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-

-

-
2003

622:744 (075.80)
22.1513
721
, .
, . .
-
.

. ..
: - ( ); . - ... .. ().

..
721 . : /
.., .., ... - ( ). , 2003. 73 .
ISBN 5-94211-142-1.
622:744 (075.80)
22.1513

ISBN 5-94211-142-1

-
. .., 2003 .


, , , , 1, 2, 3,
AB, CD, , 12, 34,
, , ,
, 1, 2,
1, 2, 3
4, 5
x, y (y1 y3), z
x1, x2, 2/1, 1/4,
i (i, i)
x, y, z
x, y, z
x, y, z
, , C, ; A, B, C, ;
A, B, C,
AIV, BIV, CIV, ; AV, BV, CV,
0, 0, C0, ; K10 , K 20 ,

K30 ,
A, B, C,
h0 , f 0 , p0


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X , Y , Z
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(6) ; (7) ; (8) ;
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5


1
, . K, ,
. , , K
.
A

y3

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

y1

. 1

.1.2
.1.1

.1.1.
1. (.1.2), :
(1) K;
(2) K;
(3) ;
(4) ;
(5) ;
(6) .
2. (1) . , (.1.3) x, y, z,
:
x = x, y = y, z = z.
, y
, y :
yA = OAy1 = OAy3.
x = x, z = z:
z
A

Az

x
Ax

Ay

y3

O
Ax

Az
Ay1

Ay

y1

y1

.1.3

.1.4

y3

= (x x) (z z).
y = y , zA = z:

z
Az

= (y y3) (z z).

Ay


x, y , z.

Ax

3. ()
(.1.4),
x = x; y = y1:

= (x x) (y y1).

.1.5

1 .
3

3 1 ( ).
4. (2) (. .1.2) . kx = 1; ky = 0,5; kz = 1 (.1.5).
:
O = x, y = 0,5y, z = z.
5. , , (.1.6):
= ( y) (y x);
= ( z) (z x);
= (y z) (Az y).
6. (.1.7):
() z; () y; () x.
7. (3) (. .1.2) . (.1.8):
x = x, y = y = yB(y = 0 By By ), z = z.
1

8. () (.1.9). y = y z = z:
3

= (y y3) (z z).
3

Bz; z.
A

A
z

A
Az

A
x

Az

Ay
Ax

Ay

A
x

Ax

.1.6

.1.7

By1 O

x y3

By1 By3 O

y1

y1

.1.8

.1.9

x y3

9. (4) (. .1.1) (.1.10):


x = x; y = 0,5y; z = z
(y = 0 By ).
10. , , (.1.11):
= (x y) (y x), x;
= (x z) (z x);
= (y z) (z y), z.
11. :
() z; () y; () x.
2 . , .1.9 , ,
.
12. (5) (. .1.2) . (.1.12):
x = x , y = y = y , z = z
1

(x = 0; z = 0 x z ).

Bz

Bz

Bx

By

Bx

O
By
y

y
.1.10

.1.11

z
y

x z O

C Cy

y3

x x z O

C Cy

y3

y1

y1

.1.12

.1.13

13. () (.1.13), x = x = 0, z = z = 0. x, Cz .
14. (6) (. .1.2)
(.1.14):
x = x = 0; y = 0,5y; z = z = 0.
15. , , (.1.15):
= (x y) (y x), y;
= (x z) (z x), ;
= (y z) (z y), y.
16. :
() z; () y; () x.
C y .
17. K, (
).
K. K
, :
) ( ), K ;
) ( x, y z),
;
) ( 1, 2 3),
, .
z

z
x

O
Cx Cz

O
Cx Cz

Cy

Cy
y

y
.1.15

.1.14

z
A

Az
Ay Ky

Az
Ay Ky

K A

y3

x
Ax Kx

Ax Kx Ay3 Ky3

y3

O
Ay Ky
3

Kz

Kz

y1

.1.16

y1

.1.17

1, , z:
xK = x, yK = y, zK = -z;
Kx = x, Ky = y, Kz = z.

K. Kx, Ky (Ky Ky ) Kz (.1.16).
1

18. K (K, K K) (.1.17) .


19. K (.1.18) .
20. K.
.
, K (.1.18) , , II , K III.

(.1).
1

A
A

Az

Ay

A K
x

Ax Kx

x
+
+

O
y

z
+

K , , II , K III.

(
2, y).
.2.
2

K
K

II

Kz

K
.1.18

10

K
III

2
.
.
, . , .
z

.2.1.
1. (.2.2).
(. 1).

(). Ax, Ay , Ay , Az x, y , y , z
1

A
x

y3

.
2. .

( = 1) (.2.3).
x:

y1

. 1
.2.1

= x.
, M, :
= ( x).
y3:
= y3.
, , .

