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CAPS

CIVIL TECHNOLOGY

LEARNERS GUIDE

GRADE 12
Trevor Haas Neil Simons John Ellis

Civil Technology
Grade 12 Learners Guide

SAMPLE COPY

Future Managers 2013


All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without prior permission of the copyright owner. ISBN 978-1-77581-016-2 First published 2013 To copy any part of this publication, you may contact DALRO for information and copyright clearance. Any unauthorised copying could lead to civil liability and/or criminal sanctions.

Telephone: 086 12 DALRO (from within South Africa); +27 (0)11 712-8000 Telefax: +27 (0)11 403-9094 Postal Address: P O Box 31627, Braamfontein, 2017, South Africa www.dalro.co.za Acknowledgement: The authors would like to thank PERI scaffolding for the use of images.

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Contents
Chapter 1 Practical Assessment Task........................................................................... 1 Chapter 2 Safety....................................................................................................51 Chapter 3 Graphics and Communication...........................................................61 Chapter 4 Materials............................................................................................115 Chapter 5 Equipment.........................................................................................125 Chapter 6 Applied Mechanics...........................................................................163 Chapter 7 Construction.....................................................................................225 Chapter 8 Civil Services.....................................................................................355 Chapter 9 Quantities..........................................................................................395 Chapter 10 Joining..............................................................................................425

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Description Key word Did you know? Take note Activity Example

Chapter 1

Practical Assessment Task

Investigate real problems

Generate possible solutions

Make or improve product

Evaluate the design

Present the assignment

Civil Technology

The Practical Assessment Task


What is a Practical Assessment Task? The Practical Assessment Task (PAT) involves the development of a design project that leads to the design and making of a product or model. This task must be in the form of a problem solution. The PAT consists of a design portfolio, working drawings and a product/model, which must be completed over three terms. The PAT consists of the application and execution of the knowledge, skills and values in the Civil Technology curriculum. The PAT is implemented during the first three terms of the school year and must be undertaken as one extended task broken up into different phases or series of smaller activities making up the PAT. What is a design portfolio? A design portfolio is a document containing all information on a particular practical project. It is compiled in a particular sequence and tells the reader everything about that practical project. It is neatly bound and must be completed before the practical project may be constructed. It must contain all information so that any person can make it. What are working drawings? These are the drawing instructions needed for making the product or model. They consist of orthographic drawings and section drawings of the product to be made. The final working drawings as indicated in the marking memorandum will be assessed as part of the final product or model. These marks therefore form part of the product or model and count for 75 marks. Computer-aided drawings must be done under the supervision of the educator. What is a product or model? This is the end product that is produced as a solution to the technological process. It can either be a full-scale product or a scale model of a product.

The technological process


The technological process encompasses all aspects of the design process, namely the identification of problems, needs and opportunities and generating possible solutions. It includes all the steps that need to be followed while generating and designing the solutions. The technological process is an interaction between that which is observed and a message that is sent to the brain; the brain finds a solution and the hands perform the task. What is design? Design is the art of creating something new out of an existing product, so that its looks and functionality are improved. The designers ideas are conceived through experiences in his or her own environment. Many new product ideas are generated through reading magazines or newspapers.

Practical Assessment Task


The technological process can be either linear or cyclical. This describe the various stages that the design process goes through. The stages dont always follow a specific order during this process. However, when compiling a design portfolio, it is easier to follow the stages as set out in this chapter. Layout of a design portfolio You can use the following contents list to organise your design portfolio in such a way that it forms an effective, neat and accurate communication piece. All pages should be clearly numbered. The headings and sub-headings should be clearly indicated. The technical maintenance and presentation of the design portfolio is very important. 1. Compiling a design portfolio 1.1 All pages should numbered. 1.2 Every section should have clear headings and sub-headings. 1.3 Sketches can be done by hand, with instruments or by computer. 1.4 Letters, questionnaires and Internet downloads should all be included if they have been used. 1.5 Photos of every step of the manufacturing process could be included. Stages in the compilation of a design portfolio
Assessment criteria Researching and collecting information Design process Situation Description Can be a description or photo of a real-life problem Is a brief description, clear and factual Is open to interpretation Indicates if it is a problem, need or opportunity.

Analysis of the situation

Analyse the situation by asking questions so as to develop a better understanding of the situation. Identify key words and ideas. Analyse the situation to determine if it is a problem, need or opportunity. Establish what the real problem is. Determine whether the situation has any limitations. Who will use the facility? Do special concessions need to be made, for example, for the disabled. What will the impact be on the environment? What safety measures does the design have to comply? Describe the design proposal without limiting creativity. Write a simple statement that provides a solution to a problem or opportunity. It is brief and to the point. It reflects the actual problem, need or opportunity. It indicates at whom the solution is aimed. It indicates what the solution should be able to do. Suggest possible solutions. Be clear and unambiguous. Do not describe the solution in any detail.

Design proposal

Civil Technology
Assessment criteria Researching and collecting information Design process Specifications Description Is a detailed description of the criteria with which the product needs to comply with. Limitations in certain situations are depicted or indicated by the client if it is not indicated, it does not necessarily mean it is not a limitation. The limitations serve as part of the specifications. List all the criteria with which the design has to comply. Number specifications it will help with the evaluation of the solution. Specifications serve as criteria during the development of the design, as well as for the evaluation and testing of the final product. Specifications can include: aesthetic appearance environmental aspects (considerations) disabled-friendly costs Is the product safe to use? How suitable is it for use? Collect photos of the design from books and magazines (these photos form part of the design portfolio). Do some research by gathering new knowledge and information about the problem. Use a variety of research methods to expand your understanding and knowledge of the subject and ultimately to gain knowledge on how to solve the problem. Primary research is information that is derived from the opinions of others obtained through interviews, questionnaires, correspondence, telephone calls, e-mails, text messages, etc. Secondary research is information about the subject that already exists obtained through consulting books, reference books, encyclopaedias, the Internet, etc. Compile a list for the bibliography of all the people and books you consulted. Sketch several different solutions for the problem, need or opportunity. Sketch possible ideas and annotate they sketches (dimensions and notes). Add explanatory notes to the sketches. Evaluate every possible solution to see if it meets the specifications, by listing all the advantages and disadvantages. A grading scale can be used on the specifications and other criteria in order to determine the best option. Decide (and give reasons for) which solution or combination of solutions should be developed as a final idea. Develop the preferred solution by listing the following details that are needed to produce the solution: main dimensions and other important dimensions construction details materials and where they will be used what type of finish will be used safety measures that should be followed to ensure the safety of workers. After this step, the orthographic drawings can be produced. Working drawings are the instructions from the draughtsman to the artisan and should contain all the information necessary to make the product. Working drawings are usually done orthographically. They are not marked as part of the design portfolio. The standard of the learners orthographic drawings should be such that they can be handed in to the municipality for approval. The following orthographic drawings should be drawn: floor plan three views: north, south, west or east view (front, top, left or right view) vertical sectional view that shows the detail of the foundation. These orthographic drawings are marked using the marking memorandum.

Investigations

Generating and/or designing possible solutions

Generation of ideas

Development of the best idea

Working drawings

Practical Assessment Task


Assessment criteria Developing best/ preferred solution Design process Materials list and bill of quantities Work procedure and time schedules Description Identify the materials that should be used. Use working drawings to compile a bill of quantities. Specify the tools and equipment needed to create the structure in a real-life situation. Pay attention to the construction and safety processes that need to be followed during manufacturing. Briefly describe the steps that should be followed to make the scale model. The steps should follow a logical sequence and should be clearly set out. Use the correct terminology. Compile a time schedule per quarter. Convert the final idea into a product. Sometimes the processes and constructions dont go according to plan. Record these changes and the reasons for them and apply these changes to the product. Use core tasks (short, practical, focused activities) to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills needed to make the product. Apply the formative evaluation to every step in the development of the solution. Apply summative assessment of the final product by evaluating each design specification. Evaluate the final product against the needs and specifications by asking questions. The questions and answers must be meaningful so that they can be used in future evaluations. Identify deficiencies in the process, strengths and weaknesses in the design, which problems were experienced and how they were resolved. Is the product effective for use as well as cost-effective? Evaluate how appropriate the materials, procedures, techniques and processes were that were used to build the scale model. Was the planning effective? Was time used efficiently? What lessons were learnt and how can they be applied to improve the product if it should be made again? Apply summative assessment of the end product by testing the product to determine whether it does what it is supposed to do.

Product manufacture

Evaluating product or model

Evaluation

Testing

Civil Technology
Assessment criteria Presenting design portfolio Design process Communication media Description Communicate the problem-solving process in text form by writing it out by hand or typing it up on a computer. Communicate the problem-solving process graphically through sketches, instrument drawings, photos, photocopies and stencils. Communicate the problem-solving process through a scale model of the product. Is usually completed last. Should indicate the following: Name of school Name of learner Grade Year Suitable title Suitable title page illustration Is completed second-last. Is done on a separate page Shows all sections Shows all subsections Shows all page numbers Ensure that the page numbers on the contents page correspond with those in the document Also needs to be completed on a separate page. Reference/source lists should be done completely and correctly. At least three of the following sources, recorded correctly, should be listed: At least four reference books At least two personal interviews with, for example, a teacher, client, architect, quantity surveyor, etc. Websites Magazines Newspaper articles Video recordings Television Radio programmes

Title page

Contents page

Source list/ bibliography

Researching and collecting information


You will achieve this when you are able to: identify a need or problem in a real-life situation describe a situation analyse a situation give a brief description of what the best solution is to the problem (design proposal) gather information through research analyse the problem and compile specifications and limitations. Every product that exists today is a result of a need or problem that had to be solved. When compiling a design portfolio, you first need to identify the problem or need. Then you need to describe the problem (situation), which is followed by the design proposal. The design proposal is a brief description of what needs to be designed with no limitations on creativity or ideas, for example, designing an object that can be used as storage for certain items. The problem is then analysed using various research methods to gather information.

Practical Assessment Task


Research methods could include: Information obtained from books, magazines, the Internet, television, etc. Questionnaires An interview with your teacher or any other knowledgeable person Observation and experimentation Correspondence with companies where you ask for free brochures and other relevant information Market research. After the problem has been analysed, you need to determine the specifications for the product design, taking into consideration any limitations on the design. The specifications and limitations are detailed descriptions of the criteria that product needs to conform to and can be used later to test and evaluate the product. Example of a letter
Construction School 12 Plaster Street CEMENT TOWN 4935 1 January 2012 Free House Plans P.O. Box 345 HOME TOWN 3589 Dear Sir/Madam BROCHURE: PLANS I receive weekly e-mails from you, allowing access to your website where building plans for different types of houses are available free of charge. As a Civil Technology learner, I find the articles about the building industry and the building plans which you provide most informative. We, as Grade 12 learners, have to design and make a structure up to wall plate height as our Practical Assessment Task. I would like to inquire whether you have examples of such building plans on your web pages, in books or on CD. Should you have such examples, I would like to request that you make them available to our school, free of charge, to be used as a research source. Your kind consideration of this request would mean the world to us as learners. Thanking you in anticipation. Yours sincerely Gabrielle Fransman

Civil Technology

The technological process


The technological process involves all the steps to be taken in designing and manufacturing or completing a product or project. In this Learning Outcome you will expand the knowledge and skills you have already gained in previous grades. This year you are going to identify and investigate, design, manufacture and evaluate relevant Civil Technology products and/or projects and then communicate your results using various media and appropriate terminology. Example: The drawing shows a bedroom. Study the drawing and: describe the situation that exists here write a suitable design brief indicate some basic specifications and limitations write to a firm for information.

Wall Wall Pillow Bedside lamp Coffee mug Alarm clock Duvet/blankets Bed

Book

Solution: What did you see in the bedroom? The bedside lamp, alarm clock, mug and book are all on the ground next to the bed. These items are difficult to reach and make the floor look untidy. Now design and make an object that can house the bedside lamp, alarm clock, mug and book. Base your design on information obtained by letter for instance. Example of a letter:
Your address Companys address Dear Sir/Madam FREE FURNITURE BROCHURE Your address As part of my Grade 12 Civil Technology curriculum, I plan to make a bedside cabinet. I believe you have published a free booklet Make your own furniture with useful information. Could you please send me a copy? Thanking you in anticipation. Keanu Gelderblom

Practical Assessment Task


Specifications and limitations Now compile a list of specifications and limitations that describe the bedside cabinet more clearly. What should the cabinet look like? It should be about as high as the bed. There must be sufficient space on top for a lamp, alarm clock and mug. It must have a drawer to hold books. The type of timber and finish must match the bedroom cupboard. The maximum dimensions are to be: 500 mm tall, 450 mm wide and 400 mm deep. It must be able to be finished in five days. Material and fittings must not cost more than R300,00.

Activity 1
1. Name all the types of research you can do. 2. As a draughtsperson, you have to design a house for a client. Compile a questionnaire that you would use to gather the necessary information. 3. Collect pictures from books and magazines of a house you would like to build for yourself one day and arrange them in order of preference. 4. The drawings below show various situations. Study them and: 4.1 describe the needs depicted there 4.2 write a suitable design brief indicate some specifications and limitations only. 5. Identify a problem or need at your home or school and write a design brief for solving it. 1. 2.

3.

4.

5.

Civil Technology

Generating design ideas


You will achieve this when you are able to: develop innovative and original solutions based on the specifications generate alternative solutions/designs for solving a problem convey your solutions graphically critically analyse proposed solutions by naming their advantages and disadvantages identify and motivate the best solution in relation to the design brief develop the preferred solution in detail. Keep the following aspects in mind when you generate and/or design solutions: Find ideas in photos, drawings and reference books. Hold group discussions and brainstorming sessions for discussing ideas. Make sure that the ideas meet the design brief. See if the ideas meet the predetermined specifications. See if the ideas are feasible in practice. Are the ideas financially viable? Evaluate ideas by listing the advantages and disadvantages of each. Decide which idea will best meet the design brief and motivate the final choice. Develop the preferred solution in more detail. Draw a sketch showing the final dimensions, appearance, materials, etc. During this process, you must put down any idea that occurs to you. An apparently simple or impossible idea may lead to a useful design. The more possible solutions you can put down, the bigger the chance of a good final solution. Remember to insert notes explaining all the ideas. Dimensions for the ideas are also indispensable as they will determine whether the design is both viable and attractive. The sketch may be in two or three dimensions (2D or 3D) and done freehand, mechanically or as a computer-aided design (CAD). To pick the preferred solution, the best solution (idea) from all the ideas generated is considered. This can be done by weighing up all the advantages and disadvantages of each or comparing the ideas with each other, using a set of criteria. A motivation for justifying the preferred solution must be part of the process. The working drawings, i.e. the detailed setting-out of the design for the artisan by a draughtsperson, is then made from the best idea. (NB: Working drawings are marked separately.)

10

Practical Assessment Task


The table below can be used for comparing various solutions.
Criteria Best solution for the problem Meets the specifications/limitations Affordability Appearance Size Modelling T otal Idea 1 Idea 2 Idea 3

Use the following rating: Excellent: 5 4 Good Average 3 Poor: 2 1 Very poor The idea scoring the highest mark is the idea that should be developed. Example: The following sketches show various designs for a bathroom cabinet designed by a student for his/her flat. He/she approaches you for the best solution. Complete the following table to see which idea provides the best solution. Idea 1 Idea 2 Idea 3

Mirror on door

Mirror which moves

Mirror on inside of door

11

Civil Technology
Use the following rating: Excellent 5 Good 4 Average 3 2 Poor Very poor 1
Criteria Best solution for the problem Appearance Size Degree of difficulty to make User-friendly Affordable T otal Idea 1 2 2 3 2 4 4 17 Idea 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 20 Idea 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 23

Idea 3 is the preferred solution to be developed.

Activity 2
1. The security guard, who controls the entry of visitors at the school gate, has nowhere to sit. Design a structure that will provide shelter and protection. 2. Name the sources you would use to find ideas. 3. Identify the specifications and limitations to be considered in designing the solution. 4. Sketch three possible solutions and show the advantages and disadvantages of each idea. Attach captions and dimensions to the sketch. 5. Pick the best solution and motivate your final choice. 6. The sketches below show three wall units for displaying ornaments. Complete the following table and determine which idea offers the best solution.

Idea 1 Idea 2 Idea 3

Glass door

Glass door

Fold down glass door

12

Practical Assessment Task

Criteria Best solution for the problem Appearance Size Degree of difficulty to make User-friendly Affordable T otal

Idea 1

Idea 2

Idea 3

Use the following rating: Excellent 5 Good 4 Average 3 2 Poor Very poor 1 7. The owner of a dwelling asks you to convert his existing double garage into a flat. The outside dimensions of the garage are 6 440 mm 6 440 mm. Identify the required specifications for the owner. Develop various design ideas. Name the advantages and disadvantages of each design. Show your preferred solution. Motivate your choice. 8. The floor plan of an RDP house is provided. The owner wishes to use dry walls (stone walls) to divide the house into separate rooms. Design and draw one possible solution that would make provision for a kitchen, bathroom, living room and two bedrooms.

Communicating ideas
You will have reached this assessment standard when you are able to: make products according to the selected design compile a bill of materials and quantities set out logically all the steps for making a product indicate a complete time schedule indicate tools and equipment to be used in the manufacturing process accurately calculate quantities.

13

Civil Technology
During this stage of the design process, planning the manufacturing of the product is addressed. The detailed working drawings are used to compile bills of materials, quantities and costs. All tools that will be used in practice must also be indicated. The manufacturing process must also be set out in logical steps and must include an estimate of the time required for each step. A start can now be made with manufacturing the products. Photos, sketches or descriptions can be used to show the product at various stages. The realisation of the product is assessed separately. Example of quantity list The external measurements of a building is 10 800 mm 6 500 mm and it has a hipped roof. Calculate the quantity of bricks needed for the beam filling. The beam filling is 225 mm high. Solution:
Steps: Calculate the centre line of the beam filling. A B C D Beam filling: Centre line: 2/10 800 = 21 600 2/6 500 = 13 000 Total = 34600 Minus: 4/110 Centre line is 34,16 m long 1/ 34,16 0,225 7,69 m2 Area of beam filling: Height of beam filling = 225 mm Area of wall for beam filling = 7,69 m2

Calculate the area of the beam-filling wall by multiplying the centre line by the height of the beam filling. Multiply the area of the beam-filling wall by the number of bricks per square metre for a halfbrick wall.

1/

7,69 m2 50

384,3 bricks

Number of bricks: 50 bricks per m for a half-brick wall Thus 385 bricks are required for the beam filling.

Example of a table for indicating work procedure


Planned completion date Name of part/ item Procedure Comments/ remarks

Actual completion date

Planned no. of periods 1

Sides and tops

Cutting, planing and gluing wood

18.02

19.02

Actual periods 2 Too few clamps for gluing whole job

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Practical Assessment Task


Activity 3
1. The framework of a bathroom cabinet is shown. The dimensions of the cabinet are: height = 535 mm, width = 435 mm, depth = 240 mm. The drawer opening is 65 mm and all timber thicknesses are 16 mm. 1.1 Compile a bill of materials and costs for the timber needed for making only the framework. The price of meranti is R556,00 per square metre. 1.2 Draw up a working procedure with time schedule for making the framework.

Evaluation
You will have reached this assessment standard when you are able to: evaluate and test the product to see if it meets the design brief suggest improvements to the product. To determine whether a product satisfies the purpose for which it has been designed, the product must be evaluated and tested. During evaluation, critical questions are raised around the procedures required for manufacturing the product. The answers to these questions must be honest and meaningful. The following questions must be asked: Does the design meet the specifications and limitations? What are the products strong points? What are the weaknesses and shortcomings of the design and how can they be solved? How suitable were the materials, procedures, techniques and processes used? Has the time been productively used? Certain tests must be conducted to see if the design meets its intended purpose. For example, to ensure that all the specified items fit into the product, they must all be physically placed into it. Evaluation and testing must be done at all stages. In this way problems can be identified timeously and corrected. Use your question and answer brainstorming sessions to suggest improvements to the product.

Activity 4
1. Evaluate the layout of your Civil Technology centre and identify its strengths, shortcomings and any problems you have experienced. 2. Indicate how the shortcomings and problems can be solved. 3. How can you find out if a bathroom mirror is at the ideal height for a whole family?

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Civil Technology

To present solutions with a variety of communication media


You will have reached this assessment standard when you are able to: select and apply suitable technologies for combining graphics and text. The technological process is described in the design portfolio. Suitable technologies such as computers, photocopiers, drawing and writing templates and audio-visual aids can be used for communicating text and drawings. The following technologies can be used for presenting your design portfolio in a tasteful manner: hand-written text with photocopies computers for written text, drawings and photographs computers for written text and drawings and photos that are then photocopied audio-visual recordings combining text and graphics drawing and writing templates can be used to ensure that freehand drawings and writing have a neat, professional appearance. Setting out a design portfolio Organising a design portfolio in such a way that it becomes an effective, neat and correct communication can be simplified with the use of the following index. All pages must be clearly numbered and headings and sub-headings must be clearly indicated. The technical editing and presentation of the design portfolio is very important, 1. Title page 2. Index 3. Problem/need 3.1 Identification of problem 3.2 Design brief 3.3 Investigations 3.4 Specifications 3.5 Limitations 4. Ideas 4.1 Ideas are generated 4.2 The best idea is selected 4.3 Working drawings 5. Manufacturing the product 5.1 Bill of materials, quantities and costs 5.2 Working procedure and time schedule 6. Evaluating the product 6.1 Evaluation 6.2 Testing 7. Bibliography

Bibliography

What is a bibliography? It is a list of books, articles in magazines or newspapers and websites that provide information regarding the project. A bibliography is compiled according to a very specific format.

16

Practical Assessment Task


General hints: All sources must be included in one list. All sources must be arranged alphabetically. Books are listed according to the authors (writers). Other sources are listed according to the title or name of the source. The titles of books, magazines, television or radio programmes and videos are always underlined, when the assignment is handwritten or otherwise typed in italics. Guidelines to listing sources: Please note where the full stops (.), commas (,), colons (:), &, inverted commas ( ) and brackets (< >) are placed when the source is listed. Book that has one author Surname, name or initials. Year of publication. Title. Place: Publisher. Book that has two authors Surname, name or initials & surname. Year of publication. Title. Place: Publisher. Book that has more than two authors Surname, name or initials & et al. Year of publication. Title. Place: Publisher. Magazine article or a newspaper report Surname of journalist, name or initials, year of publication, newspaper heading. Name of magazine/newspaper and date: page references. Personal interviews Surname of interviewee, his/her name or initials. Job description, name of firm, subject of interview, date of interview, contact number, city or town. Website Title, website <electronic address> [date downloaded]

Example of bibliography
Barker, B.J. 1993. The South African Book Of House Plans. Cape Town: Struik Publishers. De Villiers, L. 2006. South African House Plans. Cape Town: Struik Publishers. Free house plans <http://www.smartdraw.com> [12 February 2011]. Free house plans <http://ezinearticles.com> [18 February 2011]. Gelderblom, E. Parents. Tesnasdal, 25 January 2011. 023 348 2000. Worcester. Grobbelaar, A. 2006. Building Construction and Graphic Standards. Jeffereys Bay: Anglo Rand. Huisamen, T. Siviele Tegnologie Onderwyser, Building Focus Secondary School. Compilation of a Design Portfolio, 14 February 2012, 079 234 5678. Builders Hope.

Activity 5
1. Design a title page for your design portfolio for a carport. 2. Compile a technically correct bibliography to indicate the following sources that were used for research purposes: Two books: one has one author and one has more than one author One magazine An interview with a quantity surveyor One website.

17

Civil Technology
Civil Technology Practical Assessment Task (PAT) 201...

Grade 12

Instructions to the learner Time allowed: 1st3rd terms Name of learner: NB: This document and assessment matrices must be bound into the design portfolio.

Instructions to the learner: This Practical Assessment Task counts 25% towards your final promotion mark. All work that you deliver must be your own. All sources used must be acknowledged. Calculations must be clear and must include units. Calculations must be rounded off to THREE decimals. Drawings may be hand-drawn (use drawing instruments) or done in CAD. No photocopies or scanned information or drawings are allowed. Photographs in black and white or colour may be used, scanned photos may be used. SI units must be used. The use of recycled material is allowed. Changes made during the simulation of the product are to be noted and placed in the design portfolio. The instructions to the learner and assessment instruments must be included in the back of the design portfolio. Study your assessment matrices for the design portfolio and product as well as the marking memorandum for the working drawings so that you are aware of how your work is to be assessed. The marking memorandum for the working drawings must be stapled to your working drawings. Learners may use electronic equipment, i.e. cellphones, digital cameras and the like, where available for documenting their progress. Drawings or sketches can be drawn on the same writing page or on a separate drawing sheet. Use captions and explanatory notes to explain the sketches. The product/model may not be removed from the classroom and must be stored in a safe place when not being worked on. What is a Practical Assessment Task? The Practical Assessment Task (PAT) comprises the development of a design project that leads to the design and production of a product or model. This assignment must involve problemsolving. The PAT comprises a design portfolio, working drawings and a product/model that must be completed over a period of three terms. Design portfolio A design portfolio is a document that contains all the information regarding a particular, practical project. It is compiled in a particular sequence and it provides the reader with all the details regarding the practical project. It must be neatly bound and completed before the practical project may be constructed. It must contain all the necessary information to enable anyone who reads it to produce the product. The final scale drawings, as indicated in the marking memorandum, will form part of the final product of the model and make up 25 marks. Computer-aided drawings must be supervised by the educator.

18

Practical Assessment Task


Mark allocation: Design portfolio: 25% 62 marks 25% 62 marks Orthographic drawings: Product/model: 50% 125 marks TOTAL: 100% 250 marks

Scenario A recent graduate, who has just entered the labour market, decides to build an apartment rather than rent one. The apartment must be designed in a way that allows it to be developed into a complete, medium-sized dwelling at a later stage. The design of the apartment must include the developments/expansions intended for the finished dwelling. As a Grade 12 Civil Technology student, you are approached to design the apartment, draw the plans and build a scale model. 1. Specifications The plot is 25 25 metres. The apartment must have a bedroom, open-plan kitchen, living-room and bathroom. 2. Develop and compile a design portfolio by following the technological processes which include the following: 2.1 Describe the situation/need/opportunity. 2.2 Write a design brief. 2.3 List the specifications. 2.4 List the limitations. 2.5 Do research by conducting interviews, compiling questionnaires, making use of correspondence, the Internet, books, magazines, etc. 2.6 Generate at least three floor plans, with explanatory notes, of the apartment. Evaluate each floor plan, choose the best one and motivate your choice. 2.7 Develop the preferred plan by further expounding one of the following options: 2.7.1 Option one: Set out the selected floor plan of the apartment. Draw the four views of the apartment. Compile a list of materials required to build the actual apartment. Compile a list of the tools and equipment required to build the actual apartment. Set out the steps and time schedule needed to construct the simulated apartment. Use the four-column method (dimension paper) and calculate: The number of bricks needed for the construction of the building. 2.7.2 Option two: Set out the selected floor plan of only the apartment. Draw a sectional elevation of the dwelling. Set out the steps and time schedule needed to construct the roof of the apartment. Compile a list of the tools and equipment needed to construct the actual roof. Use the four-column method (dimension paper) and calculate: The number of bricks needed for the construction of the building. 2.7.3 Option three: Set out the selected floor plan of only the apartment. Draw the site plan and include the layout of the sewage system of the dwelling. Provide a sectional drawing of the sewage system. Set out the steps and the time schedule needed to complete the sewage layout and the construction of the external walls of the apartment. Compile a list of the tools and equipment needed to lay/install the actual sewage system. Use the four-column method (dimension paper) and calculate: The number of bricks needed for the construction of the building. 2.8 Evaluate the product/model. 2.9 Compile a bibliography.

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Civil Technology
2.10 Proof of research: e.g. letters received; quotations of costs, Internet research, etc. 2.11 Learners assignment and assessment tools used for evaluation of the design portfolio, scale drawings and product/model. 2.12 Design a cover for your design portfolio. 2.13 Compile an index/table of contents. 2.14 Complete the statement of authenticity. 2.15 Present the design portfolio include the assignment and the assessment tools.

3. Draw the final work drawings for the option that you have chosen to expound. Option one: Design and draw, using an appropriate scale: The floor plan of the apartment The north, south, west and east elevations of the apartment Using the correct colour codes, as prescribed by the National Building Regulations/SANS 10400, colour code all the elevations appropriately. Option two: Design and draw, using an appropriate scale: The floor plan of the apartment The vertical sectional view of the apartment Using the correct colour codes, as prescribed by the National Building Regulations/SANS 10400, colour code the elevation appropriately. Option three: Design and draw, using an appropriate scale: The floor plan of the apartment The site plan, including the sewage plan and a sectional drawing of the sewage system The vertical sectional view of a manhole that illustrates its construction and details Using the correct colour codes, as prescribed by the National Building Regulations/SANS 10400, colour-code the elevation appropriately. All your drawings should preferably be executed on A3 drawing paper and provided with measurements, labels, notes and scales. Drawings must also meet the minimum requirements determined by the SANS/SABS 10400 (National Building Regulations) and SANS/SABS 0143 Building Drawing Practice. Use the criteria provided in the marking memorandum applicable to your option as guideline for your drawings. 4. After completing the working drawings, build a scale model of the option you have selected. Option one: 4.1 Build a scale model of the apartment. The scale model must include the following: All the walls, windows and doors of the apartment All the floor and wall cabinets The complete layout of the kitchen. Option two: 4.2 Build a scale model of the upper section of the roof. The scale model must include the following: A section of the walls beneath the roof of the apartment The roof construction with roof trusses, roof cover and parts of the gutters and downpipe(s) A section of the ceiling slats, ceiling, cornice/crown moulding and cover strip. Option three: 4.3 Build a scale model of the sewage system and manhole. The scale model must include the following: All the external walls of the apartment All the sanitary fitments All the sewage pipes and the manhole.

