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, . .

2008

... .

: . .
, : . .

. . , 2008.

.
1. ( , , )
. . . ,
, .
: .
, +1 .

E=

F
q

F = k

q1q2
r2

E=k

q
.
r2

W
q

= +1 .

: E =


d
= + + =
dr
x y z

D , D = 0 E
, , 0 .

2. ( )
.

r
r
B , B = B ( r , I )
( ) :
.

H (r ) =

B (r )
, , , 0 const.
0

3.
. . .

4.
, , , . .

... .

1.
1.1.
q , .
,
.


1. (): N ,
.

Q = Ne,

e = 1,6 10

19

1 = 3 10 9 q
2. () , , .
3. : .

(I - )
4. , .
- (+1). , +1 ,
(E) .
+1 , , .

r 12 = r e 12 , 12 , |r|=|12| = 1.

F 12 = k

q1 q2
e12 ,
r2

F 21 = k

q1q 2
e12
r2

1. 1.2.
:
:

k=

1
12
, k = 1. 0 = 8,85 10
.

4 0

[ q ] =

[ F ][ r 2 ] = 2 2 =

1 , -2 = .

: [q] = 1 = 3109 q .

2
2

[q]2
= 2 =
=
= .
[ 0 ] = 2
[r] [F ]
0: F

, 0 =

3 109 3 109
1 1 1
F
=
= 9 1014 = 9 109 , .. = 105 .

100 2
4 0
1 2

1
1
=
= 8,85 10 12 /.
9
4 F 4 9 10

1.2.
q () ,
, +1 .
: ().

Eq = Eq =
[E ] =

1
q
2 = Eq (r )
4 0 r

, .

[F ]

=
= .
=
[ q]
: , .

. ,
2
( ) : (
+1), =||. , .


:
= = 0

=0

= 0,

= 0,

=0

... .

( )

(L) . :
, .

=
(

cos ( ,

) = (

= (

S = S.
dS 2,
En 1 2.
dS , dS (
) , S, dE .

=0

( )

( = )

= 0.

S .

, E .
: () ()
)
:
=

( )

=
=
+ =

=0

2 =

[ ]

=
1

=0

= 0

> .
=

= 0, -

2
E

=0

1. 1.3.

1.3.
, .
- .
=

, +1 . .


( , F W)
=

.
q = const.

, = const .

:
1. .
:

. .

2. .

. const. .
)
, = (
= 0, = , . . .

... .
3. q:

, =
=

. ,

, . . .

4. (q) (q):

( ).

5. q q 1 2.
=

6. q 1 +1 1 .
:

= 1, . .

7. N ( )

= 0.

. (
):
=
.
. q1 N

q2.

, 2 q1 ,

. N , :

1
2

)=

1
2

1
2

,=

i (N-1) , qi, , qi ,
, .


[ ]=
*

1 = 1 1 .

[ ]

1
10
= 1 () =
=
.
3 10

300

1. 1.4.

1.4.
=

( )

E ,
. , . .

=
sin ,

=
. = .

, :

= =

( )

sin .

10

... .

)
= (

. ( ) = =

)=

, ..

= .

= . ,

) = 0

< 0.

, ().

) =

= max

>0

, .

= =

( )

cos

, ,
, .


()


106 . ,
() H2 He.

. ,

, .

1. 1.5.

11

1.5.
( )
( ) . , , () .


1) .
=

cos( ; ) =

+ (

2) .
= =

) +

3) (-) , .

= [ ]=

4) , .

= ( )


1)

(. =

= =

, = + + .

2) .

= =

, .

q () .

/ , , ( ) ,
( ).
> 0 ;

< 0 .

12

... .

3) , ( ).

= [ ] = rot =

, , .
:

rot , . .

1) ( ) .
=

( )

L ( L).

: (
).
=

2) ( S).

= (

, dS ,
.

, S.

: , ,

q , :

div = = lim

()

( )

1. 1.5.

13

S, P, ,
S () .

,
: , ( > 0) ,
( < 0).

-
S .

( )

( )

( )

( )

-
1) - ( ) ,
, ( ) - .
2) .
, ,
.
,
=

S ()
= + + ( , y
, z ).