A
x
Ax

Az

y3

x M

y3 Ay3

y1
Ay1

M
y1

y1
.2.2

.2.3

11

M y3

z
N

N = x.

x M

M y3

3. (N = 2)
(.2.4).


x:


, N:
N = (NN x).


z:

y1

N = z.

.2.4

z
N

x M

= y1.

y3


z:

= z.

y1


, P:

N
(N N).
4. ( = 3)
(.2.5).


y1:

.2.5

= ( z).
, , ( ).
5. .
, , , ,
(. ). 1. , (.2.6).
12


, , , :

zAB = z z.

zAB

0. 0 , , 0. 1 0

1.
6. ,

. I ,
(x, y, z) . , ,
,
I .
I
( )
IV ,
(
) V . V
N (
) VI
.

( +
):
MP
I

PN
V

x M

M y3

zAB
M

0
y1
.2.6

z
VI
N N

N
V

P P

I
A

N +
VI

7.

(.2.7).

x M
M
IV

M M
IV

M
y

.2.7

13


3
. .

.3.1.

1. (
); ,
A
D
; .. y
x
O 3

. ,

,
. y

D
1
, ,
.3.1
.
2. CD (.3.2, . 2).
3.
(.3.3). h0 M1 M 2 , .
f 0 N1 N 2 , .
4. h0 f 0
z
N 2

X :
C

h0 f 0 = X; X .

N1

K
A
x

N 2

M1

M 2 N1

O y3

X
,

.
5. h0 f 0
y1 z Y Z.
1

6. Y

K
D

M 2

y1

M 1

y1 ( )
y3, Y .
3

Y Z

.3.2

p0 .
14

N 2

z
f 0

N1

K
A
x

N 2

p0

M 2 N 1

M 1

X y3

M1

M 2

h0

y1

.3.3

7. : , I ( h0 , f 0 p0 ).
8. Y Z ,
1

p0 , .

15

4
, ,
. .
.4.1.
1. f 0
.

,
(
A
.4.2 ).
y3
x X

, , .
(h0
N1 , N 2 , N 3
y1
f 0 , N1 , N 2 , N3
x).
.4.1
h0 N1 , N2 , N3 .
2. , , , ,
, , , . , , , .
3. , , , (. 1),
, , (.4.3).
4. (.4.4). :
z

= f 0 z, 1 = h0 y1.
y1 y3,
1

p 0 .
z

f 0

N1

N 2

y3

N3 N1 N 2

x
X

h0

N 3

N3 N1

N1

N3

N 2

N 2

f 0

h0

y1

y1
.4.3

.4.2

16

y3

5.
,
p0 ,
,
,
(.
2 3).

z
Z

p0

f 0

N 2

N1

N 3
N3 N1

x
X

N 2

h0

y3
Y3

Y1
y1
.4.4

17

,

5
, K .
5.1. (.5.1)

f 0
f 0

K
K

x
K

h0

h0
.5.2

.5.1

1. K , (.5.2) :
K ;
K h0 .
2. (.5.3):
( N) ;
( N)
, N, .
3. N f 0 f 0
(.5.4). f 0 x , h0 h0 .
f 0

f 0

f 0

N
x

h0

h0

X
h0

.5.4

.5.3

18

N
N

5.2. (.5.5)
1.


, 1
2 (.5.6):

B
C
K
x
B

1 ; 2 .
1
2 .
2. K ,

(.5.7):
K ;
K

1 .
3.
N (N, N) .
4. . f 0

.5.5

B
2
1

C
K

B
K
1

N :

N f 0 ; f 0 2.
.5.6

f 0 B

.

:

f 0

2
1

h0 ; h0 1.

N
x

X
B

N
K

1
h0

.5.7

19

6
. .
.6.1.
1. .
,
. ( ), (.6.2),
:
= h0 h0 ; M x.

f 0

f 0

x X

X
h0

h0

2.
,
, .6.1
, (.6.3),
( f 0 x). . N1 h0 , N 2 h0 .
f 0

N1

N 2

f 0

f 0

f 0

f 0

h0

h0

N1

h0

N 2

h0

.6.3

.6.2

3. K (.6.4). K
f 0 K.
f 0

N1

N 2

f 0

f 0
N1 M

N 2

K
h0

K (K, K) .
4. , , , K
K.
:
, I .

h0

.6.4

20

7
LT . .
7.1. (.7.1)
T

f 0

f 0

f 0

L
X

L
h0

h0

h0

.7.2

.7.1

1. LT
, - (.7.2):
f 0 LT; h0 x.
2. N (.7.3):
= h0 h0 ; ;
N = f 0 f 0 ; N x.
, .
3. K LT N:
K = LT N;
f 0

f 0

N
K

f 0

N3
1

x X

x X

L
K

h0

T
f 0

3
K

h0

12
T

T
h0

h0

M
M

.7.3

.7.4

21

K , K,
LT.
4. LT , (.7.4). 1 2.
. LT h0 1 2,
LT, .
1 LT;
1 (1 2)

2 h0 .

