aligned lenses, or mirrors) remain the basic elements for analog optical information processing. In paraxial approximation of the scalar diffraction theory, a coherent light propagation through such a system is described by a canonical integral transform (CT). Thus starting from the complex field amplitude at the input plane of the system, we have its CT at the output plane. The two-dimensional CTs include, among others, such well-known transformations as image rotation, scaling, fractional Fourier 2 and Fresnel transforms. We can say that the CTs represent a two-dimensional signal in different phase space domains, where the phase space is defined by the position and momentum (spatial frequency) coordinates. The signal manipulation in different phase space domains opens new perspectives for information processing. Indeed, several useful applications of the first-order optical systems for information processing have been proposed in the past decade. In particular first-order optical systems performing fractional Fourier transform have been used for shift-variant filtering, noise reduction, chirp localization, encryption, etc. 25 Others have served as mode converters, which transform the

First-Order Optical Systems for Information Processing

3

Hermite Gaussian modes into helicoidal vortex LaguerreGaussian ones or other structurally stable modes. 6, 7 These modes, in particular, are interesting for new types of information encoding in orbital angular momentum of beam 8 or in the geometric phase accumulated when it undergoes the cyclic transformation. 9 Moreover the beam evolution in the first-order optical systems is a good model for the analysis of two-dimensional harmonic oscillator. 10 In this chapter, we briefly summarize the main properties of the two- dimensional CTs, 11 used for the description of the first-order systems, consider their applications to traditional analog optical signal processing tasks, such as filtering, pattern recognition, encryption, etc., and then discuss new methods of information encoding related to the orbital angular momentum transfer and geometric phase accumulation.

1.2 Canonical Integral Transforms: Definition and Classification

1.2.1 Definition

The evolution of the complex field amplitude f ( r ) during its propagation through a first-order optical system is described by the linear integral transform

f o ( r o ) =

−∞

f i ( r i ) K t (r i , r o ) d r i ,

where subindices i and o stand for input and output planes of the system. The kernel K t ( r i , r o ) is parametrized by the wavelength λ and the real symplectic ray transformation 4 × 4 matrix t that relates the position r i and direction q i of an incoming ray to the position r o and direction q o of the outgoing ray,

q

o

r o = a

c

d r i b

q

i = t

r

q

i

i

.

Proper normalization of the variables and the matrix parameters to some length

factor w and λ leads to the dimensionless variables: r = r / λw , q = q w/λ, A = a , B = b/w , C =cw , D = d, which will be used further in this chapter,

r

q

o = A

C

o

D B

i = T

r

q

i

i

r

q

i

,

(1.1)

where r = ( x, y ) t and q = ( q x , q y ) t . As usual, the superscript t denotes transpo- sition. The normalized variable q can also be interpreted as spatial frequency or ray momentum. The canonical integral transform associated with matrix T will be represented by the operator R T

f o ( r o ) = R T [f i ( r i )] ( r o ) = F T ( r o ) =

−∞

f i ( r i ) K T (r i , r o ) d r i .

(1.2)

4

Chapter 1

The CT is a linear transform: R T [f ( r i ) + g ( r i )] ( r ) = R T [f ( r i )] ( r ) + R T [g ( r i )] ( r ) . It is additive in the sense that R T 2 R T 1 = R T 2 × T 1 . The inverse transformation is parametrized by the matrix T 1 , which, because T is symplectic, is given by

(1.3)

C t

D t

T 1 =

B t

A t

.

Any proper normalized symplectic ray transformation matrix can be decom- posed in the modified Iwasawa form as 12

T = A

C

D = B

I

G

0 S

0

I

S

1

0

X

Y

Y X = T L T S T O ,

(1.4)

with I throughout denoting the identity matrix, in which the first matrix represents

a lens transform described by the symmetric matrix

G = ( CA t + DB t )( AA t + BB t ) 1 = G t .

(1.5)

The second matrix corresponds to a scaler described by the positive definite symmetric matrix

(1.6)

S = (AA t + BB t ) 1 / 2 = S t

and the third is an orthosymplectic 12, 13 (i.e., both orthogonal and symplectic) matrix, which can be shortly represented by the unitary matrix

U = X + i Y = (AA t + BB t ) 1 / 2 ( A + i B ) .