, =

. . ( )
, :
. , =

+
+

+
+

, =

=
= ,

( )

. . .

, ( )
.

14

... .


q () ,
(
(

) =

()

) , L,

( ) ,

( )

L , , L
( ). , ,
L. L ( ),
|

| =

()

, rot , P, .


1. .
=

=[


] =

( ).

2.
:
=

( )

:
=

3.

, , .
~

( )

1. 1.5.

15


( rot )
( )

( )

L
L.

S, -


1) () ( rot )
.

2) , () .

3) rot , L,
rot ( ).
[

] =

( rot ).

, ,
.
= , , cos ^
.

= -

, , . div rot = 0 . rot . , .


rot = [ ] = =

()

, :
(rot ) = lim
(rot ) =

.
(rot ) =

( )

()

=(

, (

= ,

(rot ) =

= rot

rot = (rot ) + (rot ) + (rot ) ,

() ).

. (rot ) =

(rot ) =

(rot ) =

P(x,y,z) 3
2

z
y

, ().

16

... .


( ).
1) .. , :

= rot = 0.
( )

( )

( ).

.
:
1. (

0 1 2,
(L)

(L)

2) :

= (

( )

qi, (

( )

= ( ) div

qi).
div =

( )

( ) div

1.6.

: .
: .


(
). : .
:
=

1. 1.6.

17


( ).
.

q ( ) , ,
:
=

, .
/ ,
. V : ,
, , .
=

() ( ).
=

n 1 3.

= ( ) .
~

. .
[ ](= ) [ ]
=
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]

[
]=

[ ]

[ ]=
.

[ ]=[


.
.
,

18

... .
1.

, ( = ).

V :

( < 90 cos
> 90 cos

> 0,

< 0,

> 0;

< 0).

= =
=

cos

, . . .

1. 1.6.

19

2. ' /3
,

dS S .
:
1. ,
.
2. , ; , .
, ,
dS:

cos

cos +
cos

cos

n ( ), + .
e )
( + )

cos

cos

, , dS:

( )

(. .

. . .

( )

( )

( )

( )

:
,
. .

20

... .

= , ,

0 / :

= =

( , ).
,

1.7. ( )

.
.
( ) ( ) ,
= =
.

( ) :
E. ,
.
= ( ) :

= , :
=

+ =

, ( ) =

()

() , .

(*), :
=

(1 + ) =

+ ( ).

( D ! Sic!)

> 1, . .

<

1) = ( ) , : , = .
:

2)

+ = , !
, . .

. :

= 1,

, =

> 1, .

1. 1.8.

:
( )

( )

21

( )


.
(

= ( )

. :

1.8.
1. - E D
:

( )

=0

2. E D
- (
) .

1)

( )

( )

=0

+ 2 = 0 ( 0)

1 2 ,
=

() E ( ).
=

2)

( )

.
+ = 0 ( 0)

. n
=
, n .
=

En D E .

22

... .

1.9.
()
(1920 .)

1) E (( ) =
( ).

, =

2) ( ) ( E).

.
.
E :

E
.

3) .
q
10-3 .
. ,
.

:
.
4)
( ), (
).
15

<

< +22,5

5)

1. .
2. .

6) .

. (~ )

1. 1.10.

23

1.10.

(, ).
:
1)

2)

= 0;

( ).

,
=
.

. . ,
, .
, =
. = .

q
:
=

+1 . Q
, ~ , .
, .
: , 1
1 .
[ ]=

1 = 3 10
:

1
= 9 10
300

= 9 10 = 1,5

10 .

~ .

.
(
+1 ). ,
, :
=

( + ) . ( ) , .

24

... .

( ~ )

= ,

( ~ ()).

= ,

~ .

2 () .

( ).

4 .

, -

1. 1.11.

25

1.11.

N
N :
=

1
2

1
2

, , (N1),
, .

1
= [+
2

+ ( )

]=

)=

, ( 3) :
=

,
.

, , , ,
, R.

=4

)=

26

... .

1.12.
q .
) ( =
( ), )
, :

= ( )=

, .