1 2:
1 LT, 2 x.
1 1 2. ,
1, LT, , 2. , K , . KL
.

2. LT f 0 ,
LT, :
2 (3 N)

3 LT;
.
N f 0

3 N ( N ):
3 LT, N x.
2 3 N, , KT , KL .
7.2. (.7.5)
1. LT - (.7.6):
B

f 0

C
L

L
x

T h
0

.7.5

.7.6

22

h0 LT,

f 0 x.

f 0

2. EF
(.7.7):

T
K

E = A h0 ;

E
,
, AB;

F = C h0 ;

L
E

F
,
, AC.
3.
K LT EF:

h0
.7.7

K
,
K, LT.
4. LT

(.7.8).

LT ,
, 1 =
= LT AB:
1 (1 )

K = LT EF;
B

f 0

E
23

K
1

L
x

C
F

B
L

1 LT;

2
1 E
3

E AB.

T
F
h0
A

1 E 1,
,
1K .7.8

ABC.

LT , ,
2 3 = LT AB:
2 LT;
2 (2 3)
3 .
2 3 2, , 2K .

23

8
. .
8.1. , (.8.1)

B
f 0

f 0

N1

f 0

K1

C
C

x X

x X

N1

h0

A
B

K1

h0

A
h0

.8.1

B
.8.2

M 1

1. , ,
, . ,
.
2. K1 B
f 0
N 2
(. 7):
C , f 0
f 0

-
N1
(.8.2), K 2
K1

1N1
C
M 2
X
N1
x X
K1
X
K1 K1 .

K1

3. K 2
K2 B h0
: A
, M 2
-h0
(.8.3), B
h0
M1

.8.3
2N2
B 24

K2
K 2 K 2 .
4. K1 K2,
ABC, K1K2 K1K 2
K1K 2 (.8.4).
5.

, : 1 2
2 N1
(. 7).

f 0

f 0

N 2

N1 2

f 0
K 2

K1

C
x X

M 2

N1

K 1
K 2

h0

M 2 1

h0

h0

M1

.8.4

8.2. (.8.5)
1. , , ,
:
;
, .
B

f 0

E
x

F
C
B

K 1

C
X

x
B

F
A

h0

E
D

K1

E
1

.8.5

D
.8.6

25

B
f 0

D
4
K 2

K1

f 0

X
B

h0

3
K 2

K1

2. K1 ( K1, K1 ) AC
EDF (.8.6):
, - ;
12
EDF;

K1 = 12

K1 .

3. K2
( K 2 , K 2 )
, BC
EDF (.8.7).

- , 34 EDF
K2:

h0

.8.7

B
f 0

D
4
K 2

K1

16
E

3
5

2
f 0

B
A

K 2 = BC 34;

h0

6
E

K1

K 2

45

1
2

K 2 .

h0

.8.8

4. , EDF, K1K2
( K1K 2 K1K 2 ) (.8.8).
5.
.

,

DF:
4 (DF);

1 (4 5)

5 (BC).

4 5 , 4 5,
DF . ,
EDF , , 26

, DF K1K2, .

, EF EDF.
, D:
1 (ED);

2 (1 6)

6 (AC).

1 6, , 1 . , 2 ED ,
DF , .
, ED K1K2, . , ,
EF EDF.

27

9
K .
9.1. (.9.1)

f 0

K
K

f 0

h0
h0

K
K

.9.1

.9.2

1. K (.9.2):
K f 0 , K h0 .
2. (. 7),
, (.9.3). L (L, L) .
3. KL
(. 2): ( KL, zKL = KK0). K0L (.9.4).

N
X

f 0

K
zKL

f 0

f 0

f 0

N
L

N
X

N
L

h0

h0

h0
h0

K0
zKL

K
.9.3

K
.9.4

28

9.2. (.9.5)
K
B
B

A
A

.9.5

.9.6

1. (.9.6) (, 1) (, 2).
2. K : K
2, K 1 (.9.7).
3. (.
7), , - . L, L L, .
4. KL
(. 2). KLK0 (
KL, KL = KK0).
K0L (.9.8).
yKL
K
B

2
3
1

4
f 0
X

3
1

4
f 0
X

C
x

4
A

2
B

.9.7

4
1
3
K

1
3

h0

.9.8

29

L
h0

yKL

K0

10
, 1 m, 2 n, , l.
10.1. (.10.1)
1. m, n l 2:1.
2.
m 1 ( 1
f 0 x)

l
m
n

f 0

(.10.2). h0
(. 6).
3.
n 2
( 2 h0 x)

h0

.10.1

(.10.3). f 0 .
4. () ( ) K (K, K), 1
m, 2 n.
5. K K h0 , K f 0
(.10.4). L (L, L)
KL (. 2): KLL0 , KL, zKL. KL0 KL.
6. KL0 l = KS0
(.10.5). S0 , L0L KL S.
S. KL
S (S). KS KS l.

f 0

f 0

f 0

f 0

K
m

M
n

h0

M
h0

.10.2

.10.3

30

h0

f 0

f 0

f 0

K
zKL

zKL

f 0

h0

M
L0

l
L0
h0

zKL

h0

L h
zKL 0

S0

.10.4

.10.5

10.2. (.10.6)
1. m, n l 2:1.
2.
m 1 (.10.7)
12 ()
() .
3.
n 2 (.10.8)
34 ()
() .
4.
() ( )
K (K, K), 1 m, 2 n.

