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4.

4.1. ?

, ,
U = [ f ( x)]
, ,
U%= [ f ( x)] , .
r :
f ( x) ( x, c ) ,
r
, U%= [ f ( x)] = [ ( x, ) ].


. f(x)
, ,
.
f(x) .

4.2.
d m f / dx m x
. x x1, x2 , ..., xn (n
m+1), ( x ).
yi = f ( xi )

(3.6)
d m Pn1 / dx m
( )
n
: d m f / dx m m
[ f ] = d m Pn1 / dx m .
n=m+1
x , .. m-
m- Pm(x) .
.

(m)
max
f
( x)
m
d f
n
x
(4.1)
= max
m[ f ]
max x xi Ch nm ,
m
x1 < x < xn dx
i
( n m)
h = max xi xi 1 ; C = const , n m + 1
, x
. , ,
x. , h0
39

n-m 1, n,
h ( ).
,
(3.7):
df dP1
y y

= 12[ f ( x)] = 2 1 ; x1 x x2 .
(4.2)
dx dx
h
(4.2)
:
df dP2
y y
y 2 y2 + y3

= 13[ f ( x)] = 2 1 + (2 x x1 x2 ) 1
.
(4.3)
dx dx
h
2h 2

x1 x x3
, .
, (4.3)
:
df ( x2 )
y y
= 13[ f ( x2 )] = 3 1 ;
(4.4)
dx
2h
df ( x1 )
3 y 4 y2 + y3
= 13[ f ( x1 )] = 1
;
(4.5)
dx
2h
df ( x3 )
y 4 y2 + 3 y3
= 13[ f ( x3 )] = 1
.
(4.6)
dx
2h

:
y1 2 y2 + y3
d 2 f d 2 P2
(4.7)

[
f
(
x
)]
=
; x1 x x3 ,
2
dx 2
dx 2
h2
x2.

4.3.
b

U = f ( x) dx
a

. [a, b]
{ a = x1 < x2 < ... < xm+1 = b, hi = xi +1 xi } , .

b

m xi +1

f ( x ) dx =

i =1
a

f ( x )dx . [xi, xi+1] 15

xi


. .
( )
.
.
40


h = (b a) / m, xi = a + (i 1) h, i = 1 ... m.

, i-

xi +1/ 2 = ( xi + xi +1 ) / 2,
.

()
P0 ( x) = yi +1/ 2 = f ( xi +1/ 2 ).
yi +1/ 2
. 4.1

h,

(. 4.1):
b

m xi +1

f ( x)dx

i =1 xi

P0 ( x )dx = h yi +1/ 2 = f .
i =1

(4.8)

h:
b

= max

h2
fdx c f f ( x )dx.
24 a

(4.9)

f(x)
[xi, xi+1]

,
..
,

( xi , yi ) , ( xi +1, yi +1 ) .


yi , yi +1

h
(. 4.2):

. 4.2

41

m xi +1

y1 + ym+1 m
yi + yi +1
=
h
+ yi = f .
(4.10)

2
2
i =1 xi
i =1
i =2

a
,
:
f ( x)dx

P1 ( x )dx = h

= max

fdx
a

h2
f f ( x)dx .
12 a

(4.11)

f(x) [xi,
xi+1]

() c
xi +1 .
xi , xi +1/ 2 ,

(. 4.3)
. 4.3

m xi +1

f ( x)dx

i =1 xi

P2 ( x)dx =

hm
( yi + 4 yi+0.5 + yi+1) = f .
6 i =1

(4.12)

(4.12)
:

h y1 + 4 y1+0.5 + ym+1 m
f
=
+ ( 2 yi +0.5 + yi ) .
3
2
i =2

h:
b

= max

fdx c
a

h4
f
f (4) ( x) dx.

2880 a

(4.13)


(4.8),(4.10),(4.12) ,
cp ,
= ( + 2 ) / 3.
(4.14)
.
m = 2 ,
, . | | ( ), h
42

(m = m2) . ,
(4.14).
h ,
,
(m n).
. 4.4.

43

. 4.4

44



() .
,
( ), ..
.
n n
[xi, xi+1],
.
, , ,
o n (. . 3.1). , n
= 1 . ,
1.
n=2 :
h
x1,2
i = xi +1/ 2 m 0.5773502692 ,
2
2-
b
h n
[ f ( x1i ) + f ( xi2 )] .
(4.15)
f ( x)dx 2
i =1
a
h 0 p = 4, .. ,
, 2 !
n = 3 :
h
0
xi0 = xi +1/ 2 , x1,2
i = xi m 0.7745966692 ,
2
3-
b
h n 5
8
5
1
0
f
(
x
)
dx

(
f
(
x
)
+
f
(
x
)
+
f ( xi2 )) .
(4.16)

i
i

2
9
9
9
i
=
1
a
h 0 p = 7, ..
, ,
. , ,
,
.

4.4.
[a, b], f(x)
. ,
df ( x) d 2 f ( x)

.
,
dx
dx 2

(4.4), (4.7)

45

. ,
,

46

. 4.5
47

f , f , 13 f , f , 32 f

x j = a + ( j 1)(b a ) / 20; j = 1..21,
. a b
(4.5) (4.6) ,
. . 4.5.
hp =0.2, 0.1 0.05.
m=10, 20 40.

=0.1, 0.01, 0.001
m().
,
.
4.1
N
f(x)

a
b

f ( x)dx
.
4 x 7sin( x)
1
2
3

5.983
2
2
2
0
3

6.699
x 10sin ( x)
3
4

ln( x) 5cos( x)
e x / x3 sin 3 ( x)

1
4

8
7

8.896
6.118

x cos 2 ( x)

6.067

ln( x) 5sin 2 ( x)

3.367

x 5sin 2 ( x)

0.100

sin 2 ( x) x / 5

0.153

9
10
11
12

x3 + 10 x 2
x3 5 x 2
x3 + 6 x 2 0.02e x
x 2 + 5cos( x)

8
2
5
1

2
5
3
4

2
3

713.3
69.42
167.6
22.09

13

sin 2 ( x) 3cos( x)

3.533

14

x3 50cos( x)

154.73

15

0.1x3 + x 2 10sin( x)

20.375

4.5.
1. ?
2. (4.2), (4.3) (4.7).
3. : , ,
. ?
48

4. ?

49