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Practical Assessment Task Example of a design portfolio


CIVIL TECHNOLOGY DESIGN PORTFOLIO FOR AN APARTMENT

South elevation Scale 1:100

West elevation Scale 1:100

East elevation Scale 1:100

Kitchen

Bedroom Lounge

North elevation Scale 1:100 Window schedule

Floor plan Scale 1:100

NAME: GRADE:

GABRIELLE FRANSMAN 12 B

YEAR: 2012 SCHOOL: BUILDING SECONDARY SCHOOL

EDUCATOR: MR T HUISAMEN

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CONTENTS 1. PRESENTATION 1.1 Title page 1.2 Contents 1.3 Learners recording sheet for the design portfolio 1.4 Statement of authenticity 2. DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN PROPOSAL Situation 1 2.1 2.2 Design brief/proposal 1 2.3 Specifications and limitations 1 INVESTIGATION AND ANALYTICAL INFORMATION 3. 3.1 Variety of research methods: 3.1.1 Interviewing the client 2 3.1.2 Questionnaire 2 4 3.1.3 Interviewing educator 3.1.4 Relevant photos of design 4 3.1.5 Research books 5 3.1.6 Brief 5 3.1.7 Internet research 6 3.1.8 Building regulations local authority 6 4. DEVELOPING DESIGN IDEAS 4.1 Possible solutions 8 4.2 Evaluation of possible solutions 8 4.3 Motivation of preferred choice 9 5. COMMUNICATION OF IDEAS 5.1 Developing the preferred solution 10 Material list 11 5.2 5.3 List of tools and equipment 12 5.5 Steps for constructing the product 14 Time schedule 14 5.6 5.7 Quantity list 15 6. 6.1 6.2 7. EVALUATING THE PRODUCT OR MODEL Evaluation: questions and answers Results of testing the product or model Bibliography 17 17 19

8. Addendum 8.1 Internet resources 8.2 Instructions to learners 8.3 Matrix for assessment of the design portfolio 8.4 Matrix for assessment of the final product

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Practical Assessment Task


Grade 12 Civil Technology 201... Record sheet: Design portfolio Place this sheet in the front of the design portfolio. Name of student:
T erm 1 Assessment criteria Development of design brief: Design process Describe situation Write design proposal Specifications and limitations Investigation and analytical information: A variety of research methods such as: Interviews Questionnaire Find suitable photographs and mount them Explain purpose of photos Write a letter to request information References, e.g. building regulations, etc. Development of design ideas: Sketch at least three ideas of possible solutions The advantages and disadvantages of each idea Pick the best idea and motivate your choice (first choice) Communication of ideas: Develop the preferred solution by furnishing more details Compile a list of materials that will be needed to produce the solution in real life Compile a list of materials and equipment for the actual production Describe the steps needed for making the scale model Draw up a time schedule for making the scale model Calculating quantities T erm 2 Working drawings: Front, left and top view Cross-section view West view East view Comment Mark out of 7 Marks achieved

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T erm 3 Evaluation of production of model: Evaluate the scale model by asking questions whether the aspects indicated in these criteria have been achieved Evaluate the product and see whether it meets the criteria Presentation: Title page Contents page Bibliography Addendum T otal for design portfolio out of ................: Converted total out of 25

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Practical Assessment Task


STATEMENT OF AUTHENTICITY CIVIL TECHNOLOGY PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK

NAME OF SCHOOL:

NAME OF LEARNER:

NAME OF EDUCATOR:

SCHOOL stAmp

I hereby declare that the Practical Assessment Task submitted by me for assessment is my own original work and that it has not been submitted for moderation before.

SIGNATURE OF LEARNER:

DATE:

To my knowledge, the above statement by the candidate is true and I accept that the work submitted is her/ his own work.

SIGNATURE OF EDUCATOR:

DATE:

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Civil Technology

Developing a design proposal


1. Situation/Need A single graduate has decided to include the construction of an apartment in his financial planning. Since he has only just entered the labour market, he does not qualify for a home loan. He can provide security for a personal loan in order to build the apartment. As a Grade 12 Civil Technology student, I was approached to design the apartment, draw the plans and build a scale model of the apartment. 2. Design brief Design an affordable apartment to meet the requirements of a graduate. The apartment must be large enough to for him/her to receive his/her parents, family and friends. 3. Specifications 3.1 Single-storey house 3.2 Must be aesthetically pleasing 3.3 Area of the apartment must not exceed 60 m2 3.4 Size of plot: 25 m 25 m 3.5 Apartment must have the following rooms: 1 Bedroom Open-plan kitchen with living area Bathroom Toilet 3.6 Municipal water and sewage connections are available 3.7 ESKOM electricity connection is available 3.8 The type of soil good quality gravel 3.9 Must be environmentally friendly 3.10 Must be accessible to disabled persons 4. Limitations 4.1 Must be affordable for the graduate 4.2 Only municipal sewage system available

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Practical Assessment Task

Investigation and analytical information


Selection of research methods:
Interviews Questionnaires Research: books, magazines, Internet, etc. Letter Building regulations 1. Research: Interviewing client The following questions were put to my client during an interview: Question: Answer: How much are you willing to spend on the construction of this apartment? Up to R160 000,00.

Question: The estimated building cost per square metre is approximately R3 500,00. That means that the area of the house will be approximately 45m2 square metres. Would it be all right if the house were designed according to these figures? Answer: Yes. Question: Does the Surveyor-General have a diagram of the premises? Answer: No. Question: Answer: May I request it? And who is the surveyor? Yes. The surveyors are ABC Surveyors, located at 146 Land Street.

Question: Do you want to convert the apartment to a full, medium-sized dwelling in the future? Answer: No. Question: Do you have any suggestions regarding the apartment, as well as ideas for expanding? Answer: No. Question: Do you have any specific needs that have to be addressed? Answer: No. 2. Research by means of a questionnaire for client to complete The client completed the questionnaire provided here in order to provide more information regarding the design of the apartment. Questionnaire regarding the design of the apartment Please complete the questionnaire in as much detail as possible

Interviewer: G. K. Fransman Date: 25 January 2012 2.1 Personal details of client Client: Miss T. Sanetha Plot number: 24328 Street: 30 Sixth Lane City/Town: PAT CITY Telephone (w): 024437 3471

Cell no: 061573 7092

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2.2 Information regarding planned apartment Indicate your choice by ticking in the relevant spaces.
Shape of the dwelling: Rectangular L-shaped Other (specify) Kitchen and living room Double-storey Face brick Flat roof with parapet walls Closed eaves Corrugated sheet Other (specify) Wooden window frames Double garage Separate garage/carport Steel garage doors Concrete stairs Fibre-cement gutters and downpipes Fibre-cement fascia boards Concrete swimming pool Indoor braai Fireplace Other (specify) Aluminium window frames Carport Cement brick Pitched roof Open eaves IBR

Open-plan (specify which rooms): Single-storey Clay stone Cement blocks Closed eaves Roof tiles Thatch Steel window frames Single garage Adjoining garage/carport Wooden garage doors Wooden stairs Plastic gutters and downpipes Laminated wood fascia boards Fibreglass swimming pool Outdoor braai

2.3 Planning of flat


Description Bedroom 1 Kitchen Living room Bathroom and toilet Internal measurements in mm 4 000 3670 4 000 2500 4 000 3 280 4 000 1000 Area 14,68 m2 10,0 m2 13,12 m2 4,0 m2 41,8 m2 52,9 m2 625 m2 Type of floor cover Laminated floors Tiles Tiles Tiles Number of wall plugs 1 4 3 None Fixed fittings per room Built-in cupboards Built-in cupboards/ Sink/breakfast nook None B/WB/SH/WC

Total area of internal measurements Total area of external measurements Total area of plot

3. Research: conversation with teacher I will consult my teacher continuously during the development of the proposal, compilation of the design portfolio, the working drawings and the construction of the scale model. After consulting my teacher, the following decisions were made: 3.1 The SANS 10400:1990 must be consulted when the apartment is designed. 3.2 The walls of the scale model should be dry walls. 3.3 My teacher will arrange for the local building inspector to evaluate the preliminary plans.

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Practical Assessment Task


4. Research: newspapers, magazines, catalogues, etc. Research includes photos of the following, which will be included in my design portfolio. 4.1 Apartments that have flat roofs without parapet walls.
Flat roof without finish at eaves
Corrugated zinc sheet

Rafter Purlin

The roof does not appear aesthetic because the purlins and rafters are visible. Strong winds can loosen the roofsheets. Flat roof with eaves

Fascia board Bargeboard

The roof looks attractive because the purlins and rafters are covered by barge boards and fascia boards. Flat roof with parapet walls
Flashing to make walls moist on the inside of the three parapet walls

Parapet wall

Parapet walls lend a superb, finished appearance and look durable. This best complements the appearance of the apartment.

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Civil Technology
4.2 Photos of open-plan kitchen interiors Please note: Photos have not been included in this portfolio due to the Copyright Act.

5. Research: books used In order to design the rooms, it would be a good idea to consider the standard measurements of furniture. 5.1 Master bedroom Queen-size bed: 1800 mm long and 1520 mm wide Headboard of the bed is 2370 mm long Built-in cupboards are 600 mm deep and 3000 mm long 5.2 Living room Couches: Three separate couches seating six Dining-room suite: Table and six chairs need 2800 mm floor space 5.3 5.4 Open-plan kitchen: Double sink: 1500 mm 500 mm Four-plate stove: 1200 mm 600 mm 600 mm Refrigerator: 1920 mm 600 mm 600 mm Dishwasher: 850 mm 600 mm 600 mm Microwave oven: 500 mm 400mm 320 mm Built-in cabinets in kitchen: 570 mm deep Breakfast nook Bathroom and toilet Flush lavatory: 500 wide and 760 mm deep Wash basin: 585 mm wide and 410 mm deep Bath: 1703 mm 712 mm 370 mm Shower: 900 mm 900 mm

6. Research: Letter

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Practical Assessment Task


35 Design Street PAT CITY 7834 25 January 2012 ABC Surveyors P.O. Box 398 PAT CITY 7834 Dear Sir/Madam COPY OF SURVEYOR-GENERALS DIAGRAM I am a Grade 12 learner at Building Secondary School. Civil Technology is one of my subjects and for the Practical Assessment Task I have to design an apartment for a client, complete the working drawings and build a scale model of my design. My client, whose details are provided below, has given me permission to request a copy of the Surveyor-Generals diagram. Here are the details: Client: Miss T. Sanetha Plot number: 24328 Street: 30 Sixth Lane City/Town: PAT CITY Enclosed, please find a cheque (number 20355) to the value of R100.00 to cover the costs as indicated. Thank you. Yours faithfully ................................................. G K Fransman (Miss)

7. Research: Internet The properties of gravel soil were researched in order to determine its suitability for the development of the project. Properties of gravel soil It is a mixture of soil and broken rocks. Will not shift because of broken rocks. Gravel is usually solid, which makes it ideal soil on which to build structures. It will not shift or move. Resists pressure well. Suitable for drainage, e.g. dry stone or French drain. 8. Research: visiting local authority During a visit to the local authority, the following Building Regulations regarding the installation of a sewage system with a manhole were obtained from the Code of Practice for The Application of National Building Regulations, as set out by the SANS/SABS Act 0400:1990.

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Civil Technology
Regulations regarding manholes: Any existing or proposed drainage system must meet the applicable specifications of the Building Regulations Act and any other standards prescribed by the Act. No person may initiate any development on any premises before the Engineer has installed a sewage connection pipe. No rainwater or stormwater and no wastewater, other than wastewater approved by the Municipality, may be released into the drainage system. The Municipality may determine the position of the sewage pipe and the underground depth at which any drainage system must be installed. The owner must maintain the drainage system at his/her own expense. The owner of the premises must ensure that all manholes and sanitary outlets on the premises are permanently visible and accessible. A drainpipe or part thereof, may only pass through or under a building if written approval has been obtained from the Engineer in accordance with the conditions as determined by him/her.

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Practical Assessment Task

Developing design ideas


Possible solutions Evaluation of possible solutions Motivation of preferred choice Generating designs for a one-bedroom apartment The floor plans provided below show three ideas that were generated as possible designs for a one-bedroom apartment. Idea 1:
Main bedroom Wooden floor

Bathroom Tiles Passage Tiles

Kitchen Tiles

Living room Tiles

This is a good, pleasing design with spacious rooms. Breakfast nook or counter serves to divide the kitchen and living room. Open-plan between living room and kitchen makes rooms look spacious. The kitchen without the counter is L-shaped. It can be changed to a U-shape by building cabinets against the open wall. The bathroom has two separate doors, which make it easily accessible. The bathroom is next to the master bedroom and serves as an en suite to provide privacy. There are enough built-in cupboards in the bedroom. A double bed will fit in easily, while larger beds may confine the space. A mirror can be mounted on the side of the cupboard. Children running in and out when guests are received may cause a disturbance. A kitchen door can easily be installed. The apartment has five external angles/coin walls and one interior angle. Work surface in the kitchen is more than sufficient. There are many possibilities when it comes to extensions. A second bedroom can be added at minimal cost if the cupboard in the passage is removed. Bathroom with shower and bath is ideal for someone who likes to bath and shower. However, it increases the area of the apartment. Idea 2:
Bathroom Tiles

Kitchen Tiles

Living room Tiles

Main bedroom Wooden floor

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Civil Technology

The design of the apartment is pleasing, with spacious rooms. It is functional and the construction should be economical. Serving counter serves to divide the kitchen and living room. Using an open plan between the living room and kitchen makes the rooms appear more spacious. The kitchen without the counter is ideally suited for an L-shaped layout. The two external doors do not restrict access, which is very functional. It is inexpensive to build since it has only coin walls/external angles. The bathroom is modern, compact and economical with one door to allow visitors and residents access. It is ideal for someone who prefers to shower. The bathroom and bedroom are not visible from the living room, which ensures privacy. The spacious bedroom offers space for additional built-in cupboards. It can accommodate either a king-size or a queen-size bed. More rooms can be added on. A garage or additional bedroom can be added next to the master bedroom. There are sufficient work surfaces in the kitchen. Idea 3:

Living room Tiles Bathroom Tiles

Main bedroom Wooden floor

Kitchen Tiles

This is a good, pleasing design with spacious rooms. Breakfast nook or counter serves to divide the kitchen and living room. The open plan between the living room and kitchen makes the rooms look spacious. The kitchen without the counter top is U-shaped. The apartment has only one door in the living room. The position of the door, which serves as entrance, is not ideal since it is far from the road. Another door that provides entrance should be considered in the kitchen. The apartment has five external angles/coin walls and one internal angle, which increases the building costs. There is enough work surface space in the kitchen. Any adding on to the existing structure will require extensive structural changes. To add an additional bedroom, the cupboard in the passage as well as the shower would have to be removed in order to provide passage to the second bedroom. The bathroom, with a shower and a bath, is ideal for someone who likes showering and bathing. However, it increases the area of the apartment. The bathroom and bedroom are separated from the kitchen and living room, which offers privacy. Preferred choice: Idea Two meets all the specifications and will be developed. Though the design is plain, the apartment looks aesthetically pleasing and durable. The costs of construction are within the limits of the graduate who is my client. The apartment possesses a variety of adding-on options.

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Practical Assessment Task

Communication of ideas
Developing the preferred idea Material list List of tools and equipment Steps for constructing the product Time schedule Quantity list Communicating the preferred idea 1. Developing the preferred idea The drawing below illustrates my preferred choice which will now be expounded.

South elevation Scale 1:100

West elevation Scale 1:100

East elevation Scale 1:100

Kitchen Bedroom Lounge

North elevation Scale 1:100 Window schedule

Floor plan Scale 1:100

1.1 Kitchen layout To facilitate unrestricted movement between the sink, refrigerator, oven, the appliances a triangular layout is preferred. Make sure that there is enough workspace next to the appliances. Position the equipment or appliances to ensure that the walking distance between them does not exceed seven metres. The oven, refrigerator and sink are positioned according to the work triangle.

Fridge

The distance from AB to BC to CA of the work traingle must not exceed 7 metres

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Civil Technology
1.2 Specifications relating to house plans that must be considered 1.2.1 Areas: Area of plot: 625 m2 Area of apartment: 52,9 m2 % building area on plot: 8,46% 1.2.2 Floor plan: Floor cover according to owners specifications. Sanitary layout of bathroom and kitchen according to the owners choices and specifications. Built-in cupboards according the design and specifications of a specialist. 1.2.3 Elevations: Provide damp-proof coursing in walls at floor level and at windowsills. All the external walls must be plastered. Plastered internal and external walls must be painted according to the owners choice of colour and type of paint. Walls in kitchen and bathroom are tiled up to the ceiling. Tiles are chosen by the owner. Internal and external doors must be meranti with a varnish finish. Steel window frames with a high-gloss, white finish. Fascia boards are varnished. External doors have three-lever locks and internal doors two-lever locks. 100-litre, horizontal geyser must be installed in the ceiling. 2. List of materials needed should the house actually be built
Substructure River sand 19 mm concrete stone Superstructure Construction of walls Brickforce with reinforcing wire Cement Paint Clay bricks River sand Hinges Door locks Roof Wood for roof trusses Laminated fascia boards Fibro-cement for soffits Galvanised roof sheets Gutter elbows/bends Gang nail plates Wire nails Bargeboard Screws with washers Holderbats for downpipes Gutter clip/strap/bracket Gutters Downpipes Doors External door frame wood Internal door frame steel Internal door hollow core Solid external door DPC Galvanised, mild steel hoopiron strap Windows Steel window frames Concrete lintels Window pane 4 mm Putty Fibre-cement windowsills Screws Brickforce DPC Lime Clay bricks

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Practical Assessment Task


Ceilings 6,4 mm Rhino ceiling board 76 mm Crown list/cornice Plumbing Polycop pipes Copper pipes Taps Electrical work Wall plugs 15 amp Oven isolating switch Lights Conduit fittings Wall sockets Electrical cables Light switches Conduit Bulb holder Wall tiles Tile cement 110 mm PVC sewerage pipes Septic tank 100-litre geyser 40/50 mm PVC sewerage pipes Racking/wooden strips 76 mm wire nails 25 mm galvanised cloutheaded nails

Distribution board: 6-phase with earthing connection and trip switches for wall plugs, lights, stove and geyser Floor finish Floor tiles Tile spacers Grout Sanitary ware Shower head Toilet Built-in cupboards Melamine board Formica tops Painting PVA for ceilings Filler (Polyfilla) Oil for wood Paint external walls Sandpaper Cleaning solutions Paint internal walls Wood and metal paint Handles Screws Genkem Nails Sink Wash basin Tile cement Panel pins Laminated wood Laminated floorboards Skirting wood or vinyl Quarter bead

3. List of tools and equipment needed should the house actually be built
Tools needed for building foundation and for brickwork Tape measure Steel square Garden hose Square-nose shovel Brick trowel Jointing tools Concrete mixer Bucket Spade Pick Tubular spirit level Concrete/builders wheelbarrow Pointing trowel Club hammer Compacter/wooden beam with flat base Scaffolding Plumb line Fishing line Heavy-duty, latex gloves Hard broom Gauging trowel Wall chisel Angle-grinder

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Civil Technology
Tools needed for plastering Steel square Float Straight edge Bucket Yankee screwdriver Centre punch Carving knife Pencil Rafter square Adjustable drill bits Bench plane Oil stone/whet slate Portable electric drill Tools for installing ceiling Hacksaw (fine) Claw hammer Tools for installing gutters Hacksaw (fine) Screwdriver Medium file Tools for electrical work Wire-nippers Long-nose pliers Well-insulated screwdrivers Tools for plumbing work Hacksaw (fine) Steel square Straight edge Shifting spanner/wrench Claw hammer Trowel Tools for installing floors Ceramic tile cutter Grindstone Float for grouting Tools for painting Scaffolding Masking tape Sandpaper Paint rollers and trays Scraper Paintbrushes Slip-proof cover sheets Tile nippers Notched trowel Sponge for tiling Wood filler Mitre box Saw Nylon nail fasteners Nails Pencil Measuring tape Portable electric drill Masonry Combination square Chisel Tubular spirit level Chalk line Chain pipe tongs Pipe vice Copper pipe cutter Thread cutter Draw wire Side-cutting pliers Multi-speed meter Wire stripper Pencil Measuring tape Tubular spirit level Rope Pencil Measuring tape Cutting knife Putty knife Tubular spirit level Claw hammer Angle-grinder Pointing trowel Screwdriver Wire pliers Shifting spanner/wrench Multi-purpose knife Drill, flathead Stamper for gang nail plates Shifting spanner/wrench Combination square Morse-spiral bits Crowbar Multi-purpose snips (tinmans shears) Cross-cut saw Back and tenon saw Hacksaw Ratomslag (Hand-drill with double spur/pinion) Claw hammer Circular saw Reel of fishing line Plastering trowel Hawk/trowel board Square brush

Tools needed for construction of roof

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Practical Assessment Task


4. Steps for construction of simulated apartment and a time schedule The procedure and schedule provided here indicate the steps required to complete my scale model.
Manufacturing step Second term Week number 4 Week ending ... Marking out and working on the front of the apartment Marking out and working on the left side of the apartment Marking out and working on the right side of the apartment Marking out and working on the back of the apartment Marking out and working on the floors Fitting and assembling the sides: front, right, left and back Marking out and working on internal walls Marking out, making and fitting doors and windows Designing and making furniture for kitchen and bedroom Marking out, making and fitting roof Marking out, making and fitting fascia board, gutters and downpipes The finish of the apartment 6 May 5 13 May 6 20 May 7 27 May Third term Week number 1 15 Jul 2 22 Jul 3 29 Jul 4 5 Aug 5 12 Aug 6 19 Aug 7 26 Aug 8 31 Aug

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Civil Technology
5. Quantity list The quantity of bricks needed to complete the sub- and superstructure is calculated by: 5.1 calculating the area of the substructure 5.2 calculating the area of the superstructure 5.3 calculating the number of bricks. The following specifications apply: The walls of the substructure are 220 mm and built in stretcher bond. The walls of the superstructure are 220 mm and built in stretcher bond. The internal walls of the superstructure are 110 mm and built in stretcher bond. Height of the foundation wall is 425 mm. Height of the superstructure measured from the foundation is 2600 mm. Height of the superstructure measured up to the parapet wall is 4600 mm. Openings for doors are 2000 mm high and 900 mm wide. Take 50 bricks per square metre for a half-brick wall. The total length of the 110 mm internal walls is 10000 mm. All bricks are common/stock bricks. Allow 5% for waste.
A 1/ B 28,66 0,425 12,181 m C Substructure: Total centre line Height of foundation wall Area of foundation wall Superstructure external walls: 1/ 28,66 4,6 83,114 m Total centre line Height of parapet wall Area of 2900 superstructure wall Superstructure external walls: Triangular parapet wall Length of canted wall Difference in height of canted wall 6,22 2,0 2/ 6,22 6,22 m
2

D = = = 28,660 mm 425 mm 12,181 m2

= = =

28,660 mm 4 600 mm 131,836 m2

= 6220 mm = 4 600 2 600 mm = 2 000 mm = bh = 6,22 m

Area of canted wall Area of one canted wall Total area of canted sections of walls

12,44 m2

Area of two canted sections of wall = 12,44 m2 Total external wall area = Area of foundation wall + area of 4 600 mm superstructure wall area of triangular parapet wall Total external wall area = 12,18 m2 + 131,84 m2 12,44 m2 = 143,76 m2

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Practical Assessment Task


Superstructure internal walls: 1/ 10,0 2,6 26,0 m2 Total length of internal walls = 10000 mm Height of internal walls = 2600 mm Area of internal walls = 26,0 m2 Windows: 2/ 2,0 1,5 1/ 0,6 0,9 2/ 1,2 1,5 3,6 m 0,54 m 6,0 m Window 1 = 2 000 1500 Area of 2 windows 1 = 6,0 m Window 2 = 600 900 Area of window 2 = 0,54 m Two windows without measurement = 1 200 1500 (own discretion) Area of two windows = 3,6 m Total area of windows = 6,0 + 0,54 + 3,6 m2 = 10,14 m2 Doors: 4/ 2,0 0,9 7,2 m Door = 2 000 mm 900 mm Area of 2 external doors and 2 internal doors = 7,2 m Total area of brickwork: Area of wall area of windows area of doors = 143,76 m2 10,14 7,2 = 126,42 m2 Total bricks for external walls 2/ 126,42 50 12 642 Number of bricks = area of wall number of bricks per m 50 bricks per m for a half-brick wall 220 mm superstructure is 2 half-brick walls Thus 12 642 bricks are needed for the external walls Total bricks for internal walls 1/ 26,0 50 1 300 Number of bricks = area of wall number of bricks per m 50 bricks per m for a half-brick wall Thus 1 300 bricks are needed for the external walls Total number of bricks Bricks for external walls + bricks for internal walls = 12642 + 1300 = 13 942 bricks Plus 5 % for waste Waste: 5% of 13 942 bricks = 697,1 bricks Total number of stock bricks: 13 942 + 698 = 14 640 bricks

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Civil Technology

Evaluating the product or model


Evaluation: questions and answers Evaluation 1. Does the dwelling suit the purpose for which it was designed? The instruction that the apartment should not exceed 60 m2 has been followed. The apartment meets most of the given specifications. The apartment can be expanded, which makes this an ideal design. 2. Is the dwelling functional, i.e. does it suit the purpose for which it was designed? The dwelling is well suited to the purpose for which it was designed. The rectangular appearance of the apartment with its parapet walls is aesthetically pleasing. The open-plan kitchen and living room look spacious. The layout of the kitchen is extremely functional. The windows allow enough light into the room, as well as enough sunlight during the winter months. 3. Is the house cost-effective? Because there are only four coin/external angles, the construction costs of materials and labour could be reduced. Standard sanitary ware and electrical equipment will be used, which will also contribute towards keeping the costs low. Costs can be cut by converting the pitched roof to a pent roof. 4. Were there any shortcomings in the procedure used to build the scale model? No, the steps that had been set out and the schedule were simply and clearly expounded and easy to execute. The user-friendly steps really helped me to manage my time effectively. 5. Did you learn any new techniques while building the scale model? Because I built the model according to the drywall concept, this was an extremely educational experience. I have learned techniques that would enable me to excel in the building of drywall constructions. Many other values and skills, such as problem solving, dedication, self-discipline and cooperation with my classmates and teacher, were learned. 6. How can the apartment be improved or changed? Erecting a pergola in front of the doors and windows on the southern side of the dwelling will reduce the maintenance costs and enhance the appearance of the dwelling. Adding a shower to the bathroom can improve its functionality. A window and door can also be added to the eastern side, near the carport. 7. Evaluate the applicability or suitability of the material used in building the scale model. The wood and hardboard that were used to construct the drywalls will ensure a sturdy model. The parts can be assembled easily and attached firmly without concerns that they will come apart when handled. The corrugated cardboard used for the roof can be painted. The risk of shrinkage is reduced because it is corrugated. The wood was easy to finish and there were no concerns regarding shrinkage, as is often the case when cardboard is used.

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Practical Assessment Task


8. Were problems encountered and how were they solved? Internet research is expensive and it is difficult to find applicable information. The house plans found on the Internet were often not relevant. Books were then consulted. The working drawings were initially very complex but, as the techniques involved in drawing house plans were mastered, they became useful and informative. 9. Is the apartment environmentally friendly? No, the apartment is not environmentally friendly in all respects. The following are presented as examples: 9.1 Natural materials were used in construction and solar energy panels were fitted as part of the ecologically sensible lifestyle trend. 9.2 Eco-friendly building methods were used by buying local materials. This reduces the carbon footprint. Recyclable material was used, e.g. the laminated fascia boards. 9.3 Insulation material was inserted between the flat roof and the ceiling, which reduces the cost of heating and cooling. 9.4 Solar energy is used to heat water. 9.5 No light bulbs were used. Only lighting emitting diodes (LEDs) that require small amounts of electricity to produce light were used. LEDs use 20 to 50 times less electricity than light bulbs. 10. Has provision been made for the disabled? Yes. The rooms are spacious. Entering the house is easy, since there is only a slight difference between the natural ground level and the final floor level, which rendered steps redundant. The needs of the disabled were also considered regarding the entrance to and use of the bathroom.

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Civil Technology

Bibliography
Barker, B.J. 1993. The South African Book Of House Plans. Cape Town: Struik Publishers. De Villiers, L. 2006. South African House Plans. Cape Town: Struik Publishers. Free house plans <http://www.smartdraw.com> [12 February 2012]. Free house plans <http://ezinearticles.com> [18 February 2012]. Grobbelaar, A. 2006. Building Construction and Graphic Standards. Jeffereys Bay: Anglo Rand. Grobbelaar, A. 2007. Affordable Homes and Plans for South Africa. Jeffereys Bay: Anglo Rand. Grobbelaar, A. 2007. A To Z Of Home Planning, Building & Extensions. Jeffereys Bay: Anglo Rand. Grobbelaar, A. 2007. Home Planning and Building Guide & Editions. Jeffereys Bay: Anglo Rand. Grobbelaar, A. 2007. The Star Home Designs. Jeffereys Bay: Anglo Rand. Haas, T.D., et al. 2010. Siviele Tegnologie Leerderboek Graad 10. Mowbray: Future Managers. Haas, T.D., et al. 2010. Siviele Tegnologie Leerderboek Graad 12. Mowbray: Future Managers. Houseman, P.J. Bouinspekteur. Breedevallei Munisipaliteit. Bouregulasies, 12 Februarie 2012. 023 348 2000. Worcester. Huisamen, T. Siviele Tegnologie Onderwyser, Boufokus Sekondre Skool. Samestelling van n Ontwerpportefeulje, 14 Februarie 2012, 079 234 5678. Bouershoop. Munnik Visser Black Fish & vennote. 1994. Ontwerp jou eie Huis. Kaapstad. Struik Uitgewers. Munnik Visser Black Fish & vennote. 1994. Design Your Own Home. Cape Town: Struik Publishers. Soil types for buildings <http://www.ehow.com/list_7446436_soil-types-building> [9 March 2012]. Walton, D. 1995. Building Construction Principles And Practices. Macmillan: Oxford.