) () q
( ).

( )

.
[ ]==

( )

3 10
=
= 3 10 .

. , , -

,

= ( , , ).


S:

=
( )

( )

( )

( )

( , , , )

, (x, y, z, t),
t.
V , .
=

, . . .

1. 1.13. ()

27

:
,
= 0, = 0,
=
.
=
[ ]=

[ ] =

1.13. ()
() +1 .

(+) (1) (2) ( ). +1 (2) (1),


, (, ).
q () +1 :
=
=

121 ( ):
=
( (

) ,

= (

q 121 .
=

+ ,

)+

).

28

... .

1.14.
( ).
1. .
q ( ), 3 ():

=0.

2. .

(..

= 0, ).


1)
2)
3)
4)

().
.
().
.

, > 0, .

> 0, .

1. 1.15. -

29

1.15. -

:

1/ ,

. [ ] =

:
=

. [ ] =

1 = 1 =

-
:
=

:
=
:

(
=

30

... .

1.16. -

.
, ,
() .

:
=

8 1,38 10
300

= 10 ,
3,14 0,9 10

(n = ), =

= 10

1,6 10

( !)

1
10

= 10

( )

, .

1. 1.16. -

31

(+ )

.
:

-
=

=
=

2
,

~ .

: .

- -
,
=

. .

.
,

. . .

-
( ):
1. -

~ ~ ,

2. -

~ .

>

32

... .

2.
.
( , , ) .

: .

( . )

( ).
. :

=0

2.1.
--
( ):
=

sin

2. 2.1.

33


( )

, = .

(+)
(

).

1820 . (, ).
~

1, () ().
.

:
,
1 = 2 10 .

).

2 10

= ,

2 1 1
1 1 2
=

1
4
1

1 () , :
(.

= ;

).

34

... .

: ( ) .
) [

]=

[ ]

[ ][ ]
[ ]

[ ] = [
,

[ ]

][ ]

)
= 4 10

8,85 10

=4

][ ] =

[ ]
=
.
[ ] [ ]

10
1
1
=
=
(3 10 )
4 9 10

( = 3 10 )

, .

--

.
=

sin( )

1) - : ( )

1 () :
2: ,
=

,
sin

3 ():
=

sin

4
=

0
sin

sin

sin

sin

sin

( cos )

sin

=2

(. :

).

2. 2.1.
2)
--
,
[

]=

=[

]=[

( )

].

[ ]

-- .

, .

1) :

--
,

sin( )

35

36

... .

2) ,
, .

][

],

, , = 1 , , = 1 = 1
= 1 c .

2.2.
( =


( )=
(. ( ) =

3 cos

:
( )=

+
+ 1)

2. 2.2.

( )=

= :

2
+

37

sin ,

, , :
=

sin

. . sin

( )

( )

, .
(.

).

= sin ( )

38

... .

(.

0;

(. /.:

sin

cos

= )

[ ]=[

=[

]=

:
.
=

,
=

= = ,

2. 2.3.

39

2.3.
( ),
( )

=0

(...)

( )

( )

()

( )

=
=

( )

cos

( )

2
=

( )

2
=
2

( )

( ).
, .
= = 0,

. .

=+

( )

=0

( )

= rot
( )

( )

( )

rot

( )

.
, :

C.

=
=0

=
=

40

... .


( )
: ( ) c
2

( )

1. (
2.
3.
4.

= (

)
)

L.

2.4. .
, . 1820 . :
.
. ( 1 ,
).

. =

() = ( ) ,
. , ,
, .

( ) .
= + , = + ,

= + .

2. 2.4. .
=

41

( ),

= ( ).

, , S , ..
, .
, ,
, .
, ( ) (
).

1 3,
cos
, =
,
.

cos ,

=
,
, -

( )

( )

(.

= )

cos
=

( )

( )

cos( ; ) = ,

( )

rot

( )

= .

=
, = .
( ) ( = ( ), ).
, ( ) () : .

42

... .
( ) =
(1 + ) =

= 1+

-, - .

q
:
, , , , .
. :
0

=1+

1,

= 10

10

,
. :
=


, . . .
.
:

, , .

