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- 2008

530.77
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. : - , 2008, 90 .
ISBN 978-5-9758-0776-2
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.. , .. , .. , .. , 2008
ISBN 978-5-9758-0776-2




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10 (, 9, 12) .
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- .

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. x
, : 1.

(1 + x) 2 1 + 2 x
1+ x 1+ x / 2
1
1 x
(1 + x)
5

(1 + x) n 1 + nx
sin x x

cos x 1 x 2 / 2
, , . ,
(1+x)2 = 1+2x+x2 .
x , x2 , .. x2 . (, x = 0,01, x 2 = 0,0001 .)
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..
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,
(.1).
BC a=csin, c .
sin ,
ac.
AB b=cs.

. 1.
bc(12/2).
=cbc2/2
c2. ,
: bc.
. 1-3
. 4 6 ,
( , ) .

5. , , .
3 4.
7-13 . 14-17
.

1. x3+0,001x ? ? , ?
2.
) sin(10 ) , )

404 , ) cos(44 0 ) .

3. x:
1
) 1 + x /(1 x) 2 ; ) (1 + x) 3 1 sin x ; ) x sin x 1 + cos x .
2
4. cosx=kx 0<x<. :
k 1 k1.
5. ,
:
) x 2 + px + q = 0 ,
) x 4 + px 2 + q = 0 ,
) x 3 + px + q = 0 .
6. x 4 x 2 + 3 x 2 = 0 ,
0,01.
7. , .
8. , 1,0001 2,0001.
9. ABC AB BC. , AC , AB, .
?
10. , . , .
.
7

11. A ABC AH.


B, A.
, ABC
CH .
12. , , :
;
.
13. N, , N .
R . , S N
N =
,
S
S = R 2 , N N .
14. , x x2+y2=R2 .
15. , : ,
y = a bx 2 ,
.
16. y = ax bx 2
. , ,
, .
17. y=acoskx x. ? ?

2.
, , . .
, ,
, .

1. ( ) , .
1 .
?
2. v.
. ,
2 ?
3. -
d=R , R , ,
. .
4. ,
, . 40 , . ? ? 25 .
5. -

E =

m0 c 2

( -

1 v /c
) .
6. ()? ,
3.
30.
7. ,
3%, 1%?
2

.
8. , F x F = kx+cx3, m.
, , .
9. 14 4 .
, .
? ,
- PV=const.
10. V S . p.
. M
. ,
-.
11. m y=Asinkx
v. ,
.
12. ,
y=acoskx.
. , .

10

3.

, . : ,
, ..
, , , .
. ,
,
. :
,
. :
, , (. 2 3). ,
..

1.
l (. 2.). v0.
v0
,
v0.
. 2
.
2. R
Q.
x, , (. 3) )
, ) . ,
.
.

. 3
11

3. R, . , (. 4), , .

. 4
4. x=v0t+asint (v0>0, a>0). ,
, , .
. , .
5.
- U(r)=4a[(b/r)6+(b/r)12].
. ,
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. ( a b .)
6. R ,
. , V
. , 10928'. (, ,
10928').
7. ,
bh2, b , h . d .
.
8. . , h , .
.
, .
12

9. m M. , n-
. n k=m/M. ?
10. M (. 5).

h .
. H, d, R .
. 5

13

4. ,
!..

, , .
( ),
, - .
-
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, , . ,
, a .
, a aC , a<aC .
.
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,
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14

(a, b) ,
. (. 5
.). , .
( ) ,
, .,

.
1.
.
. , , ( ),
. ,
, , ,
R M , g , M
. R2
, . ,
. , 8
(. ) b
a b , (!) = .
a
, , .

1.
, H .
g = G

, ( ) , , . (1854-1912). .
1

15

, . ? -

? .
2. R
. v0.

v0? .
3. 10 ,
0,1 /3, . .
4. M, k,
. m. m
?
.
M
, , ,
M .
5. , M TC, m tC. ? (T, t) , . ?
6. M m (. 6). 1, 2. F.
(1, 2) .

. 6
7.
. , 3,
1 2. . 16

? 12, 23 13.
8. a b , b < a .
u ,
v<u. , ? v
b
= , = .
u
a
? ?
9. .
v0
l

h (.7). ,
. 7
, ?
10. M ,
(.8) ,
f.
? ,
T; k.
11. . 8
L
. l
(l<L) .

, (. 9),
L
. l
. 9
(l/L, cos ). .

17

5. ()
, , ?
.
! , ,

. .

()
. .10 : . ()
, .

.10

. ,
. , . ( , , .) ,
. (,
.)
.
. , (.11). 18

, :
. . , .

.11
() , . ( bifurcus,
.) , , , 2.
, . . , ( )
. , ,
, .. .
,
.
, , , . ,
.

. ;
..
. (. 1923)
2

19


1. , , (.12)?
?
I i, k, L , l .

.12
2. , (.13). ,
, . ? ? p0, M , S , T0,
l, l0.

.13
3. l m . ,
M=.

? (
, 2.)
4.
(.14).
20

. ,
F = kx + cx 3 , k c , .
l, m.