A
B
.10.6

B
f 0

B
f 0

l
m
n

K
4

h0

3
2

A
1

.10.8

.10.7

31

4
K

B
1

4
C

zKL

f 0

h0

4
2

A
1
B

L
L0
.10.9

zKL
B
2

K
4

S
C

h0

l
1
B

.10.10

S0

L0
zKL

32

zKL

f 0

5. K
(.10.9):
K 12, K 34.
L (L, L)

KL (. 2). KLL0
KL0 KL.
6. KL0 (
) :
l = KS0 (.10.10).
7. S0
, L 0L, KL S.
S K L,
S (S ).
KS
KS KS l.

11
, KL .
11.1. (.11.1)
f 0
f 0

L
K

K
X

x
L

h0

h0

K
.11.1

.11.2

1. KL, K, (.11.2): h0 ;
f 0 . ( KL ).
, 3.
2. KL (.11.3). M1 M 2 h0 ;
N1 N 2 f 0 (.11.4).
: h0 f 0 x.
f 0

N1

K
x M 1

M 2 N 2

M 2

N 2

X M 2 N2

x M 1

N1

M 2

L
h0

h0

K
.11.4

.11.3

33

N1

X
N 2

L
h0

M1

M1

N1

f 0

K
X

f 0

11.5. (.11.5)
K

x
K

C
x
K

A
B

A
2

.11.5

B
.11.6

1.
, 1 (1, 1) 2 (2, 2) (.11.6).
2.
KL, N1
L,
ABC: K
B

N
2
2
1;
1

L
2.
C
x
N1
N 2
M 1
, M 2
3.
K
3.
KL
(.11.7). 1
A
2
M1 M 2
L

B
h0 ;
M
1

M 2
.11.7

N1 N 2

f 0
(.11.8).

34

: h0

N1

f 0

x.

,


.

f 0

B
K

N2

2
1

L
C

N1

N2

M1
M 2

A
2

M1
.11.8

35

h0

M 2


12
, ,
.
12.1. (.12.1)
1. K (K K) (.12.2) . 7.
2. K , , , 1 ( , 2).

i (.12.3), K x, i, K.
3. , ,
i. :

f 0

h0

.12.1

i f 0 f 0 i.
4. (.12.4):
= i; OA = f 0 i;
OA i.

f 0

N1

N1

x X

K i

h0

h0
h0

h0

.12.3

.12.2

36

f 0

N 2

N1

f 0

f 0

N1

x X

f 0

N 2

5.
:
( OA ).
6. ,
.
:
N 2 h0 .
7. i
,
.
() OA , () f 0 . -

f 0

f 0
N1

N 2

OA

f 0

X
N1

N 2

K i OA
h0

h0


OA
OA
.
()
f 0 . -

M
.12.4

, .
, , ,
.
,
f 0
i
f 0

OB
3

.
f 0
;
,
.
8.
(.12.5),
.
9.
( , )
(,) . K
,
i,
:
K A B ; K AB .

N1

OA

N 2

X
N1

N3

N 2

K i OA OB

h0

h0

M
.12.5

37

f 0

12.2. (.12.6)
1. K (K K) EDF
(.12.7) . 7.
2. K i
(.12.8), 2:

F
A
D

i x; i K.
E

3. EDF
, .
:

i h0 h0 i.
.12.6

4.
( = i, .12.9):
OA = h0 i;

OA i.

5. :
( OA ).
6. ,
. 34
EDF.
7. i EDF .
EDF .
() OA , 34
EDF:
B

E
K

E
2

2
1

3
A

A
x

K i

D
E

E
2
1

h0

h0

A
D

K
3

F
i

.12.7
.12.8

38

h0

B
E

E
K i OA

3
A
x

B
4
F

D
E
5

2
A

K i

h0

K
OA

h0

h0

h0

B
2

K
3

4
F

h0

D
i

i
.12.10

.12.9

34.
() h0 :

h0 .
7. ,
(.12.10). , EDF , ..
56 34.
8. (,) (,)
EDF :
K A B ; K AB .

39

13
, , .
.13.1.
B

B
A

C
K

D
D
K

A
A
C

C
B

B
.13.2

.13.1

B
.13.3

4.4.
. [3].
, , ,
. ,
B
(.13.2).

