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4 ( I)
:

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:

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" ___ " ______________ 2006 .

2006

## 4.1. y=f(x). f(x) [ a, b] (

) n n+1 : a x 0 < x1 < ... < x n b .
. xint x extr .
.
:
1. ( x 0 , f ( x0 )), ( x1 , f ( x1 )),..., ( x n , f ( x n )) .
, (
Ln (x) H n (x ) ) .
2.

f (x ) , Ln (x) H n (x ) .

3.

D n ( f ( x)) .

e ( x) = f ( x) - Ln ( x) [a, b]

D n ( f ( x)) = max e ( x) .
x[ a ,b ]

H n (x ) xint x extr .

f (x ) . .

4.

:
-3 x

f( x) := x

n := 5

i := 0 .. n

0.5
0.75

x :=
1.25
1.3

1.4

13.189770165601
5.01807411345227

2.71828182845905

y=
1.78705559422046
1.67013958471518

1.47784255351482

( i)

y := f x
i

N ( x , y , n , t) :=

:
L( x , y , n , t ) :=

for i 0 .. n
i,0

for k 1 .. n

s0

for i 0 .. n - k

for i 0 .. n
p1

i, k

for j 0 .. n
pp

t-x

x -x
i

## (fi+1 , k-1 - fi , k-1)

x

i+k

sy
if j i

for k 1 .. n
r1

ss+ py

for i 0 .. k - 1

r r t - x
sf

0, k

r+ s

-x

t k
[a,b]:

a := 0.5

b := 1.5

k := 0 .. 100

t := a +
k

b-a
100

LAGRANGE := L x , y , n , t
k

NEWTON := N x, y , n, t
k

a :

10

10

LAGRANGEk

NEWTON k

yi

yi
5

0.5

1.5

t k , xi

( k)

e1 := e t
k

D := max( e1)

0.5

1
t k , xi

e( z) := f( z) - L( x , y , n , z)

e ( z)

0.5

1.5

: D = 0.228189032193789
xint xext:
N ( x , y , n , 1.2 ) = 1.92384456759507
N ( x , y , n , 1.45) = 1.38422235818436

f :
f( 1.2 ) = 1.92136395991698
f( 1.45) = 1.39837287799215

1.5

## true_digits( True , Current) :=

D True - Current
Temp Current
Current Current
k 10
i0
while

Temp

0.1 if Temp 1

ii+1
k k 10
Temp Current - floor ( Temp)
Temp2 Temp
j0
while floor ( Temp) Temp2
Temp Temp 10
Temp2 Temp2 10
jj+1
m0
i-1

Digit 10

for p 0 .. i - 1
m m + 1 if
Digit

Digit
2

>D

Digit
10

n0
Digit 0.1
for p 0 .. j
n n + 1 if
Digit

Digit
2

>D

Digit
10

m+n
D ( True , Current) := True - Current
d ( Current , D ) :=

D
Current

xint xext:
D ( f( 1.2 ) , L( x , y , n , 1.2 ) ) = 0.002480607678091

## true_digits( f( 1.2 ) , L( x , y, n , 1.2 ) ) = 3

true_digits( f( 1.45) , L( x , y , n , 1.45) ) = 2

: ,
,

. ,
.
4.2. f (x )

( x 0 , f ( x0 )), ( x1 , f ( x1 )),..., ( x n , f ( x n )) .
f ( xi ) xi .
P(x ) ( ).