. 14
5. R,
Q.
, , q(.15). a .

Q
q

. 15
6. l , h .
? : .
7. m
R (.16).
, a . . x, .

21

a
g
, = . (
2
R
R

1+ x =1+

x x2

+ ... .)
2 8

.16
8. m , . k,
a
,
(.17). l0.
x, ?
= 0 .

.17
9. 4 5, , 7 8?
10. .18 . ,

I = a (U U 0 ) 3 b(U U 0 ) + c , a, b
22

c . , ... E R.
. , , , .

.18

23


1.
1. , 0,001, x .
: ,
, , , . , x30,001x. , 3 x20,001,
x0,03. x0,03, , ,
. , x 0,03, .
2. ) sin(1) , ( ) sin x x . 1 ,

x=
= 0,01745329. , , ,
180
, 0,0174524 , .

404

1
4
x
) = 20 1 +
1 + x 1 + ,
400
100
2
1
x . 404 20(1 +
) = 20,1 . 200
400(1 +

404 = 20,09975... , , -

.
) cos(44) , 45. 1 + cos 2

. = x
2
4
( ), x cos 2 = sin 2 x 2 x .

: cos =

cos =

1 + 2x 1 + x

,
2
2

,
x .
.
24

x
. 1 ,
2
cos(44)0,719448 0,719339
x
3. )
1+ x 1+ ,
2
1
(1 x) 2 1 2 x ,
1 x , , 1+ x
( x) :
x
1+
1+ x
2 (1 + x )(1 + 2 x) 1 + x + 2 x = 1 + 5 x .

(1 x) 2 1 2 x
2
2
2
1+ x 1+

) ,
(1 + x) 3 1 sin x 1 + 3 x 1 x 2 x .
) x x 2 , sin x x cos x 1

x2
:
2

1
1
x2
x sin x 1 + cos x x 2 1 + (1 ) = 0 .
2
2
2
,
, .
x3
, sin x x , 6
1
1 4
x . ,
: cos x 1 x 2 +
2
24
1
1
x sin x 1 + cos x x 4 .
2
24
4. . .19 0<x<
y = cos x y = kx ,
. k1 (.19). ,
x = 0 .
cos x 1 . cos x kx
x

1
x2
. , cos x 1 .
k
2

25

.19

x 2 + 2kx 2 = 0 .
, :
x = k + k 2 + 2 .
, . ,
2
1
1
1
: k 2 + 2 = k 1 + 2 k (1 + 2 ) , x .
k
k
k
k
k1. (.19),

. x = ,
2
2

. , cos x = cos( ) = sin .


2

cos x kx x = kx .
2

, , x 2 .
1+ k

k x
.
2 2k
5. ) x 2 + px + q = 0

x1, 2

26

p
=
2

p2
q.
4

p2
, ,
4
p2
p2
q<
, , q =
, .
4
4
(q, p ) , ,
, q >

(.20).
p2
,
q =
4
. ( ) , , . ,
, . (q, p )

. 20.

. , (.. 1) p2
, ,
4
. , , .

. .
.20. () (q, p ) . . q =

, , . , . , , ,
, (.20).

.
,
27

( , ).
, ,
4 5.
) x 4 + px 2 + q = 0 .
x12, 2 = y1 =

p
+
2

p2
p
q , x32, 4 = y 2 =
4
2

p2
q.
4

p2
, q >
, .
4
p2
q <
.
4
(q, p ) , y .
p > 0 , q > 0 , y1 < 0 y 2 < 0 .

.
p > 0 , q < 0 , y1 > 0 y 2 < 0 . .
p < 0 , q > 0 , y1 > 0 y 2 > 0 . .
p < 0 , q < 0 , y1 > 0 y2 < 0 . .
(q, p )
.21.
, ,
.21 . ( ,
).

,
. 21.
, -

28

( p = 0 , q = 0 ). , .
) x 3 + px + q = 0
, , .22,. , , () , ,
(.22).
x 3 + px + q = 0 , 3 x 2 + p = 0 .

.22

p
, , , 3
,
:
3
2
( p) 2 .
q=
3 3

.23. , . , , , :
.
. 23.
, x =

29


; , ;
. (.
5).
6. , x
( ). x 4 x 2 + 3 x 2 = 0 x 4
, .
x 2 + 3 x 2 = 0 , x1 1 x2 2 .
, ,
. , x1. x 4 .
, x 4 x 2 ,
,
1
1
x4
. ( x=0
x 4 x 2 0 . x3

, .. x1). 0,01,
x3 x4 10, .. x1. .
, .
x = x1, 2 + , . ,
( x1, 2 +) 4 ( x1, 2 +) 2 + 3( x1, 2 +) 2 = 0 .
. ,
( x1, 2 +) 4 x14, 2 .

( x1, 2 +) 2 x12, 2 + 2x1, 2 . ,


x12, 2 3x1, 2 +2 = 0 ,
=

x14, 2
2 x1, 2 3

x1 1 x2 2 , 1 = 2 = 16 . ,

x1 1 , x2 2 16 .
, 0,01,
( , .)
30

x3
.) x =

1
1
. ( x4

1
(1 + ) .