2. 2.4. .

43

.
=
:

sin

sin

sin

sin
sin

. . .

.
, , .
=

= 10

( )

= 3,6 10 10

2
.
3

= 10

10

, .

q ,

. , ,.
,
.
, ,

> 0,

> 1,

= 10

, .

:
1.
:
( 0) =

, ,
+
(.),
.

10

, -

44

... .

2.

3.

cos ).

(
.

= 10

10

cos

.
,

0,

Fe:

= 10

, , ., .

=1+

= 5000,

= ( )

1,

= 80 ; :

10 ,

= 0,3 ; :

= 53000 .


1)
( )= ( )

( )

( )
2) ( ) ( )

: , ; .

,
. .
.

2. 2.4. .

45

3) : .
=

4) ,
. - .

.
q =

( ).
,
.
:
1) (


) .

2) .

:
=

1 :

~
= 1+

=1+

=
=

. ,
.

46

... .

1) :
:

Experimental Design:
( ) (
, ).

2) (

):

.
.
() .
.

1 2 , .
:
, , () .
=

, = 1,05 10
=

, .
=2

= 0,927 10

, .

=2

3) - ( )

. ()
, .
=

..

2. 2.4. .

cos

47

, . .

, ,
.

.
( ).

(-):
, ( ). : , .

, cos

( ).

( + 1)

48

... .

3.
3.1.
q ()
( ) .
=

, : , .
:
I

II

( I II) ,
.
,

( I II)

, .

= = = ,

1 1 .

q .
-- ~ . =
=

~ ,

, , ( ). , . (. =
)

[ ] = = , , 1
= 1 .
.
=

( )

3. 3.1.

49

q , .
=

( =
1 ,
)

1) .

2) ( ),

( ). .

2 0,

. .

, (

+ + 2

= = 0.

= 0,

3)

( )

=0

]=

=
[ ]
[]

=
=

=
=

50

... .

(.

( )

).

= 0 ( )

0 ( )
=

- 0

=0,

( )

. : ( ) ,
. ,

( )

= ,

( ) =

) +

=
,

, ( = / ).

, -

3. 3.2. RL-

3.2. RL-
( )

1 2 (

= 0.

= ):

= =

, ( )

= /

-.

= 0,

ln

21

=0

= 0.

=+ =
+

, ( ).

51

52

... .

).


-:
= 0 = 0.

= /

= 0.

:
.

= 0 = 0,

= , -

= .

, :
=

, -.

!
=

3. 3.3. /

3.3. /

53

( ).

1 2
=

. .

= (

)=

, , - ( ).
:
=

(
=
.

= ):
2


1)
. 2)
.
1)

= ,

=
/

,
,

54

... .

2)

).


121

:
=

( )
121, 1.
121 ( ).
.

3.4.

q .
=

= 1.


.

=

(1) (2)

3. 3.5.

55

3.5.

( )

( , , , )

( )

, , , ,

, , , .

( )

( )

, :
= + / ,
),

/ = 0, (
=

( ).


= ,

( ).


?
= ,

:
= .

, , , : , [ ] = 0.

56

... .

(
=

0.

):

(
, .

),

, :

= +

( ),

= .

, :
0 = + 0 .

=
:

= ,

= ,

= .

. .

, =
,

= +

.
(. ).

= ,

:
=

= = =

.
= .

,
.

3. 3.5.

1

=
=0

= +

( )

+ . . .

( )

+ .

( )

( )

+ . . .

( )

( )

+ .

( )

57

=
( )

( )

=
=

( )

( )

=0

( )

( )

( )


, , , , , :
1 3 , ,
3 3 , ,
8
2 1
4 1

. :
1)
2)

3)


( = 0 = 0, ):
1)

2)

=0

=

=0

3)

4)

, [ :

--:

= = =

(), = =

, = 0, ..

= 0.

58

... .
=

= 1,

= 1,

1
=

, ,
=

= 3 10 ,

.
, :
=

= 0
, (1) (3)
.

, , , .