,
, , , , C
1
(.13.3).
1. ABC
A
, x
1,
.
A
2. ABC, ,
C C1
(.13.4):
1
C1 x; 1 AB.
C

B
.13.4

. ,
, ,
:

C .

.
40

3. 1 (.13.5):
h0 1 B C1 ( -; ).
4. () :
OB = h01 C1;

OB 1.

5. ( OB ) ( OB ) .
(RB) , OB , , z.
6. ().
RB, OB , 1 :
h0
1;
h0

OB = R.

7. . 1 (1 ) , 1
h02 (.13.6).
8. , , .

OB

zB

zB

h01

OB

h01

1 OA

OB

A
h02
1

OB

RB

OA

RB
B0

C C

B0

C C

zB

B
B

.13.5

.13.6

41

zB

14
, R , .
.
14.1. (.14.1)

f 0

R
h0

R = 12
.14.1

1. () (.14.2) . 4.
2.

h0 . h0 , ,
; X
.
f 0 ,
1, .
1 N1 (N1 f 0 ).
1 N1:
N1 h01 ; h01 h0 .

N1 X N1 h01 .
3. N1 X f 0 .
4. 1 N1O,
N1 h0 .
N1

f 0

N1

N 1

N1

h01

h0

f 0

N1

h01

N1

f 0

f 0

h02

h02

.14.2

R
.14.3

42

h0

5. 1 . :
h02 ; h02 h0 .

f 0

N1

() ,
N1 , h02 .

N 2

N 2 N1

6.
R
(.14.3). , .

, ,
.
7. . .
(.14.4).

1 :

N 2

N1

h01

f 0

h0

h02

R
.14.4

f 0

N 2 h0 .
f 0 N 2 N2 .
( N 2 x)
( N 2 h0 ).

, , h02

N3

N1
N 2

N 2

.
h02 . -

N 2 N1 N3

N1
N3

h01

.
8.
(.14.5)
. , .

f 0 h03

h0

h02

h04
.14.5

43

14.2. (.14.6)
f 0
f 0

f 01

x
R

h0

M1

h0

O
R = 14
1
.14.6

h0
.14.7

1. . -, h0 (.14.7).
2. f 0 2. h0 x.
3. , 1,
2. M1 M 1 ,
2 f 0 .
:
f 01 ; f 01 f 0 .
f 0 2

f 0

C
R

f 01

f 03

x h0

M 2

M1

M 3

X
B C
M1
A D
h0

.14.8

44


f 01 ,
().
4.
R (.14.8).
5. ABCD .
( h0 ) .
.

15

.
.15.1.
1. [3, 4.1]. ,
. , .
2. (.15.2)
( ) ( ). , :

f 0

X
x

h0

h0 , x;

.15.1

x, f 0 .
3. 4 , , .. 4 4 (), 4 1. x1 , ,
h0 , .
4.


4.
f 0

4.
f 0 N

N c N N
X
x 2
N
4: N 1

x1,
z N. h0 x1
X1 X1 N IV
h0

f IV .
0

5.
4 (.15.3): ,
x1 z

X1
1
x1 4
.15.2

45

N IV
f 0IV


f 0

x 2 X
1

h0

BIV C IV

1
x1

AIV

X1
N IV

f 0IV

.15.3

. . -,
4 , , -, IVBIVC IV
f 0IV
.
6. h 4
.

46

16

. ,
.
16.1. (.16.1)
1.


. 4
, , 1
(.16.2):

C
A
x

4 () 4 1.

x1
.16.1
().
2. CD 4. , ,
D x1 , z , , D IV, BIV, IV DIV. IV BIV,
IV DIV .
3. 5 : 5 4 5 ()
(.16.3). x2 IVBIV.
4. IV , BIV, IV
IV

D
C
,
.
A
VBV
D
V V
D 5. x 2

1
,
CD .
5.
V
V
D
h B

VDV
AB D.
6.

1
DIV

x1 4
CD EF
AIV
IV
IV IV
( E F
2,
EVFV
C IV
5 .16.2
EF).
47


C
E
F

D
x 2
1
E

x1

F
x2

DIV

1
4

IV

AIV
C

DV

F IV

IV

V V FV

IV

CV
.16.3

16.2. (.16.4)
1. .
: (.16.5)
4 () (CD) 4 1,
(.16.6)
D

5 (), 5 (CD) 5 4.

C
A
x
D

.16.4


5 .
2. AB D
V BV V DV. h .
3. ,
. 4 DIV ( C IVDIV) x2.
DE DE
(.16.6).

