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4G Mobile Communications

Submitted By: Pawan Kr. Mishra B.Tech E.C 4th Year


First Generation (1G) Mobile System:
The introduction of cellular systems in the late 1970s and early 1980s represented a quantum leap in mobile communication.

These 1G cellular systems still transmit only analog voice information.

First Generation (1G) Mobile System were designed to offer a single service, i.e., speech

1G systems are Advanced Mobile Phone System

(AMPS), Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT), and Total Access Communication System (TACS).

It is Based on Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) technology.

Analog cellular System

Second Generation(2G) mobile system

2G digital cellular systems were first developed at the end of the 1980s. The second generation of mobile networks with the first generation of cellular telephones by switching from analogue to digital. it is possible to transmit voice and low volume digital data.

It is Based on Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) technology.
2G cellular systems include Global system for mobile communication (GSM) , Digital AMPS ,(D-AMPS), Personal Digital Communication (PDC), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology.

Third Generation(3G) Mobile System

3G mobile systems were first developed at the end of the 1990s. 3G mobile system are expected to offer high-quality multi-media services and operate in different environments. 3G systems promise faster communications services, including voice, fax and Internet, anytime and anywhere with seamless global roaming.

3G systems are referred to as Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) in Europe and International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT2000) worldwide.

UMTS Main Requirements:

Multi-media Multi-environment Multi-operator

Virtual operators

Limitation Of 3G
Difficulty of CDMA to provide higher data rates.

Need for continuously increasing data rate and bandwidth to meet the multimedia requirements.
Limitation of spectrum and its allocation. Inability to roam between different services.

To provide a seamless transport end-to-end mechanism.

To introduce a better system with reduces.

Introduction of 4G

Up to 2010 growth of mobile subscribers will be more than 50% Need of higher capacity of networks. 4G- Fourth generation of mobile and wireless communications Generation to move beyond the problems of 3G Driven by services that offer better quality (Voice n Data) Convergence of networks The high speed of broadband service All IP based networks

Comparison of 4G with 3G
Characteristics Major Requirement Driving Architecture Network Architecture Speeds Frequency Band Bandwidth Switching Design Basis Access Technologies Forward Error Correction Component Design IP 3G (including 2.5G, sub3G)
Predominantly voice driven - data was always add on

4G Converged data and voice over IP Hybrid - Integration of Wireless LAN (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth) and wide area 20 to 100 Mbps in mobile mode Higher frequency bands (2-8 GHz) 100 MHz (or more) All digital with packetized voice OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi Carrier CDMA) Concatenated coding scheme Smarter Antennas, software multiband and wideband radios All IP (IP6.0)

Wide area cell-based 384 Kbps to 2 Mbps Dependent on country or continent (1800-2400 MHz) 5-20 MHz Circuit and Packet W-CDMA, 1xRTT, Edge Convolutional rate 1/2, 1/3 Optimized antenna design, multiband adapters A number of air link protocols, including IP 5.0

4G Network Hierarchies

The Goal of 4G

Interactive Multimedia, Voice, Video Streaming High Speed Global Internet Access 100Mbps (moving), 1Gbps (stationary). Service Portability with Scalable Mobile Services High Capacity, Low Cost Services Improved Information Security QoS Enhancements Flexibility and Personalized Services Seamless Network of Multiple Protocols - 4G must be all-IP.

Key 4G Technologies
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Software Defined Radio (SDR)

Potential Applications of 4G
Virtual Presence Telemedicine Virtual Navigation Education Tele - Geoprocessing Applications Crisis-Management Applications

Recent Trends in Industry

NTT DoCoMo- Japan researches. Sintel-Intels M-WiMax as 4g Chinas leap forwards 4g Samsungs experiments for 4g


4G Technologies are expected to provide higher data rates. They are expected to give higher security, better services with low cost. Since no standard is fixed there is plenty of room left for research on issues like interoperability, automatic network selection etc We hope that 4G visions may come true by 2010-2011