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Practical Assessment Task

Addendum
Information Internet resources Instructions for learners Matrix for the assessment of the design portfolio Matrix for the assessement of the final product/model Soil types for building By Sienna Condy, eHow Contributor updated: December 4, 2010 1. The type of soil under your building affects structural stability. Whether building a new home or a smaller outdoor structure, check the building for stability. The soil your structure is built upon is its first foundation and some soil types are more prone to expansion or shifting than others are. If the ground beneath your building is unstable and shifts or expands, it can cause your structure to shift, creating cracks in the walls and foundation problems. 2. Rock Solid rock, such as crystalline bedrock, bears the most weight of any type of soil, making it one building option. According to the Concrete Network, crystalline bedrock can handle up to 12 000 lbs. per square foot of load-bearing pressure keeping the structure stable. Other types of rock, including sedimentary, can bear up to 6 000 lbs. of pressure per square foot. However, some types of sedimentary rock, such as shale, are not always a safe option on which to build. In time, sedimentary rock can break apart, causing the ground to shift beneath your structure. 3. Gravel Although gravel soils can only bear up to about 5 000 lbs. of pressure, according to the Concrete Network, gravel soils, which typically feature a mixture of earth and bits of rocks or larger pieces, are often a solid soil type for building. Unlike pure rock soils that may shift as the rock breaks, gravel soils are created from a mixture of soil and rock that has already broken down. Gravel soils tend to stay in place and react well under pressure. They also are typically well drained. 4. Coarse soils Coarse soils, like sand, are often stable building spots. Sand doesnt expand when wet. Its also difficult to move, making it one of the most stable soil choices on which to build. Due to the nature of the soil, sand can only bear about 3 000 to 5 000 lbs. of pressure per square foot. When evaluating sand for building, look at whats mixed in with the sand. Gravelly sand or basic sand is stable, but sand mixed with more unstable soils, like peat or clay, usually is not a good building option.

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Civil Technology
5. Other soils Fine-grained soils, such as clay and silt, are typically not stable soils on which to build. Silt shifts easily and clay expands when wet, often creating cracks in any foundation built upon it. Organic soils, such as peat in the process of decomposing, are also not stable for building, as the organic materials are often not fully compacted or settled. In some cases organic soils are mixed with other soil types, such as sand, making them more stable.

46

Boundary line

Apartment

Boundary line

Boundary line

Notes: Areas (m) 625 m Plot House 49,42 m Total area 49,42 m % Building area on plot: 7,91% Water pipe 15 or 19 mm polycop at maximum depth of 450 mm with a stopcock. All soil pipes, 110 mm, with a 1 : 60 incline and minimum depth of 450 mm. All water pipes 40 mm. 50 mm soil vent pipe at the highest point of the sewage system. Kitchen sink 40 mm wastewater pipe. Only SABS-approved drainpipes and sewage accessories may be used. Heavy-duty manhole covers for sewage in road. All sewage must meet the requirements of the local authority.
Draughtsman: G.K. Fransman SARAP REG. NO.: HS 1023 Address: 23 Bird Lane Tel./Fax: 086 531 5474 Cell no.: 081 246 4892 E-mail: gkfransman@telkomsa.net Client Name: Miss T Sanetha Signature: Date:

Building line

Boundary line

Project title PROPOSED NEW DWELLING ON PLOT 24328, PAT CITY 6850 Description of drawing SITE PLAN AND SEWAGE PLAN Drawing no: 1 of 3

Practical Assessment Task

Municipal connection

Foundation Street

Scale 1 : 200

Scale: As indicated Date: 2 March 2012

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48
West view Scale 1:100 East view Scale 1:100
Notes: Areas (m) Plot 625 m House 49,42 m 49,75 m Total area % Building area on plot 7,91% Floor plan Stairs Rise max. 200 mm Tread min. 250 mm Elevations All external walls must be plastered and painted or must be facebrick. External water-resistant paint 2 coats. All dimensions, levels and all other information on this drawing must be verified on the site before work commences. Provide DPC in walls on floor level and at windowsills. Floor cover according to owners specifications and preferences. Bathroom and kitchen sanitary fittings according to owners specifications and preferences. Cabinets/cupboards according to specialist design and specifications OR Built-in cupboards, the exposed face of white melamine and with formica tops Finish notes Plastered and painted internal walls using high quality, white, PVA paint. Plastered external walls painted according to the owners choice of colour and paint. Walls in bathroom and kitchen are tiled to ceiling level. Internal and external doors of meranti, finished with varnish. External doors have 3-lever locks and internal doors 2-lever locks Window frames of steel finished in white oil paint. Fascia boards are varnished. 100-litre horizontal geyser installed in ceiling. Roof not painted All tiles according to owners choice. Paving as specified by owner (optional)

Civil Technology

South view Scale 1:100

Kitchen North view Scale 1:100 Bedroom

Living room

Draghtsman: G.K. Fransman SARAP REG. NO.: HS 1023 Address: 23 Bird Lane Tel./Fax: 086 531 5474 Cell no.: 081 246 4892 E-mail: gkfransman@telkomsa.net Client Name: Miss T Sanetha Signature: Date: Project title PROPOSED NEW DWELLING ON PLOT 24328, PAT CITY 6850 Description of drawing GROUND PLAN AND ELEVATIONS Drawing no: 2 of 3 Scale: 1 : 200 Date: 2 March 2012

Floor plan Scale 1:100

Galvanised zinc sheets

Wall plate

Facia board 228 28 75 mm cornice Ceiling batten 38 38

Square gutter (100 100)

Downpipe (75 75) 100 mm concrete floor Screed coat NGL Hardcore section BB SCALE 1 : 50 Wearing course Undisturbed earth

Notes: IBR roof cover on 76 50 purlins at 1 100 h.o.h. on 152 38 mm tie beams at maximum 850 h.o.h. at 5 degree pitch with gutters and fascia board. SA pine used for roof construction. 114 38 mm wall plate. Purlins 50 75 at 900 mm centres. Roof battens are kept in position by galvanised hoop wire (1 200 40 mm) that penetrates 600 mm into the wall construction. Eaves projection 300 mm. Cross-bracing between roof trusses must be provided according to the manufacturers instructions. Roof trusses on 760 centres on 114 38 mm wall plates with 114 38 mm tie beams. 2 lintels above all openings and brickforce for each layer above the lintel. Floor notes: 75 mm concrete floor on 250 micron DPC on 50 mm wearing course (sand bed) on well-compacted hard-core fill 375 micron DPC in walls on finished floor level. 100 mm concrete floor on 250 mm micron DPC on well-compacted filling material.

DPC

NGL

Draughtsmen: G.K. Fransman SARAP REG. NO.: HS 1023 23 Bird Lane Address: 086 531 5474 Tel./Fax: Cell no.: 081 246 4892 E-mail: gkfransman@telkomsa.net Client Name: Miss T Sanetha Signature: Date: Project title PROPOSED NEW DWELLING ON PLOT 24328, PAT CITY 6850 Description of drawing VERTICAL SECTIONAL ELEVATION Drawing no: 3 of 3 Scale: As indicated Date: 2 March 2012

Practical Assessment Task

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Civil Technology

50

Chapter 2

Safety

Personal safety General safety measures Construction work

Civil Technology

Introduction
The term safety implies that one is free of any danger or risks. While one is working, ones personal safety must be guaranteed at all times. The Occupational Health and Safety Act defines an accident as an unplanned and uncontrolled event that occurs as the result of an unsafe act (unsafe actions) or unsafe conditions. This results in injuries and damage to property. The aim of the legislation is to make workplaces as safe as possible. The Occupational Health and Safety Act, No. 85 of 1993, strives to prevent or reduce the number of work-related accidents and occupational diseases in South Africa. This calls for a culture of acceptance and implementation of safe work habits that, in turn, will produce tremendous social and economic benefits. The Occupational Health and Safety Act ensures the right of workers to work in an environment that is healthy and safe. The aim of the Act is to reduce health and safety risks in the workplace, especially in areas where machinery is operated. The Act compels employers to appoint and establish safety representatives and committees in the workplace. Should employers not comply with the requirements of the Act, they are punishable by law. According to this Act, each employer must appoint a safety officer who is responsible for ensuring that all the safety regulations are met. It is the responsibility of each employer to subject himself to the measures stipulated in the Act. He is responsible for his own safety as well as the safety of his employees or co-workers. Since you were introduced to some aspects of safety in Grades 10 and 11, the enforcement and regulation of the following will now be studied: Enforcement and regulation of the Occupational Health and Safety Act stipulations pertaining to clothing as well as head, eye and ear protection Enforcement and regulation of the Occupational Health and Safety Act stipulations pertaining to hand tools, power tools, construction machinery, workplaces and safe working methods Organising the safe planning of excavations, the handling of materials, open floors and stairs, hoisting devices and ladders on a building site.
Did you know? General Safety Regulation number 3 pertaining to first aid and first-aid procedures stipulates that the employer undertakes to take every possible step to ensure that a person in his employment receives the necessary first aid and treatment in the event of an emergency or injury.

Take note Each worker is responsible for his/her own safety as well as the safety of his/her fellow workers.

Did you know? One first-aid member must be appointed for every 100 workers on the premises.

Personal safety
Depending on the situation in which the employee finds him/herself in the workplace, the employer is responsible for providing the necessary protective clothing/gear to protect the body and/or body parts. 1. Clothing The following points are important: protective overalls gloves (cement, metal, welding, etc.) aprons masks (dust, paint, gas, etc.) protective clothing.

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Safety
2. Head protection hard hat safety helmet. 3. Eye and ear protection goggles safety glasses earplugs ear protectors.

4. Shoes safety boots/shoes reinforced boots/shoes water boots.

General safety measures


1. Hand tools Always ensure that cutting tools are sharp. Using a blunt tool requires more force, which may lead to its slipping from the users grasp, causing a serious injury. Use tools only for purposes for which they were designed. Do not use broken tools. Immediately report any damage. The safety precautions applicable to each piece of equipment must be enforced rigorously. Maintain tools (oil, service, etc.). Maintain the correct cutting direction. Do not bend the blades/points of tools when you are using them. Never leave tools on the edge of the work surface, since they may fall and cause serious injuries. Always keep your hands behind the cutting edge of tools. Never use your fingers to test the sharpness of tools. Rather use a piece of wood. 2. Power tools According to law, safety regulations should be displayed on or near power tools. Power tools may not be used without permission. Remove any jewellery before using power tools. Use the safety devices as instructed. Tuck in loose clothing. Wear an overall/overcoat. Keep your hands well away from moving parts. Be sure to turn off the power supply when replacing parts or adjusting the machinery. Wait until the machine has stopped completely before moving away from it. Never remove shields from machinery. Leave these in position. Electrical cords and cables should be checked regularly. Machines must be operated by only one person at a time. Secure all the moving parts beforehand. Use the tools only for the designed purpose. Hold machinery correctly and firmly. Make sure that the machinery has stopped functioning before you put it down. Keep machinery dry. Keep the machine and the environment clean.

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Civil Technology
3. Construction machinery Entry to the area must be restricted. A system regulating the incoming and outgoing machinery and trucks must be in place. Safe access roads to the site must be laid. Secure a parking area for machinery. A machinery service area must be available. Facilities for the washing of machinery must be provided. Safety equipment for use on open machinery must be supplied: nose, eye and ear protection. All machinery used on the building site must be equipped with warning lights. A site foreman must be on duty at all times. Construction machinery may only be operated by qualified operators. Never overload the vehicles. Only persons who have received the necessary training are allowed to handle moving machinery. The employer will see to it that each person who is authorised to handle a machine is fully informed regarding the necessary precautionary measures in order to avoid accidents. The machine operator may not under any circumstances leave the machinery while it is being used. Machinery may not be used without the prior knowledge of a supervisor. Should a machine jeopardise anyones safety, the person operating it must turn it off immediately.

4. Building sites/workplaces Safe practice require the following measures: Warning signs must be displayed. Safety signage must be displayed. All routes must be laid out neatly and indicated clearly. The central power supply to the site must be strategically placed and accessible. Fire-fighting equipment must meet the requirements of local authorities. Safety equipment must be available. Persons must be appointed to monitor safety. First-aid equipment must be available at all times. Emergency phone or radio communications must be available on site. Workers must be educated regarding HIV/Aids. Workers should be informed regarding contracts and human rights. Unsafe situations/conditions must be eliminated/avoided. Storerooms must be erected. Safety material must be made available. Regular safety inspections must be carried out. Secure open stairs and floors. The necessary safety measures must be taken during high-rise development. Wearing safety gear is compulsory. 5. Safe work methods on site A building site is potentially dangerous. Good control and administration are of the utmost importance. Materials and rubble pose possible threats to both construction work and workers. The safety of workers and visitors/sub-contractors is the responsibility of the contractor. Safety starts with the surveying of the site and continues to be the responsibility of contractor and architect until the project is handed over.

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Safety
6. Safe planning and organisation on site The allocation of a contract to a specific contractor incorporates the layout of the site and the plans for erecting the buildings. In most cases, the building contract compels the contractor to accept responsibility for the accurate and correct layout of buildings. Under Regulation 12, a responsible person or persons must be appointed to accept responsibility for the following: meeting the stipulations and regulations of the Act ensuring that operating equipment and machinery in good working order the appropriate use of equipment and machinery ensuring that work is done according to designs and specifications ensuring that permission for the work is obtained from local authorities ensuring that only material of the best quality is used.

Notice of construction work


1. 2. 3. A contractor has to inform the provincial director, in writing, before commencement of construction work which will involve the following: i) demolishing a structure which exceeds a height of 3 metres; ii) the use of explosives during construction; or iii) dismantling a fixed structure that is 3 metres high or higher. Before commencement of work, the contractor must inform the provincial director should the work: i) involve more than 30 days or more than 300 person days; ii) include excavations deeper than 1 metre; or iii) require building higher than 3 metres or building a landing. Notice to the provincial director as required in sub-regulation (1) must be given by completing the form similar to the appendix of this regulation. The prime contractor must ensure that a copy of the completed form, as specified in sub-regulation (2), is kept on site for inspection by a building inspector, client, clients agent or worker.

Activity 1
1. Two warning signs are provided here. Explain how and where they should be displayed.

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Civil Technology
2. Study the photo below and list the unsafe conditions that you observe.

3. Draw one safety sign on an A4 sheet of paper, colour it in using the appropriate colours, and place it in the correct area in your workshop at college. 4. Identify the safety gear that the worker needs in order to protect himself, given each of the following situations.

Did you know? According to Franklin Muchiri of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), specialists have stated that, worldwide, 2,2 million workers die as the result of accidents in the workplace. He states that, worldwide, 270 million workers are injured in accidents at work.

The regulations provided here form an integral part of the Occupational Health and Safety Act and can be consulted in these documents: Noise-induced Hearing Loss Regulation, 2003 Environment Regulations for Workplaces, 1987 and Facilities Regulations, 1990, as well as General Administrative Regulations, 2003 Electrical Machinery Regulations, 1988 Driven Machinery Regulations, 1988 General Machinery Regulations, 1988 Lifts, Escalators and Passenger Conveyor Regulations, 1994 Draft Amendment to the Construction Regulations Act, 2010 7. Excavations The contractor will ensure that all excavations take place under the supervision of a qualified person whose appointment has been confirmed in writing. Where possible, the contractor must test the stability of the terrain before commencement of excavations. During excavations, each contractor must take the necessary steps, where applicable, to prevent workers from being buried and/or trapped by falling earth or material during excavations.

56

Safety
Prior inspections must be carried out to determine whether there are electric cables, water pipes or gas lines in the area to be excavated, since this may affect the excavation process. Should personal safety be a concern, a fence of at least 1 metre high must be built as closely as possible around the perimeter of the excavation site. Warning signs must be displayed and they must be clearly visible, even at night or in the dark. The regulations of Government Notice R.1031 of 30 May 1986 must always be met before an excavation site may be entered. Shoring is compulsory where the banks slope/slant, if the soil is loose or if the engineer insists. Ensure that no load, material, construction machinery or tools are stored near excavation areas where the sides may cave in. Bracing is necessary where trenches or canals are deeper than 1,5 metres. The banks or ground table must be sufficiently supported. Daily inspections are necessary to test the strength of the bracing, especially after heavy rain. Safe access to trenches, or the area where excavations are taking place, must be ensured. 8. Handling of material This section of the work was covered in Grade 11. The risks and possible injuries that may occur when handling materials were set out clearly. In Grade 12, the following additional information regarding a construction site must be considered: Always ensure that proper procedures are followed when handling and storing material, or when removing material from a site. Loose material or building rubble must not be left on the construction site or stored in a way that will restrict the entrance or exit. Loose material or rubble must never be dropped from elevated areas. It must be conveyed via a chute or conveyor belt. A construction site to which the public has access must be cordoned off, and the access area must be clearly indicated to prevent unauthorised access to the site. A safety net or platform must be positioned or erected to prevent falling objects from injuring workers. When material is transported in bulk, it must be secured firmly. When material is transported to higher levels, make sure that workers maintain a safe distance from the material being moved overhead. When heavy material is transported via a lift/hoist, a qualified person must take charge of operations. When material is stacked, the height of the stack must never exceed three times the width of the material. Workers should only handle as much material as they physically can. They should not lift or carry excessively heavy loads. 9. Safety measures pertaining to floors and stairs Safety signage must be displayed at all stairs and floors that have no railings: The sides must be covered and the railing must be sturdy. Safety nets must be installed at the entrance. Safety gear must be used when working on upper levels, especially in windy conditions. When work is being done along the edge of a high-rise construction, the worker should be extra careful and his/her safety must be a priority. (It should be avoided if possible.)

Did you know? Most injuries are caused by picking up or lifting objects that are too heavy.

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Civil Technology
Boards must be fitted along the floors of upper levels to prevent material from falling to the lower levels. The area should always be clear of rubble or loose material. 10. Hoisting devices In Grade 11, you learnt how hoists operate and for what purposes they may be used. The purpose of a hoisting device is to transport personnel, materials, and equipment quickly between ground level and upper levels, or between floors in the middle of a structure. To ensure the safe use of hoisting devices, the following requirements must be met: A qualified person must operate the device. The device must never be overloaded. The gates and wire components of the lift or the hoisting device must be at least 1980 mm high. The gates must be shut when the device is being used. Emergency brake mechanisms must be installed. Safety measures must be displayed inside the cage. Inspections and maintenance work should be carried out regularly by qualified persons (six-monthly). Overhead protection must be provided to protect workers from falling objects. When material or equipment is being hoisted, it must be stacked firmly and correctly, and secured properly. It must be inspected weekly by a qualified person. 11. Ladders Ladders must be handled with the utmost care. Most ladders are made of wood, aluminium or fibreglass. Bear the following in mind when using a ladder: A ladder should be used by only one person. An aluminium ladder must never be used in the proximity of electrical wires. Carry ladders in such a way so as not to damage them. Always store ladders in a dry area. When a ladder is placed against a wall, a 1 : 4 angle must be maintained (as indicated in the adjacent sketch). Store the ladder in the appropriate area after use. Keep ladders clean and free of oil/grease. Make sure that the area where the ladder is being stored is within easy reach. When transporting a ladder, make sure that it does not protrude excessively. Soft material must be used to protect the ladder during transportation. Mark the end of the protruding ladder with a red or orange flag. When carrying a ladder, grip it near the middle. Be careful when carrying a ladder along passages or through doorways where your view may be obstructed. Ask someone to help you carry a heavy ladder and grip the same side of the ladder. Never store material or equipment on top of a ladder.

58

Safety

Wall brackets Wall 2 m max. Detail (side view)

Figure2.1: Carrying a ladder

Figure 2.2: Storing a ladder against a wall

Activity 2
1. 2. 3. What does making use of a qualified person imply? The term excavation has a very specific meaning. Explain. What is wrong in the following illustrations? Explain how you would rectify the situation.

4. What is the purpose of a safety net when high-rise buildings are under construction? 5. When a ladder is too heavy for you to carry, someone must be called to assist you. How should the ladder be carried?

59

Civil Technology

Terminology
Qualified or competent person Any person who has the knowledge, training, experience and qualifications specifically required by the job or task to be completed: with the proviso that when the applicable qualification and training is registered in terms of the regulations of the South African Qualifications Act (SAQA), 1995 (Act 58 of 1995), these qualifications and/or training will be regarded as the required qualification and training. Building work Any work pertaining to: the erection, maintenance, modification, renovation, repair, demolition or dismantling of or in addition to a building or similar structure the installation, erection, dismantling or maintenance of a fixed plant where the work includes personal risk the construction, maintenance, demolition or dismantling of any bridge, dam, canal, road, railway, runway, sewerage or waterworks system or any similar civil engineering project the moving of earth, clearing land, doing excavations, piling or any similar type of work. Excavations A manmade cavity, trench, pit/well or depression shaped by cutting, digging or floating Power tools Tools that are powered by electricy or batteries Safety signage Signs displayed to serve as warnings. Each safety sign has a specific meaning Unsafe condition A condition that poses a threat and that may cause harm, serious injury or death.

60

Chapter 3

Graphic communication

??????????

????? Building plans

??????

Architectural symbols CAD programme

Colour codes for plans

Civil Technology

Introduction
During the introduction to graphic communication in Grades 10 and 11, the various drawing symbols used in the building industry, dimensions and how to indicate them, the different lines used in drawings, the various scales used for drawings or plans as well as how to choose window frames and doorframes were studied. Another important component that was introduced in Grade 11 included floor plans, elevations and sectional elevations.
Take note The house plans in this section will not be colour-coded.

In this chapter, the various elevations of a dwelling, plans for houses that have gable-end or hipped-end roofs, lean-tos and Howe pitched roofs (the so-called SA pitch) will be introduced. Floor plans and the layout of a sewage system, as well as the site plan, will also be discussed.

Building plans
Indicating letters and numbers as well as dimensions on a drawing or building plan is of the utmost importance if the contractor is to make appropriate decisions when the house is being built. Drawings or plans must meet the SANS specifications. The labelling of the drawing must meet the following requirements: The drawing must be clear and legible. It must be executed on white paper or any other acceptable material. The name of the owner of the plot must appear on the drawing. The drawing must be dated and signed in black ink by the owner. (Any changes must be signed and dated by the owner.) The drawing or plan must be drawn according to an acceptable scale. Any of the scales indicated in the table below may be used.

Scale
The scale must be specified in the scale title block to indicate which scale was used. Various factors determine or influence the scale: Accurate communication of the drawing The size of the project Specific detail that has to be indicated. The table below indicates the different scales for each type of drawing or plan.
Type Working drawing Locality plan Site plan Layout drawing Plans, sections and views Drawing components: Detail of a section, fitting sections, inclinations Scale 1 : 1 000 or smaller 1 : 500 1 : 200 1 : 200 1 : 100 1 : 50 1 : 50 1 : 20 1:0 1:5 1:2 1:1

62

Graphic communication

Lines
Lines vary in thickness and various lines are used to illustrate different types of drawings. The type of line is determined by the purpose of the drawing and the detail that has to be included. The most common thicknesses are 0,25 mm 0,3 mm 0,35 mm 0,5 mm and 1 mm.
Line type Description Continuous line dark Continuous line light Application Visible detail Dimension lines Hatching lines Leader lines Extension lines Projection lines Construction lines Hidden detail Symmetry lines Pitch lines (circles) Centre lines Cutting planes

Continuous line very light

Broken lines light Chain line light for work to be removed Thick broken line

Continuous, wavy and light Breaks in continuity of drawings. Long break line

Non-regular boundaries Limit of views and sections

Figure 3.1: Types of lines used in drawing

Figure 3.2: The correct way for dimensioning a building plan

Figure 3.3: The correct way for dimensioning normal drawings

63

Civil Technology Handwriting (script)


Standard codes of practice As a learner, you should know by now that your handwriting is of cardinal importance when you need to write on a drawing. The latest SABS 0111 Codes of Practice can be studied for this purpose. The writing must be legible and uniform as recommended by the Code. Printed writing must be practised to produce consistently neat work. See the alphabet on the next page for practising printing. Dimensions Dimensions are indicated to specify the distance between points. Always indicate the ratio of the dimensions clearly. Dimensions must be printed large enough to produce clear copies. Continuous measurements are always indicated directly above the dimension line. Numbers are always placed close to the arrowhead side so that they can be read from bottom right-hand side of the drawing. Decimals are indicated using a comma and to indicate units smaller than 0 (0,75 mm). To indicate thousands, leave a gap between the thousand digit and the hundred digit (7 234 mm). All linear dimensions must be indicated in millimetres. The order of measurements must remain constant to prevent confusion, for example, length must be provided first, followed by width and breadth, and thirdly, depth or heights.

Measurements
The SABS Code of Practice 0111 specifies how measurements should be indicated. The following aspects are very important: Dimension lines may not be closer than 10 mm from the outline of the drawing. Dimensions must not be closer than 1 mm from the measurement line. Use the same density as the outline when indicating dimensions. Leave a 2 mm gap between the outline and the projection line. The projection line must extend past the arrowhead by at least 2 mm. Indicate the dimensions above and preferably in the centre of the measurement line. Indicate the dimensions so that they can be read from the bottom right-hand side of the drawing. Arrowheads must be neat, pointed and must touch the extension line. Arrowheads must be 35 mm long. The abbreviation of diameter (dia) must follow the number (30 dia). However, when the symbol is used, it must be placed in front of the number ( 30). When referring to radius, the letter R is placed in front of the number. Angles are indicated in degrees, for example 35.

64

Graphic communication

Radius

Circles

Corners

Letters

Numbers Figure 3.4: Radii, circles and corners

Letters and numbers


Use the latest SABS 0111 Code of Practice to study the letters and numbers. Letters and numbers must always be written neatly and clearly to ensure uniformity. The height of letters and numbers vary from 2,57 mm. Name and title should be 57 mm high, while all other writing should be between 2,5 mm and 3,5 mm. Use capital letters when printing. See the alphabet below for practising printing.

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP QRSTUVWXYZ ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP QRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890 [ ( ! ? : // = + x % & ) ]

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQ RSTUVWXYZ ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQ RSTUVWXYZ 1234567890 [ ( ! ? : // = + x % & ) ]

65

Civil Technology

Drawing symbols in the building industry


Symbols for material Material Undisturbed earth Symbol Material Sheet membrane Symbol

Earth fill

Firebrick

Plaster

Undressed wood

Concrete

Dressed wood

Hard core

Plywood

Face brick

Metal

Common brick

Glass

General symbols Description Centre line Symbol Description Level, finished floor Symbol

Datum level

Level, invert

Diameter

Level, required on plan

Diameter, inside

Level, required on section

Diameter, outside

Indicate Northpoint

Level, existing on plan

Ramp

Level, existing on section

Staircase

Services Drain Gully

Grease trap

Stormwater drain

66

Graphic communication
Water supply Check valve Stop valve

Drain-off tap

Water cistern

Hot-water cylinder

Water meter

Safety valve

Water storage tank

Electrical installation Distribution board Socket outlet

Earth

Emergency light

Electricity meter

Fluorescent light (3 tubes of 40 W) Light (3 lamps of 40 W) Light wall-mounted

One-way switch single pole One-way switch double pole One-way switch tripple pole Two-way switch

Telephone, internal

Telephone, public

Furniture and fittings Bath Urinal slab type

Bidet

Urinal wall mounted

Shower and bath

Washbasin

Sink unit single

Wash tub

Sink unit double

Water-closet

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Civil Technology

Colour-coding used for house plans


Take note The house plans in this section will not be colour-coded.

Local authorities require one/two sets of appropriately colour-coded house plans. The colour-coded plans enable them to read the drawings more easily and also distinguish between new additions and existing material. The following colour codes are stipulated in the SANS 0143 Building Drawing Practice: Site plans 1. Proposed new work 2. Existing work 3. Work to be demolished Red Not coloured Black broken line

Sewage installation drawings indicating the needs of a site 1. Sewage/drain and diverting water pipes Brown 2. Existing drainpipes Black 3. Wastewater pipes Green Blue 4. Stormwater pipes 5. Diverted water and combination vents Red 6. Wastewater vents Yellow Layout drawing 1. New masonry (bricklaying) 2. New concrete 3. Walls: Plaster and paint 4. New timber 5. New iron and steel 6. New glass 7 Walls: Face brick 8. All existing material Abbreviations indicated on house plans
Description Not according to scale Natural ground level Finished floor level Shower Bath Kitchen sink Water meter Water closet Grease trap Abbreviation NTS NGL FFL SH B S WM WC GT Description Inspection eye Gulley Rodding eye Bottom depth Drainpipe Stormwater pipe French drain Septic tank Soil vent pipe Abbreviation IE G RE BD DP SWP FD ST SVP

Red Green Yellow Brown Blue Black Orange Grey

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Activity 1
1. Provide an appropriate scale for: 1.1 site plans 1.2 floor plans. 2. Use drawings to illustrate three ways in which to indicate dimensions. 3. 4. 5. Make neat drawings of the following drawing symbols: 3.1 undisturbed soil 3.2 earth filling 3.3 concrete 3.4 driveway 3.5 gulley 3.6 socket outlet 3.7 wall-mounted light 3.8 bath 3.9 kitchen sink (single basin) 3.10 shower. Which colour codes are used to indicate the following? 4.1 New work, as indicated on a site plan 4.2 Diverting water pipes 4.3 Waste-water pipes 4.4 New concrete 4.5 Plaster and paint What do the following abbreviations mean? 5.1 B 5.2 SH 5.3 S 5.4 RE 5.5 NTS

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Registering with SACAP (The South African Council for the Architectural Profession) In order to submit plans, draughtsmen must be registered members of the above-mentioned body. The reference numbers of architects and architectural draughtspersons must always be indicated when house plans are submitted. When the client has made sketches and plans concerning the dwelling, the architect or architectural draughtspersons is approached to draw up a complete plan according to the clients specifications. The plan will include the floor plan, elevations, the elevation of sections, the sewage system, the electrical layout and the layout of the roof, as well as all the descriptive notes that must accompany the plan. Title blocks for house plans Title blocks can be indicated horizontally at the bottom or vertically on the righthand side of the drawing page. To suit the purpose of the house plans used here, vertical title blocks that comprise eight rows will be used. Complete these blocks in as much detail as possible. The title block can also contain additional information to make provision for each project. The vertical block has a width of 100 mm. Details that should be included in the title block Row 1: Notes regarding the drawings: Notes are added to the house plan to provide information that is not readily conveyed by the drawing as succinctly as possible. Notes relevant to a specific drawing must be grouped together. Notes must not be underlined. Use a larger letter size if a note or heading must stand out/be emphasised. Lettering may be vertical or italics (cursive), but the styles must not be mixed in one drawing. Notes can be typed and printed beforehand, and then pasted onto the drawing. Notes regarding the site plan must provide relevant information regarding the site. Floor plans and sectional elevations need other appropriate notes. The notes that are made here must contain all the information that the quantity surveyor and builder will need for the construction of the house according to the plan. Row 2: Provide the personal details of the draughtsperson. Row 3: Provides the details of the client. Row 4: Indicates the project title. Row 5: Mention the type of drawing used. Row 6: Number of the drawing Row 7: Scale Row 8: Date

Checklist/marking list for the drawing of a house plan


Local authorities use checklists that must be completed by draughtspersons in order to assist them in determining whether their plans meet all the requirements. The checklists shown on the next page provide examples of the following elevations. The Surveyor-Generals diagram/location plan Before a house plan can be developed, a plan must be obtained from the SurveyorGeneral. This plan provides the exact dimensions of the plot, where it is located, and its contours. This plan also indicates how the site plan should be prepared. The scale is usually 1 : 200 to 1 : 1000.