3.6.
1) : .
, , :

3. 3.6.
2)

cos

( , =

cos

(max

59

max ), -

3) ,
=
=

= 1,

4) :
=

. ,

,
=

= const.

1
2
+

2
+

1
2

1
2

1
2

.
=

( 1 1 )

. . .

= ,

-, .
, , :

= = (. ) =
=

cos

= / =

( 1) = .

cos

. cos

( ) ( ) .

, . .
=

60

... .

4.
q , : ( ) ( ).
:

= , ,

, .

( ) (),
, ,
=

> 1,

, ,

> 0, :

= 1.

4. 3.6.

61

: , ,
.

( ): ,
:
=

sin
sin

:
1)

<

>

, .

2) >
< ,
( ).

= ,

>


1) (o, e) ( ) o
, K.

68

2) (, ).

3) (Surface Science).
, ( ).

62

... .

4.1.
: .
q ( =
( max min ).

) -

:
=

()

=(

) +

= / =2 /

1) (1) (2) ( , = ( )
cos ( ) = 0
= + , (1) (2).
2) =

( ),

), ()

, .

1. = , = 2 , .
=

+2

cos = 1,
=

2. = /2 ,
=

+2

= 0,1,2

= , .

max min:
=

cos

1 < cos < 1

cos = 1,
=(

+ )

=(

+ ) ,

= 0,1,2

4. 4.1.

63


= ,
=

( = 1,
= )
:
= =
,

< ,

<

=
,

>

= /

: ,
.

) =

+ +

) (

= 2

) =

) = 2 .

= 0,1,2

() .


1) ~ / , , , .

2) = ( ), ( ), , .

64

... .


, ( =
) ,
() .


q =
.
, , ,
. < , ,
.
:
= 2

= ,

),

(. )

1
2
=
=
( )

: ( ),
.
:

q
(, ).

.
.

.
:
- ;
- .
=

. 0,
( 0).

. max ( ), max
( ), max (
).

4. 4.1.

65

( ) ,
.
, :

< ,
<

<

( ) / .

<

( ).

< ( ),
, .

>

- :

= 0,5 = 5 10 (10

= 50 .

= 0,01 .

66

... .


( 50 ) ,
.

= (

sin

/2
.

sin

( 1 sin
=

1 sin

= 2 tg

sin

sin

1 sin

sin

cos

=2

2 =
=2

1 sin

1 sin

sin
cos

sin

=2

=2
cos

=2

1
cos
sin

MAX MIN
2

cos

cos

=2

= (2

+ 1)

,
2

4. 4.1.

67

= 1,5

=2

0,

cos

: 2

=2

sin

sin

1 1,5

<

= 0,5 = 5000 ( = 10

5000

= 0,5 % ,

),

= 6 10 = 0,06 = 60 .
2 20

60 , .


<

= 1,5

=2

= 45

sin
cos

cos

sin 2

= 0,05

= 2 tg

sin

(2 tg
=

cos

sin 2

sin

= 0,8 <

= 0,05

= 0,05

(< 50 ).

68

... .


q
( ).

sin

(2

+ 1) 2 ,

-

).

.
, ,
.
, .

4. 4.1.

69


(
() .

),

1 1 .

1
2

1 3.

>

, -

, .

( )
m- :
=

:
= 2 cos

= 2 +

(cos = 1, ,
= 1 ).
=

+ ( ) =

2 ,

, :

= 2 ,
= 0,1,2,3 , min .

=2

1)

+ 1 , ..

70

... .

1. 1, 2, 3 ( )

.
=

sin

sin

) )

N- .

.

( 2) .
. ~


sin

sin

,
4

4. 4.1.

71

2. , , , , , .

.
.
. .
.
, :

: :

= 1:

:
=

= 1: :

2
.
cos

2
.
cos

max min ( ):

, .

sin

cos

= 2 ~10 .

:
(), :

()

, .


.
1887 ( ).
. 1895 ( 0,8 ). 1910 .

72

... .

4.2.
q ( ) ( ).
, , , .
. ( ), . , , .


-
:
.
.
:
.


q
/2.

4. 4.2.

73

:
1)

.)

/2.

2)

- )

+
2

3)

= 0,5 ,

( )

0,1 .

