You are on page 1of 42



Diploma in Civil Engineering

Programme Learning Outcome (PLO)




Explain briefly the history of road and highway construction (C4). Summarize information on construction of flexible and rigid pavement highway to meet the quality control requirement (C4). Conduct the correct concepts of highway engineering solution to practical problems (P4). Demonstrate positive team working attributes by contributing actively in group for laboratory tests that yield valid results (A3).

Course Learning Outcome

1. 2.

3. 4.

Explain briefly the history of road and highway construction. Summarize information on construction of flexible pavement and rigid pavement highway to meet the quality control requirement. Conduct the correct concepts of highway engineering solution to practical problem. Demonstrate positive team working attributes by contributing actively in group for laboratory tests that yields valid results.


Introduction to Highway Pre-Construction of Highway Pavement Materials Construction of Flexible Pavement Highway Construction of Rigid Pavement Highway Drainage Traffic Control Equipment and Road Furniture Flexible Pavement Design Highway maintenance



Continuous Evaluation (CE) - 100% Practical - 7 (60%) Theory Quiz - 2 min. (10%) Other Assesment 2 min. (10%) Theory Test - 2 min (20%) Final Examination - 100%


Definition- Highway Eng. is an engineering discipline branching from civil engineering which involves the design, construction and maintenance of Highway System.


Profession that involved in transportation construction of road and highway:

Surveyor Road and highway engineer Traffic engineer Geologist Structural engineer

1.3 HISTORY of DEVELOPMENT of ROADS Early Road (Laterite Road) Roman Road After Roman Road

Pierre Tresaguet John Metcalf Thomas Telford John Macadam

Modern Road
Flexible Pavement Rigid Pavement

a) Early Road (Laterite Road)

After invention of wheel, animal drawn bullock carts continued to be the popular mode of transport for quiet a long time. The first hard surface was discovered in Mesopotamia at about 3500 B.C.

Cross Section of Roman Road

b) Roman Road
Romans developed very elaborate systems of roads mainly for the purpose of military movement. The main characteristics of Roman roads were as follows:

They were very thick 1.22 metres thick. They were straight. Usually made for military purposes. Roads were not built on soft soil formations but on hard stratum reached after excavation.

c) After Roman Roads

Pierre Tresaguet John Metcalf Thomas Telford John Macadam

Cross Section of Pierre Tresaguet

Pierre Tresaguet

main characteristics of Tresaguets design were:

Improved the drainage by the formation convex. Thickness of road was about 30 cm. Wearing surface are chamber. He also emphasised the need for continuous maintenance of road to keep it in good shape.

Cross section of John Metcalf

John Metcalf

main characteristics of John Metcalfs design were:

Drainage is important to maintain strength of road. The strength of road depend to the stability of foundation layer. Used large stone at foundation layer.

Cross section of Thomas Telford

Thomas Telford

main characteristics of Telfords design were:

Used big sized stones in foundation wearing from 17 22cm to develop a firm base. Provided cross drains under foundation layer to keep the sub-grade in dry condition. Level sub-grade on embankment or cutting was prepared in the required width. It was essential that each stone of the base course should be laid perpendicular to the finished surface or sub-grade.

Cross section of John Macadam

John Macadam

main characteristics of Macadams design were:

Using entirely new concept of road construction.
Recognized the importance of sub-grade compaction and drainage. Using a broken stone layer of few centimeter thickness can sustain much heavier load than a thick layer of big size stones. Size of the aggregate to be used in wearing course was decided according to the requirements of the stability under the effect of vehicles. Subgrade was prepared and compacted to the required width of the road.

d) Modern Road

have two types:-

Flexible pavement Rigid pavenment

Flexible pavement

Flexible pavement structure are:

Road surface Road base Sub-base Sub-grade

Rigid Pavement

Rigid pavement structure are: Cement concrete Road base (optional) Sub-base course (optional) Sub-grade

1.4 Category of Highway in Malaysia


c. d. e.

Toll Highway Federal Road State Road Council/City Road Rural Road

a. Toll Highway

is supervised by Malaysia Highway Authority (LLM). Link/cities/towns/new developments in order to increase mobility & reduce congestion on federal highway For through traffic with full access control Involve grade-separated intersection Each carriageway consists of two to three traveling lanes and an emergency lane Provide facilities such as rest & relax areas, shelters for motorcyclists, emergency phone service, etc.


b. Federal Road

Roads that are gazetted under the Federal Road Ordinance Roads linking state capitals, airports, railway stations and ports Also includes roads within FELDA land schemes and those in other regional land schemes constructed with federal funds Maintenance of these roads is responsibility of the federal government Maintenance is carried out through the state JKR and funded by the federal government

c. State Road
is to join towns, cities and districts in a state. Financial allocation is obtained from the State Government or Federal Government. Construction and maintenance is the responsibility of the State Public work Department (JKR).

d. Council/city Road
is within the jurisdiction of local authority. Constructed and maintained by the local authority. Financial allocation to construct this road is obtained from local authority and subsidized by the Federal Government.

e. Rural road
This road is constructed and maintained by the District Office. Financial allocation is obtained from the State Government. Usually unpaved roads with no right of way

The organisation chart of transportation in Malaysia

1.5 Agencies that involved in highway construction

a) b) c) d) e)

Economic Planning Unit Highway Planning Unit Public Work Department (JKR) Malaysia Highway Authority (LLM) Town/City/District/Local Council

a) Economic Planning Unit

Forming & planning policies for all aspects of socioeconomic developments for the country The Infrastructure & Utilities Section plays a role in

The planning, formation and evaluation of transport policies and programs Identifying, analyzing, evaluating and coordinating all road developments plans

b) Highway Planning Unit

Conducts traffic engineering studies such as traffic volume, origindestination, traffic growth rate, vehicle speed, accident-prone areas, etc. Among the function of the HPU are: Data collection of travel characteristics and traffic operations Incorporating highway planning and land use planning Establishing the needs of the highway sector for long-term/shortterm programs Studying the feasibilities of highway projects Studying the causes of accidents, identifying areas prone to accidents and coming up with steps to reduce/prevent accidents.

c) Public Works Department (JKR)

JKR was established more than 90 years under the Public Works Ministry of Malaysia. Main service is to act as a technical advisor to the government in project management, technical consulting services and maintenance management services.

d) Malaysia Highway Authority (LLM)

LLM was established by the Parliament Act 231 (1980). LLM is responsible to implement planning, construction, supervision and monitoring all projects related to the highway.

e) Town/City/District/Local Council

Summary of the Functions of Government Agencies in Road & Transport Administration


Which one of the professions below is not involved in construction of road and highway? A. Geologist B. C. D. Traffic enginer Chemical engineer Structural engineer


In the roman era, road is used as a ......... A. B. C. D. Military purpose Trade route Farming route Administration route


using a broken stone layer of few centimeter thickness can sustain much heavier load than a thick layer of bif size stones The statement above explain the road construction concept of A. Telforfd
B. C. D. Pierre Macadam Rom