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Figure 3.5: Surveyor Generals location plan

The site plan The site plan provides the following details: The boundaries of the property and numbers of adjacent plots (lots) Services to the site, e.g. water, sewage and power cables The names of roads, description of driveways, contours, and service connections The building lines, building position, service connections, drainpipes, and stormwater pipes The north point of the site and the scale that is used are also indicated.

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Example of a site plan A site plan containing analytical questions is provided.
QUESTIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 According to which scale has this plan been drawn? What is the plot number of the property on the eastern side? What does the abbreviation IE represent? What is the total area of the house? What property/characteristic is represented by no. 1 on the drawing? What property/characteristic is represented by no. 2 on the drawing? What property/characteristic is represented by no. 3 on the drawing? What property/characteristic is represented by no. 4 on the drawing? What property/characteristic is represented by no. 5 on the drawing? What property/characteristic is represented by no. 6 on the drawing? Which street borders the property on the eastern side? What is the plot number of the illustrated house? What is the distance between the flat and the plot numbered 41? If additions were to be added to this plan, which colour ought to be used? What is the total perimeter of the house in metres? What is the distance from the borderline to the building line on the eastern side of the house? What does the abbreviation RE represent on the drawing? 2 2 2 2 2 2 ANSWERS 2 2 2 8 2 2 2 2

Botha Street

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2 36

Malgas Street Scale 1:200

Name and surname:

Figure 3.6: Example of a site plan

Evaluate the site plan using the checklist. Use a to indicate the appropriate block. 1. Site plan
No. 1. Description Information regarding the plot was obtained from a Surveyor-General diagram/chart (SG) or the Town Planning Division by the owner The north point is indicated at the bottom, right. Scales: 1 : 100, 1 : 200, 1 : 500 Building lines and dimensions Plot number Adjacent plot numbers All the dimensions of the site Ground contours/collimation heights Yes No N/a

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

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9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Adjacent street name(s) Street number Layout of sewage Connecting manhole Water connection point Main sewage connection point Connection point of electricity Position of proposed building Position of existing buildings Buildings that must be demolished are indicated using a broken black line Motor-vehicle driveway from road Registered servitude Existing trees as indicated The proposed work is indicated in red The existing work is not coloured

Floor plans A floor plan is that part of the house that would be seen if the house were to be cut off one metre above the floor slab. This plan provides a view from the top, as if you were looking down on the external and internal walls, floors, windows, doors, builtin cupboards, etc. It is usually drawn without the roof construction. A scale of 1 : 100 is most commonly used, and it must be indicated in the title block. The north point must be indicated at the bottom right-hand side of the page.

Figure 3.7: Example of a floor plan

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Evaluate the floor plan using a checklist. Use a to indicate the appropriate block. Ground plan
No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Description Scales: 1 : 100, 1 : 50, 1 : 500 Dimensions Window numbers schedule Door swing direction in which doors open Sanitary fittings (plumbing fixtures) Names of all the rooms Stairs and direction of stairs Sliding doors and other doors Floor covering Line(s) of intersection Yes No N/a

Control test for horizontal and vertical dimensions It is important that the dimensions of the floor plan be checked in order to ensure that the horizontal and vertical external measurements correspond individually with the inside measurements. Two tests are conducted regarding the horizontal and vertical dimensions: Write down all the measurements underneath one another and add them. Both totals must correspond with the inside measurement. Example Use the following information provided by the floor plan to check the horizontal and vertical measurements. Horizontal measurements
Control test 1 220 800 2 000 800 110 800 600 800 110 2 600 900 200 110 Control test 2 220 1 400 2 000 1 600 110 200 900 700 2 000 810 110 300 3 000 300

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2 000 800 220 TOTAL: 13 760 TOTAL: 13 760 220

Vertical measurements
Control test 1 220 4 200 110 1 000 110 3 200 220 TOTAL: 9 060 TOTAL: 9 060 Control test 2 9 060

Activity 2
1. A newlywed couple approaches you to design a single-storey house that comprises the following: Bedroom Kitchen Garage Living room Bathroom with hand basin, bath, shower, and flush lavatory. The specifications are: The living room and bedroom are next to each other, facing south. The kitchen and bathroom face north. The living room and kitchen are open plan. The garage is on the south side of the house and has an internal door that provides direct access to the living room. The house has a flat roof. Draw the floor plan that contains the following information: 1.1 The names of the rooms 1.2 The floor covering that will be used 1.3 All the external and internal measurements of the house according to your discretion 1.4 Dimensions of thickness of walls 1.5 Title of drawing 1.6 The scale. 2. Use the correct symbols according to the above-mentioned Code of Practice and indicate only FOUR of the following views on the drawing: Kitchen sink Shower Bath Hand basin Flush lavatory Driveway Built-in cupboard in bedroom Garage door

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3. Use the information in Question 1 and draw up a site plan. Provide all the dimensions according to your discretion. Elevations Houses usually have four sides. These four sides are referred to as elevations (views) of the house the north elevation, south elevation, west elevation and east elevation. The elevations may also be indicated as north west, north east, south east or south west, but these elevations will not be covered in this course. In order to determine the elevation, the drawing symbol that indicates north is used. The north point is usually indicated at the bottom, right-hand side of the floor plan in order to be clearly visible. The arrowhead of this symbol may only point upward or to the left. Symbol to indicate the north point
West South North East

The north elevation is the side of the house that faces north. In order to draw the elevations, one must walk around the house and examine the sides. The number of elevations that must be submitted will depend on the local authority. Some authorities prefer only the north elevation and the one facing the street. If the elevations differ vastly, all of them should preferably be drawn. Elevations are drawn from the floor plan and they indicate all the exterior details of the house. Aspects indicated include the type of external wall and the finish, type of doors and windows, direction in which windows open, the pitch of the roof, the roof cover, bargeboard, fascia board, gutters, downpipes, natural ground level, driveway, stairs, etc.
Barge board 230 x 25 mm Roof pitch 30 Plaster and paint Plaster and paint

Fascia board

NGV West elevation

NGL South elevation Scale 1 : 100

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Evaluate the elevations by using the checklist. Use a to indicate the appropriate block. 3. Elevations
No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Description Minimum elevations three Natural ground level Finished ground level (FGL) Completed floor level (CFL) Windows Sections of windows which open Windowsills Doors/garage door Finish of walls/material Material used for roof and pitch of roof Bargeboards Fascia boards and gutters Downpipes Names of elevations Scale Yes No N/a

Tips for drawing the elevation of a building When elevations of houses are drawn in class, the correct colour coding for each material must be used.

1. Study and analyse the information that is given and make a freehand sketch of the elevation. 2. Find the symbol to indicate the north point. The SANS specify that it must always be indicated at the bottom, right-hand side of the drawing. The arrowhead will always point upwards or to the left. 3. Find out which elevations must be drawn. If the arrow is pointing upwards, the south elevation will be at the bottom, near the symbol; the west elevation will be seen from the left-hand side; east elevation from the right-hand side; and north elevation from behind. To draw these elevations you would basically need to walk around the house until you are facing the elevation. These elevations are drawn according to the principles of first-angle orthographic projections. The north elevation, if the arrow is pointing upwards, must be rotated hypothetically to obtain a mirror image. The position of the doors and windows will of course change, given this scenario. 4. A calculator is used to convert the dimensions to scale and to calculate the distances. 5. The finished floor level (FFL) can be indicated using a dark or a broken line. 6. Indicate the height of the wall using a broken line. This will indicate the overhang of the roof. 7. Always show this construction in order to determine the height of hipped roofs.

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8. The roof ridge can be indicated using one of two lines. Study a few modern roof ridges used for corrugated zinc sheets and check whether all of these form sharp edges. To save time, the front elevation of the door can be indicated by drawing two lines. Do not draw a panel door, etc. since that will take too long. This is only done to indicate a specific type of door, such as a framed door. 9. Remember that the height of the window and door will be the same. 10. The position of a window in the wall is left to your own discretion, unless the position has been indicated. 11. Windows that open must be indicated. The diagonal is connected to the centre of each window frame using a broken line. 12. If a fibre-cement window sill is used, it will extend over the window. If the window sill is a brick construction, it will be the same width as the window. If the type of window sill is not specified, either type may be used. 13. The fascia board can be flush with the edge of the roof sheet, or it can be taken back slightly. 14. The dimensions do not have to be indicated on the elevations. This is only done to explain the drawing. 15. Marks are always awarded for indicating the following labels. Label the drawing neatly using print: Indicate the elevation Scale Plaster and paint, or facebrick finish if mentioned in the question NGL natural ground level FFL finished floor level Bargeboard Fascia board The pitch of the roof (30) Gutters and downpipes must be indicated if specified in the question Sectional elevation If a house were to be cut in two from the roof ridge to the foundation and the pieces separated, what remains will represent a vertical sectional elevation of the building. Sectional elevations usually indicate the roof construction, ceiling details, floor details, foundations details, damp-proof coursing, the height from the floor to the ceiling, and the doors and windows that form part of that section. The descriptive notes provided in the title block of this drawing must provide more details in order to prevent misinterpretations, and they should provide the builder with indications as to how the components should be combined.
Ridge plate Galvanised zinc sheeting Purlins (76 x 50)

75 mm cornice

Ceiling battens (38 x 38) FFL

Square gutter (100 x 100)

Water proofing NGL 600 x 250 (1 : 3 : 6)

75 mm cement floor

Downpipe (75 x 75) NGL

Hardcore

Wearing course

Undisturbed soil 600 x 250 (1 : 3 : 6)

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Section BB Scale 1:50

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Evaluate the elevation using the checklist. Use a to indicate the appropriate block. 4. Sectional elevation
No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Description Scales: 1 : 100, 1 : 50, 1 : 500 Dimensions of foundation Vertical dimensions Damp-proof coursing, walls and windows Wall plate Floor level up to existing ground level Floor level to finished ground level Floor level to existing ground level Design of roof Yes No N/a

Detailed drawings Detail is indicated in these specific drawings. The scale is usually 1 : 20 or 1 : 50. Sections can be enlarged in order to include more information in the drawing. Descriptive notes also highlight details that may not be clearly understood.

Galvanised zinc sheeting

300 75 mm Galvanised zinc gutter 75 x 50 mm 228 x 50 mm DETAIL 2 Scale 1 : 20

Ridge purlin

Purlin/Roof batten 76 x 50 Corrugated zinc

King post

Rafter 114 x 38 Tie beam 114 x 38

Foot purlin 76 x 50 Fascia board 228 x 32 mm Soffit board 6 mm Soffit hanger 38 x 38 mm Quarter round (moulding) 20 mm

Wall plate 114 x 38 Wall 220 mm Plaster 12 mm thick Scale 1 : 10

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Activity 3
1. The incomplete floor plan of an apartment for a student is provided. 1.1 Using a scale of 1 : 50, draw the north elevation of the apartment 1.2 Use the information on the floor plan and check the horizontal and vertical dimensions.

SCALE 1 : 50

Provide details for the following labels: Title and scale Plaster and paint NGL and FFL Pitch of the roof Specifications: Floor height (final finished floor level FFL) 170 mm Height of wall 2 700 mm 30 Roof pitch 600 mm Eaves projection Roof cover Corrugated zinc sheets All windows 900 mm high, 1 500 mm wide

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Door openings Fibre-cement facia boards Bargeboard Windowsill Laminated beam (resting on pillar) 2 000 mm 900 mm 225 mm 15 mm 228 mm 32 mm 1 500 mm wide 297 mm 45 mm

2. The plan below shows the incomplete floor plan (not according to scale) of an office complex. It has a hipped roof with a pitch of 30. The steel windows must be drawn according to the window schedule. 2.1 Using a SCALE OF 1 : 50, draw the SECTIONAL ELEVATION of the house on intersecting line BB.

Use the following specifications: Floor height (finished floor level FFL) from above the foundation Hard core filling (under concrete floor) Wearing course Height of wall from FFL Eaves projection Roof cover Aluminium sliding door Fascia boards Foundation Thickness of floor Square gutter Downpipes

340 mm 170 mm 50 mm 2 600 mm 500 mm Corrugated zinc sheets 1 800 mm 2 000 mm 228 mm 32 mm 600 250 mm 100 mm 100 100 mm 75 75 mm

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Sewage plan
These drawings indicate the sewage system of a dwelling. The illustration below shows the sectional elevation of the system, using colourcoding and standard abbreviations. The plan must be submitted for approval and the colourcoding must be appropriate.

Ground level Invert level Depth Distance Slope

100,000 100.45 0,450 8 000 1:60

98,000 97.5 0,500 3 700 1:60

90,000 89.45 0,500 10 800 1:60

95,000 94.2 0,800 2 500 1:60

95,000 94.18 820

How to calculate the slope of a drainpipe The slope of a sewage system varies from 1 : 40 to 1 : 60; any slope between these two ratios can be used. The customary slope is 1 : 40. For calculation purposes, all the measurements will be converted to millimetres. Example 1 The distance between the manhole in the street and the furthest inspection eye is 20 metres. Calculate the fall from the inspection eye to the manhole if the slope is 1 : 40. Solution Fall = Distance slope = 20 000 mm 1 40 = 500 mm

Activity 4
1. Calculate the incline between the inspection eye and the manhole if: 1.1 the slope is 1 : 40 and the distance 1 metre. 1.2 the slope is 1 : 60 and the distance 1 metre. 1.3 Indicate which slope has the greater incline. 1.4 If it were up to you, which slope would you choose? Motivate your choice. 2. Calculate the incline between the inspection eye and the manhole if: 2.1 the slope is 1 :4 0 and the distance 30 metres. 2.2 the slope is 1 : 60 and the distance 30 metres. 3. Calculate the incline between the inspection eye and the manhole if: 3.1 the slope is 1 : 45 and the distance 16 metres. 3.2 the slope is 1 : 40 and the distance 4 metres. 4. Calculate the incline between the inspection eye and the manhole if: 4.1 the slope is 1 : 40 and the distance 18 136 mm. 4.2 the slope is 1 : 60 and the distance 29 910 mm.

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Specifications and descriptive notes How to use specifications to draw up a ground plan The floor plan of an apartment for a student is shown on page 80 (Activity 3). Using a scale of 1 : 100, draw the north elevation of the apartment. Use the following specifications. Type of roof: Gable-end roof Type of roof truss for front section: Half Howe roof truss (S A truss) Type of roof truss for rear section: Full Howe roof truss Roof pitch: 30 degrees Eaves projection: 450 mm Roof covering: Corrugated zinc sheets Floor height above ground level: Two brick layers Height of wall: 2 700 mm Door opening: 2 000 mm 900 mm Steel windows: 2 000 mm broad and 1 500 mm high according to design Fascia board: 230 mm 25 mm Bargeboard: 230 mm 25 mm Square gutters: 100 mm 100 mm Downpipes: 75 mm 75 mm Plan showing roof construction Roofs are designed and built according to the design of the ground plan of a building or dwelling.

Hipped-end roof

Gable-end roof

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Max 500 mm high parapet wall Seal

Flat roof construction

Parapet wall

Gutter

DPC

DPC

Flat roof construction

Parapet wall

Scale 1 : 25 Slope of roof 5o Square gutter 100 x 100 mm Corrugated zinc Plaster 12 mm Parapet wall 220 mm Flashing

Purlins 76 x 50 Rafter 152 x 50 mm Beam 228 x 50 mm Joints by A Downpipe 76 x 76 mm Pillar 350 x 350 mm Wall- 220 mm

Screed 30 mm Concrete slab 75 mm

Lean-to-roof

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Activity 5
Roof design 1. The sketch below shows the ground plan of a dwelling. The house has a hipped-end roof with corrugated zinc sheets as cover. The pitch of the roof is 30. The roof has an overhang of 600 mm. 1.1 Design and draw a gable roof for the floor plan of the house provided here, using a scale of 1 : 50. Use broken lines to indicate the roof.

4 700

2. Draw to scale of 1:100 two different floor plans to show the following: 2.1 a gable roof for the house 2.2 a hip roof for the house. The overhang of the roof is 500 mm.
110 220 4 000 4 000 220

3 600

6 600

4 200 8 550 220 2 000 220

220

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Notes: Areas (m) Erf (Plot) 625 m House Carport 16.76 m Covered verandas 124 m Total area 140.75 m % Building area on plot: 22.52 % Water pipe 15 or 19 mm polycop at a minimum depth of 450 mm with a stopcock All soil pipes, 110 mm, with a 1:60 incline and minimum depth of 450 mm All water pipes 40 mm 50 mm soil vent pipe at the highest point of the sewage system Kitchen sink 40 mm wastewater pipe Only SABS approved drainpipes and sewage accessories may be used Heavy-duty manhole covers for sewage in road/lane. Sewage must meet the requirements of the local authority. Draftsman: J.P. Ellis SARAP REG. NO.: HS 1023 Address: 23 Bird Lane Tel./Fax: 086531 5474 Cell no.: 081246 4892 jpellis@telkomsa.net E-mail: Client Name: Department of housing Signature: Date: Project title: PROPOSED NEW DWELLING ON ERF (PLOT) 1964, PARKERS DAM, WORCESTER 6850 Description of drawing SITE PLAN AND SEWAGE PLAN Drawing no: 1 of 4 Scale: As indicated Date: 2 March 2012

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Notes: IBR roof cover on 76 x 50 purlins 1100 h.o.h. - that rest on 152 x 38 mm tie beams maximum 850 h.o.h.???? and pitched at 5 degrees in relation to gutters and fascia board. Roof pitched at 26 degrees SA pine used for roof construction. 114 x 38 wall plate. Purlins 50 x 75 at 900 mm centres. Roof battens are kept in position by galvanised hoop wire (1200 x 40 mm) imbedded 600 mm in the wall construction. Eave projection 300 mm. Cross bracing between roof trusses must be provided according to the manufacturers instructions. Roof trusses on 760 centres op 114 x 38 wall plates with 114 x 38 tie beams. 2 lintels above all openings and brickforce for each layer above the lintel. Notes regarding floor: 75 mm concrete floor on 250 micron DPC on 50 mm wearing course (sand bed) on well-compacted hard-core fill 375 micron DPC in walls on finished floor level. 100 mm concrete floor on 250 mm micron DPC on well-compacted filling material. Draftsman: J.P. Ellis SARAP REG. NO.: HS 1023 Address: 23 Bird Lane Tel./Fax: 086531 5474 Cell no.: 081246 4892 jpellis@telkomsa.net E-mail: Client Name: Department of housing Signature: Date: Project title PROPOSED NEW DWELLING ON ERF (PLOT) 1964, PARKERS DAM, WORCESTER 6850 Description of drawing VERTICAL SECTIONAL ELEVATION Drawing no: 1 OF 4 Scale: As indicated Date: 2 March 2012

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East elevation
NGL FFL NGL

Galvanised roofing

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NGL

FFL

South elevation

West elevation

Notes: Areas (m) Erf (Plot) 625 m House 124 m Carport 16.76 m Covered verandas Total area 140.75 m % Building area on plot: 22.52 % Floor plan Stairs Rise max. 200 mm Tread min 250 mm Elevations All external walls must be plastered and painted or must be face brick External water-resistant paint 2 coats All dimensions, levels and all other information on this drawing must be verified on the site before work commences. Provide DPC in walls on floor level and at windowsills Floor cover according to owners specifications and preferences Bathroom and kitchen sanitary fittings according to owners specifications and preferences Cabinets/cupboards according to specialist design and specifications OR Built-in cupboards, the exposed face of white Melamine and Formica tops Notes regarding finish: Plastered and painted internal walls using high-quality, white, PVA paint Plastered external walls painted according to the owners choice of colour and paint Walls in bathroom and kitchen are tiled to ceiling level Internal and external doors of meranti, finished with varnish External doors have 3-lever locks, and internal doors 2-lever locks Window frames of steel finished in white oil paint Facia boards are varnished Garage door of wood and varnished 100-litre horizontal hot-water cylinder installed in ceiling Roof not painted All tiles according to owners choice. Paving as specified by owner (optional)

Window schedules

Draftsman: J.P. Ellis SARAP REG. NO.: HS 1023 Address: 23 Bird Lane Tel./Fax: 086531 5474 081246 4892 Cell no.: E-mail: jpellis@telkomsa.net

Attachment details at A

Client Name: Department of housing Signature: Date: Project title: PROPOSED NEW DWELLING ON ERF (PLOT) 1964, PARKERS DAM, WORCESTER 6850 Description of drawing SITE PLAN AND SEWAGE PLAN

Drawing no: 1 of 4 Scale: 1 : 200 Date: 2 March 2012

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Activity 6
Draw a simple floor plan of a dwelling, indicating the following: One bedroom A livingroom Kitchen with sink Bathroom with toilet, basin and bath A drawing of the site plan of this dwelling that indicates the following: the roof the layout of the sewage a section of the sewage layout, and the municipal connections. The slope indicated on the sectional elevation is 1 : 60, the depth of the sewer trench begins at 450 mm and the ground level begins at 100 000. Determine the invert level and the distance between the various parts of the drainpipe. The following abbreviations must be used on the section view of the sewage: kitchen sink inspection eye ground level water-closet hand basin manhole, and bath invert level.

Activity 7
In order to generate additional income, you wish to convert your double garage into a flat. The figure below represents the site plan of your property, as well as a plan view of the existing garage. The garage has a tiled roof that is pitched at a 30 angle. The eaves protrude 500 mm. The walls are 2 730 mm high, measured from the floor to the bottom of the wall plate. The flat requires the following: A front door A window in each of the rooms 1 Bedroom 1 Bathroom Kitchen area Living area. You will have to build 110 mm internal walls in order to divide the garage into various rooms. The doors and windows are 2032 high above the ground line. The foundations are 600 200 mm, and the first two layers of brickwork/ masonry on the foundation must lie below the natural ground level. 1. 2. 3. Draw the plan view of the flat, using a scale of 1 : 50. Indicate all the windows and doors, as well as all the accessories. Design the interior of the flat. Draw the north and east elevation of the house, using a scale of 1 : 50. (No gutters or downpipes have to be indicated.)

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4. Draw a vertical section of the house on section line A-A, as indicated in the diagram. 5. Draw the site plan, using a scale of 1 : 100. The lengths and direction of the boundary line are provided in the diagram. 6. Provide the section and elevation with the necessary notes regarding construction, materials, and finish (walls, ceilings and floors).

Civil drawing using the program


Introduction
It is suggested that you take some time to work through the Grades 10 and 11 CAD sections to refresh your memory on all the applications. A brief summary is given to assist you.

Prior knowledge
Before starting with the Grade 12 civil drawings, lets refresh some of the Grades 10 and 11 content. This will enable us to draw up the plan as well as add any fixtures required. Remember to use Toolkit Architectural or to place the Architectural toolbar on your screen.

Grade 10 (External walls) In Grade 10, we drew the plan view of a building. To enable us to do this, we set the Drawing Settings to a scale of 1 : 50 or 1 : 100.

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We then select Toolkit Architectural Design Setup or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. The Architectural Settings dialog box will be displayed.

Remember the Drawing direction and Justification are important as they determine the overall size of the plan view. Select the Wall type to use or create your own style and click OK.

Outside justification

Inside justification

Now draw in the external walls using the direction arrows. Select Toolkit Architectural Draw Walls or left click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar.

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Grade 11 (Internal walls) In Grade 11, we added the internal walls to the plan view of a building. We used Geometry Parallel Line to position the internal walls. Select Toolkit Architectural Design Setup or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. The Architectural Settings dialog box will be displayed. Select an Internal wall type. Select the Wall style to use or create your own style and click OK.

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Select Toolkit Architectural Draw Walls or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. Draw in the internal walls. Remember the Justification and Drawing Direction.

Using a Draw inwards justification and a Clockwise Drawing direction: Drawing left to right the parallel line is placed below. Drawing right to left the parallel line is placed above. Drawing top to bottom the parallel line is placed on the left. Drawing bottom to top the parallel line is placed on the right. Grade 11 (Hatch the Plan View) The walls in the Plan View now need to be hatched. Select Draw Hatch or click on the icon in the Drawing toolbar. The Power Bar changes to display the Hatch boundary draw methods. Click on the Settings button and the Hatch Settings dialog box is displayed.

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Click on the Select button and you will be able to view the hatch patterns. Scroll to find the style for the roof tile or type in ANSI32 in the Search box and the style will be displayed. Click OK.

Select the colour for the hatch pattern and the scale and click OK.

Select the automatic tracking boundary selection method by clicking on the last icon in the list.

The program prompts Boundary 1 Click inside perimeter near an entity (Rightclick for menu). Click inside the walls of the Plan View. The Hatch is displayed.

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Right click on the screen and select Accept to lock the hatch pattern in position. Grade 11 (Place blocks) Select Toolkit Architectural Draw Place Symbols or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. The Control Centre will open on your screen.

Click on the Block Browser tab along the bottom of the Control Centre to view the blocks (symbols). Open the folder containing the blocks you require.

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Double-click on the block you would like to use and it is added to the Block Manager. The Power Bar opens allowing you to insert the Block.

Insert the required symbols and fittings.

Grade 11 (Roof line) Select Toolkit Architectural Design Setup or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. The Architectural Settings dialog box will be displayed. Click on the Roof Line tab and make the required changes to the Roof Line settings.

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Insert a Roof Line by selecting Toolkit Architectural Draw Roof Line or left click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. Make any changes to the Roof Line and click OK. The cursor changes to the Point snap mode and you are prompted to Indicate 1st corner of wall (else spacebar to exit). Click around the perimeter of the building and right click and select Close. The Roof Line is added.

Select an option to highlight the external walls and click Accept to add the Roof Line. The Question Assume that you are a draughtsperson and a client approaches you to design a house for him. The figure that follows shows the plan of your clients proposed house. The house has a roof pitched at 30 with tiles. The eaves have an overhang of 500 mm. The walls are 2 730 mm high, measured from the floor to the underside of the wall plate. The entrance doors in the lounge and kitchen are (BB-230 PD24). The internal doors are (BB-115 PD8). The windows for the living room are (FP-230 SC3 and SC22). The bedroom windows are (FP-230 SC3), the kitchen window is a 230C_ TYPE1 (NC4) whilst the bathroom window is a (FP-230 SC3). The height of the doors and windows is 2 150 above the ground line. The foundations are 600 200 mm and two courses of brickwork above the foundation must be under the natural ground level. (NB: If you are using CAD software other than AllyCAD you may need to use the symbols supplied by the software or create your own symbols.) 1. Draw the plan view of the house to a scale of 1 : 50. Insert all the windows and doors and add the fittings to the dwelling. 2. Draw to scale 1 : 50 the north elevation and east elevation of the house. 3. Draw to scale 1 : 50 a vertical section through the house on section line AA as shown in the diagram that follows. 4. Draw the site plan to a scale of 1 : 100. The lengths and bearing of the boundaries are given in the diagram. Point A is situated 4 550 up and 3 450 left of the top left corner of the external wall of the plan view. 5. Provide the section and views with the necessary notes on construction, materials and finishes (walls, ceilings and floors).

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Grade 11 (The elevations) Select Toolkit Architectural Design Setup or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. The Architectural Settings dialog box will be displayed. Click on the Elevation tab and make the required changes to the Elevation settings.

Remember, you will need to load the Blocks for the elevation view of all the windows and doors that have been used in the Plan view. If the Blocks are not loaded, then they will not be placed in the Elevation views.

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Select Toolkit Architectural Draw Elevations or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. The program will prompt you as follows: Indicate a point close to the face on plan for adding elevation (else spacebar to exit). 1. Click on the outside wall of the North elevation on the plan view. The program will prompt you with Select a placement point for the baseline of the selected elevation (else Esc to exit). 2. Click where you want to place the North elevation. It will be at ground level position. The elevations are drawn in the 1st Angle Orthographic Projection. The program will then prompt you: Select window/door on plan to insert in elevation (else spacebar to end selection). 3. Click on all the windows and doors of the plan view for the elevations. The windows and doors will be placed in the elevation position. Press the spacebar when all the windows and doors have been selected. 4. The programee will then prompt you:: Select corner of building (else spacebar to end selection). 5. Jump to the corner of the elevations and press Enter. The program will then prompt you: Select corner of building (else spacebar to end selection). 6. Jump to the next corner and press Enter. Press the space bar to draw the elevation.

This brings us to the end of the revision of Grades 10 and 11.

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Grade 12 (Add the roof) Select Toolkit Architectural Design Setup or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. The Architectural Settings dialog box will be displayed. Click on the Roof tab and make the required changes to the Roof settings.

North elevation roof (Side gable) Select Toolkit Architectural Draw Roof or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. The program prompts Select roofline on elevations roof level (else Esc to exit). 1. Click on the roofline of the North Elevation and the line is highlighted. The program prompts: Enter Yes or No to select correct highlighted or Spacebar to exit.

2. Click on the Yes button if the correct roofline is highlighted. The program prompts: Select nearest roofline on plan view (else Esc to exit or for face gable). 3. We are drawing a side gable on the North Elevation. Click on the north elevation roofline. The program prompts: Select face gable of roofline on plan view for side gable or Esc (2x) for face gable. 4. Click on either the east or west elevation roofline. The program calculates the height of the roof using the length of the roofline and the roof pitch angle. The program prompts: Enter Yes for side gable No for hipped side gable or Spacebar to exit. 5. Select Yes for a side gable. The program prompts: Select nearest roofline on plan view (else Esc to exit or for face gable). 6. Press Esc and the roof is added to the elevation.

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East elevation roof (Facing gable) Select Toolkit Architectural Draw Roof or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. The program prompts: Select roofline on elevations roof level (else Esc to exit). 1. Click on the roofline of the East Elevation and the line is highlighted.