48

C
A
x 2
1
D

1
x1

4
AIV

IV

CIV

DIV
.16.5

C
A

2
1
D

1
x1

IV

IV

IV

x2

5
V V V
h

DIV

C IV

CV DV
.16.6

49

17
LT .
17.1. (.17.1)

f 0

T
1

L
X

1
T0

L
h0

L
.17.2

.17.1

1.
, .. 1 (.17.2). ,
. TL , 2,
, 1 90: 1 = 90 2.
2. TL, T,
(.17.3): f 0 , h0 .
3. , TL , , L, L1 (.17.4).
4. 1TL , , 1TL. L1 TL1 ,
1 (.17.5). L 1, , . T.
T

T
f 0

f 0

L
x

h0

h0

T
.17.3

.17.4

50

:
h0 , h0 1L.

T
h0

zT

f 0

( OT , OT ) :


( OT ) ( OT ) .

OT TT0, OT T
zT.
T
OT T0 OT

T h0 .

1 O
T

OT = h0 1L,
OT 1L.

90

1
OT

L
h0

T
zT
T0
.17.5

T L1 TL1, 2 TL .
5. 2 90. TL 1 = 90 2.
17.2. (.17.6)
T

B
2
T

C
x

T
A

1
T

L
B

2
L

.17.6

.17.7

51

2
1

L
C

1
T
A

2
L

B
.17.8

zL

2
1

L
3

OL
1

90
zL
L

90
1

L
h0

.17.9

52

L0

1. , 1 (1,
1), 2 (2,
2)
(.17.7).
2.
TL, L,
ABC:

1;

2.
3. (.17.8)
TL

T3 (T3 T3).
4.
T3
TL3 L
(.17.9
17.1).
5. 2 , TL .
2 90.

TL 1, 90 2.

18
.
18.1. (.18.1)

f 0

2 1

h0

.18.2
.18.1

1. , , (.18.2, MN). , (, K) .
, 90. , 1,
1 90, 2 = 180 1, 1 90.
2. K K K (.18.3).
3. K : , , .
f 0 , h0 .
2

f 0
,
1
1 2.



K
2,

x X
1.
4. , K

, 2
34 (.18.4). 1

34
K34 , h0
1,
.18.3
K34 ,
53

, , (.
13).
3 4

.
K.
h0 -

4
2

zK

f 0

K
x

X
K0

zK

2
1

OK = h0 34.

K.
K 34.
K ( OK ) h0 34:

OK
h0

K
h0
.18.4

K OK K0.

K .
5.
1 90, .
1 90,
, 180
1.

18.2. (.18.5)
1. MN (.18.6) . 7.
2.
,
,
f 0
f 0
X
x X
.


h0
4 5 :
h0
4 1 4 MN, 5 4 5 MN.
3. (.18.7) x1 MN .18.5
IVN IV 4.
54

N
f 0

f 0

f 0

x X

x 2 X
1

M
h0

f 0

N
M
h0

h0

h0

M
.18.6

M IV

1
x1

N IV
.18.7

4. 1/4 (.18.8):
1 = h0 x1;
1 = h0 x1,
IV
f 0IV
f 0 :

IV IV
IV
f 0IV
f 0 N .

5. x2 IVN IV VN V 5 (.18.9).
5 MN M V N V.
6. 4/5:
2 = f 0IV
x2;
2 = f 0IV
x2,

f 0V

f 0V

f 0V

N
f 0

f 0

= (2M );

f 0V = (2M V).

7. 1
f 0V f 0V

x 2 X
1

M
h0

90, .
1
90, ,
180 .
1
90,
.

h0

M IV

1
x1

N IV
f 0IV

.18.8

55

f 0IV

N
f 0

2 X
1

f 0

f 0IV

N
M
h0

f 0V

h0

M IV

1
x1

N IV
f 0IV

MV NV
2
4
5
x2

.18.9

56

f 0V


19
. . .
19.1. (.19.1)
1.
, ..
SA, SB SC . ,
(. 7).
1, SA
. SA ,
- (.19.2):
SA f 0 ; h0 x.
1N1 :

f 0

A
A

C
B

h0

N1 = f 0 f 0 ; N1 x;
.19.1

M1 = h0 h0 ; M1 A ( M 1 )

1 SA :
1 = M1N1 SA; 1 SA.
2. 2 3, SB SC
(.19.3). 123 f 0
f 0 S
SABC
.
3. , ,
N1
,

.
1

B
C
A
x
1
N1
C
12 ,
A

1
SAB.
1
2 13,
B

S
h0
SAC.
h0
.19.2

57

f 0

f 0

f 0

f 0

N3

N 2

N1

N1

N2

N3

1
3

M 1

B
M 2

h0
h0

.19.3

f 0

1V

h0

x1
4
2

f 0

f 0

1IV

N 3

3IV

2IV

N 2
N1

3
x

N1

B
N3

N 2

A
1
3

M1

B
M 2
h0

.19.4

2V

f 0

h0

h0

h0
58

M 3
h0

x2

4. , (.19.4). 4
4 2 4
123 ( 4
1IV3IV2IV). 5
5 4, 5 (123).
123 5 (1V2V3V)
.
19.2. (.19.5)
1. ABCDEF (.19.6). ,
, , : 1 2
h0 c
.
2. ,
.
3 .
(, - ).
M1N1
:
M1 = h0 h0 , M1

( M 1 );
N1 = f 0 f 0 , N1 .