, :

(1 + ) 4 (1 + ) 2 + 3 (1 + ) 2 = 0 .
(1 + ) 4 1 + 4 (1 + ) 2 1 + 2 ,

2 3
2 3
=
.
2+3
2+3

0,01,

3
. 2

1
3
1 3
(1
) =
. ,
2

2
,
.
7. . a, b, c (.24). , x3

, .. cba.
.
c .
c < a + b . ba
b . , b . , cb. ,
,
, (
. 24.
) .
8. a, b,
2

a
h = b .
2
, .25.
a=1,0001, b=2,0001, b a/2
2

31

, 1 2 15
1
1,93... .
h 2 2 ( ) 2 =
2
2

, h 2 , ..
.

(.25) b a/2
, 1 2 . 25.
( ,
, , ,
). = 10 4 .
2

2+
h = (1 + )
.
2
2

2 , : h =0,01.
9. ,
c . a , (.26).
. ,
,
. 26.
, ,
. ,

a
sin = .
c
ca. , , a
.
c
32

ACB , C

AB .
10. , (b=ca), .27. ,
, , h c , ,
a c . ,

c2
.
2

. 27.

c 2 sin
. S =
.
2
,
sin x x .
, : c,ba. b<.
(.27), ,
c, h b .
cb
S .
2
b c , c,ba (. 7), .
11. .28.

.28
33

, =

c
, = c cos .
cos

==

c
c cos .
cos

2
1
cos 1

cos
2

1
2
1+ ,
2
2
1
2

c 2 .
, = c , , c .

2
c 2
= c = c c cos c c(1 ) =
.
2
2
, , .
12. , , , , , . , ,
, 600,
.. . ,

. (.29).

. 29.
, , (.29). c .
h=bsin =asin . ( 1) ,
b sin b

sin , , , sin =
.
a
a
, , , b a , , sin .
, , , sin

34

b
.
a

, , ,
. ,
1800. , , .25.
13. N- ,

R2
2
SN = N
sin .
2
N
2
(, N- N
) . sin x x , ,
N

S N R 2 .
, . . sin x x

x3
.
6

2 R 2 3
S N = R
.
3N 2
2

S N 2 2
=
.
N =
S
3N 2
1
.
N2
, -, - . N N ,

, .
, .
4
6
10
100
N
0,4112
0,1828
0,0658
0,0066
N ,
N ,

0,3634

0,1730

0,0645

0,0066

14. ,

x2
x2
1 2
=R
y = R x = R 1 2 R1
x .
2
R
2R
2R
2

35

, ,
(.30).
15. , .
. ( y C ) 2 + x 2 = R 2 .
. 30.
, 1 2
y C + R
x .
2R
y = a bx 2 , 1
1
1
. , R =
, C=a .
2R
2b
2b
16. , , :
g
y = tg x 2 x 2 ,
2u
u = v0 cos .

, a=C+R, b =

g
.
2u 2
, g , , y = ax bx 2 , a=tg, b =

, .

a . .

u2
=g= ,
R

g
1
u2
R = . b = 2 , b =
. 2R
2u
g
, .
17., x

ak 2 x 2
.
2
15, , 1
1
R = 2 , C = a 2 . ,
ak
ak
, .
a cos kx a

36

2.
1. 2R , R .

l , , , 2R + l ,
R +

l
. , 2

l
. l = 1 h 16 . 2
, ,
.
2. v, ,
,
vyv (.31). ,
, .. vxv. h =

v 2 2
2 v
,
, h
2g
g

2v 2
. ,
s vt
g

. 31.

v 2 sin 2
v 2 sin 2
h =
s=
. ,
2g
g

2 , 4
, 2 .

3. d = 2R sin
( . 26).
2

, , , sin ,
2 2
d R . 3

1
: sin .
2 2 6 2

3

d 2R

1
3
= R
,
6 2
24


37

d
1 d
.
24 R
d
d = 3480
R 384 400 ,

d
3,4 10 6 .
d

10 .
4. , , : l = ltg l . =4 l = 25
l l 1,7 . (, .)

2
.
f cos . f = f f cos f
2
2
).
( , cos 1
2
f 2
=4

0,0024 . ,
f
2
, .
5. , ,
v 2 / c 2 .
, E =

m0 c 2

1
1 v2 / c2

= m0 c 2 +

1
1 v 2 / 2c 2

1+

v2
.
2c 2

mv 2
+ ...
2

1 v2 / c2
, , .

v 2 sin 2
6. s =
. g
.
sin( 2 + 2) = sin 2 cos 2 + cos 2 sin 2 .
, cos 2 1 sin 2 2 .
sin( 2 + 2) sin 2 + 2 cos 2 .
, ,
,
38

s1 2

v 2 cos 2
.
g

. , ,
=45 (, ), s1 0 . , , =45 .
( 2 ) 2

= + , sin 2 = sin + 2 = cos 2 1


.
2
4
2

v 2 sin 2 v 2
v2
2
, s =
(1 2) , , s2 2 2 .
g
g
g
, , .
, :
s1 cos 2

.
s 2

, , =30 =3 ( 0,05),

s1
0,1 .
s2

=45 10 .
7.
m
. k
m k .
T = 2

m + m
m 1 + m / m
1 + m / 2m
= 2

k + k
k
1 + k / k
1 + k / 2k
T (1 + m / 2m k / 2k ).