The program prompts: Enter Yes or No to select correct highlighted or Spacebar to exit. 2. Click on the Yes button if the correct roofline is highlighted. The program prompts: Select nearest roofline on plan view (else Esc to exit or for face gable). 3. We are drawing a facing gable on the East Elevation. Click on the east elevation roofline. The program prompts: Select face gable of roofline on plan view for side gable or Esc (2x) for face gable.

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4. Press Esc for a face gable. The program prompts: Enter Yes for face gable No for hipped side gable or Spacebar to exit. 5. Select Yes for a face gable. The program prompts: Select nearest roofline on plan view (else Esc to exit or for face gable). 6. Press Esc and the roof is added to the elevation.

Rotate and moving the views Drag a box around the North Elevation to select it.

Select Modify Rotate 2D or click on the icon in the Modify toolbar. The program prompts: Indicate point about which to rotate. Click on the Keyboard radio button and enter an angle of 180. Move to the ground line and press C on the keyboard and then enter to select the point. The elevation is rotated. Select Modify Move or click on the icon in the Modify toolbar. The program prompts: Indicate the source point. Click on a point and move the elevation into position and click to place it. Repeat this with the East elevation: however, this time rotate it by 270.

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Graphic communication Hatching

Select Draw Hatch or click on the icon in the Drawing toolbar. The Power Bar changes to display the Hatch boundary draw methods. Click on the Settings button and the Hatch Settings dialog box is displayed.

Click on the Select button and you will be able to view the hatch patterns. Scroll to find the style for the roof tile or type in LT949 EDUC in the Search box and the style will be displayed. Click OK.

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Scroll down to LT949Educ and select it. Select the colour for the hatch pattern and the scale and click OK.

Select the automatic tracking boundary selection method by clicking on the last icon in the list.

The program prompts: Boundary 1 Click inside perimeter near an entity (Right click for menu). Click inside the roof of the North elevation near the top of the roof. The Hatch is displayed. Right click on the screen and select Accept to lock the hatch pattern in position.

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Sectioning
Select Toolkit Architectural Design Setup or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. The Architectural Settings dialog will be displayed. Click on the Cross Section tab and make the required changes to the Roof settings.

Select Toolkit Architectural Draw Roof or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. The program prompts: Indicate position of cross section (else Esc to exit). 1. Click in the position you would like the sectional view placed. The program prompts: Indicate inside face of close external wall (else Esc to exit). 2. Click on the external wall you would like the section to pass through. The program prompts: Indicate face of internal wall parallel to ext wall (else Esc for far ext wall).

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3. Click on any internal walls the cutting plane passes through. Press Esc once all the internal walls are selected. The program prompts Indicate inside face of far external wall (else Esc to exit). 4. Click on the far external wall. The program prompts Indicate side of line you would like arrow heads placed (else Esc to exit). 5. Click on the side you would like the arrows placed. The sectional view is drawn.

The windows now need to be inserted into the sectional view. To do this, you need to load the Blocks into the Block Manager. Select Toolkit Architectural Draw Place Symbols or click on the icon in the Architectural toolbar. The Control Centre will open on your screen.

Click on the Block Browser tab along the bottom of the Control Centre to view the blocks (symbols). Open the folder containing the blocks you require.

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Double click on the side elevation view of the block you need to insert in the sectional view (the blocks in the plan view through which the section passes). They are added to the Block Manager. The Power Bar opens allowing you to insert the Block.

Select the Block from the drop-down list and insert it in the sectional view.

Section AA

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Civil Technology Site plan


Firstly, we will create a layer for the erf as laid out in the question. Select Settings Layer Settings or click on the icon in the File toolbar. The Layer Settings menu appears.

Right click on one of the layers and select Add new layer or click on the Add button. Type the name for the new SITE PLAN layer.

Click on the Site Plan layer and make it the current layer by clicking on the Make Current button. Click OK.

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Move to a portion of the screen where there is no drawing by minimising the screen (M on the keyboard) or using the scroll bars. Select Draw Chained Line or click on the icon in the Main toolbar. The program prompts: Indicate start position of line. Enter on the screen in the position for point A of the erf. The program prompts: Indicate end position of line. Press P on the keyboard for a Polar move (distance and bearing). The program prompts: Enter distance and Bearing for Polar jump. Type in the distance (12167) and bearing (352) and press enter or click on the Done icon.

The program prompts: Indicate end position of line. Type in the distance (11238) and bearing (275) and press enter or click on the Done icon. The program prompts: Indicate end position of line. Type in the distance (15007) and bearing (183) and press enter or click on the Done icon. Move the cursor and jump to point A and enter.

Select Draw Rectangle or click on the icon in the Main toolbar. The program prompts: Indicate first corner of rectangle. Move to and jump to point A. Move into the correct position by pressing the right arrow. The program prompts: Move Right: How far? Type in 3450 and enter. Press the down arrow. The program prompts: Move Down: How far? Type in 4550 and enter twice. Press the right arrow and the program prompts: Move Right: How far? Type in 6500 and enter once. Press the down arrow and the program prompts: Move Down: How far? Type in 6000 and enter twice.

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Drag a box around the whole site view to select and highlight it. Select Modify Scale or click on the icon in the Modify toolbar. The program prompts: Indicate point about which to scale. Select a point inside the erf. Use the Tab key to move into the X-scale and Y-scale text boxes and enter the scale of 0.5 and press Enter.

The Site Plan is scaled. Select Modify Move or click on the icon in the Modify toolbar. The program prompts: Indicate the source point. Select a point inside the erf. The program prompts: Indicate the destination point. Move the Site Plan to the required position and enter. Press Esc to clear the selection. Insert a NORTH sign.

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Select Draw Hatch or click on the icon in the Drawing toolbar. The Power Bar changes to display the Hatch boundary draw methods. Click on the Settings button and the Hatch Settings dialog box is displayed.

Click on the Select button and you will be able to view the hatch patterns. Scroll to find the style for the roof tile or type in ANSI31 in the Search box and the style will be displayed. Click OK.

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Select the colour for the hatch pattern and the scale and click OK.

Select the automatic tracking boundary selection method by clicking on the last icon in the list.

The program prompts: Boundary 1 Click inside perimeter near an entity (Right click for menu). Click inside the building area on the Site Plan. The Hatch is displayed. Right click on the screen and select Accept to lock the hatch pattern in position.

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Activity 7
You would like to convert your double garage into a granny flat so as to earn extra income. The figure below shows the site plan of your property and the plan view of the current garage. The garage has a roof pitched at 30 with tiles. The eaves have an overhang of 500 mm. The walls are 2 730 mm high, measured from the floor to the underside of the wall plate. The granny flat will require the following: A front door A window in each of the rooms 1 Bedroom 1 Bathroom Kitchen area Living area You will need to add 110 mm internal walls to divide the garage into the various rooms. The height of the doors and windows is 2 032 mm above the ground line. The foundations are 600 200 mm and two courses of brickwork above the foundation must be under the natural ground level. 1. Draw the plan view of the granny flat to a scale of 1 : 50. Insert all the windows and doors and add the fittings to the dwelling. 2. Design the inside of the granny flat. 3. Draw to scale 1 : 50 the north elevation and east elevation of the house. (No gutter and downpipes must be shown.) 4. Draw to scale 1 : 50 a vertical section through the house on section line AA as shown in the diagram below. 5. Draw the site plan to a scale of 1 : 100. The lengths and bearing of the boundaries are given in the diagram below. 6. Provide the section and views with the necessary notes on construction, materials and finishes (walls, ceilings and floors).

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Chapter 4

Materials

Steel profiles Painting materials Galvanising

Preservation Concrete treatment

Civil Technology
A wide variety of materials is used in the building industry to complete the many projects being undertaken all the time and it is important to gain a thorough knowledge of the properties and applications of all these materials. The sustainability or durability of materials also plays a role when choices have to be made to pick the right materials that will offer longest useful life. The application of these materials must be done with skill and care to avoid negatively affecting their useful life. Preserving or protecting by painting or other methods and the curing of cement and concrete are only some of the methods used to extend the usefulness of materials.

Profiles, characteristics and use of I-beams, H-beams, channel sections and angle iron
Steel profile I-beam Properties Does not bend easily Welds well Can easily be joined Malleable Ductile Uses Used as beams in building industry For construction of barns/sheds Manufacturing of steel roof trusses Construction of small footbridges Columns Pillars Roof structures Used as beams in building industry For construction of barns/sheds that have brickwork between the profiles Manufacturing of steel roof trusses Columns, bridges, pillars and roof structures Carports; steel roof trusses; roof trusses with long overall span Columns Pillars

H-beam

Does not bend easily Welds well Can easily be joined Malleable Ductile Does not bend easily Welds well Can easily be joined Malleable Ductile Does not bend easily Welds well Can easily be joined Malleable Ductile

Lipped channel iron

Angle iron

Steel roof trusses Stockades/fences Runners for sliding barriers/gates Supports for fixing objects to walls

Preservation
Preservation refers to the protection or safeguarding of materials in order to ensure a longer useful life. All preservatives must be registered at the Department of Agriculture. Standard specifications are set by the South African National Standards (SANS) body and materials must be tested before they are approved.

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The purpose of preservatives The preservation of timber refers to the process used to prolong the durability of wood, i.e. extending its useful life for as long as possible. The method of preservation will depend on the degree of preservation required. Various degrees of preservation can be distinguished: low grade medium grade medium to high grade high grade outdoor furniture timber for outdoor use (above ground) contact with soil/earth (outdoors) timberused near water or in coastal areas. Why is timber preserved? It is done to provide protection against any type of damage, such as that caused by the elements, like rain and sunshine; and natural threats, for example, beetles (like the borer beetle) and termites such as the dry-wood termites. Preservatives must meet the following requirements before they can be used. They must: be poisonous enough to kill insects, such as termites and beetles, without being harmful to humans be affordable, i.e. not over-expensive be free from adverse effects on metals be able to strengthen rather than weaken the wood not alter the natural appearance of the wood and must not increase the flammability of wood. Types of preservatives Preservatives are divided into three main categories: Coaltar creosote Poisonous chemical salts (aqueous solutions of metallic salts) Organic compounds (solutions of volatile organic solvents). Coaltar creosote (oily preservatives) These preservatives are the by-products of processing coal and wood; they are viscous, dark liquids. Coaltar creosote is diluted for the purpose of application and it may contain additives, such as wax oil, to enhance its durability. This preservatives power to protect lies in the phenol, oil, and naphthalene that it contains. It contains either coaltar or coaltar distillates and in some cases both. It kills most insects and fungi. These creosotes are: ideal for outdoor use suitable for timber in direct contact with soil do not dry out the timber dark, so it may change the colour of the wood able to stain clothing after application. Advantages Creosote is resitant to leaching and thus ideally suited for outdoor use. It is not easily flammable. It does not cause metals to rust. Creosote treatment does not affect the dimensions or shape of timber.

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Disadvantages It has a distinctive odour that may be absorbed by food and other materials in the immediate vicinity. It is not ideal for indoor use. Ordinary paint cannot be used on wood that has been treated with creosote. Aluminium paint with a bituminous or epoxy base can be applied but only once the wood has weathered for a few months. Wood that has been treated with creosote may stain or discolour plaster or paint. Poisonous salts aqueous solution containing metallic salts (water-borne preservatives) Timber that is used in the building industry is exposed to a variety of fungi and insects that may severely reduce the useful life of the timber. There are numerous preservatives available with which wood can be treated or painted in order to improve its resistance. These preservatives consist of a mixture of inorganic salts. The most common insecticides and fungicides in this group are magnesium silicofluoride and sodium fluoride, which are applied using a paintbrush. Arsenic compounds also kill fungi and insects. Metallic salts are usually dissolved in water to produce the preservatives. Examples are copper chrome arsenic (CCA), acid cupric chloride and zinc chloride. These agents: can be used indoors can also be used outdoors if they do not contain arsenic are odourless do not stain/colour wood excessively contain water, so timber has to dry out after application change the dimensions of timber after treatment and drying. Advantages These preservatives are suitable for both indoor and outdoor use. They are non-flammable. They are odourless and often colourless. Wood treated with these agents can be painted and glued. Disadvantages Some are toxic for humans. May cause rust when they come into contact with certain metals. Water and moist conditions can leach out the salts, which restricts them to indoor use. Organic compounds dissolved in volatile organic solvents (Light Organic Solvent Preservatives LOSP) Light oils, such as naphtha and spirits, are more readily absorbed by wood than water and are, therefore, used as solvents to allow toxins such as pentachlorophenol (PCP), copper naphthenate and zinc naphthenate to penetrate the wood. They are applied with a paintbrush, and when the oil evaporates the toxins remain in the wood. Solvents are white spirit, mineral turpentine or light mineral oil (paraffin). Examples include pentachlorophenol (PCP), zinc naphthenate, tetrachloronaphthenate, tributyltin oxide (TBTO) and metal-naphthenate.

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These agents are mainly suited to outdoor use are not suitable for use on wood in contact with soil do not change the colour of the wood allow timber to be painted after treatment. Advantages They rarely cause metals to rust and do not stain the wood. They can be used on machine-finished wood because the wood will not warp and the measurements do not change. After the solvents have evaporated, the wood can be painted and glued. They are resistant to leaching. Disadvantages Until the solvents such as naphtha have evaporated, the wood is flammable. They are poisonous for indoor use. Methods of preservation This is determined by the type of timber that is used as well as the purpose for which it is being used. The amount of preservative that is absorbed and retained by the wood will be in the manufacturers specifications. These methods include: pressure processes: (a) saturated-cell process and (b) empty-cell process surface treatments soaking (steeping), and open hot and cold tank process. High-pressure processes Preservatives are applied under pressure in a metal cylinder, which is sealed and locked to facilitate the process and can resist pressure of up to 6 MPa. This pressure forces the substance into the timber cells. Advantages of this process It ensures deeper penetration than other processes. The procedure is less time consuming. Penetration and absorption can be controlled. The preservatives are applied more evenly. Full-cell process The so-called Bethell process causes maximum absorption where, the timber does not easily absorb or retain the liquid preservatives. The wood cells are partially or completely filled with the preservative. Empty-cell process During the Reuping process, cells are not filled with the preservative, merely transfused, rinsed or washed. It is used when wood cells readily absorb the preservatives. After the treatment, the cells are left partially filled; they may also contain none of the preservative. Surface treatments This is the easiest method of application, but it is only a superficial treatment. It protects the surface and can only provide long-term protection if the preservatives are applied regularly. Adequate ventilation is necessary and skin contact must be avodied.

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Soaking (steeping) process This requires a bath large enough for the timber to be dipped in. The process does not always produce satisfactory results, but it can provide short-term protection without staining. Open hot and cold tank process This process is more manageable since the timber is completely submerged in the preservatives. The timber is soaked in the solution, which has reached a specific temperature, for approximately four hours. Thereafter, the preservative is allowed to cool. The timber remains submerged, allowing absorption of the solution to place.

Painting and curing of wood, metal, concrete, walls and plastic


Wood Wood is an attractive natural product but it is not as durable as modern materials like plastics, aluminium or stainless steel. Wood must be treated properly to extend its useful life it must first be cured and then treated before being finished by being oiled, painted or varnished. After being sawn from raw timber, wood is cured (dried outside under cover or in a kiln).
Take note Seasoned wood should not be too dry as it may absorb moisture from the atmosphere and swell or warp.

Curing removes excess moisture from the wood to more or less the same levels as that of the environment in which it will be used prevents the wood from warping removes excess weight when transported enhances the colour and appearance of timber. The preservation and finishing of wood Wood: can be varnished or lacquered can be oiled with linseed or synthetic oil, can be painted with water or oil-based enamel. Preparing for painting Use a sharp trying plane set to cut thin shavings. Use a steel scraper to remove scratches and blemishes. Use 60 grit sandpaper and a block to sand along the grain. Remove the wood shavings and dust from the surface of the wood by blowing or wiping the surface with a tack cloth. Repeat the sanding process, using 80 grit sandpaper, followed by 100 or 120 grit to ensure a smooth finish. Painting the prepared surface Apply one or two layers of a suitable primer, thinned if necessary). Next, apply the first undercoat. Allow to dry and sand lightly. Now apply the final coat. Before applying varnish or sealant to wood Wooden surface must be clean, smooth and free of defects. Now apply the first coat (soft wood requires one coat and hard wood, two.) Sand the sealant coating using extra-fine sandpaper. Apply one or two coats of varnish or lacquer to acquire the final finish. These coats must also be sanded using extra-fine sandpaper.

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Preservation, painting, and aftercare treatment of metal Metals can be galvanised to preserve them. Metals can also be plated (chrome plating, nickel plating, copper plating both copper and brass can be used). They can also be painted. Galvanising Galvanising is used to prevent corrosion of steel and iron. It is very effective but more expensive than paint, and it can only be used for smaller structures. The process involves coating metal with a thin layer of pure zinc that is applied directly in molten form or by using an electrolytic process. The zinc layer is more corrosionresistant than steel and protects the metal against moisture and air that cause corrosion. Galvanising is applied as follows: The object is washed in a hot, alkaline liquid to remove grease, oil and other dirt. It is then thoroughly rinsed. Next, it is washed in acid (pickled) to remove surface rust and other substances, and to etch the surface of the metal so that the zinc coating will adhere more firmly. The object is rinsed yet again. It is then dipped in zinc-ammonium chloride to prevent any further oxidisation. Thereafter, it is dipped in a bath of molten zinc. The liquid zinc combines with the soft steel, coating the object. The object is removed from the zinc bath. Excess zinc is removed and the object is allowed to cool. During this period, a hard zinc coat is formed. Galvanising (electro-galvanising) Electrolytic galvanising, often considered a true form of galvanisation, uses a DC current to deposit the pure zinc anode on the metal to be protected (cathode) to create a chemical compound. The soft steel workpiece is cleaned prior to treatment, as described above, and suspended in a bath containing a zinc sulphate and zinc bar. The workpiece and the zinc bar are connected to a DC source and zinc is gradually deposited on the workpiece. Painting metal Paint is a common, useful surface coat that helps to improve the corrosion resistance of soft steel by preventing the ingress of water or moisture, and it also enhances its appearance. The following steps must be followed when metals are painted: Remove any traces of dust, rust, oil, or grease. Sand down the metal using an emery cloth (type of sandpaper used for metals). Apply a rustproof undercoat if the metal has not been galvanised. When the undercoat is dry, sand it gently before applying a coat of paint. Allow the paint to dry. Apply the topcoat. (Apply two topcoats in coastal areas.)

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Preservation, painting and curing of concrete


Reasons for curing concrete Newly poured concrete must be protected against drying too quickly. The concrete must contain sufficient water for a considerable period to complete the hydrating (i.e. the hardening) process. Concrete gains strength for months, even years, after being cast if it is kept moist. Methods of curing concrete Excessively quick drying of concrete is facilitated by the sun and wind; thus, after the concrete has been poured, it must be kept moist in the following ways: Sprinkle or spray water on the surface regularly to keep it moist. Concrete floors can be covered with river sand and then watered to keep them moist. Allow water to pool on the surface at regular intervals. Use a hosepipe to water the surface as soon as it is firm enough not to be damaged by the spray. It can be covered in a curing compound. The process can be repeated for 7 to 10 days, depending on the circumstances. A commercial sealant can also be applied. This substance is sprayed onto the surface of freshly poured concrete to retain the moisture. Dye can be mixed with the sealant to indicate exactly where it has been applied. Freshly poured concrete can be covered with sand, hessian bags, sheets or any other protective material. If it is not covered, the surface must be hosed down at least twice a day. It can also be covered in a plastic coating. Concrete should not be poured in extreme cold weather conditions. If this is unavoidable, warm water must be used in order to maintain the minimum temperature of 5 C needed to ensure proper hardening of the concrete. Keep the formwork in place and cover all the exposed concrete surfaces. Protection, painting, and aftercare treatment of walls Newly built brick walls are also finished in various ways for protection and appearance. They can be: rendered (plastered) with a fine sand and cement mortar tiled, wallpapered, or clad with wood or metal, or prepared for painting by means of a smooth layer of gypsum-based plaster screed and painted with a suitable undercoat, followed by a (colour) topcoat. Protection, painting and aftercare of plastic surfaces Plastics are generally less weather-resistant than wood or metal and need special finishes for durability. They need to be protected again UV radiation in particular and special finishes have been developed for this purpose. Some plastics have smooth surfaces and need to be primed with special etching primers before being painted. Because plastics commonly have very smooth surfaces, they are spray-painted or dipped rather than being hand-painted.

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Activity 1
1. 1.1 Complete the following table by providing the properties and uses of the steel profiles.
Steel profile I-beam Properties Uses

H-beam

Lipped channel iron

Angle iron

1.2 Make a simple sketch to illustrate the following steel profiles: 1.2.1 I-beam 1.2.2 H-beam 1.2.3 Channel iron 1.2.4 Angle iron. 2. Briefly, using your own words, describe the term preservation. 3. What is the purpose of preservation? 4. Name the three main categories into which preservatives are divided, and mention two advantages and disadvantages of each. 5. Name four preservation processes. 6. Briefly describe the steps that should be taken when wood is painted. 7. What is your understanding of the term galvanising? 8. Discuss three reasons for the curing of concrete. 9. Concrete cannot be allowed to dry too quickly, since that would impede its strength. In your own words, briefly describe the methods used for curing concrete.

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Chapter 5

Equipment

?????????? Hand tools Machine tools

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Power tools Dumpy level Angle grinder

Civil Technology

Introduction
Take note The equipment studied in Grade 11 will also be tested in Grade 12.

Tools play a key role in the construction industry. Their use and care must be thoroughly studied by learners, because they will deal with them daily. Specialised tools must be treated with great care, because they need to be handled with skill and caution and can sometimes be very dangerous. In our course, we will only look at the use and care of hand tools, power tools and two specialised pieces of equipment: the dumpy level and angle grinder.

The use and care of hand tools


Only use tools for their intended purpose. Wet hands can cause ferrous metals to rust touch these parts as little as possible. Remove rust with steel wool only never sandpaper. Apply a thin layer of wax or oil afterwards. Check tools frequently for defects. Report any faulty tool to the teacher. Faulty tools can spoil good work. Do not store tools on top of one another. Dont leave tools lying around. Tools must be kept in proper storage even a blunt cutting edge can cause a nasty accident. You must be familiar with safety regulations and apply them. Cutting tools must be sharp blunt tools require more pressure. Use tools in the correct way for optimum productivity and safety. Always carry hand tools with sharp points or cutting edges pointing downwards. Keep your hands behind the cutting edges or planes of sharp tools while working.

Power tools
Check power cables for damage. Ensure that the power cable lies outside the working area. See that the power supply is properly earthed. For proper safety, the current must be led through an earth leakage trip switch. Do not work near water with power tools. The shoes of workers must have soles of rubber or other non-conductive material. Moving parts must be kept away from the body. Switch off power supply and disconnect a machine when making adjustments. Keep the air vents of machine tools clear. Do not insert objects into the vents. Allow motors to come to a complete rest before putting down power tools. Only switch on the power when you have taken up the right working stance, with both feet on the ground. Hold portable power tools securely and firmly when using them. Remove all jewellery (chains), loose clothing, etc. when using a machine. Use safety goggles to protect the eyes. Report any defects immediately.

Did you know? Defective tools can spoil good work.

Machine tools
Learners may only use prescribed machine tools and only with the teachers permission. Machine tools may only be used when the operator is properly informed about the use, care and safety regulations that apply to the machine.

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No power tool or portable tool may be used by a learner before being tested and declared safe by a teacher. Learners may not switch on machine tools. No bystanders are allowed while working with machine tools they distract the operator and may cause an accident. Do not let power cables lie in such a way that they may trip people. Switch off a machine at the mains before removing or adjusting it. Frequently check electrical connections, especially earth connections. Put up printed safety regulations for a machine tool on or near the machine. Keep body parts away from moving machine parts. Machines must come to a complete stop before the operator leaves. See that all safety shields are in place. Remove all jewellery, especially rings and chains, before working with a machine. Use safety goggles to protect the eyes. Only one person at a time may operate a machine. Dont make jokes or play games to distract the operator while the machine is running. Keep the working area around a machine tool clear at all times.

Did you know? Learners may not switch on machine tools.

Surveying
This is the process whereby a plan representing a particular site or area is drawn up by means of actual measurements made on site. All relevant data is included into the plan by means of drawings and symbols. A plan will also indicate various elevations (vertical heights) obtained by levelling. Measurements are taken on the following four levels to determine the data described above: horizontal distances horizontal angles vertical distances vertical angles.

Types of surveys
Surveys are usually done in these categories: topographical surveys cadastral surveys engineering surveys hydrographic surveys geodetic surveys mine surveys. Remember that no one type of surveying can function independently of another. We need to look in more detail at the first three types of surveying in particular. 1. Topographical surveying Here, all the details of the Earths surface within the surveyed area are determined and represented on a plan. Because the Earths surface is very rarely completely flat, a method must be applied to indicate differences in elevation (height) intermediate points. Contours are used for this purpose.

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What is a contour? This is a continuous line on a chart or plan that connects all points at the same height above a particular reference level. This reference level is usually mean sea level. Contours and other details on a plan give a good indication of the terrain on which building is to be constructed. The Earths surface is a continuous succession of valleys, hills, mountains and plateau. From a height, it appears folded and contour lines follow these folds. These lines mostly gradually change direction and rarely coincide or cross this only happens where a vertical or overhanging cliff is shown.

Contour line This is a continuous line on a chart or plan that connects all points at the same height above a particular reference level.

2. Cadastral surveying Here, the boundaries of properties such as farms or town or city plots are determined. A cadastral plan is needed when a property is registered against an owners name as required by law. Such a plan is carefully drawn to scale to indicate the location and boundaries of a property. The following information is supplied on the plan: surface area the coordinates of corner beacons the lengths and headings of sides descriptions of beacons. These surveys are also necessary because they contain the information that is used on building plans when construction work is planned and executed.

3. Engineering surveying This type of survey is done onto an existing topographical chart for projecting the details of a building onto the ground, so that earthworks and the digging of foundations and cellars can be done. Horizontal distances A plan is merely a flat, horizontal representation of the area, while the terrain is never or hardly ever quite flat. All the distances used on a plan therefore need to be horizontal distances. For this, distances across inclines must be converted to their corresponding distances before being drawn onto an engineering plan. When a plan is physically scaled down and set out and distances are scaled from a plan, the scaled distances need to be converted to the inclined distance. Site plan Where a building is to be erected on a site/terrain falling within a local authoritys boundaries, it must first be surveyed and provided with a datum point by a surveyor. This is done to find the boundaries of the site or terrain and to establish one point from which all elevations are determined.

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Equipment

Figure 5.1: Site plan

Information on a site plan


compass heading (north) scale type of survey datum point additional information description of site (type, soil, environment, etc.) surveyors name date of survey.

Determining levels/elevations
All levels/elevations needed for a building on a site are taken from the benchmark, which is deduced from the datum point indicated on the site by means of an iron peg set in cement. The benchmark is indicated by a horizontal line drawn onto a wall, building or any fixed structure near the site. The point where a vertical arrow drawn under the line meets the line is the true benchmark. If no benchmark can be drawn, the sites datum point must be used as a temporary benchmark.

Setting and testing methods


Setting out a buildings foundations can be done with the following basic and/or technologically advanced instruments: builders square the 3:4:5 method the diagonals method the telescope method the dumpy level the Global Positioning System (GPS).

The dumpy level


The dumpy level is basically a telescope mounted on a tripod. The telescope can be swung through 360 around a fixed vertical axis. The telescope has cross hairs that are adjustable by means of foot screws until the observation line coincides with the air bubble axis.

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Figure 5.2: Dumpy level on a tripod

Setting up the dumpy level


The instrument has an air bubble level on the base plate, which is adjusted by three foot screws. The base plate is set to be perfectly horizontal by means of three thumbscrews. The dumpy level rotates around the axis that is adjusted to be perfectly vertical by means of an air bubble. Once both the axis and base plate have been set up at exactly 90 to each other, the telescope can be turned through 360 while always remaining horizontal. Some dumpy levels also have an oblong air bubble (plate bubble) for the last fine adjustment. Setting up begins by opening the tripod, pulling out the legs and clamping them in place. The legs of the tripod are set so that the base plate is more or less horizontal and only minor adjustments by the foot screws are needed. Before adjustment, the foot screws should be set more or less in the middle of their ranges to simplify adjusting the telescope. The legs must be set at a length that puts the telescope at a comfortable viewing height, to avoid having to crouch over the telescope for what could be a whole day. The telescope is then bolted to the base plate and levelled by means of the round air bubble. For some telescopes, the plate air bubble must be parallel between two foot screws before being adjusted. The more modern dumpy levels only have a round air bubble to which the telescope is levelled using the foot screws. Two foot screws must always be turned together until the air bubble is perfectly centred. The air bubble will always follow the direction of the left thumb. The telescope is then swung clockwise through 90 towards the third screw. Minor adjustments to the third screw will again make the air bubble follow the left thumb. The telescope will now be level and can be used at any angle through 360 because it has been set up correctly at two positions 90 from each other.

Did you know? The more modern dumpy levels only have a round air bubble to which the telescope is levelled using the foot screws.

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Equipment Precautions
The tripod must always stand on a firm footing. Swing the telescope through 180; if the air bubble stays level, the dumpy level has been correctly set up. This procedure must be done frequently to ensure that all measurements are accurate.
Focusing knob

Sights

Objective Footplate air bubble Microadjustment screw

Eye piece Airbubble mirror

Horizontal gradient measurements Leveling screw Foot piece

Tripod

Figure 5.3 (a): The telescope of the dumpy Level


Focusing screw Objective Sights Air bubble mirror

Microadjustment screw Horizontal adjustment screws Foot screws Eyepiece Footplate air bubble Horizontal gradient measurements

Did you know? The telescope of the dumpy level should always be put back into its case after use to prevent damage.

Foot piece

Figure 5.3 (b): The telescope of a dumpy level with its various parts

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Take note Never confuse the stage hairs with the horizontal cross hair, which is the true indicator of height.

When you look through the lens of the telescope, you see the cross hairs, that play an important role in setting up and using the dumpy level. The cross hairs consist of: a vertical hair a horizontal hair two additional hairs (stage hairs).

Vertical hair Horizontal hair Top and bottom stage hairs

Figure 5.4: Cross hairs

The top and bottom stage hairs are used to measure distances between the observer and the staff. This method is not very accurate, but gives a good general indication of distance.

