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1.

q1 q 2 (
):

1 q1q2 r
F =
,
4 0 r 2 r

r -, , 0 .
2.

F
E=
,
q

q , , F - ,
.
q:

E=

q r
.
4 0 r 2 r
1

3. - E :

q
E
.
dS =

divE =

( - ).
4.
:

Edl

=0 .

5.
2

1 2 = Edl .
1

E :

, Ey =
.
y
x

6. p = ql , l

E = grad ,

E x =

.
7. ,
r :

W =

q1 q 2
.
4 0 r

:
W =

qq
1
1
1
i k = i qi ,

2 i k 4 0 rik
2 i

i - qi ,
.
:
W =

1
dq ,
2

- , dq
.
8.
w=

0E2
.
2


1. E = 0 .
2. E =

), E .
3. .
.
4. ,
,
F
2
=
.
S
2 0

5.
W =

q
,
2

q - , - .

1. P .

: P

PdS

= q


q
- , .

:
divP =,

- .
2.

= Pn
( Pn - ).
3.


D = 0 E + P .

4. - D
:

DdS
q -
:

=q ,

divD =,

- .
5.

P = 0 E , D = 0 E , =1 + ,

- , - .

P D :
1
P=
D.

6. :
E1t = E 2 t - ;

D2 n D1n = - D ;

P2 n P1n = - P ,

-
( 1 2).
7.

0 E 2 ED
.
w=
=
2
2

1. C = , q , -
.
2. C =

q
, q , U
U

.
3. ,
:
1
1
= .
C
i Ci

4. ,

C = C i .
i

5. ,
:
C=

0 S
d

( S - , d - ).
6.
W =

CU 2
q2
=
.
2
2C


1. I =

dq
, dq ,
dt

dt .1
2. j =

dI
, dI - ,
dS

dS , .

3. l S : R =

l
,
S

- .
4.

t (): = 0 (1 + t ) ,

0 - 0 ,

- .

5. () :

j = = E ,

j = ( E + E ) ,

. 5.35.

E - , E - ,
=1 - .
6.

R12

R12 : IR12 = 1 2 ;

1 2 : I R12 = 1 2 ;

( );

= I ( R + r )

( r - , R - ).
7.

R = Ri ;
8.
1
1
= .
R
Ri

6. :

=0

(, , );

I R =
i

( ).
7. -:
, ,

dP
= j2 ;
dV

, R , P = I 2 R .

1.
= zen ( + + ) ,

n - ,
+ - , z 2.

- ,

2. : , ,
q , :
2

, z ,
. , H 2 SO4 2 H + + SO42

n = n , n + = 2n .
n + z + = n z nz = n + z + = n z .

m=

1 M

q = kq ,
F z

F = eN A ( N A - ), ( )
, z . k = M (Fz ) .
3.
j = BT 2 exp(

A
),
kT

, - ( ),
- , k .
4. :

j = qn ( + + ) E ,

q , n , + - .
5. , ,
n = n 2 ,

- , n .

1. --: ,

Idl ( j dV )

[ ]

0 j , r
0 I dl , r
, dB =
dV ,
dB =
4 r 3
4 r 3

r - -, .
2. q ,

v :
q[ v, r]
B= 0
.
4 r 3

3. B
S

B
dS = 0 .
S

4.

B
H =
.

5. B H ( )
L ( ):

B
dl = 0 I ,
L


H
dl = I ,
L

I - , .
6. , I , ,
R :
B=

0 I
(cos 1 cos 2 ) ,
4R

1 2 - Il -,
(. . 7.1).
7. :

dF = I dl , B ,


dF = j , B dV .

8.
dA = I d ,

=BdS
S

- B S , .

9. :


F = qE + q v , B .

10. :

p m = IS

( S I ).
11. , :


M = pm , B .

12. , :
Fx = p m

B x
x

( B ; p m ).
13.
B2
BH 0 H 2
wm =
=
=
.
2 0
2
2


1.

J ;

J =n p m , ,

.
2.

pm

Jdl

=I ,

I - , .
3.

B
H =
J .

4.

Hdl

=I

I - , .
5.

B = 0 H ,

J = H ,

=1 + ,

- , - .
6.

B1n = B2 n ,

7.

H 1t = H 2t ( ).

<0, <1;
>0, >1.

J (H ) ; >>1
.

1. :
i =

d
.
dt

2.
L=

,
I

, , I,
.
3. l N
L=

0 N 2 S
= 0 n 2V ,
l

= N ( ), n
, V .
4.
W =

LI 2
.
2

5.

0 H 2
B2
w=
=
.
2 0
2


1. :
I =

1
T

I dt ,

U =

1
U dt .
T 0

2. ()
2

Ie =

1
I 2 dt ,
T 0

1
U 2 dt ;
T 0

Ue =


Im

Ie =

Um

Ue =

I m U m - () .
3. :
Ie =

Ue
,
Z

Im =

Um
,
Z

Z - () .
4. :
X L = L ,

XC =

1
.
C

5.
Z =

R 2 + ( X L X C )2

6. , ,
P = U e I e cos ,

- ( ).

2
1. LC - : q + 0 q = 0 , 0 =

1
LC

- ; T0 = 2 LC .
2
2. LCR - : q + 2 q + 0 q = 0 ,

= R 2 L - . :

q = q m e t cos(t + ) ,

= 0 2 2 - ; q m
. , < 0 .

t
3. a (t ) = q m e .

4.
= ln

a (t )
= T ,
a (t + T )

; ( << 0 ) = R
5.

Q =

C
.
L

; Q =

1
R

L
.
C


1. :


B
Edl = t dS ,


D
Hdl = j + t dS ,

DdS

BdS

=dV

=0 ,

- , j - .
2. :

B
divD =,
rotE =
,
t

rotH = j +
, divB =0 .
t

D
3. j =
; j = j + j .
t

4. :

EB = inv ,

E 2 c 2 B 2 = inv

5.
v=

c = - .
0 0

6.
w=

0 E 2 0 H 2
,
+
2
2

.
7. :
E
=
H

Z0 =

0 0 = 377

= Z0
,
0

:
E = vB ( E = cB ).

8. , ,
: U = ZI ,
Z=

L1
- ( L1 C1 -
C1

).
9. ( -)


I = E, H .

10. I ( )
. w
1
2

2
E m : I = w v = v 0E m . I =

1 Em
.
2 Z0