T + T = 2

T 1 m k

.
T
2 m
k
m
k

= 0,01
= 0,03 , ,
m
k
2%.
,

8. mg = kx + cx 3 .

, -

39

mg
. ,
k

, kx cx3 , 1

cx 2
mg
, . x
k
k

cm 2 g 2
1
.
k3
.
mg ~
+ x .
x =
k
mg = kx + cx 3 ~
x ,
3

mg ~ mg ~
mg
mg ~
mg = k
+ x + c
+ x mg + k~
x + c
+ 3c
x.
k
k

k
k
:
3

mg
c

~
x
.
2
mg

k + 3c

k
1

cm 2 g 2
, :
k3
3

1 mg
~
x c
.
k k
9. ,
760 , , 13600 /3,
10 . 4 14 . , . P ,
V . PV = ( P + P)(V + V ) . ,
,
V
0 VP + PV , V P .
P
, V = Sh , V = Sl , S , l .
,
40

h h , ,
P gh . ,
P gH , H 10 ,
. , ,
l
h h .
H
h =4 l = 10 , h 0,4 . , h h.
10. .
,
V
V
V
P , x
P , x .
: V
2P
2 PS
2
, , F = SP . ( ) . ,
4 PS 2
x.
V
, , -

F =

k =

4 PS 2
. ,
V

m mV
=
.
k S P
11. (, , ), , ,
. , ,
T = 2

v2
, R : a =
R
( ). , , ,
.
,
2
-

41

17 : R =

1
.
Ak 2

f = mAv 2 k 2 .
12.
. . ,
y = a a cos kx .

x ,
ak 2 2
y
x .
2
, . x ,
amgk 2 2
U ( x) = mgy
x . ,
2

. ( 2) , x- , amgk 2 2
x . 2
, x U ( x) =

amgk 2 . , T = 2

1
.
agk 2

3.
1. ,

T = 2

l
, . g

,
. 2 lg ,

. , .

42

2. E (x) . -

dq . , x , . , dq ,
dE ( x)

dq
dqx
sin
.

4 0 R 2
4 0 R 3

( , x , sin

x
.)
R

,
E ( x)

Qx
.
4 0 R 3

,
.
(xR) Q ,
E ( x)

Q
.
4 0 x 2

, . E(x)
, , E (x)
. , (.32).
. :
Qx
Q
.

3
4 0 R
4 0 x 2
x R , , , E ( x)

x
. 32

Q
.
4 0 R 2

43

E ( x) =

Qx
.
4 0 ( R 2 + x 2 ) 3 / 2

, x
.
, . E (x) ,
,
dE
Q ( R 2 + x 2 ) 3 / 2 3 x 2 ( R 2 + x 2 )1 / 2
=
= 0.
dx 4 0
(R 2 + x 2 )3

: x =

R
Q
E=
. 2
6 3 0 R 2

, , .
3. :

E
.
2 0
( xR) q
R 2
.
=
q = S = R , E ( x)
4 0 x 2 4 0 x 2
2

x
(1
).
2
2
2 0
R +x
,
. ( .)
4. ,
x. , :
dx
V=
= V0 + a cos t.
dt
, V 0.
, ,
V0
1.
a
.
, x:
V0
: E ( x) =

44

a .
. x(t) .33.
.33 , , .33 .

. 33.
, ,
.
6

1 1
r
5. U = 4a ( 2 ) , x = .
x
x
b

.
1
, U 4a 2 .
x
,
1
U 4a . , ,
x
. , .
.
1
2
dU
= 4a ( 2 3 ) = 0 .
dx
x
x
45

x = 2 . r = 6 2b . ,
, , .
, , , E = U (2) = a .
6. ,
. .
, ( R), . ,
. 2 .
R 2 .
, ,
. , V () 0 2

.
.
R
, , R . r =
.
2
h = R 2 r 2 .
1 2
R3 2
4 2 2 .
V () = r h =
2
3
24
. , 2 (4 2 2 ) :
2 4
2

, = 2

3
4 2 2

= 0.

2
.
3

2
r
.
= =
=
2 R 2
3
= 10928', .

. sin

7. P = bh 2 .
h . , , b
. ,
, . ,
46

.
, .
. , h 2 + b 2 = d 2 . P = b(d 2 b 2 ) .