= 1 ,

4) m-

, .
:
,
5)

+
2

+
2

+ +

+
2

, ,
.

74

... .


: , , ,
.

+
2

0,

.
:
=

+
2

, ,
.

: (
)
(

),

,
, ,
.
:

. , . , .

4. 4.2.

75


(
) . : ,
[] .

, .
( ) /2.

()

( )
( ).
. .




.
=

sin

sin

sin

sin

76

... .


= sin

= 1,2,3 .

= sin

= 1,2,3 .

=
= (2

=2

+ 1)

min

max

!)

!)


2 . .

2

+ 1 ,

(2

+ 1) = 3

=1

()
=

:
:

< 1 .

<1

4. 4.2.

77


=
:

2
2

,
>

>

( )
>1

( ).
)

>

>

~1 5

.
)

>

( )

<1

78

... .


N , , .
: , , ,
.

( = 0,1,2 ),

= 0,1,2 ),

, .

, min .
:

= =

= 1,2,3, , ( 1), ( + 1), ( + 2), , (2 1), (2 + 1)

,
.

4. 4.2.

79

/ = 4 ( ) ,
, .
=
). , = 8.

1 2 :

. .

.

0<

sin

. .

0<
2

= 1,2,3, , ( 1), ( + 1)

<2

<

, ..

( 1) .

.
=

2 ,

:
=

==

80

... .

, ..
max .
, ( ).
,
, :
sin

sin ~ .

:
. .
: , ,

: ,
).

( -

= 1,

= .

sin
cos

cos
=

= 0,4 =
( , . .)

(R Resolution)
=

,
.

max ( sin ) c min


sin

sin

,
.

)=

20% ):
.
,

4. 4.3.

81

>

:
.

<

>

>

>

= 4600 = 0,46

: :

sin

>

sin

1
=

:
<

= 4602

82

... .

4.3.
q

.
.

:

( )

sin
cos

cos

sin
sin

= sin

(1, 2) =



.
=

cos
=

cos ,
,

= cos
.

4. 4.3.

83


q
.
(ordinary)
(extraordinary),
.

,

.

.

,

.

) ( ) .
:

>

.
:
= =

<

84

... .
)
(

- 1:
=

):

>

2:

- :
=

<

. .

>

, .

(
2.

<

) : e- - -

+, .

)
+ ; ( ) ,
2.

, 10
, 9

, 20
, 35
, 54
, 17
, 64, 67
, 55

, 34

, 42, 45
, 22, 44

, 83
, 66
, 42
, 11
, 13
, 39
, 10
, 9
, 60, 80
, 78
, 72
, 75
, 72
, 74
, 11
, 20
, 22, 45

, 33, 35
--, 32, 34
, 82
-, 29
, 4
, 82
, 29
, 61
, 61
, 61
, 61
, 4
, 72

, 9
, 48
, 49
, 32
, 12
, 59
, 62
, 63
-, 71

, 4
, 43
, 30
, 69

, 57
, 68
, 69

, 33
, 35
, 36
, p, 9
, I
B, 37
, 70
, 45

, 44
, 27
, 5
, 83
, 17

- , 65

, 25
, 19
, 83
-, 31
, 9
, 57
, 63

, 60
, 46
-, 46
, 46
, 83

, 43
, 55
, 24
, 41
, 41
, 26, 31
, 18
N ( ), 8
, 36
, 61
, 83
, 82
, 17
, 18
, 17
, 17
, 17
, 46
, 26
, 23
, 8
, 7
p , 10
I B, 38
(q)
(q), 8
, 6
, 28
, 42
-, 72
, 5
, 23
, 64, 67

, 53

, 38
/
RL-, 53
, 80
() ,
4
, 14
, 39

, 48
, 60
, 4
, 58
, 18

, 7
, 83
B H, 42
, 22
, 36
, 5
, 31
, 49
, 18
, 24

, 22, 45
, 6
D, 21
B, 39
-, 13
, 15
, 50
, 55

, 28
, 11
, 26
, 5
, 55
, 31

, 44
, 22
- -, 31

, 24
, 6

, 42

, 7
RL-, 51
, 9

, 9
, 21
, 27
, 23
, 23
, 48
, 25
, 25
, 25


1. .