3:
3 M 1N1

, 3
, .
3. , 4 5,

(.19.7).
4. 2, 3, 4, 5
1
(.19.8). , 12.

f 0

BF
A

f 0

O
h0
.19.5

O
CE
D

f 0

N1

N1

3
2
C

B
O

D
3
M1

E
h0

h0
.19.6

59

f 0

f 0

f 0

f 0

BFO CE
D
N1
N 2
N 3

4
N1

B
O

5
2 N3

3
N 2
4

5 1

M 3

3
M1

M 2

E
h0

h0

h0

h0

.19.7

f 0
f 0

f 0

f 0

BF CE
D
A
N1

N 2
N3

N1

B
O

N
2 3

3
N 2
4

M 3

3
M1

M 2

E
h0

h0
.19.8

60

h0

h0

5.
f 0
. 1
, 4
N1
N 2
1-2-3-4 , N3
3
5
, 2
1
X
x
2 N1
3-4-5-1.
5
6. 4
N 3
, 1
5
. 3
N 2
,
2

h0
N1


3
4
f 0
(.19.9).
7.
1
.19.9
h0 (. 14).
, 3, 4 5. f 0 . 1
h0 .
8. 1 2 , h0 , . 3,4 5 , 3, 4 5 h0 ,
. 1- 2-3-4-5 .

61

20
LT .
. .
20.1. (.20.1)
1. LT , - (.20.2).
S
2. 123.
L
3. K1 K2 TL ( 123) T
C
x A
B
.
L
C
4.

: 1 A
S
, K1
B
SB; 2 , K 2
T
SA.
5. .20.1

. ABC , , .
SA, SB SC . i, 1
S (.20.3).
S

f 0

f 0

L
K 2

2
K1

1
T

X x A

B C

L
A

S
K 2

B C
3

K1

Si
K 2
B C
T

.20.2
.20.3

62

A
h0

K1

B C
L

h0

K 2

2
K1

SA. SA i , 2. i ,
x.

x.
S A
SA. S B S C , SB SC.
6.

(.20.4).
S0, S0A0.
SA,
S A . 0 R1 = , S0 R2 = S C
0.
S 0C 0

S0C0B0,
:

S0

K10

K 20

A0
D0

A0
R1
E0

C0

B0

A0

.20.4

i
S
f 0

K 2

S0B0 = S B 0B0 = CB.


S0B0A0.
7. 000.
00, 00, 00,
.
8.
K1 K2
LT .
S SE SD
(.20.5) :

R2

T
X

B C

B C

L
A

K1

K1

x A

K 2

h0

K1

Si

1
E
B

K1

K 2 B C

2
K 2

B0E0 = BE ; A0D0 = AD.

.20.5


S K1 K2
:
S K 1 = S0 K10 ; S K 2 = S0 K 20 .
63

20.2. (.20.6)
C 2

A2

B2

K 2

C 2 B
2

A2

2 L
K1

L
T

T
A1

x
A1

B1

C1
B1

A2

B2

L
C2

1
A1

B1
C1

A1

C1

T
A2

.20.7

B1

K1
B2

.20.6

f 0

2
K 2

C1

C2
3
1. , - (.20.7).
2.
C2 B2
A2
K 2
f 0
123. K1 K2
L
TL
2
K1
.
3
T
3.
1
1 2.
A1
C1 B1
2
4.

.
1
A1
1
T
, 1
B1
D
K1
.
A2
B2
G

IV
2
G
, E
C1
K 2
L
F
C1IV
IV
.
D
IV
B1IV
A
1
5. 3
C2
4,
1 1
(.20.8). 4
1 4

IV
IV
( A1IV A2IV , B1IV B2IV C1IVC2IV ).
K1
K2
6. B1B2

1221 (.20.9). 1 2
B2IV
, ,
F IV
IV
IV
.
A2
.20.8
EIV C2
64

A2

C2

B2 K
2

f 0

2 L
K1

T
1

C1

A1

2

1

B1

A1

A2

K1

B1

D
B2

2
K 2

L
DIV

IV
3 A1

C2

G GIV
C1
B1IV
IV
C1
B10

1
4
K1IV

D0

C10

A10

K 2IV

G 0 B0
1

B2IV
IV

A2IV

EIV 2

IV

K10
K20
A20

E0

.20.9

C20

F0

B20

20

A1IV B1IVB2IV , A1. B1IV R,


11 (11 = A1B1 ). ,
A1IV , A10 . A20 .
A10 B1IV B2IV A20 1122.