, h =

dP
1
= d 2 3b 2 =0, b =
d , db
3

2
d.
3

c
cos , d
d2
h
, cos = ,
d
. ,
ch
: I =
, R . ,
3
2
2
2
(h + R )
8. I =

h 0 h I 0 . ,
h
. , 2, R
h =
.
2
9. m v. M.
, V
2mv
: V =
.
m+M
n-
.
MV 2
4mM
k
,
n=
=
=
mv 2 (m + M ) 2 (1 + k ) 2
k=m/M . n = n(k )
k n(k ) k .
, . , k
1
n(k ) .
k
47


4. , n = n(k ) .
, n(k ) :
dn 1 k 2
=
= 0.
dk (1 + k ) 4
, k = 1 . , ,
.
, k = 1 :
k
1
n=
= .
2
(1 + k )
4
n(k )
. 34.
.34.
10. h0.
m1
m2 . ,
. m1 = 2RdH 0 , m2 = R 2 d 0 , 0
. ,
1 m1 H m2 d
, h0 =
.
2 m1 + m2
( , .) ,
1 2 H 2 Rd
.
h0 =
2 2H + R
, .
H>

Rd
, h0 > 0 , .
2

, ,
() . :
, .

48

, .
:
Rd
, . ,
2
, .
H
, , h0 < .
2
H
,
2
.
h .
Mh0 + 1 Sh 2
2
l =
,
M + Sh
H<

h0 + 1 h 2
2 .
l=
+h
M
. =
S
, .
,
h . , h
,
l 1 h . : ,
2
, ,
.
, , , :
h
h0
h
l 0 =
h0 0 h .
+ h 1+ h

.
, h0 < 0 .
h .
.
49

. ,
h0 > 0 , . : .
, ,
h0 = 0 . ,
.
1 h2
l= 2 ,
+h

, .
. , .
. , .
h
. x = .

h0 + 1 x 2
2
l=
.
1+ x
. x dl

,
dx
x(1 + x) h0 + 1 x 2 = 0 ,
2
:
2h
x2 + 2x 0 = 0 .

,
2h0
.

,
xmin = 1 + 1 +

l min = l ( xmin ) = ( 1 +
50

2h0
1) .

. , ,
. 2h
, l = h0 , : x = 0 . ,

h
, = h0 . 2
:
,
H
. , , h0 < . 2
, h < H . , ,
,
,
,
.
h
3
0 =

2
1 + 1 x2
3
y ( x) = l ( x) =

h0
1+ x
.35. 1
. 35
x = 1.

4. ,
1.
l1 , l2 . , l1 + l2 = 2 H .

l + l1 = l2 , l 5 .
l
l2 = H + .
2
, , .. l2 = 2 H ,

,
.
51

l=

2
H.

,
, .
( l x ) = 2 H + x 2 ,
x , .

l 2 H 1

= l + H 2

2
2

1
, . ,
2
2

l2 = 2 H + x = 2 H +

l =

2
H .

2. , ,
. . , , .

mv02 mv 2
=
+ mgR(1 cos ) ,
2
2
m . , R
mv 2
,
R
N . N = 0 .
, :
mg cos N =

2 mv02
.
cos = +
3 3Rg
, ,
2
cos = . , ,
3
.

52

mv02
< 1 . , ,
Rg
,
.
3. , , , . , . , , ,
. h .
: h 2 ( R h ) .
3

h 2 ( R h ) = 4 R 3 ,
3
3
4 R 3 .
3
x = h .
R
x 2 (1 x ) = ,
3
4
=
. ,
3

= 0,1 /3, = 0,133... . , , . ,


.
, x . (
, , .) x . x .
3
x 0,1333 0,365 . x 0,121 .
3
.
x = + , .

x 2 = ( + ) 2 + 2 ,
x 3 = ( + ) 2 ( ) 3 + 3
53

. ,

.
3(2 )
= 0,133... , 0,027... .
x = + 0,365 + 0,027 = 0,392 . ,
, 3,9 . , , . ( , ,
.) , : 3 .
x 2 (1 x ) = .
3
, , .
, f ( x) = 0
f ( xn )
xn+1 = xn
.
f ( xn )
f ( x) = x 2 (1 x ) , 3
:
2
xn2 xn3 +
3
xn+1 =
.
( 2 xn ) xn

, , x1 = 0,365 ,

x2 = 0,3923... , x3 = 0,3916... x4 = 0,3916... ,


, ( , ,
), .
, .
, : .
, . , , 54

, .. R 2 h .

( 2 R 3 + R 2 h) = 4 R 3 ,
3
3

h 2 2
=
.
R 3
h
0,133 ,
R
11,33 . 11,035 .
, 3 .
4. m v .
M . (
,
).
,
u V :
mM
2m
v, V =
v.
u=
m+M
m+M
u, x1=ut.
() .
, .
, ,
V . 2
, ,
V . ,
2
V
V (t ) = cos t ,
2
.
V
x(t ) =
sin t . ,
2
V
V
x2 = t +
sin t .
2
2

, = 0,6 /3,

55

x1 = x2 :
V
V
t+
sin t .
2
2
u V ,

M
sin t = t .
m
t.
.
M
.
=t k =
m

sin = k .
,
k .
.
,
: y () = sin
ut =

y () = k

. 36
k , (.36). ,
, , , . , , , . k , ,
. ,
sin =k,
cos =k.
56

(, .)
,
tg =.
, , . ,
.
. .37 ,
3
. ,

2
14,712388....