Figure 5.5: An example of what is seen of the telescopic staff through the lens of the telescope of the dumpy level

The telescopic staff


The telescopic staff is used with the dumpy level or other instrument to measure elevations (heights) above a certain point accurately. It is between 4 and 5 metres long and has several telescoping sections. When extended, it is kept securely in position by catches for accuracy. Readings from the staff can be taken at distances ranging from 30 m to 200 m.

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Graduations The staff below is divided into metres, each subdivided into 100 mm (or 10 cm) graduations. Each tooth on the staff represents 10 mm.

Height on staff = 146 cm or 1 460 mm, or 1,46 m

Height on staff = 140 cm or 1 400 mm or 1,4 m Each tooth = 1 cm or 10 mm

Figure 5.6: Telescopic staff

The reading on this staff must be calculated as above to find the height. Calculations must be done accurately to avoid mistakes and using incorrect heights/readings.

Height on staff = 146 cm or 1 460 mm or 1,46 m

Height on staff = 140 cm or 1 400 mm or 1,4 m

Figure 5.7: Telescopic baton with measurements in millimetres

The measurements on this type of staff are more readable and heights can be read off directly without any calculations. Faults are kept to a minimum. Care of the telescopic staff Always telescope the staff together when transporting. Place the staff in its bag to prevent scratches on it during transport. Treat the plastic or metal catches with care so they can keep the sections securely in position.

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Reading on the staff = 1,600

Figure 5.8: Reading on telescopic staff

Measuring distance
The distance between two points can be measured by using the dumpy level: subtract the reading from the bottom stage line from the top stage line and multiply by 100. Distance = (top stage line reading bottom stage line reading) 100 = (1,625 1,575) 100 = 0.05 100 =5m

Reading = 1,625

Reading = 1,575

Figure 5.9: Measurement of distance on a telescopic baton

The following mistakes can occur during the reading of heights on the baton and the recording thereof: Over-concentration on decimal readings and the incorrect recording of height readings Leaving out zeros, e.g. 4 09 instead of 4 009.

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Swapping of numbers, e.g. 1,601 instead of 1,106. Taking reading on the stadia line instead of cross lines. Recording readings in the wrong columns. Not writing up certain readings.

Surveying and level book


Levelling
Levelling entails measuring vertical distances at various points. It indicates differences in height/elevation between two consecutive points.

Types of levellers
Various types of levellers are generally used but for the purpose of this course only the dumpy level will be used.

Taking a reading
It comprises a top and a bottom stadia line. (These are the two short cross hairs above and below the main cross.) These lines are used to calculate the distance between the staff and the dumpy level. Formula for calculating the distance Distance between dumpy level and staff = (top stadia reading bottom stadia reading) 100 Example Top stadia reading Bottom stadia reading Distance = = = = = 1,352 1,039 (1,362 1,039) 100 0,323 100 32,3 m

The horizontal cross hair and vertical cross hair indicate the height from the lowest point of the staff and the reading on the staff. The leveller is a surveying instrument that is designed exclusively to provide a horizontal line of sight. With the aid of these horizontal lines, the elevation differences (vertical distance) between the consecutive points can be determined. For the purpose of this course, the following abbreviations will be used: Back sight BS Foresight FS Intermediate sight IS If the distance between two points is too far or if the difference in elevation is too great, more points are measured between the initial two distances. This is referred to as the intermediate sight (IS).

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Civil Technology Guidelines for fieldwork


The leveller must be in the middle, between BS and FS. If the instrument is faulty, the fault will be eliminated because the leveller is in the middle. The collimation line/line of sight must not be closer than 0,5 m to the ground. This will prevent refraction.

Graphic illustration of the field book and telescopic staff

A B C AC

= = = =

Ground stake point Ground stake point Position of the instrument CB

a = Vertical reading on telescopic staff (staff) at stake A = Vertical reading of staff at stake B b a b = Difference in height between A and B

Graphic illustration of surveying to complete the field book

3,82

In the sketch provided here, the heights are usually known. The heights at the other points must be calculated. The leveller is set up at the position numbered 1. The line of sight/collimation line to A is called the Back Sight (BS).

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Take the staff to position B. The line of sight/collimation line to B is called the Foresight (FS). Keep the staff at B. Move the leveller to the position numbered 2. Take the BS to B. Take the staff to position C.

Position C precedes D and is known as the Intermediate Sight (IS). The staff is placed there because the difference in height between B and D is too great. Rules for completing the level book: Always subtract the FS from the BS, or subtract the IS from the BS in the previous line. Always subtract the FS from the IS. Always subtract the second IS from the first IS. If the answer is positive, it indicates a rise. If the answer is negative, it indicates a fall. Add the rise to the previous height to determine the new height. Subtract the fall from the previous height to calculate the new height. Add the BSs, and write the total at the bottom of the column. Add the FSs, and write the total at the bottom of the column. Now subtract the sum of the FSs from the sum of the BSs. Add the rises, and write the total at the bottom of the column. Now add the falls, and write the total at the bottom of the column. Subtract the sum of the falls from the sum of the rises. Subtract the first height from the last height. The differences between the BS and the FS, the rises and falls, the first height and the last height must be the same. Steps to follow when completing a table (level book) The bench mark (BM = A: 751.250) is usually indicated on the diagram and is entered right at the top in the reduced level column. Collimation height is determined by adding the back sight (BS = 1.712) to the reduced height (751.250). The back sight A (BS = 1.712) is entered right at the top of the first column under (BS). The foresight B (FS = 0.801) is entered in the second space under (FS). The difference between A (BS) and B (FS) is entered in either the rise or fall column, depending on whether the next height indicates a rise or fall. If the first reading is greater than the second, there must be an increase of one staff position to the next. This difference (1.712 0.801 = 0.911) is entered in the second space in the rise column. To determine the reduced height, the first reduced height is either deducted from the difference between A (BS) and B (FS), or added (rise column is added and fall column is deducted) depending on whether there is a rise or fall. The first reduced height (751.250) is now added to the difference between the (BS) 1.712 and (FS) 0.801 = 0.911 because it was entered in the rise column. This reading (751.250 + 0.911 = 752.161) is entered in the second space under the reduced height. The next (BS = 0.252) is now entered in the third space in the (BS) column. The following (FS = 1.530) is now entered in the fourth space under (FS). The difference between (1.530 0.252 = 1.278) indicates a fall. This height is entered in the fourth space in the Fall column. The second collimation height can now be determined by adding the first reduced height to the second (BS).

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The third reduced height is now determined by subtracting the difference between the first (BS) and (FS) (1.530 0.252 = 1.278) from the second reduced height, because it was entered in the fall column. Repeat the steps until the column is completed.

HB/BM = A: 751.250 Collimation height 752.962 0.801 0.252 1.530 1.226 0.530 1.101 1.402 0.301 0.696 752.680 751.278 1.278 752.109 751.579 0.911 752.413 750.883 Deduced level 751.250 752.161

BS 1.712

IS

FS

Rise

Fall

Remarks

4.291

4.263

1.607

1.579

751.278

Totals

4.291 -4.263 0.028

1.607 -1.579 0.028

751.278 -751.250 0.028 Difference

Figure 5.10: The various dumpy level readings used to complete a field book

Example Use the information provided here, and answer the question by transferring the readings to the field book and processing them. Test your answers.

3,82

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The field book will be completed as follows given the above example: The benchmark (BM) above sea level at A is 10, 00 metres.
Back sight (BS) 3,82 3,60 3,84 1,55 1,65 7,66 7,66 5,25 +2,41 5,25 2,51 2,29 0,10 0,10 20,07 12,41 10,00 +2,41 0,22 14,06 12,51 12,41 Intermediate reading (IS) Foresight (FS) Rise Fall Collimation height 13,82 Height Remarks

10,00 10,22

Point A Point B Point B Point C Point D Total Calculation Difference

2,51 0,10 +2,41

HB/BM = A: 751.250 BS 1,712 0,801 0,252 1,530 1,226 0,530 1,101 1,402 4,291 4,291 4,263 0,028 4,263 1,607 1,607 1,579 0,028 0,301 1,579 0,696 752,680 751,278 751,278 751,278 751,250 0,028 Difference Totals 1,278 752,109 751,579 0,911 752,413 750,883 IS FS Rise Fall Collimation height 752,962 Deduced level 751,250 752,161 Remarks

Figure 5.11: Different readings on dumpy level to complete field book

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HB/BM = 473.17 Collimation height 475,37 1,30 0,80 0,87 1,31 2,40 1,83 0,90 1,20 1,40 0,93 0,30 0,20 1,09 474,74 473,84 473,54 473,34 E F G 0,07 475,31 472,91 D 0,90 474,87 474,00 C Deduced level 473,17 474,07

BS 2,20

IS

FS

Rise

Fall

Remarks A B

6,14

5,97

1,83

1,66

473,34

Totals

6,14 5,97 0,17

5,97

1,83 1,66 0,17

1,66

473,34 473,17 0,17 Difference

Figure 5.12: An example of completing a collimation book if intermediate readings were also taken

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HB/BM A = 541.30 BS 0,41 0,84 1,10 1,19 1,20 0,60 1,34 1,21 1,19 2,11 2,11 3,23 3,23 2,11 1,12 0,13 0,02 0,15 0,15 1,27 1,27 0,15 1,12 0,74 0,09 0,01 540,17 540,03 540,16 540,18 540,18 541,30 540,18 1,12 Difference E F G Totals 0,43 539,77 540,78 540,77 C D IS FS Rise Fall Collimation height 541,71 Deduced level 541,30 540,87 Remarks A B

Figure 5.13: Another way of completing a collimation book

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Activity 1
1. Use the information provided below to complete the prepared sheet of the field book.

BS

IS

FS

Rise

Fall

Collimation height

Reduced level

Remarks A B

Totals

Difference

2. Use the information provided below to complete the prepared sheet of the field book.

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BS

IS

FS

Rise

Fall

Collimation height

Reduced level

Remarks A

C D

Totals

Difference

3. Use the information provided below to complete the prepared sheet of the field book.

Figure 9

BS

IS

FS

Rise

Fall

Collimation height

Reduced level

Remarks

Totals

Difference

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4. Use the information provided below to complete the prepared sheet of the field book.

Figure 10

BS

IS

FS

Rise

Fall

Collimation height

Reduced level

Remarks

Totals

Difference

To calculate the distance from the dumpy level when the top and bottom stadia readings are known
Example: Calculate the distance from the dumpy level to the telescopic staff if the following readings were observed on the telescopic staff: Top stadia reading Bottom stadia reading
Levelling The process used to compare different levels with each other.

= 2,54 = 1,49

Solution: Distance from the dumpy level to the staff = (top stadia reading bottom stadia reading) 100 = (2,54 1,49) 100 = 1,05 100 = 106 m

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Activity 2
Calculate the distance from the dumpy level to the telescopic staff if the following readings were observed on the telescopic staff:
Number 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Top stadia reading 1,75 2,36 1,625 3,450 2,45 Bottom stadia reading 1,51 2,25 1,475 3,359 2,26 Distance from dumpy level

To calculate the distance from the dumpy level when the top stadia reading and the horizontal cross hair reading are known Example 1 Calculate the reading on the bottom stadia line as well as the distance from the dumpy level to the telescopic staff if the following readings were observed on the telescopic staff: = 1,75 Top stadia reading = 1,63 Horizontal crosshair Solution Difference between top stadia and middle horizontal cross hair readings = Top stadia reading horizontal cross hair reading = 1,75 1,63 = 0,12 = horizontal cross hair reading difference between Top stadia reading readings = 1,63 0,12 = 1,51 Distance from dumpy level to staff = (top stadia reading bottom stadia reading) 100 = (1,75 1,51) 100 = 0,24 100 = 24,0 m Example 2 Calculate the reading on the bottom stadia line as well as the distance from the dumpy level to the telescopic staff if the following readings were observed on the telescopic staff:
No. Top stadia reading 1,75 2,79 3,24 5,25 1,686 Horizontal cross hair reading 1,63 2,68 3,10 5, 13 1,666 Difference between the top stadia and middle horizontal cross hair readings Bottom stadia reading Distance

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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Solution To calculate the height (difference in height) if the BS and FS are known Rules that apply when calculating the difference in height when the Back sight (BS) and Foresight (FS) are known: 1. Always subtract the FS from the BS in the previous line. 2. If the answer is positive, it indicates a rise. 3. If the answer is negative, it indicates a fall. Example 3 Calculate the difference in height if the: 1. BS = 2,230 and the FS = 1,720 and the FS = 1,432 2. BS = 0,709 Solution 1. Difference in height = BS FS = 2,230 1,720 = 0,51 indicates a rise because it is positive.

2. Difference in height = BS FS = 0,709 1,432 = 0,723 indicates a fall because the reading is negative.

Activity 3
Complete the table below by calculating the difference in height. Write the answer in either the rise or the fall column. The following readings were observed using the leveller:
BS 2,45 3,69 1,23 3,61 FS 1,59 2,58 2,57 4,53 Rise Fall

To calculate the difference in height if the BS and IS are known Rules that apply when calculating the difference in height if the Back sight (BS) and Intermediate sight (IS) are known: 1. Always deduct the IS from the BS. 2. If the answer is positive, it indicates a rise. 3. If the answer is negative, it indicates a fall.

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Example Calculate the difference in height if the: 1. BS = 1,070 and the IS = 0,456 2. BS = 0,976 and the IS = 2,592 Solution 1. Difference in height = BS IS = 1,070 0,456 = 0,614 a rise because it is positive. 2. Difference in height = BS IS = 0,976 2,592 = 1,616 a fall because it is negative.

Activity 4
Complete the table below by calculating the difference in height. Write the answer in either the rise or the fall column. The following readings were observed using the leveller:
BS 2,034 1,230 0,857 3,541 IS 1,098 1,135 1,798 4,256 Rise Fall

To calculate the difference in height if the two ISs lie next to each other Rules that apply when calculating the difference in height of two intermediate readings lying next to each other: 1. Subtract the second IS from the first IS. 2. If the answer is positive, it indicates a rise. 3. If the answer is negative, it indicates a fall. Example Calculate the difference in height if the: 1. IS at the first point = 1,35 and the IS at the second point = 0,349 2. IS at the first point = 0,53 and the IS at the second point = 0,70 Solution 1. Difference in height = IS (1) IS (2) = 1,350 0,349 = 1,001 a rise because it is positive. 2. Difference in height = IS (1) IS (2) = 0,53 0,70 = 0,17 indicates a fall because it is negative.

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Activity 5
Complete the table below by calculating the difference in height. Write the answer in either the rise or fall column. The following readings were observed using the leveller:
IS 4,31 1,456 0,974 2,86 IS 3,98 1,024 1,409 3,24 Rise Fall

To calculate the true height if the benchmark (BM) and rise are known Rules that apply when calculating the true height if the rise is known: 1. Always add the rise to the given height. Example Calculate the true height if the: and the rise = 0,445. 1. BM = 279 m and the rise = 0,94. 2. BM = 472,48 m Solution 1. True height = BM + rise = 279 + 0,445 = 279,445 2. True height = BM + rise = 472,48 + 0,94 = 473,42

Activity 6
Complete the table below by calculating the true height.
BM 123,54 220 298,24 532,543 Rise 0,987 1,20 1,96 2,54 True height

To calculate the true height if the BM and fall are given Rules that apply when calculating the true height if the fall is given: 1. Always subtract the fall from the given height.

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Example 1. Calculate the true height if the: 1.1 BM = 541,30 m and the fall = 0,430. 1.2 BM = 132,75 m and the fall = 2,28. Solution 1.1 True height = BM fall = 541,30 0,430 = 540,87 1.2 True height = BM fall = 132,75 2,28 = 130,47

Activity 7
Complete the table below by calculating the true height.
BM 321,54 340 178,43 337,713 Fall 1,785 0,98 2,69 2,211 True height

To calculate the collimation height What does the term collimation height mean? Collimation height refers to the height of the line of sight, which will be the same for all telescopic directions of the same instruments. The height of the line of sight can be calculated and is referred to as the collimation height. This level is also referred to as the instrument height (IH). Rules that apply when calculating the collimation height: 1. Always add the last true height to the BS.

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Example Calculate the collimation height if the: 1. true height = 479,0 and the BS = 2,53. 2. true height = 239,45 and the BS = 1,10. Solution 1. Collimation height = true height + BS = 479,0 + 2,53 = 481,53 2. Collimation height = true height + BS = 239,45 + 1,10 = 240,55

Activity 8
Complete the table below by calculating the collimation height.
True height 463,17 464,07 463,8 462,71 BS 2,20 1,7 0,31 1,2 Collimation height

Two-peg test
The double-stake test is a very simple test that is used in the field to determine whether the line of sight of the telescope is exactly parallel to the bubble/spirit level of the levelling instrument. This is one of the most important features of the dumpy level and it must be checked regularly. The following steps must be followed to check the setting of the dumpy level.
Back sight Foresight

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Set up two stakes, approximately 100 m apart. Label them stakes A and B. Set up the dumpy level in the middle of the two stakes. Set the instrument perfectly level. The field hand places the staff at stake A. The surveyor takes the reading on the staff at stake A. Make sure that the staff is in the middle of the cross hair and that the bubble is in the middle of the spiritlevel when the reading is taken. 6. The field hand now moves to stake B and places the staff on the stake. 7. The surveyor turns the dumpy level to take an accurate reading of the staff at stake B. Ensure that the bubble is in the middle of the spiritlevel when the reading is taken. 8. Move the spirit level to a position close to the staff at stake B. Take the reading at stake B.
Back sight Foresight

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

9. The field hand takes the staff to stake A. Take the reading at stake A. 10. The true difference in height between points A and B of the first two readings is calculated by subtracting them. 11. The difference in height of the second set of reading is then calculated. If the line of sight is truly horizontal, the difference in height of the second set of readings will be equal to the true difference in height of the first set. If this is not the case, the line of sight is not parallel with the bubble in the spirit level of the telescope. Adjustments must be made to the instrument.

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Name Dumpy level

Civil Technology
Equipment Use Used to determine distances To determine levels and heights For layout of buildings To transfer levels and heights Maintenance and care Place the telescope in its case directly after use. Do not bump the instrument against objects or drop it. Perform the collimation test regularly to ensure accuracy. Caring for the telescopic staff: The staff must always be folded when it is transported. Keep it in a bag to prevent scratching of the graduation during transportation. Ensure that plastic or metal clasps are working in order to keep the section in position.

Activity 9
A C

Figure 5.14: A precision measuring instrument that is used in the building industry

1. Name the measuring instrument labelled A. 2. Identify section B on which the instrument is mounted. 3. What accessory (C) is used with this instrument to provide accurate readings?

4. Use the TWO readings as seen through the eyepiece of the instrument and calculate the difference in height between point D and point E.

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Equipment
Equipment (hand held) Name Steel tape-measure Use Steel tape-measures are available in lengths of 2 m to 100 m Some tape-measures have steel measuring tapes while others are made of fibreglass and covered in PVC. Fibreglass tape-measures perish easily and are not resistant to wear and tear, bad weather conditions, and bending. Most tape-measures are equipped with automatic retraction mechanisms and a lock action. The fibreglass type usually has a handle that is used to rewind the measuring tape. Used to: 1. Measure any lengths of wood or building material 2. Measure layout of buildings 1. For layout of foundations, to keep the building of brickwork straight and level 2. Used with corner blocks to ensure building across long distances occurs in a straight line 3. To line up doors, windows and pillars. 4. To suspend plumb bobs Safe handling Do not bend steel tapes. Return tape slowly to its case. Maintenance and care Do not expose steel tape to moisture. Wipe clean after use. Do not expose steel tapes to direct sunlight for long periods. Fine, accurate measuring instruments must be returned immediately to their holders after use. Never oil a tape-measure.

Building line (fishing line)

Tighten just enough to give a straight line. Avoid abrasive surfaces. Avoid knots and roll up on reel after use.

Wipe the line clean after use. Roll up carefully after wiping to avoid knots. Do not expose unnecessarily to wet conditions. Always store in its rightful place and correct manner after use.

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Name Chalk line

Civil Technology
Use Chalk line (carpenters line) comprises an aluminium/plastic casing that is filled with approved chalk. The line can be reeled in Has a multi-purpose hook attached to the line. Used to draw straight lines on concrete. Marks the position where building will take place on foundation. Place one end of the chalk line at one point, and the other end at the other point and stretch tightly. Draw the chalk line more or less in the middle of the measurement and release it to leave a line on the concrete. 1. Used to lay out walls on foundations. 2. Some types can be used as plumb bobs. 3. Draw long lines, especially on floors, etc. Cone-shaped weight with sharp point suspended from a rope. Used to: 1. Determine perpendicular positions 2. Test vertical surfaces (walls, foundations) 3. Project points (e.g. against a ceiling) to the floor 4. Determine centres A rectangular, 3 mm thick, steel try square that is divided into millimetres and centimetres. Used to: 1. Set out stairs 2. Test the squareness of constructions 3. Mark out brickwork 4. Mark out concrete work 5. Test whether larger construction are straight 6. Lay out foundations, masonry, stairs, roof trusses and concrete work Used everywhere to test squareness of especially larger objects. Setting up The line is stretched between two points, picked up near the centre and allowed to snap back to leave a line. Rinse after use and replace when the handle becomes loose. Store in a way that would rid it of excess water. Store in a safe, dry place. Replace loose or cracked handles. Maintenance and care Wipe the line clean after use and reel up carefully into its container to avoid knots. Add more chalk when the line becomes faint.

Plumb bob

Hold the line firmly at the top and let it hang without swinging before making a mark. In windy conditions or over long distances, the bob may be held in a transparent container of water to keep it steady.

Keep dry and store in a container with the string neatly rolled up.

Steel square (builders)

Do not drop squares. Test regularly for accuracy.

Wipe off and store after use. Adjust or replace if no longer accurate.

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Equipment
Name Spirit level Use This spirit level is usually made of aluminium or wood, with a glass tube that is filled with ether, spirits or alcohol. The size varies between 75 mm to 1,2 m. It is used to: 1. Level objects 2. Check whether objects are horizontally and vertically level 3. As a straight edge in some cases 4. Ensure that the pegs in foundations are level for the casting of concrete 5. Ttransfer heights 6. Place bricks or blocks so that they are level 7. Ensure that doors and window frames remain perpendicular when they are mounted 8. Test horizontal, vertical or slanted surfaces (45) in buildings, foundations, roof trusses, etc. 9. Project a line or point. 10. As a straight edge Transparent pipe level Can be used as level to transfer levels from on point to another. (The pipe is filled with water until almost full. All air bubbles must be removed from the pipe while it is being filled with water. The ends of the pipe must remain open. Take one end of the pipe and ensure that the water bubble and the surface that is to be transferred are level. Do not add more water. The other end can now be taken to another point and the level can be transferred successfully. Ensure that the water level at the initial point remains the same throughout the measuring process. A piece of clear plastic piping is filled with water (coloured or clear) to project levels across long distances. Fill with water. Make sure that it contains no bubbles. Keep the ends open on the same level and allow the top of the water (meniscus) to stabilise before levels are tested or marked. Wipe clean, drain and roll up. Replace a dull (worn) pipe. Setting up Check regularly for correctness by comparing spirit levels. Do not bump or throw around unnecessarily. Maintenance and care Wipe clean after every use. Do not allow glass windows to get clogged up with cement.

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Name Try square

Civil Technology
Woodwork tools Use Comprises a steel blade and a stock made of rosewood, ebony, or steel. Stock is covered in brass plate to prevent wear. Used to: 1. Test for sureness 2. Draw perpendicular lines on a piece of wood 3. Measure, using the calibrated steel blade 4. As a straight edge to test whether surfaces are flat and straight Mitre square has the same properties and uses as the try square. Used to: 1. Draw 45 lines (mitre lines) 2. Test 45 (mitre) angles. 3. Test the squareness of corners 4. Test straight lines. 5. Test mitre angles and mark them Setting up Do not drop squares. Test regularly for accuracy. Maintenance and care Wipe off and store after use. Adjust or replace if no longer accurate.

Mitre square

Do not drop the mitre try square. Regularly test its squareness.

Wipe and store in a dry place. Adjust or replace if it is no longer square. Oil the blade lightly to prevent rust.

Mitre square

Sliding bevel

Sliding bevel has an adjustable steel blade that can be set at any angle. The blade has a groove at one end. This fits into the handle and is fastened using a bolt and wing nut (lever). The wing nut (lever) is used to position the steel blade. Used to: 1. Draw inclined/oblique lines as well as for testing angles 2. Draw angles other than 90

Ensure that the blade slides smoothly in the groove easily disturbed.

Wipe off and store in a dry place after use. Oil lightly to prevent rust.

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Equipment
Name Ripsaw Use Length of the ripsaw varies between 550 mm and 700 mm with 4 teeth per 25 mm, while the cross-cut saw is between 450 mm and 600 mm long and has 6 to 8 teeth per 25 mm. Used to: 1. Saw along the grain of timber 2. Saw required breadths. 3. Split planks or boards lengthwise Length of a crosscut saw varies between 450 mm and 650 mm, and it has 68 teeth per 25 mm. Used to: 1. Saw across the grain of timber 2. Saw timber to required lengths 3. Saw lengths of wood used in the construction of roofs, e.g. lathing, purlins, tie beams, rafters, hangers, etc. Two types are available. Warrington joiners bench hammer. Exeter joiners bench hammer Both have a toggle at one end, which can be used to hammer nails into difficult-to-reach corners. 300 g is a comfortable size Used to: 1. Hammer in light nails 2. Hammer in nails of between 10 mm and 38 mm 3. Toggle is used to tap in small nails that are held between the fingers so that they can be hammered in using the hammer face later. Used for general construction work. Sizes vary between 500 g and 680 g. Used for: 1. Heavy nail work (roof trusses) 2. Claws are used to extract nails 3. Light work (building in cupboards) 4. Hammer in nails of 25 mm to 150 mm Setting up Do not cut/rip timber with nails in it. Stand firmly above the blade and keep your eye in line with the cut to saw straight. The teeth must be properly sharpened and set. Maintenance and care Wipe off and store in a dry place after use. Store after use with the teeth covered. Oil the blade lightly and ensure that the handle is firmly fixed to the blade. Do not oil the handle.

Crosscut saw

Do not cut/rip timber with nails in it. Stand firmly above the blade and keep your eye in line with the cut to saw straight. The teeth must be properly sharpened and set.

Store after use with the teeth covered. Oil the blade lightly and ensure that the handle is firmly fixed to the blade. Do not oil the handle.

Cross-peen hammer

Tap the nails before they are hammered. Do not damage the surface of the wood. Set the nails using a punch.

Keep hammer face clean and ensure that the handle is firmly attached to the head. Replace loose handles or fix them using a wedge. Replace hammer when the edges of the head are rounded or worn.

Claw hammer

Hold carefully. Do not drop. Use wood under claw to extract long nails.

Keep hammer face clean and ensure that the handle is firmly attached to the head. Replace loose handles or fix them using a wedge. Replace hammer when the edges of the head are rounded or worn.

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Name

Civil Technology
Power tools Use Portable electric circular saw for sawing and cleaving wood If the correct blades are fitted, it can also be used to cut ceramics, slate, nonferrous metals, corrugated/ zinc sheets and other building materials Safe handling Never use the saw without the protective covering. Avoid sawing planks that contain nails. Always wear eye protection. Make sure that the blade has stopped moving before you leave the saw unattended. Ensure that the protective cover remains in position. Remove electric power plug when adjustments are made. Use both hands when handling the saw. Stand firmly and comfortably. Use a dust mask when sawing wood. Ensure that the electric cord does not touch the blade. The saw must be in position before the power is turned on. Use the generator in a well-ventilated area. Avoid exposure to rain. Maintenance and care Maintained like all machinery lubricate and adjust according to instructions. Clean after use and store in a safe place. Repair or replace damaged electric cords. Handle it so as not to damage it or impair the accuracy. Use machinery only for the intended purpose. Do not force the electric circular saw. (Avoid the use of blunt blades.) Keep ventilation holes open and clean. Service the saw regularly.

Portable electric circular saw

Generator

Used to generate electricity for the use of power tools.

Switch it off when topping up the petrol. Check the oil levels regularly and top up when necessary. Do not connect too many power tools simultaneously. Service the generator regularly. Maintained like all machinery lubricate and adjust according to instructions. Clean after use and store in a safe place. Repair or replace damaged electric cords. Handle it so as not to damage it or impair the accuracy. Use machinery only for the intended purpose. Do not force the angle grinder. Keep ventilation holes clean and open. Service the grinder regularly.

Angle grinder

The angle grinder is used to cut stone, concrete, tiles, ferrous metals and slate.

Never use the angle grinder without its protective cover. Always wear safety goggles. Make sure that the blade has stopped moving before you leave the grinder unattended. Ensure that the protective cover remains in position. Make sure that the grinding wheel is free of cracks and chips. Be sure to remove the chuck key from the nut before the machine is switched on. Wear a dust mask when cutting stone and concrete. Remove the electric power plug when adjustments are made. Use both hands to operate the machine. Stand firmly and comfortably.

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Equipment
Name Portable electric plane Use Used to: Plane surfaces and faceedges of timber. Plane bevels, chamfer and edges of wood Safe handling Always wear safety goggles. Make sure that the blade has stopped moving before you leave the plane unattended. Remove electric power plug when adjustments are made. Use both hands to operate the machine. Stand firmly and comfortably. Wear a dust mask when planing. Maintenance and care Avoid planing wood that contains nails. Maintained like all machinery lubricate and adjust according to instructions. Clean after use and store in a safe place. Repair or replace damaged electric cords. Handle it so as not to damage it or impair the accuracy. Use machinery only for the intended purpose. Do not force the portable electric plane. (Avoid the use of blunt blades.) Keep ventilation holes open and clean. Service the plane regularly.

Construction machinery Name Electric mitre saw Use Used to saw mitres of skirtings (for walls) and picture frames If appropriate blades are used, it can also cut 45 in ceramics, slate, nonferrous metals, and other building material Safe handling Never use the saw without the protective covering. Avoid sawing planks that contain nails. Always wear eye protection. Make sure that the blade has stopped moving before you leave the saw unattended. Ensure that the protective cover remains in position. Remove electric power plug when adjustments are made. Use both hands when handling the saw. Stand firmly and comfortably. Use a dust mask when sawing wood. Ensure that the electric cord does not touch the blade. The saw must be in position before the power is turned on. Maintenance and care Maintained like all machinery lubricate and adjust according to instructions. Clean after use and store in a safe place. Repair or replace damaged electric cords. Handle it so as not to damage it or impair the accuracy. Use machinery only for the intended purpose. Do not force the electric mitre saw. (Avoid the use of blunt blades.) Keep ventilation holes open and clean. Service the saw regularly.