(1.7)

Note that because A = SX and B = SY , the products B 1 A = Y 1 X and A 1 B = X 1 Y used further in different relations are defined by the orthogonal matrix T O . Because the ray transformation matrix T is symplectic and therefore

AB t = BA t , CD t = DC t , AD t BC t = I ,

(1.8)

A t C = C t A , B t D = D t B , A t D C t B = I ,

it has only ten free parameters. We call the transform associated with T separable

if the block matrices A , B , C, and D and G , S, X, and Y correspondingly are diagonal. A separable transform has six degrees of freedom which reduce to three for rotational symmetric case corresponding to scalar block matrices.

In the often-used case det B = 0, the CT takes the form of Collins’ integral 14

f o ( r o ) = R T [ f i ( r i )] ( r o ) = (det i B ) 1 / 2

−∞

f i ( r i )

× exp i π r t B 1 Ar i 2 r t B 1 r o + r o t DB 1 r o d r i . (1.9)

i

i

The kernel corresponds to two-dimensional generalized chirp function because its phase is a polynomial of second degree of variables r i and r o . In particular

First-Order Optical Systems for Information Processing

5

for A = 0, the kernel as a function of r i has a form of plane wave. Thus for

A = D = 0 and B = C = I , we obtain apart from a constant phase factor

exp(i π / 2) the Fourier transform F [f ( r i )](r o )

F [f ( r i )](r o ) =

−∞

f ( r i ) exp(i 2 π r o t r i ) d r i ,

(1.10)

known in optics as an angular spectrum of the complex field amplitude f . Moreover from the analysis of the matrix Q = B 1 A = Y 1 X , it follows that the kernel as a function of r i corresponds to the elliptic, hyperbolic or parabolic waves if Q = 4Q 11 Q 22 ( Q 12 + Q 21 ) 2 is positive, negative, or 0, relatively. The well-known Fresnel transform that describes the evolution of the complex field amplitude during light propagation in an isotropic homogeneous medium

at distance z , which in this chapter is a normalized dimensionless variable, is

associated with matrix T F ( z ) : A = D = I , C = 0 , B =z I .

1.2.2 Generalized imaging transforms

The case B = 0 corresponds to the generalized imaging condition

f o ( r )=(| det A| ) 1 /2 exp i π r t CA 1 r f i ( A 1 r ) ,

(1.11)

which includes a possible scaling and rotation of the input function accompanied by an additional phase modulation. In the case C = B = 0 , we have a family of the imaging transforms without phase modulation, which includes image rotation, scaling, and shearing. The rotator transform, associated with T r (α ) : C r = B r = 0 and

A r = D r = X r =

sin α cos α ,

cos α

sin α

produces a clockwise rotation of f i in x y plane and, correspondingly, its FT (the angular spectrum) in q x q y plane at angle α

f o ( x, y ) =

f i ( x cos α y sin α , x sin α + y cos α ) .

A flexible optical scheme performing a rotation at angle α by only the appropriate

rotating of cylindrical lenses composing the setup has been recently proposed. 15 Alternatively, Dove prisms can be used for optical rotator realization. The separable scaling transform associated with the block matrices

A = D 1 = S s , C = B = 0, where

S s = s 0 x

0

s

y ,

6

Chapter 1

leads to f o ( x, y )=(|s x s y |) 1 /2 f i (x/s x , y/s y ). If we combine the separable scaling together with pre- and post-rotations, then the affine imaging transfor- mation is obtained. It is parametrized by the matrix T r (β) T S s ( s x , s y ) T r ( α ) with A ai = ( D ai t ) 1 , C ai = B ai = 0 , where

A ai

=

s x cos α sin β s y sin α cos β s x sin α sin β + s y cos α cos β

s x cos α cos β s y sin α sin β

s x sin α cos β + s y cos α sin β

= s xx s xy s

yx

s

yy

,

(1.12)

and leads to the following function transformation:

f o ( x, y )=( |s xx s yy s xy s yx |) 1 /2 f i

s yy x s xy y

,

s xx s yy s xy s yx

s xx y s yx x

yx .

s xx s yy s xy s

Note that for α = β the matrix A ai = A ai t is symmetric and reduces to the scaler defined in Eq. (1.4). The shearing operation in (x, y ) and, correspondingly, in (q x , q y ) planes, which is a particular case of the affine image transformer, is described by A ai with diagonal elements equal to 1 and one antidiagonal element equals to 0 . For

example, for β = α + π/ 2 , u = 2 cot 2α , and s x = s operation f o ( x, y ) = f i ( x uy, y ) , associated with the matrices

tan α , the skew

y

1

=

A sh =

1

0

u

1

,

D sh =

1

u

0

1

,

B sh = C sh = 0,

(1.13)

is performed. Note that the Fresnel and spherical lens transformations correspond to shearing in the ( x, q x ) and ( y, q y ) planes of the phase space. 17 The first of them does not belong to the imaging type transforms. The lens transform described by T L , Eq. (1.4), with the block matrix

G = g g xx

xy

g

g

xy

yy

(1.14)

produces the phase modulation of the input wavefront with polynomial of second degree

f o ( x, y ) = exp i π g xx x 2 + 2g xy xy + g yy y 2 f i ( x, y ) .