7. C10C20 A20 A10 B10 B20C20C10 .


A10 B10C10 A20 B20C20 . .
8. K1 K2. K1
ED, K2 FG, (.
.20.8). K1 K2
4 .
65

20.3. (.20.10)
S
T
x

S
T
.20.10

M 2

h0

M 2

.20.11

x M2

O
2
h0

M 2

1.
,
.
LT, , S LT,
(.20.11).
2.
LT ( M1 ) ST ( M 2 ).
h0 .
3. h0 , 1, 1 2.

S12 (.20.12).
S
4.
LT (K1
K2)
(.20.13).
5.


L
: 1 M 1
, K1 ,
M1
2 K1K 2 .
L
6. .
S
(.20.14),
134567.
7.

i, S
1 S,
. 1

L
i , M1
.

M1
( S 1 ,
L
S 2 ..).

S
, , ,
.

.20.12

66

8. S
(.20.15)
T K
(. 20.1).
1

K 2
60, 50, 40
L
M1
x M 2
O
, S0.
M1
9.
L
O
, 2
S
K 2

K1
h0
( 1
T

M 2
, ,
.20.13

).
10. K1 K2 .
( S1, K1, )
i
S

M 2

K1

K1

K 2

L
O

M1

6
7

h0

K 2
26 75 14 3

M 1

K 2

S i

K1

M 2

.20.14

67

2 6 75 143

S0

60
K20

K10

50

40
70

30
10

20 60

S K1 K2 S K1 S K 2 (.
. 20.13 20.14).
11. K1
S0 S010
S K1 , SK.
K2 60 62 607010 ... 20. S020
S0 S K 2 , SK2. K10
K20 K1 K2, .

0
.20.15

20.4. (.20.16)
1. ( ,
L
) LT ,
T
.
O1
x
LT,
: O1O2 ,
O1
T
O1O2 (.20.17).
2. , ,

h0
L
O2
. LT ( M1 ) , ( M 2 ).
.20.16
3. 1 2 h0
(.20.18) ,
, 1234
( 23 14 ). LT
(K1 K2) LT .
4. LT : 1 , K 2 ,
2 LT, .
5. .
DEF (.20.19).
O2

68

6. ,

4,
1 (.20.20). 4
, 1, , z (
1, z ).
7. BC B ,
4 (.20.21). C , B ( ), B , BC.
C0. ,
.
8.
, , 4.
9. BIV, C0,
D0, E0, ...

.
10.
. 1 ,

.
.
11.
K1 K2 23 14,
4 ( 2IV3IV
1IV4IV . . 20.20),
( 2030 1040 . .20.21).
K1 K2 4 ( K1IV

O2

T
M 2

O1

M 2
h0

M 1

M 1

O1

O2

.20.17

O2

L
K 2

K1

T
O1

2
1

M1

M 2

M1

M 2

O1

h0

K1
3

K 2

O2

K 2IV ) ( K10 K 20 ).

.20.18

69

A B F C E
D
O2

L
K 2

K1

T
O1

2
1

M 1

M 2

O1

M 2

M1

K1

h0

K 2

K 2

O2

F
.20.19

A B F C ED
O2

K1

2
1

h0

M 1

M 2

O1

2

1

M 2

O1

M1

K1

B
1

C
3

IV

K 2
2IV

O2

K1IV

1
4 1

K 2IV

4IV
AIV BIV
C IV F IV
.20.20

70

3IV

DIV EIV

A B F C E
D
O2

K 2

K1

M 2

O1

2
1

2
1

h0

M 1

M1

M 2

O1

K1

B
1

IV

K 2
2IV

10

O10

O2

20

K1IV
K10

1
4 1

K 2IV
4IV

K20

C IV F IV
C0
40 A
0

B0

AIV BIV

30

F0

D0
E0
O20

.20.21

71

3IV

DIV EIV

1. .. / .., ..,
... 7- ., . .: , 2000. 320 .
2. .. : . / .., ..-. 24-
., . .: , 2000. 272 .
3. . , : / .., .., .. . / - -. , 2002. 94 .
4. .. : / .., ... : ,
1999. 453 .

5. .. : . . .:
, 1978. 445 .
6. .. . : . . .: ,
1981. 296 .
7. - / .., .., .. . .: , 1976. 263 .
8. : / ..,
.., .. . 3- ., . . .: , 1984. 192 .
9. .. : . . .:
, 1984. 287 .
10. .. : . / ..,
... 2- ., . . .: , 1984. 103 .
11. .. 200 . .: , 1992. 143 .
12. .. : / .., .. / -. , 1998. 36 .
13. .. - : . / .., ..,
... .: , 1991. 318 .
14. .. : .
. .: , 1986. 175 .

72


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73

3
4
4
6
6
11
14
14
16
18
18
20
21
24
28
30
33
36
36
40
42
45
47
50
53
57
57
62
72