:
-3

-2.55
-2.1
-1.65

-1.2
-0.75
x :=

-0.3
0.15
0.6

1.05
1.95
2.4

0.262
-1.032
-1.747
-1.981

-0.564
0.774
y :=

2.400
2.131
2.2

-0.393
-0.788
8.030

:
n := 11
a := -3

b := 2.4

k := 0 .. 400

t := a +
k

i := 0 .. n
b-a
400

LAGRANGE := L x , y , n , t
k

a :

40
LAGRANGEk
20

yi
L( x , y, n , 1.5)
3

20
t k , xi , 1.5

L( x , y , n , 1.5 ) = -17.6328787878788

11

: -
, ..
(, )
.
4.3. f (x ) [ a, b] . Pk (x ) ,

k = 1,2,3,4 ( ),
hk . f (x ) .
:

b-a
b-a
b-a
, h3 =
, h4 =
.
2
3
4
) a x 0 < x1 < ... < x n b , n = k + 1 , x i = a + hk i ,
i = 0..n .
) ( x 0 , f ( x0 )), ( x1 , f ( x1 )),..., ( x n , f ( x n )) .
) Pk (x ) ( ).
2) f (x )
Pk (x ) , k = 1,2,3,4 .
1) hk , k = 1,2,3,4 , h1 = b - a , h2 =

3)

e k ( x ) = f ( x) - Pk ( x) .
[ a, b]
D k ( f ( x )) = max e k ( x ) = max f ( x ) - Pk ( x ) .
x[ a ,b ]

x[ a ,b ]

:
x := 0

y := 0

a := 0

b := 2

f( x) := x + e

-x

:
, :
k := 1
b-a

h :=
k

i := 0 .. k

x=

0

2

y=

F= 0

2.01831563888873

( i)

y := f x

:= x

i,0

i,1

:= y

1
0

x := a + h i

2 2.018

:
e1 ( z) := f( z) - L( x , y, 1 , z)
k := 2
b-a

h :=
k

i := 0 .. k

0
x = 1

2

F=

y = 1.36787944117144

2.01831563888873
0

( i)

x := a + h i y := f x

i,0

:= x

i,1

1.368

2.018

e2 ( z) := f( z) - L( x , y, 2 , z)
k := 3
h :=
k

b-a
k

i := 0 .. k

x := a + h i
i

( i)

y := f x
i

:= y

0
1

0.666666666666667
1.30784705509662

x=
y=
1.33333333333333 1.5023466487394

2.01831563888873
2

i,0

:= x

i,1

:= y

F= 1

0.667

1.308

1.333

1.502

2.018

e3 ( z) := f( z) - L( x , y, 3 , z)
k := 4
b-a

h :=
k

i := 0 .. k

0
0.5

x= 1
1.5

2

1.2788007830714

y = 1.36787944117144
1.60539922456186

2.01831563888873

F=

x := a + h i

( i)

y := f x
i

i,0

:= x

i,1

:= y

0.5

1.279

1.368

1.5

1.605

2.018

e4 ( z) := f( z) - L( x , y, 4 , z)

t k:
[a,b]:

j := 0 .. 100

t := a +
j

(
j)
q2 := L( x, y , 2 , t )
j
j
q3 := L( x, y , 3 , t )
j
j
q4 := L( x, y , 4 , t )
j
j
q1 := L x, y , 1 , t
j

b-a
100

2.5

q1 j
q2 j
q3 j

1.5

q4 j
yi

0.5

0.5

1.5

t j , t j , t j , t j , xi

t k:
[a,b]:

j := 0 .. 100

( j)
e2 := e2( t )
j
j
e1 := e1 t
j

( j)

e3 := e3 t
j

( j)

e4 := e4 t
j

t := a +
j

b-a
100

0.15

e1 j
e2 j
e3 j

0.1

e4 j

0.05

0.5

1.5

t j, t j, t j, t j

:
D1 := max( e1)

D1 = 0.177431350103302

D2 := max( e2)

D2 = 0.139032460497719

D3 := max( e3)

D3 = 0.037340835076735

D4 := max( e4)

D4 = 8.44077455073133 10

-3

: ,

.