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Civil Technology

The angle grinder a more detailed look


This is a versatile portable cutting and grinding tool. It can be fitted with various kinds of wheels and discs for specific tasks. These discs and wheels can be easily removed, as can the steadying handle on the side of the machine, making it easier to store. The safety guard is adjustable to suit the type of work being done.
5

4 1 2 3 6 4

Figure 5.15: Angle grinder


Components 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Safety guard Arrow Spindle lock Ventilation holes Rear handle Switch Front handle Cutting disc/wheel Function Protects the body against cuttings Direction of rotation Locks spindle for changing wheels Keeping the machine cool For holding machine Switching machine on and off For holding the front of machine For doing cutting work

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Equipment
Components not shown in Figure 5.15.
Component Lock nut Function Holds cutting wheel/disc firmly against tensioning flange. Has two holes to take two pegs of wrench. Easily damaged if not properly used. Fits over spindle between body of the grinder and the cutting wheel/disc. Some models have a tensioning nut to hold cutting wheel/ disc. Wrench with pegs that fit into holes in lock nut for undoing and tightening it.

Tensioning flange

Peg wrench

Cutting disc

The cutting disc or wheel consists of an abrasive set in a polymer matrix strengthened with artificial fibres. Discs for ferric metals contain aluminium oxide while masonry discs for brick and concrete consist of silicon carbide. Cutting discs are available in 110 mm, 115 mm and 230 mm diameters, depending on the size of the machine. The grinding wheel is thicker than the disc and uses aloxide as the abrasive. Thicknesses vary from 4,56 mm while the diameter will depend on the type of machine. Available sizes are 110 mm, 115 mm and 230 mm. These discs are used for grinding ferric metals.

Grinding wheel

Uses of the angle grinder For cutting walls and brickwork bathroom tiles floor tiles slate various metals Safety measures Ensure that the safety guard is always in position. Check the cutting disc for gouges and cracks. Ensure that the peg wrench is removed from the tensioning flange before switching on the machine. Use safety goggles at all times. Use a dust mask when cutting bricks or concrete. Unplug the power cable before making adjustments. Keep the power cable in a good condition. Keep the power cable away from the cutting disc. Machine must come to a complete standstill before putting it down. Rotation speed of discs must suit that of the machine. Use both hands to hold the machine. Take up a secure standing position before using the machine.

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Activity 10
1. 2. 3. 4. You are a bricklayer who has to expand a dwelling. Name the tools that you will use to expand the dwelling. Briefly describe the uses of the tools listed in question 1. How would you take care of these tools? Complete the table below by filling in the uses and care/maintenance of the tools listed.
Woodwork tools Name Try square Use Maintenance and care

Mitre square

Sliding bevel

Ripsaw

Cross-cut saw

Cross-peen hammer

Claw hammer

5.

Describe the uses of each of the following power tools: 5.1 Portable electric circular saw 5.2 Angle grinder 5.3 Portable electric plane 5.4 Electrical mitre saws

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Chapter 6

Applied mechanics

Roof frame and roof structures

Cantilever frame structures Shear forces and bending moments

Beams

Point loads and evenly distributed loads Centroids

Laminas

Civil Technology

Introduction
In Grades 10 and 11, you learnt that Applied Mechanics involves different types of forces that create a system of forces. It enables experts to design structures that can safely be used or occupied by people.

Revising Grade 10 and 11 force diagrams


In Grades 10 and 11, the nature and magnitude or size of a force that affects only one point was determined graphically. However, in Grade 12 the focus will not only be on the forces affecting a single point; the forces exerted at several points in a structure, such as a roof frame and other framed structures, will be considered. Example of forces affecting one point, as dealt with in Grades 10 and 11 The space diagram below illustrates four forces affecting a common point. 1. Copy the space diagram on a sheet of drawing paper. 2. Apply Bows notation to determine the magnitude of the unknown forces P and Q graphically, using a scale of 1 mm = 1 N. 3. Provide the diagrams with titles and indicate the scale.
Space diagram

Solution:

Vector diagram Scale 1 mm = 1 m

P = 162 N Q = 150 N

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Roof frame and other roof structures


Determining the nature and magnitude of the components of roof structures, such as roof frames and other structures, graphically
In order to determine the nature and magnitude of the various components, you will need the knowledge gained in Grades 10 and 11. For Grade 12 purposes, two types of framed structures will be studied: Roof frames and other roof structures. Cantilever roofs (cantilever frames). This course will focus on the following: Graphically determining the nature and magnitude/size of the various components of a roof structure Graphically finding solutions using drawing equipment (to ensure accuracy) Focusing only on vertical loads. Frames are commonly made of wood or steel. The components of wooden roof trusses are joined by means of nail plates or nails, while gusset plates, rivets and welded joins are used for steel frames. A beam structure can be described in terms of one or more supports, also called the reactive force, vertical loads and members. In order to solve structures, we will call the loads points.
Vertical load Pin joint

Pin joint

Members

Pin joint

Left support Left reactive force

Right support Right reactive force

Figure 7.1: Frame structures

Remember: The members of the structure are called AD, DB and DC (Bows notation). There is one downwards force namely AB. There are two upwards forces, also called reactive forces, BC and CA. The reactive force is a counter-force acting on the supports when downwards forces act on a structure. The reactive force keeps a structure or beam in equilibrium. In any structure, the sum of the downward forces must be equal to the sum of the upwards forces, or the structure would not be in equilibrium. The names of the pin joints are ABD, BCD and CAD. The following must be taken into account when the size and nature of the members of the frame are determined: All frames are in equilibrium, therefore every pin joint will also be in equilibrium. The frames cant bend. The members of the frame are connected at the pin joints.

Take note Remember to work counterclockwise at all times.

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Pressure (loads) is only applied on the pin joints. When the frame is built, loaded and supported symmetrically: the reactions at the two support points would be the same the loads in the opposite members would be the same the force diagram would be symmetrical.

For the solution of frame structures, frames would be presented as line diagrams because it would be too time consuming to indicate the measurements of the frame structure.

Front view of structure

Line diagram

Example Find the horizontal position of the apex of a triangle on its basis if the basis angles are equal. Three simple triangular frameworks are shown. Find the point where a vertical line from the apex meets the basis of each. Use a scale of 10 mm = 1 m.

30 6m

30

60 10 m

60

45 13 m

45

Solution: 1. Measure the basis of the triangle = 60 mm, on a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. 2. Draw two 30 angles from the ends of the base. 3. Drop a vertical line from the apex to the basis. 4. Measure the left and right sections of the basis. What do you find? Repeat these steps for the other triangles. What did you find out about the three triangles if their basis angles are equal?

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Applied mechanics
Example Finding the horizontal position of the apex of a triangle on its basis if the basis angles are unequal. Two simple triangular frames are shown. Find the horizontal distance of the apex on the basis of each triangular framework. Use a scale of 10 mm = 1 m.

30 8m

60

60 12 m

30

What did you find out about the position of the apex on the baseline if the two basis angles of the triangles are unequal? This information is important when the size of the reactive forces is to be calculated. Tips to bear in mind in order to solve frameworks according to the graph method: 1. Draw the space diagram according to the supplied measurements and/or angles. Comfortable scales for space diagrams could be 1 mm = 1 m, 0 mm = 1 m, etc. 2. Use Bows notation and mark the spaces between the strains, support points and members by adding capitals to the right (clockwise) in the open spaces. These letters identify the forces (members) when the solution is graphically drawn. 3. If the reaction forces are not indicated, they have to be calculated first. Represent the framework as a beam, draw the space diagram to scale and calculate the reaction forces. 4. Draw a force diagram (vector diagram) on a comfortable spot on a page. The forces diagram is drawn to determine the size and nature of the members. Draw a vertical line on a comfortable spot in the answer sheet to draw the force diagram (vector diagram). Measurements may only be done on this vertical line. Preferably start at point A, measure the force either upwards or downwards. Take note of the arrow points of each force. They indicate whether you should measure up or down on the vertical line. Measure all forces at the start on this vertical line. Use lower case letters to indicate joins and members on the force diagram.
Take note If the base angles of the triangle are equal, the the top of the triangle will be in the centre of the base line of the triangle. If the base angles are 60 and 30, then the top will be one quarter of the total length of the basis side.

Comfortable scales for force diagrams could be 1 mm = 10 N, 10 mm = 5 kN, etc.

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Civil Technology
5. Start with the pin joint at A, e.g. ABD. To ensure that you are working with the same pin load and that you are working to the right (clockwise) around the pin joint, an arch with a point for the start and arrow points that move to the right over each join or part can be used. An alternative method is to place your finger or a pencil on the pin joint after which the forces around the pencil or finger can be displayed graphically.

Take note An alternative method is to place your finger or a pencil on the pin joint after which the forces around the pencil or finger can be displayed graphically.

Pin joint

6. Arrows are used on the space diagram to indicate the members as a strut or tie beam. The arrows indicate the direction in which the force works against the pin joint. The nature of the force indicates whether it is a push force (strut) or binding force (tie/pull) in the member that is discharged onto the point load. If the arrow points on a member discharged pressure, then that member is known as a strut. Strut If the arrow points on a member pull on the pins then that part is known as a tie. Tie 7.
Take note No measurement may initially be measured on the oblique or horizontal lines of a space diagram, as the size of these forces are unknown and the reason for the exercise is precisely to determine them.

The size and nature of the forces are usually shown in a table. Measure the distance in the force diagram for each individual part and write it in at the specific part. Multiply this measurement with the scale that was used and indicate the force in N or kN.
Member Measurement Force Nature

It will not be possible to immediately draw some of the members at the pin joint due to not enough information being available. Continue with the other pin joints as the missing members can be filled in at a later stage as the solution progresses. Always work from the right on the pin joint.

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Draw the arrow points for each part on the space diagram. Draw the arrow points as close as possible to the pin joint on each member. Always work with one pin joint and determine the directions in the members surrounding that pin joint. Example 1 A simple triangular roof truss with three vertical loads is shown. 1. Draw the space diagram on a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. 2. Determine the size of the left and right reaction forces. 3. On a scale of 1 mm = 1 N, graphically determine the size and nature of the forces of each of the parts of the truss. Tabulate your answers.
130 N

30 9m

30

Steps to solve frameworks according to the graphic method Step 1: Redraw the space diagram according to the given measurements and/or angles on a scale of 10 mm = 1 m in your exercise book. Measure 90 mm, draw 30 lines and complete the triangle.
130 N

Step 2: Make use of Bows notation and mark the spaces between the forces, members and base by adding capitals in the open spaces from the right hand side (clockwise). These letters indicate the forces and members, e.g. AB, BC, etc. There are three pin joint. Pin joint ABD, BCD and CAD. Draw arches at each pin joint to indicate the direction according to Bows notation.

A D C

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Step 3: Indicate the framework as a beam and draw a space diagram. The distance of the force from the base is in the 4,5 m middle of the beam (refer to the deductions already made). Indicate the force and supports. Calculate the reaction forces at the supports.

Take moments around RL RR 9 = 130 4,5 9RR = 585 Nm RR = 585 Nm 9m = 65 N

Take moments around RR RL 9 = 130 4,5 9RL = 585 Nm RL = 585 Nm 9m = 65 N

Step 4: Draw the force diagram (vector diagram) on your answer sheet. The force diagram is drawn to determine the size and nature of the forces. Draw a vertical line. Place the first point in such a position as to allow the diagram to fit onto the page. Call this point a. Only make use of small letters on the diagram. Measure all vertical forces which will discharge force up or down according to the given scale. Use the scale 1 mm = 1 N and measure 130 mm from point a to determine point b. That indicates AB = 130 N. Force BC works upwards 65 N. Measure 65 mm upwards from b. Mark this point as c. Force CA also works upwards and is 65 N. Measure 65 mm from c to get to point a.

Step 5: Start at pin joint ABD. Work in the direction of the arrow points of the arch. Force AB is already indicated as ab. Member BD is angled at 30. Draw a 30 line from b so that it lies in the same direction as BD in the space diagram. Member DA is angled at 30 in a different direction. Draw a 30 line from point a. Make sure that it is in the same direction as part DA. Point d is where these two lines intersect.

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Step 6: The nature of the forces at the pin joint ABD can be added to the space diagram after this step. To determine the nature of the forces, you have to move around the pin joint in a clockwise manner yet again. Force AB works downwards. Move on the space diagram from a to b with your finger or a pencil. Member BD moves diagonally 30. Move the force diagram from point b upwards to point d. Draw an arrow point on member BD in the space diagram close to pin joint ABD which points upwards to indicate the force in part BD. Member DA is at a 30 angle. Move from point d to point a in the space diagram. The direction is upwards and for that reason an arrowpoint that points upwards is drawn close to pin joint ABD on the DA member.

Step 7: Now work with pin joint BCD. Force BC works upwards at 65 N and is already indicated as bc on the force diagram. Part CD is horizontal in the space diagram. Draw a horizontal line from point c so that it is proportional to part CD in the space diagram until it meets up with point d. Part DB is already indicated on the force diagram.

Step 8: The nature of the forces at pin joint BCD can be indicated after this step. Work clockwise according to the archs arrow points yet again. Force BC works upwards. Move from b to c in the force diagram. Member CD is horizontal. Move the force diagram horizontally from point c to point d. Draw an arrow point on member CD in the space diagram to the lef,t close to pin joint BCD to indicate the force in member CD. Member DB is angled at 30. Move from point d to point b in the force diagram. Because the direction is downwards, an arrow point is drawn close to pin joint BCD on member DA. This arrow point points downwards.

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Step 9: Now work with pin joint CAD. Force CA works at 65 N upwards and is already indicated as ca in the force diagram. Member AD is angled at 30 in the space diagram and is already indicated as ad in the force diagram. Member DC is horizontal and is already indicated on the force diagram.

Step 10: The nature of the forces at pin joint CAD can be indicated on the space diagram after this step. Work clockwise according to the archs arrow points yet again. Force CA works upwards. Move from c to a in the force diagram. Member AD is angled at 30. Move diagonally from point a to point d in the force diagram. Draw an arrow point close to pin joint ADC on part AD in the space diagram to indicate the force in part AD. The arrow point points downwards. Member DC is horizontal. Move from point d to point c in the force diagram. The direction is right, therefore an arrow point is drawn close to pin joint CAD on member DA in the space diagram. This arrow point points right.

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Step 11: Tabulate your answers now. Redraw the following table. Measure the lengths of the members and convert them to determine the size of the force. Consult the space diagram and complete the nature of the forces.

Member AD DB DC

Measurement 130 mm 130 mm 114 mm

Force 130 N 130 N 114 N

Nature Strut Strut Tie

Example 2 The figure below shows a roof truss with three vertical loads. Graphically determine the magnitude and nature of the force affecting every member of the roof truss, using a scale of 5 mm = 1 kN. Tabulate your answers.

20 kN

A B D 60 C 8m 15 kN 5 kN 30

Steps to solving problem using the graphic method

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Civil Technology

Step no: 1.

Description The space diagram is usually provided on a sheet of drawing paper. If it is not provided, it must be drawn. When you draw the space diagram, ensure that the degrees of the angles in the sketches correspond. Use Bows notation and number the spaces. There are three pin joint: ABD, BCD and CAD. Bows notation will be used to draw the vector diagram of each separate pin joint.

Graphic solution

2.

Draw the force diagram (vector diagram). Draw a vertical line on the right-hand side of the drawing paper. (When working with the roof trusses of roofs that are supported along the outsides, the vertical line used to measure the forces is always drawn on the right-hand side of the page.) Measure force AB on this line, using a scale of 5 mm = 1 kN. Make sure that the position of the point allows enough space for you to complete the vector diagram. Illustrate force AB = 20 kN according to scale by measuring 100 mm downward. Mark this point b. Only small letters are used in the vector diagram. Illustrate force BC = 5 kN according to scale by moving 25 mm upwards from b. (Force BC works in an upward direction.) Mark this point c. Illustrate force CA = 15 kN according to scale by measuring 75 mm upwards from point c. (Force CA works in an upward direction.) If this point does not meet a, an error has occurred.

3.

4.

Start at pin joint ABD and work in a clockwise direction. Force AB has already been indicated as ab in the vector diagram. Member BD in the space diagram is 30. Draw a 30 line from point b in the vector diagram so that it lies in the same direction as BD in the space diagram.

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5. Member DA lies 60 in another direction. Draw a 60 line from point a. Make sure that it lies in the same direction as DA in the space diagram. Where these two lines intersect, indicate point d. All the forces at the pin joint have now been considered.

6.

Now choose pin joint BCD. Force BC is vertical and has already been indicated. Member CD is horizontal. Draw a horizontal line from point c in the vector diagram. This line must meet d. Member DB is 30 and has already been drawn. All the forces at pin joint BCD have now been considered. Now focus on pin joint CDA. Force CA lies vertically and has already been indicated. Member AD is 60 and has already been indicated in the vector diagram. Member DC lies horizontally and has already been indicated in the vector diagram. The vector diagram has been completed.

7.

8.

Complete the nature of the forces by working clockwise from pin joint ABD in the space diagram. Follow the direction of the lines in the vector diagram. A to B is a downward force and it has already been indicated. B moves upwards towards D in the vector diagram place an upward-pointing arrow on line BD at B in the space diagram. D moves upwards towards A in the vector diagram place an arrow pointing upwards on line AB at B in the space diagram. Pin joint ABD is now complete. Repeat the steps for the other pin joints. Tabulate your answer in the given table. Member AD BD DC Measurement 130 mm 130 mm 114 mm Size 130 N 130 N 114 N Nature Strut Strut Tie

9.

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Civil Technology
Example 3 The following two diagrams, not drawn according to scale, show a roof truss. Analyse the diagrams and answer the questions that follow.

Scale: 2 mm = 1 N (Hint: 1 kg = 10 N)

Diagram A

Diagram B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Name diagram A. Name diagram B. What is the magnitude of force AB? What is the magnitude of force BC? What is the magnitude of force CD? What is the magnitude of force DE? What is the magnitude of force EA? How many members does the roof truss have? Indicate what the position of the vertical line of the vector diagram would be if the points of support are not both on the outside, as is the case with this roof truss. Why is the vertical line drawn in this position? What is measured on the vertical line? What is the angle of member AF of the structure? What is the angle of member GH of the structure? What is the angle of member BC of the structure? Describe the position of member FG. Describe the position of member HI. Describe the position of member EF. Describe the position of member CI. Draw a table with two columns and state the nature of each member of the roof truss.

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Solution 1. Space diagram 2. Force or vector diagram 3. 15 N 4. 5 N 5. 32,5 N 6. 25 N 7. 12,5 N 8. Nine members 9. Approximately in the middle of the page 10. To ensure that the members that appear on both sides of the vertical line will fit onto the drawing paper. 11. The magnitude of the forces as indicated in the space diagram 12. 60 13. 28 14. 30 15. Vertical 16. Vertical 17. Horizontal 18. Horizontal 19.
Member AF FE AG GF BI IH HG CI DH Nature of force in member Strut Tie Strut Tie Tie Strut Tie Strut Strut

Activity 1
1. The following two diagrams, not drawn to scale, show a roof truss. Analyse the diagrams and answer the questions that follow.

Diagram A

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1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10

Diagram B

Name diagram A. Name diagram B. What is the magnitude of force AB? What is the magnitude of force BC? What is the magnitude of force CD? If the RR = 7 N, what is the magnitude of force DE? If the LR = 14 N, what is the magnitude of force EA? Test whether the roof truss is in equilibrium. How many members does the roof truss have? Indicate what the position of the vertical line of the vector diagram would be if the points of support are both on the outside, as is the case with this roof truss. 1.11 Why is the vertical line drawn in this position? 1.12 What is measured on the vertical line? 1.13 What is the angle of member AF of the structure? 1.14 What is the angle of member BG of the structure? 1.15 What is the angle of member CH of the structure? 1.16 What is the angle of member FG of the structure? 1.17 What is the angle between member GH and the base of the structure? 1.18 What is the angle of member HI of the structure? 1.19 Describe the position of member EI. 1.20 Describe the position of member EF. 1.21 Draw a table with two columns and state the nature of each member of the roof truss. 2. The following two diagrams, not drawn according to scale, show a roof truss. Analyse the diagrams and answer the questions that follow.
18 N 10 N

B A
50

F
30

G
30

H D

G
60

E
22 N 10 N

16 N

Diagram A

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Diagram B 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 Name diagram A. Name diagram B. What is the magnitude of force AB? What is the magnitude of force BC? What is the magnitude of force CD? What is the magnitude of force DE? What is the magnitude of force EA? How many members does the roof truss have? Indicate what the position of the vertical line of the vector diagram would be if the points of support are both on the outside, as is the case with this roof truss. 2.10 Why is the vertical line drawn in this position? 2.11 What is the angle of member AF of the structure? 2.12 What is the angle of member FG of the structure? 2.13 What is the angle of member CH of the structure? 2.14 Describe the position of member BG. 2.15 Describe the position of member DH. 2.16 Describe the position of member EF. 2.17 Test whether the roof truss is in equilibrium. 2.18 Draw a table with two columns and state the nature of each member of the roof truss.

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Activity 2
1. The drawings numbered 1 to 13 show trusses or frameworks in a building. Solve the problems by: 1.1 drawing the space diagrams to a suitable scale 1.2 calculating or deducing the reactive forces, if not supplied 1.3 finding, graphically and to a suitable scale, the size and the nature of the forces in each of the members of the truss or framework. 1.4 Tabulate your answers under these headings:
Member Measurement Size of force Nature of force

9N

70N

45

45

1
20N

3 4

25N 55N

5 6

26,7N

13,3N

8 9

10

11 12 13

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2. The drawings numbered 1 to 12 show trusses or frameworks in a building. Solve the problems by: 2.1 drawing the space diagrams to a suitable scal 2.2 calculating or deducing the reactive forces, if not supplied 2.3 finding, graphically and to a suitable scale, the size and the nature of the forces in each of the members of the truss or framework. 2.4 Tabulate your answers under these headings:
Member Measurement Size of force Nature of force

1 2

3 4
10N

5 6 7

10 11

12

Cantilever frame structures (cantilever beam frame structure)


In this section, the magnitude and nature of cantilever roof trusses, such as pentroofs, and framed structures that are fixed to walls will be determined using the graphic method. In this section: The forces acting upon the frame or structure are all downward forces. The frame is attached to the wall using pin joints. The components are joined using pin joints. Lever reaction is not considered. The vertical line representing the wall is not viewed as a force or member.

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Example 1 The figure below shows a cantilever framework carrying one vertical load. Using the graphical method, determine the magnitude and nature of the forces acting on each of the members of the frame. Use a scale of 1 mm = 1 N for the force diagram, and tabulate your answer.

D 60 5m B 60 N 60

Steps to solve the problem regarding cantilever framework graphically


Step 1. Description The space diagram is usually provided on the drawing paper. If it is not given, it must be drawn. Copy the space diagram, using the given measurements and a scale of 10 mm = 1 m, i.e. measure 50 mm. Now draw the 60 lines and complete the diagram. Use Bows notation and number the spaces. Solution

Space diagram

2.

Draw the force diagram (vector diagram). Draw a vertical line on the left-hand side of the page. (In the case of cantilever frames, the line is always drawn on the left-hand side of the page.) Make sure that the position of the first point allows enough space for you to complete the vector diagram. Label this point a. Only small letters are used in vector diagrams. Use a scale of 1 mm = 1N and measure 60 mm on this line. Measure 60 mm from point a to point b. This represents force AB = 60 N. If there were more forces, they would also have been measured on this vertical line.

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3. Start at pin joint ABD and work in a clockwise direction. Force AB has already been indicated as ab in the vector diagram. Member BD lies in a horizontal position in the space diagram. Draw a horizontal line from b in the same position as BD in the space diagram.

4.

Member DA lies 60 in another direction. Draw a 60 line from point a. Make sure to maintain the same slant (angle) as member DA. Indicate point d where these two lines intersect.

5.

Now select pin joint DBC. Member AD lies horizontally and has already been drawn. Member DB lies horizontally and has already been drawn. Member has an angle of 60. Draw a line at a 60 angle.

6.

Now select pin joint ADC. Member has a 60 angle and has already been drawn. Member DC has a 60 angle and has already been drawn. Member CA lies horizontally and must still be drawn. Draw a horizontal line starting at point b. Where these lines intersect, indicate point C. Vector or force diagram

7.

Complete the nature of the forces by working in a clockwise direction, starting at pin joint ABD of the space diagram. Follow the direction of the lines of the vector diagram. B moves in the direction of D in the vector diagram place an arrow pointing to the right at B in the space diagram. D moves in the direction of A in the space diagram place an arrow pointing upwards at B in the space diagram. Pin joint ABD is now complete. Repeat the steps to calculate the other pin joints.

Space diagram

C D A

60 N

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8. Tabulate your answer by completing the given table. Member DA BD DC AC Measurement 70 mm 36 mm 70 mm 70 mm Size 70 N 36 N 70 N 70 N Nature Tie Strut Strut Tie

Example 2 The following two diagrams, not drawn according to scale, show a cantilever roof truss. Analyse the diagrams and answer the questions that follow. Diagram A Diagram B
e

E
d

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Name diagram A. Name diagram B. What is the magnitude of force AB? What is the magnitude of force BC? How many members does the roof truss have? What does the 45-degree line in the diagram represent? What is the angle of member DE of the structure? What is the angle of member CD of the structure? What is the angle of member AF of the structure? Describe the position of member AE. Describe the position of member EF. Describe the position of member BF. Draw a table with two columns and state the nature of each member of the roof truss.

Solution: 1. Space diagram 2. Force diagram or vector diagram 3. 50 kN 4. 100 kN 5. Six 6. The wall against which the cantilever roof truss is fixed. 7. 60 8. 60 9. 30 10. Horizontal 11. Vertical 12. Horizontal

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13.
Member AF FE EA BF CD DE Nature Tie Strut Tie Strut Strut Tie

Activity 3
1. The following two diagrams, not drawn according to scale, show a cantilever roof truss. Analyse the diagrams and answer the questions that follow. Diagram A
b c a d e

Diagram B
f

1.1 Name diagram A. 1.2 Name diagram B. 1.3 What is the magnitude of force BC? 1.4 What is the magnitude of force CD? 1.5 How many membera does the cantilever roof truss have? 1.6 What does the 45-degree line in the diagram represent? 1.7 What is the angle of member AB of the structure? 1.8 What is the angle between AE and the wall? 1.9 What is the angle between AE and ED? 1.10 Describe the position of member BF. 1.11 Describe the position of member EF. 1.12 Describe the position of member DE. 1.13 An incomplete table is provided. Copy the table and complete it, using the information provided in diagram A and B. Assume that diagram B is drawn on a scale of 1 mm = 2 kN.
Member Measurement Magnitude of force Nature

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2. The following two diagrams, not drawn to scale, show a cantilever roof truss. Analyse the diagrams and answer the questions that follow. Diagram A

Diagram B

2.1 Name diagram A. 2.2 Name diagram B. 2.3 What is the magnitude of force AB? 2.4 How many members does the cantilever roof truss have? 2.5 What does the 45-degree line in the diagram represent? 2.6 What is the angle of member AE of the structure? 2.7 What is the angle of member AD of the structure? 2.8 What is the angle between BC and the wall? 2.9 Describe the position of member BE. 2.10 Describe the position of member CD. 2.11 Describe the position of member DE. 2.12 Table headings are provided. Copy the table and complete it, using the information provided in diagram A and B. Assume that diagram B is drawn on a scale of 5 mm = 1 kN.
Member Measurement Magnitude of force Nature

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Activity 4
1. The drawings numbered 1 to 4 show the line diagrams of cantilever structures. Draw the space diagrams, not to scale, in your answer book in order to indicate the nature of the forces on them. 1.1 Determine graphically the magnitude and nature of the force in each member of the framework. 1.2 Use the following scales for the vector diagrams: 1.3 Drawing 1: Drawing 2: Drawing 3: Drawing 4: Scale 10 mm = 1N Scale 1 mm = 1N Scale 30 mm = 1kN Scale 10 mm = 1N

Tabulate your answer under the following headings:


Measurement Size of force Nature of force

Member

1 2

2. The drawings numbered 1 and 2 show line diagrams of cantilever framed structures. Draw the space diagrams, not to scale, in your exercise book in order to indicate the nature of the forces on them. 2.1 Determine graphically the magnitude and nature of the force in each member of the framework. 2.2 Use the following scale to draw the vector diagrams: Drawing 1: 1 mm = 1 N Drawing 2: 10 mm = 1 kN 2.3 Tabulate your answers under the following headings:
Member Measurement Size of force Nature of force

1 2

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Beams that carry point loads and evenly distributed loads


Introduction
Beams can be made of wood, concrete and iron and they are commonly used in the construction industry. In this course, we are going to focus only on horizontal beams that are subject to vertical forces and their influence. These vertical forces that act upon a beam must be considered when beams are designed, because they will affect the shear forces and bending moments of a beam. Grades 10 and 11 By now you should be familiar with the terminology and you should have prior knowledge pertaining to beams, since this work was covered in Grades 10 and 11. The following was covered in Grade 10: The reactive forces of simply supported beams with a maximum of two point loads. In Grade 11, the following was introduced: Calculating the reactive forces of simply supported beams carrying a maximum of three point loads Calculating shear forces at point loads Calculating bending moments at point loads Drawing shear force and bending moment diagrams of point loads Calculating the reactive forces of a simply supported beam carrying a maximum of three point loads and one uniformly distributed load (UDL) Calculating shear forces at point loads and of uniformly distributed loads Calculating bending moments at point loads and of uniformly distributed loads Drawing shear force and bending moment diagrams of beams that carry one uniformly distributed load and point loads. In Grade 12, the following Grade 11 work will be revised: Calculating the shear forces of a simply supported beam carrying a maximum of three point loads and one uniformly distributed load (UDL) Calculating shear forces at point loads and of uniformly distributed loads Calculating bending moments at point loads and of uniformly distributed loads Drawing shear force and bending moment diagrams of beams carrying one uniformly distributed load and point loads. What is a point load? This is the load that affects a specific point or small area of a beam. What is a uniformly distributed load (UDL)? It is a load that is evenly/uniformly applied along the full length or across a section of a beam. Uniformly distributed loads are always indicated numerically: 30 N/m across 4 m. We read this as 30 N per metre across a distance of 4 m. It means that each metre carries a load of 30 N. Since the 30 N stretches along a distance of 4 m, the total weight of the uniformly distributed load will be equal to: 30 N/m 4 m = 120 N (the metres (m) cancel each other, hence we are left with only N). For the purpose of this course, the uniformly distributed load will always be converted to a point load. This converted point load is indicated by placing a broken line and arrowhead at the midpoint of the uniformly distributed load.