3
= , 2
. ,
1
ctg =
.
3

2
. 37
1
ctg = ( sin , cos 1 ).
2
3
2
. , 2 4,50017

3
2
3
,
2
3
: sin , cos 1 . ctg( ) = 1
2
2
2

3
2
= (1 1 2 = 0,2172
2
3
, 3=4,49517....
.
, , , tg = ,
.
57

sin cos = 0 .

f ( n )
n+1 = n
.
f ( n )

n+1 = n

1
+ ctg n .
n

= 0,45 , = 4,49342...
= 4,49341...
, k = cos : k = 0,21722...
M
k ( k =
), m
,
M
< 0,21722.
m
, , , .
5. :
.
cMT+M<cm.
.

cMT>cmt+M.
: , .
T

c, c,


.



c

t
(T, t) . 38.

,
c
, . 38
58

, =m/M, 6.
6. , . F ,
F.1=1mg, .
, F F.1,
, F. ,
F.1=2(m+M)g,
, , . , :
.
F> 1mg 1mg> 2(m+M)g,
m
F
, 2 < 1
.
1 <
m+M
mg
, .
F>1mg
1mg<2(m+M)g, ,
m
F
, 2 > 1
.
1 <
m+M
mg
, . F< 1mg F> 2(m+M)g,
m
F
2
, 2 < 1
.
1 >
m+M
mg
. F< 1mg F< 2(m+M)g,
F
m
F
, 2 > 1
.
1 >
(m + M ) g
m+M
mg

(1,2)
0
. 39. -

1
F
mg

. 39

, T=100C t=273C
.

59


. , , .
7. .
. ,
. ,
, . , 12+13<23, 1 2. 23+12<13,
, 2
1. 23+13<12, .
. 40.
12.
(13/12,23/12) , .40.
8. . , .. v=u =1, , , .. . v=0,
.
,

, (.41). , .
. 41.
.
, x (. 41).

x2 + b2
t =
. (a x)
v
60

t =

(a x)
. ,
u
t=

x 2 + b 2 (a x)
+
.
v
u

vt

a

x
, x. a

= (1 x) + x 2 + 2 .

. , x = 1 ,
1 = 1 + 2 .

.
x = 0
0=+.
, .
. , b , .
a+b

t =
u
3=(1+).
. ,
. ,
= (1 x) + x 2 + 2 .

x ( ) , = (x) .
:
d
= +
dx

x
x2 + 2

= 0.

, ,

61

xM =

1 2

M = + 1 2 .

,
( , .)
, = (x)
, x M .
xM > 1 . ,
.
1=(1). , , . (, ) .

xM > 1 xM =

1 2

, , :
>

1
1 + 2

, .

. , 3=(1+), , M = + 1 2 . , ,
3 < M , (1 + ) < + 1 2 .

,
1
<
.
2
, . , ,
.42. ,
( ), 1.
62

, ,
2.
, 3.

.42
, ,
1
= 1 , =
2
. , ,
1

, 2
.
9. : , , (.43)
, 1 2. l.

l = v 2 sin 2 / g .
h l.
63

gl
).
h = l (tg 2
2 v cos 2
,
.
v. gl/v2 ,
. 43.
v, .
, , 0 /2. ,
:
gl / v 2 = sin 2 ,
gl / v 2 = sin 2 (h / l )(cos 2 + 1) .
(.44).
gl
, v2
.
, .
, . 44.

, ?
, , (.44). , :
;
, , ; ,
, 64

; , ,
;
, , ; ,
, ; , , ,
.
,
. , . , gl/v2 = sin2 =/4 .
2
v min
1 = gl.

, .
,
gl / v 2 = sin 2 (h / l )(cos 2 + 1)
( 1 + h 2 / l 2 h / l ) . ,
2
vvin
2 =

gl

1+ h /l h/l
, .
10. , , f>, . , , f<.
f ( ).
,
, f. . f=f+Mg f.
, f+f=2f+Mg , . 45.
2

65

.
. 45.
11. :
, ; , ; .
, ,
90.
mgL(1cos)<mgl, l/L>1cos.
,
, ,
, .. mv2/l>mg,
mgL(1cos)>mgl/2+mgl, l/L<2/5(1cos).
.
, 90,
,
v
.
l

(. 46).
mv2/l=mgsin.
mv2/2=mgL(1cos)mgl(1+sin),
: sin=2/3(L/l(1cos)1).

, . : ( ,
),
, , . , .
t.
vsin t=lcos, t=lcos/vsin.
, lsin+vcostgt2/2>0. t
, : l/L< 2 /(2 + 3 ) (1cos).

66

, 4
: I
; II ; III
, ; IV
,
. . 47.

. 47.

5. ()
1.
, , , . , . ,
( L x) ,
F ( x) =

0 Iil
.
2 ( L x )

kx ,

0 Iil
F ( x) =
kx .
2( L x)
F ( x) = 0 ,

x 2 Lx +

0 Iil
= 0.
2k

,
x1, 2 =

L
(1 m 1 ) ,
2

2 0 Iil
,
kL2
, , . ,
x1 , x2 =

67

. , = 0 x1 = 0 , x2 = L .
, < 1 , ,
.
F x (.48). . , . , , .. . , .
, .. . .