4.4. , x0 y ,
, ( x (t ), y (t )) .
- ,
- .
( x (t 0 ), y(t 0 )) , ( x (t1 ), y (t1 )) , ( x (t 2 ), y (t 2 )) ,

( x (t 3 ), y (t 3 )) , t 0 , t1 , t 2 , t 3 .
, ( x (t 4 ), y (t 4 )) t 4
( ).
:
1)

Lx (t ) Ly (t )

(t 0 , x(t 0 )), (t1 , x(t1 )), (t 2 , x(t 2 )), (t 3 , x(t 3 )) (t 0 , y (t 0 )), (t1 , y (t1 )), (t 2 , y (t 2 )), (t 3 , y (t 3 ))
.

2)

( x (t 4 ), y (t 4 )) = ( Lx(t 4 ), Ly(t 4 )) .
*

( Lx (t ), Ly (t )) t [t 0 , t 4 ]

3)

Dt =

t4 - t0
.
100

:
:
F :=
0

36

56

36

52

36

47

36

40

a := 0
h :=

b := 8

b-a
4

36
36

x = 36
36

2

i := 0 .. 3

x := F
i

i,1

56

52

y=
47

40

2.01831563888873

y := F

i,2

ti := F

i,0

:
Lx( t) := L( t , x , 3 , t )

Ly( t) := L( t , y , 3 , t )

t 4: [a,b]:
Lx( 8 ) = 36

Ly( 8 ) = 30

:
Dt :=

b-a

t := a , a + Dt .. b

100
60

50
Ly( t )
Ly( 8)

40

30

30

32

34

36

38

40

Lx( t ) , Lx( 8)

:
, .

4.5. f (x ) [ a, b] .
Pn (x) ( )

## ( x 0 , f ( x0 )), ( x1 , f ( x1 )),..., ( x n , f ( x n )) , a x 0 < x1 < ... < x n b . ,

D n ( f ( x)) = max e n ( x) = max f ( x ) - Pn ( x ) ,
x[ a ,b ]

x[ a ,b ]

## a x 0 < x1 < ... < x n b n + 1 .

f (x ) [ a, b]
, a x 0 < x1 < ... < x n b .
:
unif

1) Pn

(x)
b-a
a x0 < x1 < ... < x n b , xi = a +
i , i = 0..n
n
unif
inif
unif
D n ( f ( x )) = max e n ( x) = max f ( x ) - Pn ( x )
x[ a ,b ]

x[ a ,b ]

## (x) a x 0 < x1 < ... < x n b ,

n + 1 ,
(2 i + 1) p
a +b b - a
+
cos
xi =
, i = 0..n ,
2 (n + 1)
2
2
cheb
n

2) P

cheb
Dcheb
( x ) = max f ( x) - Pncheb ( x ) .
n ( f ( x )) = max e n
x[ a ,b ]

x[ a ,b ]

## 3) P (x ) a x 0 < x1 < ... < x n b , xi , ( )

[ a, b] ,
rnd
n

rnd
rnd
Drnd
( x) .
n ( f ( x )) = max e n ( x ) = max f ( x) - Pn
x[ a ,b ]

x[ a ,b ]

4) .

:
a := -p
f( x) := e

b := p
sin( 2x)

n := 11

:
h :=

b-a
n

i := 0 .. n

x := a + h i
i

:
e1 ( z) := f( z) - L( x , y, 11 , z)

:
j := 0 .. 100

( j)

e1 := e1 t
j

t := a +
j

b-a
100

## max( e1) = 4.04369656383286

( i)

y := f x
i

e1( t j)
0
2

tj

:
x :=
i

a+b
2

b-a
2

(2 i + 1) p

2 ( n + 1)

cos

( i)

y := f x
i

e2 ( z) := f( z) - L( x , y, 11 , z)

( j)

e2 := e2 t
j

## max( e2) = 0.330180710060514

e2( t j)
0
2

tj

:
x := sort( runif ( n + 1 , a , b ) )

( i)

y := f x
i

e3 ( z) := f( z) - L( x , y, 11 , z)

e3( t j)

100

0
tj

( j)

e3 := e3 t

:
, , -
.

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