1.1. ............................................................................................................. 4
.......................................................................................................................................... 4
................................................................................................................................................ 4
1.2. ........................................................................................................... 5
........................................................................................................................... 5
......................................................... 6
.................................................................................................................................................. 6
............................................................................................................................................................ 6
............................................................................................................................................. 6
1.3. ........................................................................................................... 7
............................................................................................................ 7
................................................................................................................. 8
1.4. .................................................................................................................................. 9
....................................................................... 9
, ................................................................................................. 9

.......................................................................................10

...........................................................................................10
...........................................................................................10

1.5. .....................................................................................................11
............................................................................................................11
......................................................................................................11
................................................................................................................................12
: , , ......................................................12
................................................................................................................................................12
-..................................................................................................................13
- .................................................................................................13
...............................................................................................................................14
.........................................................................................................................................14

.........................................................................................................................................15
...........................................................................................................................15

............................................................................................15

...........................................................................................................................16
1.6. ............................................................................................................16
...........................................................................................................................16
...............................................................................................................................17
..................................................................................................................17
1.7. ( ) ..........................................................................20

.................................................................................................................................................20

: .................................................................................................................................21

1.8. ...................................................................................21
1.9. .........................................................................................................................................22
1.10. ..........................................................................................23
.......................................................................................................................23
..................................................................................................................................24
....................................................................................................................24
..........................................................................................................................24
1.11. .....................................................................................................................25
.....................................................................................................25
.................................................................................................................25
1.12. ..................................................................................................................26
.................................................................................26
1.13. () ....................................................................................................................27
1.14. ......................................................................................................................................28
....................................................................28
1.15. - .....................................................................29
....................................................................................................................................................29
- ...................................................................................................................................29
1.16. -......................................................................30
.....................................................................................................................................30
.................................................................................................31

- ................................................................................................31
- - ...............................................................31
- ............................................................................31

2. .

32

.....................................................................................................................32
.....................................................................................................................32
2.1. ............................................................................................................32
-- .........................................................................................................................32
..............................................................................................................................................33
(+) ......................................................................................................................33
-- ..........................................................................................................................34
...............................................................................................................................................35
2.2. .................................................................................................................36
,

...................................................37

...............................................................................................38

...................................................................38
2.3. ........................................................................................................39
() ...................................................................................................................39
................................................................................................................................39
..........................................................................40
2.4. . ............................................................................................40

.............................................................................................41

.............................................................................................................................................42
...........................................................................................................................................43
.........................................................................................................................................44
.........................................................................................................................44
....................................................................................................................................45
,

.............................................................46

3.

48

3.1. ........................................................................................................................48
.....................................................................................................................................................49

..................................................................................................49

...........................................................................................................................49
.................................................................................................................50
3.2. RL- ........................................................................................51
................................................................................................................................51
..................................................................................................................................51
3.3. /

- .............................................................53

..............................................................................................53
3.4. ..........................................................................................................................................54
3.5. ..................................................................................................................................55
....................................................................................................................55
.....................................................................................................................55
.....................................................................................................................55
3.6. ..............................................................................................................58

4.

60

..................................................................................................................61
....................................................................................................................................61
4.1.

...............................................................................................................................62

..........................................................................................................63
...........................................................................................63
..................................................................................63
................................................................63
..........................................................................................64
...........................................................................................................................64
...............................................................................................................64
..........................................................................................66
max min ..........................................................66

............................................67
...........................................................................................................................67
...............................................................................................................67
..............................................................................................................................68
..............................................................................................................................69
( ) .......................................................69
.......................................................................................70
4.2.

......................................................................................................................................72

...................................................................................................................................72
- .......................................................................................................................72
..............................................................................................................................................72
: ................................................................................................................................73
.....................................................................................................................................................73
.....................................................................................74
............................................................................................................................75
............................................................................................................................78
4.3. ......................................................................................................................................82
( ) ...............................................................82
..............................................................................................................................................82
........................................................................................................................83