.48
,
. , = 0 , x1 = 0 , , .

, = 1 . > 1 . , ,

(, ). ( = 1 ) x = L
2
,
. ,
.

68



, .49.
,
.48,

. 49

0 Iil

0 Iil
kx 2
U ( x) = F ( x)dx =
kx dx =
.
ln L x +
2
(
)
L
x
2
2

, .10.
(), . ,
.
2. P .

P0 + g (l l0 ) + mg = P ,

.
y ,
T .

P0 + g (l y ) + mg = P ,
M
. P
S
T
lT
P = 0 P .
yT0
m =

,
lT
P0 + g (l y ) + mg = 0 ( P0 + g (l l0 ) + mg ) .
yT0
. -,
69

L=l +

P0 + mg
,
g

T
.
T0


( L y ) y = ( L l0 )l0 .
,
y 2 Ly + ( L l0 )l0 = 0 .
, ,
L m L2 4( L l0 )l0
.
y1, 2 =
2
? , . = 1 y1 = l0 , y 2 = L l0 . l0 , . , , .
, , , .
L L2 4( L l0 )l0
y1 =
2
, y . , , , ..

L2 4( L l0 )l0 = 0 ,
. ,
y1 y 2 .
,

C =

70

L2
.
4( L l0 )l0

, ,
.
.
, , .
. ,
L
y= .
2
l .
, L
, .. < l . L
2

P0 + mg < gl .
,
, . L
, > l ,
2
,
.
L
. = ,
l
, . > 1 .
.
2
.
C =
4( )

l0
, l
. < 1 , =

.
, , L
L

< l , , = < 2 .
2
l
71

> 2
.
,
2
C =
= 2 ,
4( )

, C = 1 . ( , = () .) ,
. L = 2l0 . > 1 , > 0,5 . , (, ) < 0,5 ( = 0,25 )
> 0,5 ( = 0,75 ) .50 .50.

:
, 1.
, 2.
, , 3.

. 50
. y 2
. , , . - .
, y1 , y 2
. ,
dy .

72

dP = gdy . , -
, dP =

P
dy . ,
y

, .. g <

P
. y

P0 + g (l y ) + mg = P .
y<

P0 + gl + mg L
= ,
2g
2

.
,

.
3. .
, mgl sin .
, , M = . ,
mgl sin = 0 ,
, k =

, mgl

,
sin k = 0 .

, ,
4 ,
.
(.51). , k ,
,

.

.
. 51.
k ,
73

.. .
,
, 2 , 3 , 4 ..
. . , 3 , ,
, . 2 ,
4 , .. .
( .51 , .) ,
. ( , 2 .)
.
,
. ,

. ()
, , , .
3
5
7
, , : ,
2
2
2
, .. .
,
.
3
270, . 2
5
. ..
2
, .
.51 ,

sin k = 0 ,

cos k = 0 .
4
74

tg = .
4, .
,
3
= , ,
2
5
7
, 2
2
= .

ctg = ,
, ctg

2 , -

2 2 + 2 = 0 ,

2

1
= (1 1 2 .

, , , .
k
k = cos . , = , k = sin ,

k .
3
. = 2
4 ( 4).
1 0,21721 ,

1 = 4,49518... ( 4,49341... ),

k1 = 0,21721... ( 0,21723...).
,
, .
5
= 2 0,12837 , ,
2
75

2 = 7,72561... ( 7,72525... ),

k 2 = 0,12837... ( 0,12837.. .).


,
, .
7
= 3 0,09132
2
3 = 10,90425...

k3 = 0,09132

1
k .

,
.
4. .
mg
x . F =
l

mg

x + kx + cx 3 = 0 .
l
, x = 0 ,

x=

mg kl

.
lc
mg > kl . ,
x = 0
: mg < kl .
,
. , mg = kl ,
,

x=

mg kl

.
lc
, :
76

mg 2 kx 2 cx 4 1
mg 2 cx 4
+
= (k
.
)x +
x +
2l
2
4
2
4
l
( .)
U ( x) U ( x) =

. a = k

mg
.
l

a 2 cx 4
U ( x) == x +
.
2
4
,
. , U ( x)
x . , .

a 2 cx 4
,
U ( x) = x +
2
4
a
U ( x) x 2 , , x4x2. ,
2
a > 0 , U ( x) , (.52).
a < 0 , .
x 4 , . ,
U ( x) a < 0 (.52),

mg kl
.
lc
, U ( x)

x =

: , .
a = 0 , -

cx 4
(.52).
: U ( x) =
4

77

. 52.
,
.52 .

.
. mg < kl , , mg > kl , . ,
, , .
, , . , .
(c = 0) , mg > kl .

. ,
, . .
.
5. a .
.
, , , . , ,
, (.53). , .. aR.

78

(. 53).

