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# Harmonic Response Analysis

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## Harmonic Response Analysis Introduction

In a structural system, any sustained cyclic load will produce a sustained cyclic or harmonic response. Harmonic analysis results are used to determine the steady-state response of a linear structure to loads that vary sinusoidally (harmonically) with time, thus enabling you to verify whether or not your designs will successfully overcome resonance, fatigue, and other harmful effects of forced vibrations. This analysis technique calculates only the steady-state, forced vibrations of a structure. The transient vibrations, which occur at the beginning of the excitation, are not accounted for in a harmonic response analysis. In this analysis all loads as well as the structures response vary sinusoidally at the same frequency. A typical harmonic analysis will calculate the response of the structure to cyclic loads over a frequency range (a sine sweep) and obtain a graph of some response quantity (usually displacements) versus frequency. Peak responses are then identified from graphs of response vs. frequency and stresses are then reviewed at those peak frequencies. Back To Top
Points to Remember

Harmonic response analysis is a linear analysis. Some nonlinearities, such as plasticity will be ignored, even if they are defined. All loads and displacements vary sinusoidally at the same known frequency (although not necessarily in phase). Back To Top
Preparing the Analysis

Attach Geometry Basic general information about this topic ... for this analysis type: There are no specific considerations for a harmonic response analysis. Define Part Behavior Basic general information about this topic ... for this analysis type: Both Youngs modulus (or stiffness in some form) and density (or mass in some form) must be defined. Material properties must be linear but can be isotropic or orthotropic, and constant or temperaturedependent. Nonlinear properties, if any, are ignored. Define Connections Basic general information about this topic ... for this analysis type: Any nonlinear contact such as Frictional contact retains the initial status throughout the harmonic response analysis. The stiffness contribution from the contact is based on the initial status and never changes.

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## Harmonic Response Analysis

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Joints are not allowed in a harmonic response analysis. The stiffness as well as damping of springs is taken into account in a Full method of harmonic response analysis. In a Mode Superposition harmonic response analysis, the damping from springs is ignored. Apply Mesh Controls/Preview Mesh Basic general information about this topic ... for this analysis type: There are no specific considerations for harmonic response analysis. Define Analysis Type Basic general information about this topic ... for this analysis type: Choose Harmonic Response as the New Analysis type. Establish Analysis Settings Basic general information about this topic ... for this analysis type: For a harmonic response analysis the basic controls are: Options - Here you specify the frequency range and the number of solution points at which the harmonic analysis will be carried out as well as the solution method to use and the relevant controls. Two solution methods are available to perform harmonic response analysis: the Mode Superposition method and the Direct Integration (full) method. Mode Superposition method: In this method a modal analysis is first performed to compute the natural frequencies and mode shapes. Then the mode superposition solution is carried out where these mode shapes are combined to arrive at a solution. This is the default method, and generally provides results faster than the Full method. The Mode Superposition method cannot be used if you need to apply imposed (nonzero) displacements. This method also allows solutions to be clustered about the structure's natural frequencies. This results in a smoother, more accurate tracing of the response curve. The default method of equally spaced frequency points can result in missing the peak values. Without Cluster Option:

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## With Cluster Option:

A Store Results At All Frequencies option is also available to request that only minimal data be retained to supply just the harmonic results requested at the time of solution.
Note

With this option set to No, the addition of new frequency or phase responses to a solved environment will require a new solution. The addition of new contour results does not share this requirement; data from the closest available frequency will be displayed (the reported frequency is noted on each result). However, data at an even closer frequency may be obtained with a new solution as needed. Note that the values of frequency and type of contour results (displacement, stress or strain) at the moment of the solve determine the contents of the result file and the subsequent availability of data. Forethought on these choices can significantly reduce the need to re-solve an analysis. Full method: Calculates all displacements and stresses in a single pass. Its chief disadvantages are: It is more expensive in CPU time than the Mode Superposition method. It does not allow clustered results, but rather requires the results to be evenly spaced within the specified frequency range. What happens if I apply base motion? Is this using large mass method? Will I get good results? Damping Controls allow you to specify damping for the structure in the harmonic response analysis. Alpha and Beta damping as well as constant damping ratio are available for a harmonic response analysis. In addition material dependent damping can also be applied using the Engineering Data module. Constant Damping Ratio: The simplest way of specifying damping in the structure, this value is a constant damping ratio.