In practice, the generalized lens 16 corresponds to the combination of n aligned cylindrical lenses of power p j ( p j > 0 for convergent lens), which are attached one to another and counterclockwise rotated with respect to the transversal OX axis at angles φ j . Then g xx = =1 p j cos 2 φ j , g xy = =1 p j (sin 2φ j ) / 2 , and g yy = =1 p j sin 2 φ j . Depending on the angles and the focal distances of

n

j

n

j

n

j

First-Order Optical Systems for Information Processing

7

the cylindrical lenses, we obtain the elliptic (including spherical), hyperbolic, or parabolic phase modulations. Note that the generalized lens transform can be represented as a separable one embedded into direct, inverse rotators, which can be written in the matrix form

g y cos 2 α , g yy =

as

T L = T r ( α ) T L ( g x , g y ) T r ( α ) , where g xx = g x cos 2 α + g x sin 2 α + g y cos 2 α , and g xy = (g x g y ) cos α sin α .

s

1.2.3 Orthosymplectic canonical transforms

Because the rotator matrix T r ( α ) is orthogonal, then the rotator belongs not only to the imaging transform class but also to the orthosymplectic one (CTs associated with orthogonal ray transformation matrix). Thus, it can be expressed by the unitary

matrix (1.7) U r ( α )=

(1.15)

cos α sin α cos

sin α

α .

There are two other basic orthosymplectic CTs, which also have the rotational character: the separable fractional FT and the gyrator transform. The separable fractional FT [ray transformation matrix T f ( γ x , γ y ) ] is described by the unitary matrix

U f ( γ x , γ y )= exp(i γ x )

0

exp(i γ y ) ,

0

(1.16)

which corresponds to rotations in the (x, q x ) and ( y, q y ) planes through the angles γ x and γ y , respectively. The kernel of the fractional FT is a product of two similar

ones, K T f ( γ x , γ y ) ( r i , r o ) = K

f

x

(

x i , x o ) K

γ

f

y

(

y i , y o ) , with K

γ

γ

f

x

(

x i , x o ) given by

K

γ

f

x

(x i , x o )=( i sin γ x ) 1 /2 exp i π ( x

2

i

+ x o ) cos γ x 2 x o x i sin γ x

2

.

(1.17)

If γ x = γ y = ϕ , then the fractional FT is symmetric. For ϕ = 0, it corresponds to the identity transform K ( x i , x o ) = δ ( x i x o ) and, for ϕ = π/ 2 , to the common Fourier transform (1.10) apart from constant i . Two simple optical schemes performing the symmetric fractional FT have been proposed. 17 The first one consists of a thin spherical convergent lens of power p located at the equal distances z = 2p 1 sin 2 ( ϕ / 2) between the input and output planes. Then the output complex field amplitude is the symmetric fractional FT at angle ϕ of the input one. The second setup consists of two identical spherical convergent lenses of power p located at the input and output system plane with the distance z = 2p 1 sin 2 ( ϕ / 2) between them. Moreover, the propagation of the optical beam through the optical fiber with a quadratic refractive index profile also produces the symmetric fractional FT at angles defined by the propagation distance and the refractive index gradient. 18, 19 If γ x = γ y = γ , then we have the antisymmetric fractional FT. The combi- nation of the symmetric R T f (ϕ , ϕ ) and antisymmetric R T f ( γ, γ) fractional FTs

0

f

8

Chapter 1

defines the separable fractional FT R T f (γ x , γ y ) at angles γ x = ϕ + γ and γ y = ϕ γ . More information about the fractional FT can be found in Refs. 2, 3, 17–19 and references there in. The gyrator transform (GT), associated with T g ( ϑ ) , corresponds to twisting, i.e., rotations in the ( x, q y ) and (y, q x ) planes of phase space, and is described by unitary matrix

(1.18)

U g ( ϑ )=

cos ϑ i sin ϑ

i sin ϑ cos ϑ

.