. 53.
, .53 ,
. , a ,
. .
.
, ,
( x) = ( x, a ) + ( x,a) ,

( x, a ) = Q

1
(( x + a ) + R )
2

,
2

, , .
:
( x + a)
.
( x, a ) = Q
3
2
2
2
(( x + a ) + R )

,
(0) = (0, a ) + (0,a ) = 0 ,
, .
(x) :

( x) = ( x, a) + ( x,a) .

( x, a ) = Q

2( x + a ) 2 R 2
(( x + a ) + R )
2

.
2

79

,
(0) = (0, a ) + (0,a ) = 2Q

2a 2 R 2
(a + R )
2

.
2

, a < R

,
2
.

, a = R
2
, .
.
6., , . ,

.
. (l h) , 1
(l + h) ,
2
1
l .
2
, ,

1
l2
, , (l + h)(l h) . 2
2
, ,
, .. l 2 > (l + h)(l h) . ,

h2
> (1 2 ) .
l
(. 54).
h
,

cos
80

. 54.

h
. cos

h
1
h
1
h
L=
+ (l
) = (l +
) .
cos 2
cos 2
cos

, , , .
1 2 1
h
h
l = (l +
)(l
) .
2
2
cos
cos
:
h
.
cos =
l 1 /
. h
. cos = , , l
, . ,
h2
) l2
, .

. = (1

h2
. , < (1 2 ) , l
, . = 0 , . , .
7. . -

m2 r , m2 r 2
, r .
U =
2
81

,
. ,
, r=x+a. ,
.55
U = mg R 2 x 2 .

,
m2 ( x + a ) 2
U ( x) =
mg R 2 x 2 .
. 55.
2
. U
g
W =
: = 2 , 2
m R
R
a
, = ,
R
.
( x + ) 2
W ( x) =
1 x2 .
2
( , , x .)
g
a
= 2 =
R
R
.
= 0 , . ,
, ..
x = 0 . , . . x

x2 x4
1 x = 1 +,
2
8
2

W ( x) = const +
82

1 2 4
x + x + ...
2
8

,
g
. = 2 > 1 ( ) R
, . < 1 ( ) ,
x =

4(1 )
. ,

.52.
0 , .. ,
1 2 4
W ( x) = const x +
x + x + ...
2
8
, x (
). .
,
.
,
. . 56.

. 56.
. W ( x) = 0 ,
W ( x) = 0 , (.56).
:
83

W ( x) = + ( 1) x +
W ( x) = 1 +

x 3
=0,
2

3x 2
= 0.
2

, x =

2(1 )
.
3

,
3

2(1 ) 2
=
.
3
(, ) ,

. .57.
.

. 57.
84

, ,
( ) (0,1)
(). ,
. , = 1 ,
3
2
( ) 2 .
3
,
. ,
.
,
. ,
, .

. , .57
=0, .52 .
, ,
.
, . ( 5 .)
x . , .
( x + ) 2
W ( x) =
1 x 2 ,
2
x

W ( x) = x a +
W ( x) = 1 +

1 x2

(1 x 2 )

= 0,
= 0.

, :
x = 1

= (1 3 ) 2 .
85

(, ) ,
. ,
. ,

= 1 ,
,
,
2
2
3 = (1 ) 2 / 3 1 ,
3
3
2
( ) 2 ,
3
.
8. . ,
( OX , OY ), :
k ( a 2 + x2 l)2
U ( x) =
+ mgx sin .
2
a 2 + x 2 l .
,
W ( x) = ( 2 + x 2 1) 2 + x ,

W ( x) = 2 + 1 + x 2 2 2 + x 2 + x .
U
a
2mg sin
, = =
2
kx / 2
l
kl
,
.
x l . x
1 2
1
W ( x) = const + x +
x + 3 x 4 + ...

4
, x
.
, x . , :
W =

86

W ( x) = 2 x
W ( x) = 2

2x
2 + x2

+ = 0,

2 2
( + x )
2

= 0.

,
2

= 2(1 3 ) 2 .
, .
,
.
k ( a 2 + x2 l)2
.
U ( x) =
2

x = 0 a 2 + x 2 l = 0 .
.
, ( a > l ),
. a . a < l
, ,
.
9. ,
.
.
,
.
10. :
IR + U = , .
I U . , :

[a(U U

) 3 b(U U 0 ) + c R + U = , .

y = U U 0 .

aRy 3 bRy + cy + y = , U 0 ,
87


U , + cR
1 bR
= 0.
y+ 0
aR
aR
U , + cR
1 bR
p =
q= 0
,
aR
aR

y3 +

y 3 + py + q = 0 .

.
.
3y2 + p = 0 .
p
, , 3
:
3
2
q=
( p) 2 .
3 3
, .
,

y =

2 (bR 1) 2
, = U 0 + cR
.
3 3
aR
... ,
R . , ,
,
1
c
R = , , =U0 + .
b
b
1
, , R > . b
, ,
, , .

88

1.
2.
3.
4. ,
5. ()

1.
2.
3.
4. ,
5. ()

3
5
9
11
14
18
24
37
42
51
67

.
..
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