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## Harmonic Response Analysis

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Beta Damping: Defines a stiffness matrix multiplier for damping. Beta Damping is the option for Direct Input or Damping versus Frequency. For Direct Input, enter a Beta Damping value. For Damping versus Frequency, you can enter both a Frequency value and a Beta Damping value. Material Damping: Two types of material based damping, Material Dependent Damping and Constant Material Damping Coefficient are available for use with harmonic analyses. These are defined as material properties in Engineering Data module. Element Damping: You can also apply damping through spring-damper elements. The damping from these elements is used only in a Full method harmonic analysis.
Note

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## Harmonic Response Analysis

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Details View entry for each load. You can specify the preferred unit for phase angle (in fact all angular inputs) to be degrees or radians using the Units toolbar. Thermal Condition is not supported. Any type of linear Support can be used in harmonic response analyses. The Compression Only support is nonlinear but will behave linearly in harmonic response analyses similar to a Frictionless Support, so it should not be utilized in order to avoid confusion. Pressure loads (including Line Pressure loads ) and Force loads can be applied, with magnitude and phase angle input.

Remote Force, Moment, and Acceleration loads may be defined, although these loads are assumed to act at a phase angle of zero. The Bearing Load, as shown below, acts on one side of the cylinder.

In harmonic response analyses, you may expect that the other side of the cylinder is loaded in reverse, but the applied load simply reverses sign (goes in tension). Therefore the use of Bearing Loads is not recommended.

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## Harmonic Response Analysis

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Graphs can be either Frequency Response graphs that display how the response varies with frequency or Phase Response plots that show how much a response lags behind the applied loads. Results displayed on a graph can be scoped to specific geometric entity (vertex, face, or edge) and can be viewed as a value graphed along a specified frequency range. These include the frequency or phase results for stress, elastic strain, deformation, or acceleration (frequency only) plotted as a graph. The plot will include all the frequency points at which a solution was obtained. When you generate frequency response results, the default plot (Bode) shows the amplitude. For phase response results, there is only one graph shown and there are no display options for them. The following figure shows a reduced version of the Bode plot.

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## Harmonic Response Analysis

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Optionally, you can plot the following results values for graphs: real, imaginary, amplitude, and phase angle. You can select any of these from a drop-down list in the Details View for the results. For edges, faces, shells, and multiple vertex selections (which contain multiple nodes), the results can be scoped as minimum, maximum, or average. This is also available for frequency and phase response results scoped on a single vertex. The Use Minimum and Use Maximum settings are based on the amplitude and thus are reported from the location with either the largest or smallest amplitude. The Use Average setting calculates the average by calculating the real and imaginary components separately.
Note

You cannot use Simulation convergence capabilities for any results item under a harmonic response analysis. Instead, you can first do a convergence study on a modal analysis and reuse the mesh from that analysis. The Reported Frequency in the Information category is the frequency at which contour results were found and plotted. This frequency can be potentially different from the frequency you requested. General approach to harmonic analysis postprocessing Generally speaking, you would look at Frequency Response plots at critical regions to ascertain what the frequency of interest may be. In conjunction with Phase Response plots, the phase of interest is also determined. Then, you can request Stress, Strain, or Deformation contour plots to evaluate the response of the entire structure at that frequency and phase of interest. Presented below is an example of a Frequency Response plot:

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## Harmonic Response Analysis

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The average, minimum, or maximum value can be chosen for selected entities. Stress, Strain, Deformation, and Acceleration components vary sinusoidally, so these are the only result types that can be reviewed in this manner. (Note that items such as Principal Stress or Equivalent Stress do not behave in a sinusoidal manner since these are derived quantities.) Similarly, Phase Response plots show the minimum, average, or maximum Stress, Strain, or Deformation for selected entities. Presented below is an example of a Phase Response plot.