The kernel of the GT has a form of the hyperbolic wave

K T g ( ϑ) (r i , r o ) =

|sin ϑ | exp i 2 π ( x o y o + x i y i ) cos ϑ (x i y o + x o y i )

1

sin ϑ

,

(1.19)

which reduces to δ ( r i r o ) for ϑ = 0, to δ ( r i + r o ) for ϑ = π , and to the twisted FT kernel exp [i 2 π ( x i y o + x o y i )] for ϑ = ±π / 2 . A detailed analysis of the GT can be found in Refs. 20–22. Based on the matrix formalism flexible optical setups, which perform the antisymmetric fractional FT R T f (γ, γ) , and the GT R T g ( ϑ) have been designed. 15, 21 These optical schemes contain three generalized lenses, L 1 , L 2 , and L 3 = L 1 , with fixed equal distances between them denoted by z . The trans- formation angle is changed by rotation of the cylindrical lenses which form the generalized lenses. In the case of the antisymmetric fractional FT setup every generalized lens L j

( j = 1, 2 ) consists from a convergent spherical lens with focal distance p

and convergent and divergent cylindrical lenses with focal distances ±z rotated at

= π/ 2 φ (j ) with respect to OX axis. The antisymmetric

angle φ

= z/j

j

1

(

j )

1

= φ ( j ) , φ

2

(

j )

fractional FT at angle ( γ , γ) is achieved if cos(2 φ (1) ) = cot( γ / 2) and 2 φ (2) = π/ 2 γ. It is easy to see from the last relation that this setup is able to perform the antisymmetric fractional FT for the angles [ π / 2 , 3 π / 2] that cover a π interval needed for the different applications.

In the case of the GT, every generalized lens L j ( j = 1, 2 ) is a combination of two convergent cylindrical lenses of equal focus distance z/j rotated at angle

φ

= φ ( j ) π /2 . The GT at angle ϑ is achieved if cos(2 φ (1) ) =

cot( ϑ /2) and sin(2φ (2) ) = (sin ϑ ) /2. We again observe that this setup is able to perform the GT for the angles from π interval [π / 2 , 3 π / 2] . It has been shown 23 that any orthosymplectic matrix can be decomposed in the form

T O = T r ( β ) T f ( γ x , γ y ) T r ( α ) .

(1.20)

(

j )

1

= φ ( j ) , φ

2

(

j )

It means that R T O is a separable fractional Fourier transformer R T f embedded between two rotators R T r . In particular for the gyrator matrix, we obtain T g ( ϑ ) = T r ( π / 4) T f ( ϑ , ϑ ) T r ( π /4). Therefore, based on the optical setups,

First-Order Optical Systems for Information Processing

9

performing the fractional FT and rotator a system for arbitrary orthosymplectic transformation can be constructed. Moreover, because the generalized lens transform and scaler from the decom- position (1.4) also can be presented as separable ones embedded into two rotators, any CT can be written in the form

T r ( α 4 ) T L s ( g x , g y ) T r ( α 3 ) T S s ( s x , s y ) T r ( α 2 ) T f ( γ x , γ y ) T r ( α 1 ) , (1.21)

T =

where we used the angle additivity of the rotator transform. The 10 parameters of

4 ) and 2 parameters

for three separable transforms: lens (g x , g y ) , scaler ( s x , s y ) , and fractional FT

( γ x , γ y ) . In general, the ray matrix decomposition into a cascade of the others is very useful for the analysis of a particular optical system. Thus, the Fresnel transform is a combination of the symmetric fractional FT at angle arctan z , scaling with

s = 1 + z 2 and spherical lens transform with g = z/ (1 + z 2 ) . On the other side, the Fresnel transform itself can be considered as a basic element for the system design, because the above-mentioned fractional Fourier and gyrator trans- formers are constructed as a cascade of lenses and homogeneous medium intervals, described by the Fresnel transform.

the CT are defined then as 4 rotation angles α j ( j = 1,

,

1.2.4 Canonical transforms for the case det B = 0

In order to deal with the singular case det B = 0 , but B = 0, we can use the Iwasawa decomposition (1.4), from which we note that B = SY . Because the scaling matrix S is nonsingular, a singularity of B is only due to the orthosym- plectic part described by T O . Moreover from the analysis of Eq. (1.20), we conclude that the separable fractional Fourier transformer is responsible for a singularity of the submatrix B . Thus, det B = 0 if for at least one coordinate the fractional Fourier transformer acts as an identity system, i.e., γ x = 0 and/or γ y = 0. Then, based on the modified Iwasawa decomposition (1.4) and Eq. (1.20), we can write a general representation of the CT, which is valid for any ray transfor- mation matrix, including a singular submatrix B 23

f o ( r o ) = R T [ f i ( r i )] ( r o ) = (det S) 1 / 2 exp(i π r o t Gr o )

×R