However, unlike Frequency Response plots that show a response amplitude over a frequency range, Phase Response plots show a response over a range of phase angles, so you can determine how much a response lags behind the applied load. For contour results, you must specify the frequency and phase angle of interest, as noted above. All types of Stress, Strain, and Deformation are available, including derived quantities such as Total Deformation or Equivalent (von-Mises) Stress. You can then see the total response of the structure at a given point in

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## time, as shown below.

Since each node may have different phase angles from one another, the complex response can also be animated to see the time-dependent motion. Create Report (optional) Basic general information about this topic ... for this analysis type: There are no specific considerations for a harmonic response analysis. Back To Top
Example: Harmonic Response Analysis

The following example illustrates performing a harmonic response analysis in Simulation. 1. Open the model in Simulation, establish units, and set up a harmonic response analysis. Open the file HModel.dsdb from one of the following locations: Windows platform:
...\Program Files\ANSYS Inc\v110\AISOL\Samples\Simulation

## Unix platform: .../ansys_inc/v110/aisol/Samples/Simulation

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## Harmonic Response Analysis

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From the main menu, choose Units> U.S. Customary (in, lbm, lbf, oF, s, V, A). From the main menu, choose Units> Degrees. Choose New Analysis> Harmonic Response from the toolbar.

2. Specify analysis settings. Highlight the Analysis Settings object in the tree. Set the following in the Details View: Range Minimum = 0 Hz Range Maximum = 500 Hz Solution Method = Mode Superposition Cluster Results = Yes Cluster Number = 10 Constant Damping Ratio = 0.01, which is 1% of critical damping.

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## Harmonic Response Analysis

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Items to note: Peak responses occur near natural frequencies of a structure. The Cluster Results option automatically clusters solutions about the structure's natural frequencies. This results in a smoother, more accurate tracing of the response curve. The default method of equally spaced frequency points can miss peak values. A Cluster Number of 10 means that there will be 10 points clustered on either side of each natural frequency of the structure. 3. Specify boundary conditions and loads. Apply fixed support by selecting the face shown and choosing Supports> Fixed Support from the toolbar.

Specify force on face by selecting the face shown below and choosing Loads> Force from the toolbar. In the Details View of Force, set Define By to Components and set Y Component to -250 lbf.

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## Harmonic Response Analysis

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4. Insert a Frequency Response result object to obtain the Y deformation response at the point of load application. Select the face shown and with the Solution folder highlighted, choose Frequency Response> Deformation from the toolbar.

Set the following in the Details View: Spatial Resolution = Use Maximum Orientation = Y Axis

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## Harmonic Response Analysis

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5. Solve the analysis. Choose Solve from the toolbar. 6. Review the frequency response for Y deformation on the face to which force is applied. Highlight the Frequency Response object and in the Details View, note the frequency and phase angle at which the maximum amplitude occurs.

You can also review Real and Imaginary parts of the solution by changing the Display value in Details View. Notice how points are clustered near natural frequencies to give better resolution. You can use the zoom tool next to the graphs to zoom in,

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## Harmonic Response Analysis

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7. Review the Y deformation plot as well as the equivalent stress plot at the frequency and phase angle where the maximum Y amplitude occurred. Highlight the Solution folder and choose Deformation> Directional from the toolbar. Set the following in the Details View: Orientation = Y Axis Frequency = 64.563 Hz Phase Angle = 90.578 degrees. Highlight the Solution folder and choose Stress> Equivalent from the toolbar. Set the following in the Details View: Frequency = 64.563 Hz Phase Angle = 90.578 degrees. Click the right mouse button and choose Evaluate All Results from the context menu.

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## Harmonic Response Analysis

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Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

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