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Important aspects to bear in mind when working with beams


Moments
Formula for calculating moments Moment = force distance Distance always refers to the distance from the force to the point of support. When moments at the points of support are calculated, the magnitude/size of the reactive forces is determined. If moments are taken at a point of support, e.g. A of LR, the: Moments to the left (anticlockwise). The abbreviations MTL will be used for moments to the left (anticlockwise), and MTR for moments to the right. Moments to the left act in the opposite direction to the rotation of the hands of a clock, i.e. anticlockwise. Moments to the right act in the same direction as the rotating hands of a clock, i.e. clockwise.

Shear forces

Shear forces are usually calculated at specific sections on the beam. In the case of uniformly distributed loads, the shear force should be calculated at each end of the load. Calculating the shear force at the midpoint of the load, for example, would serve no purpose since it will be indicated as an inclined line on the shear force diagram. Shear force at point A will be abbreviated as SFa. Formula for calculating shear force: Shear force = Reactive force point load(s) If there is no point load acting upon the left reactive force, the shear force on the left-hand side of the beam will always have the same magnitude as the reactive force. Shear force diagrams of point loads are always stepped. The shear force of a uniformly distributed load is indicated by an inclined line across the length of the UDL, hence calculating the shear force at intermediate points along a uniformly distributed load would serve no purpose.

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Shear force should preferably be calculated from the left reactive force (left point of support). Uniformly distributed loads are not converted to a point load when calculating shear forces. This conversion only applies when calculating reactive forces and bending moments. Always place a sheet of paper on the point load from which the shear force is to be calculated to avoid being confused by point loads that are not relevant. When the shear force diagram intersects with the baseline, the size/magnitude of the bending moment of the beam is either at its maximum or minimum.

Bending moments
Bending moments are also calculated at a section of a beam. In the case of a uniformly distributed load, the bending moment must also be calculated at the converted point load. The bending moment at A will be abbreviated as BMa. Formula for calculating bending moments: Bending moment = Reactive moment moment from point load to specific section Reactive moment = Reactive force distance to point load where bending moment is to be calculated. Moment at point load = Point load(s) distance to point load where bending moment is to be calculated. Bending moments can be calculated in the same calculations from the left reactive force (left point of support) and right reactive force (right point of support). If it forms part of the calculations working from the right reactive force, fewer operations need to be done. In order to calculate bending moments, the uniformly distributed load must be converted to a point load. If a beam is supported at its ends, the bending moments at the left reactive point (LR) and right reactive point (RR) will always be zero. Always place a sheet of paper on the point load of which the bending moments must be calculated so as not to be confused by the point loads which you do not have to consider. If the bending moment of a converted point load has to be calculated, a NEW point load must be inserted before or after the first converted point load. The bending moment of a converted point load: Second converted point load the distance from the first distributed load The second converted point load lies in the middle of the first converted point load. Some problems do not require the calculation of the bending moment at a section between the initial point and end point of the distributed load. This type of problem is easier, but does not always provide a perfect curve for the distributed load since there are too few points to indicate where the curve should be.

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Revision of work covering beams carrying point loads and a uniformly distributed load Example 1 Theoretical knowledge Figure 1 shows a simply supported beam with two point loads and a uniformly distributed load. Analyse the illustration and answer the questions that follow.

Figure 7.2: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. What is the diagram used in Figure 7.2 called? Write down the uniformly distributed load as a converted point load. How far is the converted point load from A? How far is the converted point load from G? What is the magnitude/size of the point load at E? What is magnitude/size of the point load at F? What is the length of the beam? What is the weight of the uniformly distributed load at B? What is the weight of the uniformly distributed load at D? What is the force exerted at A called? What is the force exerted at G called? In which direction do the forces at A and G work? In which direction do the forces at C, E and F work? If the magnitude of the force at A is 49 kN, what is the magnitude of SFa? What is the magnitude of the force at G if A is 49 kN? What is the magnitude of SFg? What would be an appropriate scale to draw this figure? What is the magnitude of BMa? What is the magnitude of BMg?

Solution 1. Space diagram 2. 60 kN 3. 2,5 m 4. 7,5 m 5. 5 kN 6. 10 kN 7. 10 m 8. 0 kN 9. 60 kN 10. Left reactive force 11. Right reactive force 12. Upwards

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13. Downwards 14. 49 kN 15. 26 kN 16. 0 kN 17. Scale of 10 mm = 1 m 18. BMa = 0 kN 19. BMg = 0 kN Calculating reactive forces at points of support Example 2 The diagram below shows a beam carrying a uniformly distributed load.

1. 2. 3.

Change the distributed load to a point load. Draw the space diagram illustrating the uniformly distributed load as a point load. Calculate the reactive forces at the points of support.

Solution 1. Distributed load is 2 N/m across 12 m. Point load is 2 N/m 12 m = 24 N 2.

3. Take moments at LR MTL RR 20 20 RR 20 RR RR = = = = = = MTR (24 N 6 m) + (10 N 16 m) + ( 7 N 18 m) 144 Nm + 160 Nm + 126 Nm 430 Nm 430 Nm 20 m 21,5 N

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Take moments at RR MTL RR 20 20 RR 20 RR RR = = = = = = Test: Downward forces 24 N +10 N + 7 N 41 N = = = Upward forces 21,5 N + 19,5 N 41 N MTR (7 N 2 m) + (10 N 4 m) + (24 N 14 m) 14 Nm + 40 Nm + 336 Nm 390 Nm 390 Nm 20 m 19,5 N

Shear force and bending moment diagrams of a uniformly distributed load with two point loads In this example, a downward and an upward force are affecting the same point. Example 1 A simply supported beam spanning 10 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 3 N/m across 5 metres from the left-end point of support. The beam also carries a point load of 5 N 5 metres from the right-end point of support, and a point load of 10 N at the right point of support. 1.1 Calculate the shear forces at A, C and D. 1.2 Calculate the bending moments at A, B, C and D. 1.3 Draw the space diagram using a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. 1.4 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam using a scale of 1 mm = 1 N. 1.5 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam using a scale of 1 mm = 2 Nm.

1.1 Calculate shear forces SFa (0 m from A) = Left reactive force = 13,75 N SFc (5 m from A) = Left reactive force distributed load AC (distributed load) = 13,75 N 15 N = 1,25 N SFc (5 m from A) = Left reactive force distributed AC point load C (point load) = 13,75 N 15 N 5 N or 1,25 5 N = 6,25 N

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To calculate the shear force at D: There are two forces working in opposite directions at point D, a downward force and a reactive force. In this case, the magnitude of the resultant force can always be calculated first, or it can be omitted. In this example, the downward force at point D is 10 N and the reactive force 16,25 N. The magnitude of the resultant force is: 16,25 N 10 N = 6,25 N upwards SFd OR SFd = 13,75 15 5 + 5,25 N or = 0 = 13,75 15 5 10 N + 16,25 N =0 = 6,25 + 6,25 =0 or 6,25 -10 N + 16,25

Any one of the abovementioned methods is correct. The resultant magnitude of a force can only be determined in the case of shear forces, not where bending moments are concerned. 1.2 Calculate the bending moments BMa (0 m from A) = 0 BMb (2,5 m from A) BMc (5 m from A) Or BMc (5 m from D) = Left reactive moment moment of distributed load AB = (13,75 2,5) (7,5 1,25) Nm = 34,375 9,375 Nm = 25 Nm = Left reactive moment moment of point load AC = (13,75 5) (15 2,5) Nm = 68,75 37,5 Nm = 31,25 Nm = (16,25 5) (10 5) Nm = 81,25 50 Nm = 31,25 Nm

In the second case, the bending moment was calculated by working from the right point of support. This calculation is much simpler. BMd (0 m from D) =0

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Maximum bending moment where shear force diagram crosses baseline

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Activity 5
1. The diagram shows a simply supported beam with one point load and a uniformly distributed load. Analyse the drawing and answer the questions that follow.

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32

What is the diagram above called? Write the uniformly distributed load as a converted point load. How far is the converted point load from LR? How far is the converted point load from RR? What is the magnitude of the point load at B? How far is point load B from the RR? What is the length of the beam? What is the weight of the uniformly distributed load at B? What is the weight of the uniformly distributed load at D? What is the force at A called? What is the force at E called? In which direction do the forces at A and E work? In which direction does force B work? If the magnitude of the force at A is 9 N, what is the magnitude of SFa? What is the magnitude of the force at E? What is the magnitude of SFe? What is a suitable scale to use when drawing the diagram illustrated here? What is the magnitude of BMa? What is the magnitude of BMe? Prove that LR = 9 N by calculating the moments. Determine the magnitude of the RR by calculating the moments. Test whether the beam is in equilibrium. Prove that SFb = 1 N. Prove that SFd = 13 N. Prove that SFe = 0 N. Prove that BMa = 0 Nm. Prove that BMb = 54 Nm. Prove that BMc = 46 Nm. Prove that BMd = 26 Nm. On a sheet of drawing-paper, sketch the space diagram using a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. Project and sketch the shear force diagram using a scale of 5 mm = 1 N. Project and sketch the bending moment diagram using a scale of 1 mm = 1 Nm.

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2. The diagram shows a simply supported beam carrying two point loads and a uniformly distributed load. Analyse the drawing and answer the questions that follow.

What is the diagram above called? Write the uniformly distributed load as a converted point load. How far is the converted point load from A? How far is the converted point load from F? What is the magnitude of the point load at D? What is the magnitude of the point load at E? How far is point load D from the RR? How far is point load E from the LR? What is the length of the beam? What would be an appropriate scale to use when drawing the diagram illustrated above? 2.11 What is the weight of the uniformly distributed load at A? 2.12 What is the weight of the uniformly distributed load at C? 2.13 What is the force exerted at A called? 2.14 What is the force exerted at F called? 2.15 In which direction do forces A and F work? 2.16 In which direction does force D work? 2.17 If the magnitude of the force at A is 50 N, what is the magnitude of SFa? 2.18 What is the magnitude of the force at E? 2.19 What is the magnitude of SFe? 2.20 What is the magnitude of BMa? 2.21 What is the magnitude of BMf? 2.22 Prove that LR = 50 N by calculating the moments. 2.23 Determine the magnitude of the RR by calculating the moments. 2.24 Test whether the beam is in equilibrium. 2.25 Prove that SFc = 10 N. 2.26 Prove that SFd = 30 N. 2.27 Prove that SFe = 40 N. 2.28 Prove that BMa = 0 Nm. 2.29 Prove that BMb = 100 Nm. 2.30 Prove that BMc = 150 Nm. 2.31 Prove that BMd = 220 Nm. 2.32 Prove that BMe = 40 Nm. 2.33 On a sheet of drawing-paper, draw the space diagram using a scale of 5 mm = 1 m. 2.34 Project and draw the shear force diagram using a scale of 1 mm = 1 N. 2.35 Project and draw the bending moment diagram using a scale of 1 mm = 2 Nm. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10

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3. A beam with a length of 10 m is supported by two props. The beam carries a uniformly distributed load of 4 N/m across its full length. 3.1 Calculate the reactive forces at the points of support. 3.2 Calculate the shear forces at A and D. 3.3 Calculate the bending moments at A, B and D. 3.4 Draw the space diagram using a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. 3.5 Draw the shear force diagram using a scale of 2 mm = 1 N. 3.6 Draw the bending moment diagram using a scale of 1 mm = 1 Nm.

4. A beam is 15 m long and is supported by two props, one at the left-hand end and the other at the right-hand end. The beam carries a uniformly distributed load of 4 N/m along 10 m from the left-hand end. It also carries a point load of 10 N, 2 m from the right-hand end. 4.1 Calculate the reactive forces at the points of support. 4.2 Calculate the shear forces at A, C, D and E. 4.3 Calculate the bending moments at A, B, C, D and E. 4.4 Draw the space diagram using a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. 4.5 Draw the shear force diagram using a scale of 1 mm = 1 N. 4.6 Draw the bending moment diagram using a scale of 2 mm = 1 Nm.

5. A beam is 7 m long and is supported by two props. The beam carries a uniformly distributed load of 5 N/m along 6 metres from the right point of support. It also carries the following point loads: 13 N, 1 m from the left point of support, and 5 N at the right point of support. 5.1 Calculate the reactive forces at the points of support. 5.2 Calculate the shear forces at A, C and B. 5.3 Calculate the bending moments at A, C, D and B. 5.4 Draw the space diagram using a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. 5.5 Draw the shear force diagram using a scale of 1 mm = 1 N. 5.6 Draw the bending moment diagram using a scale of 2 mm = 1 Nm.

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6. A simply supported beam is 7 m long. The beam carries a uniformly distributed load of 40 N/m along 3 m, 1 m from the left point of support. It also carries the following point loads: 20 N, 2 m from the left point of support, and 10 N, 4 m from the left point of support. 6.1 Calculate the reactive forces at the points of support. 6.2 Calculate the shear forces at A, B, C, D, F and G. 6.3 Calculate the bending moments at A, B, C, D, E, F and G. 6.4 Draw the space diagram using a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. 6.5 Draw the shear force diagram using a scale of 2 mm = 1 N. 6.6 Draw the bending moment diagram using a scale of 2 mm = 1 Nm.

7. A simply supported beam spanning 10 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 3 N/m along 5 m from the right point of support. The beam also carries the following point loads: 10 kN at the left point of support, 8 kN, 2,5 m from the left point of support, and 5 kN, 5 m from the right point of support. 7.1 Calculate the magnitude of the RR. 7.2 Calculate the magnitude of the LR. 7.3 Calculate the shear forces at by A, B, C and E. 7.4 Calculate the bending moments at A, B, C, D and E. 7.5 Draw the space diagram using a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. 7.6 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam using a scale of 2 mm = 1 kN. 7.7 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam using a scale of 1 mm = 2 kNm.

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8. A simply supported beam spanning 10 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 10 N/m along 8 m, from the right point of support. It also carries the following point loads: 10 N at the left point of support, and 5 N, 2 m from the left point of support. 8.1 Calculate the magnitude of the reactive forces at the points of support. 8.2 Calculate the shear forces at A, C, and B. 8.3 Calculate the bending moments at A, C, D and G. 8.4 Draw the space diagram using a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. 8.5 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam using a scale of 1 mm = 1 N. 8.6 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam using a scale of 1 mm = 2 Nm.

9. A simply supported beam spans 10000 mm and carries a uniformly distributed load of 6 N/m along 3000 mm from the left point of support. It also carries a point load of 14 N, 6 000 mm from the left point of support. 9.1 Calculate the magnitude of the reactive forces at the points of support. 9.2 Calculate the shear forces at A, C, D and E. 9.3 Calculate the bending moments at A, B, C, D and E. 9.4 Draw the space diagram using a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. 9.5 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam using a scale of 1 mm = 1 N. 9.6 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam using a scale of 1 mm = 2 Nm.

10. A simply supported beam spanning 15 m carries a uniformly distributed load measuring 5 kN/m across 6 m, 3 m from the left point of support. The beam also carries the following point loads: 7 kN, 3 m from the left point of support; 7 kN, 9 m from the left point of support, and 8 kN, 3 m from the right point of support. 10.1 Calculate the magnitude of the RR. 10.2 Calculate the magnitude of the LR. 10.3 Calculate the shear forces at points A, B, D, E and F. 10.4 Calculate the bending moments at points A, B, C, D, E and F. 10.5 Draw the space diagram, using a scale of 5 mm = 1m. 10.6 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam, using a scale of 1 mm = 1 kN.

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10.7 Draw the bending moment diagram, using a scale of 1 mm = 2 kNm.

11. A simply supported beam spanning 22 m carries a uniformly distributed load measuring 3 N/m across 4 m from the right point of support. The beam also carries the following point loads: 12 N, 2 m from the left point of support; 5 N, 10 m from the left point of support, and 7 N, 4 m from the right point of support. 11.1 Calculate the magnitude of the RR. 11.2 Calculate the magnitude of the LR. 11.3 Calculate the shear forces at points A, B, C, D and F. 11.4 Calculate the bending moments at points A, B, C, D, E and F. 11.5 Draw the space diagram, using a scale of 5 mm = 1 m. 11.6 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam, using a scale of 2 mm = 1 N. 11.7 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam, using a scale of 1 mm = 1 Nm.

12. A simply supported beam spanning 12 m carries a uniformly distributed load measuring 15 kN/m across 4 m, 2 m from the left point of support. The beam also carries the following point loads: 20 kN at the left point of support; 15 kN, 8 m from the left point of support, and 30 kN, 2 m from the right point of support. 12.1 Calculate the magnitude of the RR. 12.2 Calculate the magnitude of the LR. 12.3 Calculate the shear forces at points A, B, D, E, F and G. 12.4 Calculate the bending moments at points A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. 12.5 Draw the space diagram, using a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. 12.6 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam, using a scale of 1 mm = 2 kN. 12.7 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam, using a scale of 1 mm = 2 kNm.

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13. A simply supported beam spanning 15 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 5 N/m across 4 m, 2 m from the right point of support. The beam also carries the following point loads: 8 N, 3 m from the left point of support; 4 N, 9 m from the left point of support, and 5 N, 2 m from the right point of support. 13.1 Calculate the magnitude of the RR. 13.2 Calculate the magnitude of the LR. 13.3 Calculate the sheaf forces at points A, B, C, E and F. 13.4 Calculate the bending moments at points A, B, C, D, E and F. 13.5 Draw the space diagram, using a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. 13.6 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam, using a scale of 2 mm = 1 N. 13.7 Draw the bending moments diagram of the beam, using a scale of 1 mm = 2 Nm.

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Centroids
Introduction
The curriculum for Civil Technology prescribes the calculation of centres of gravity of objects with two dimensions: length and width. The centre of gravity of an object of which two measurements are known is called a centroid. A figure that has only two measurements and a thickness so negligible that it can be ignored, is called a lamina. In this course, only square, rectangular and triangular laminas will be studied. In Grade 11, the centroids of only simple laminas were calculated. In Grade 12, the position of the centroids of irregular shapes consisting of a combination of laminas will be determined. Important abbreviations associated with centroids
Abbreviations Symbol c l Description Centroid Length Symbol h b Description Height Breadth Symbol s A Description Side Area or surface area

Formulae used to calculate the position of a centroid The formulae provided below are used in the calculation of centroids. These formulae will be provided in any papers and tests involving centroids. Even if you know the formulae off by heart, you are advised to use the given formula sheet to ensure that you do not use the wrong formula.
Area of: Formula in words Side side Length breadth base height base height Formula in symbols ss lb b h b h Formula to determine the position of centroids x-axis s 2 l 2 b 3 b 2 y-axis s 2 b 2 h 3 h 3

Square Rectangle Right-angled triangle Equilateral triangle OR pyramid

Please note: In this course other letters will also be used to indicate the axes, e.g. instead of referring to the x-axis and y-axis, reference will be made to, e.g. line AA, line BB, line AB, line CD, etc. The following formula for calculating the position of a centroid of a lamina will be used in this text book:

Formula to determine the centroid

(A1 d) (A2 d) (A3 d) Position of c = Total area

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Sketches of laminas and formulae to calculate centroids that may be included in your tests
The following table indicates the positions of centroids of the laminas that will be covered in this course.
Geometrical shape Formula in words Formula in words Formula to determine the position of centroids x-axis Square Side side ss s 2 y-axis s 2

Rectangle

Length breadth

lb

l 2

b 2

Right-angled triangle

base height

b h

b 3

h 3

Right-angled triangle

base height

b h

b 3

h 3

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Equilateral triangle base height b h b 2 h 3

Equilateral triangle OR pyramid

base height

b h

b 2

h 3

To calculate the centroids of a combination of regular laminas separately from an axis (line)
Example 1 The figure below shows a combination of two laminas. Calculate and write down only the positions of the centroid of sections 1 and 2 from line BB and line AA.

Solution c of square (section 1) from line BB is 36 mm. c of square (section 1) from line AA is 36 mm. c of square (section 2) from line BB is 108 mm. c of square (section 2) from line AA is 36 mm.

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Example 2 The figure below shows a combination of two laminas. Calculate and write down only the positions of the centroid of sections 1 and 2 from line BB and line AA.

Solution c of square (section 1) from line BB is 36 mm. c of square (section 1) from line AA is 36 mm. c of square (section 2) from line BB is 36 mm. c of square (section 2) from line AA is 108 mm. Example 3 The figure below shows a combination of two laminas. Calculate and write down only the positions of the centroid of sections 1 and 2 from line BB and line AA.

Solution c of rectangle (section 1) from line BB is 50 mm. c of rectangle (section 1) from line AA is 36 mm. c of rectangle (section 2) from line BB is 140 mm. c of rectangle (section 2) from line AA is 36 mm.

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Example 4 The figure below shows a combination of two laminas. Calculate and write down only the positions of the centroid of sections 1 and 2 from line DD and line CC.

Solution c of triangle (section 1) from line DD is 25 mm. c of triangle (section 1) from line CC is 25 mm. c of triangle (section 2) from line DD is 85 mm. c of triangle (section 2) from line CC is 25 mm. Example 5 The figure below shows a combination of two laminas. Calculate and write down only the positions of the centroid of sections 1 and 2 from line MN and line KL.

Solution c of square from line MN is 45 mm. c of square from line KL is 45 mm. c of pyramid from line MN is 140 mm. c of pyramid from line KL is 45 mm.

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Example 6 The figure below shows a combination of three laminas. Calculate and write down the position of the centroid of the individual lamina from line CD and line AB.

Solution c of square (section 1) from line CD is 30 mm. c of square (section 1) from line AB is 30 mm. c of rectangle (section 2) from line CD is 110 mm. c of rectangle (section 2) from line A-B is 30 mm. c of triangle (section 3) from line CD is 190 mm. c of triangle (section 3) from line AB is 30 mm.

Activity 6
To calculate the centroids of a combination of regular laminas separately from an axis (line) 1. The figure below shows a combination of two laminas. Calculate and write down only the positions of the centroid of sections 1 and 2 from line BB and line AA.

2. The figure below shows a combination of two laminas. Calculate and write down only the positions of the centroid of sections 1 and 2 from line BB and line AA.

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3. The figure below shows a combination of two laminas. Calculate and write down only the positions of the centroid of sections 1 and 2 from line BB and line AA.

4. The figure below shows a combination of two laminas. Calculate and write down only the positions of the centroid of sections 1 and 2 from line BB and line AA.

95

5. The figure below shows a combination of two laminas. Calculate and write down only the positions of the centroid of sections 1 and 2 from line DD and line CC.

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6. The figure below shows a combination of two laminas. Calculate and write down only the positions of the centroid of each separate lamina from line MN and line KL.

7. The figure below shows a combination of two laminas. Calculate and write down only the positions of the centroid of each separate lamina from line CD and line AB.

To calculate the centroids of a combination of irregular laminas separately from an axis (line)
Example 1 The figure below shows a combination of two laminas. 1. Calculate and write down only the position of the centroid of each lamina from line RS and line PQ. 2. Calculate and write down the area of each lamina. 3. Calculate and write down the total area of the combined laminas.

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Solution 1. c of square from line RS is 50 mm. c of square from line PQ is 50 mm. c of triangle from line RS is 200 mm. c of triangle from line PQ is 30 mm. 2. Area of square = 10000 mm2 Area of triangle = 13500 mm2 3. Total area = 23500 mm2 Example 2 The figure below shows a combination of two laminas. 1. Calculate and write down only the position of the centroid of each lamina from line BB and line AA. 2. Calculate and write down the area of each lamina. 3. Calculate and write down the total area of the combined laminas.

Solution 1. c of rectangle (section 1) from line BB is 22,5 mm. c of rectangle (section 1) from line AA is 45 mm. c of triangle (section 2) from line BB is 30 mm. c of triangle (section 2) from line AA is 115 mm.

2. Area of square = 4 050 mm2 Area of triangle = 1687,5 mm2 3. Total area = 5737,5 mm2

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Activity 7
To calculate the centroid of a combination of regular laminas separately from an axis (line) 1. The figure below shows a combination of two laminas. 1.1 Calculate and write down only the position of the centroid of each lamina from line RS and line PQ. 1.2 Calculate and write down the area of each lamina. 1.3 Calculate and write down the total area of the combined laminas.

2. The figure below shows a combination of two laminas. 2.1 Calculate and write down only the position of the centroid of each lamina from line BB and line AA. 2.2 Calculate and write down the area of each lamina. 2.3 Calculate and write down the total area of the combined laminas.

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3. The figure below shows a combination of three laminas. 3.1 Calculate and write down only the position of the centroid of each lamina from line BB and line AA. 3.2 Calculate and write down the area of each lamina. 3.3 Calculate and write down the total area of the combined laminas.

Calculation of the position of the centroids of a combination of irregular laminas


In order to determine the position of the centroid, you must know how to: calculate the area of a square, rectangle and triangles calculate the total area of combined laminas determine the position of the centroid of the abovementioned geometrical shapes use the abovementioned values in a formula use your calculator to simplify the computations of the formula.

Steps to calculate the position of the centroid of a combination of laminas

1. Sketch the lamina in your exercisebook, or on the answer sheet when writing a test or examination. You will find this extremely helpful when you are revising the work. 2. Divide the body (shape/figure) into separate sections. 3. Label these sections 1, 2, etc. When you start doing the calculations, you can simply refer to these numbers. The individual laminas may be labelled using geometrical terms instead of numbers, e.g. square, rectangle, etc. A1 would refer to the area of section 1, etc. 4. Calculate the area of each section separately. 5. Calculate the total area of the lamina. 6. Determine the position (distance) of each centroid separately. 7. Use the formula and replace the letters with numbers.

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Formula to determine the position of the centroid


Position of c Where: = c = A1 A2 = A3 = = d = (A1 d) (A2 d) (A3 d) Total area

the abbreviation of centroid area of first geometrical lamina area of second geometrical lamina area of third geometrical lamina the distance between each individual laminas centroid and the given axis

Total area without a hole: When two or more laminas are combined, the separate areas are added. Total area with a hole: In the case of a hole, the separate areas are subtracted. Example 1 The figure below shows a composite object with a uniform thickness. 1. Calculate the total area of the figure. 2. Write down the position of the centroid of each section from the axes MN and KL. 3. Calculate the position of the centroid from axis MN. 4. Calculate the position of the centroid from axis KL. Round off your answer to the nearest two decimals.

Solution 1. Area of rectangle (1) = = = Length breadth 120 mm 90 mm 10 800 mm

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Area of triangle (2) = = = Total area = = base height 90 mm 150 mm 6 750 mm 10 800 mm + 6 750 mm 17550 mm2

2. Section 1: Centroid of line MN Section 1: Centroid of line KL Section 2: Centroid of line MN Section 2: Centroid of line KL = = = = 45 mm 60 mm 140 mm 45 mm

3. = (A1 d) + (A2 d) Total area (10 800 45) + (6 750 140) mm3 = 17 550 mm2 mm3 = 486 000 + 945 000 2 17 550 mm 1 431 000 mm3 = 17 550 mm2 c from MN 4. 45) mm = (10 800 60) + (6 750 17 550 mm2 mm3 = 648 000 + 303 750 17 550 mm2 3 = 951 750 mm 2 17 550 mm c from KL = 54,23 mm
3

= 81,54 mm

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Example 2 The figure below shows a shaped lamina. Calculate the position of the centroid from the axes X and Y. Round off your answer to two decimals.

Solution Calculation of the position of a centroid General steps 1. Divide the lamina into separate, geometrical figures if this has not yet been done. 2. Refer to the formulae sheet and use the formulae to determine the areas and the position of the centroids of the individual geometrical figures. Steps to calculate the position of a centroid
Step 1. Description Sketch the lamina in your workbook, or on the answer sheet when writing a test or exam. You will find this extremely helpful when you are revising the work. Answer/operations

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2. 3. Refer to the formulae sheet and use the formulae to determine the area and position of the centroid from each separate geometrical figure. Write down the formula to calculate c. changes to (minus) because there is a hole in the lamina. Use a calculator to calculate the area of section one. (A1 is the rectangle. Write the value in the place of A1.) Use a calculator to calculate the area of section two. (A2 is the triangle. Write the value in the place of A2.) Calculate the total area of the two geometrical figures. Determine the distance of c of section one (the rectangle) from the x-axis, and write this value in the place of d in the formula. Determine the distance of c of section two (the triangle) from the x-axis, and write this value in the place of d in the formula. Multiply the numbers in brackets. Calculate the computations above the line first. Divide the numbers to arrive at an answer, and round off the answer to two decimals. Add the unit, which is usually mm. Write down the formula to calculate c. changes to (minus) because there is a hole in the lamina. Write down the abovementioned areas in the formula. Determine the distance of c of section two (the rectangle) from the y-axis and write this value in the place of d in the formula. Determine the distance of c of section two (the triangle) from the y-axis and write this value in the place of d in the formula. Multiply the numbers in brackets. Do the computations above the line. Divide the numbers to arrive at an answer, and round off the answer to two decimals. Add the unit, which is usually mm. c from Y (2 400 30) (450 d) = 1 950 c from X = (A1 d) (A2 d) Total area

4.

(2 400 d) (450 d) = 1 950

5.

6. 7.

8.

(2 400 30) (450 10) mm3 = 1 950 mm2

9. 10.

72 000 4 500 mm3 = 1 950 mm2 67 500 mm3 = 1 950 mm2

11.

= 34,62 mm

12.

= (A1 d) (A2 d) Total area

13. 14.

(2 400 d) (450 d) = 1 950 (2 400 20) (450 d) = 1 950

15.

(2 400 20) (450 25) mm3 = 1 950 mm2

16. 17. 18.

48 00 11 250 mm3 = 1 950 mm2 36 750 mm3 = 1 950 mm2 = 18,85 mm

c of lamina (18,85 mm; 34,62 mm)

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Example 3 The figure below shows a shaped lamina. Analyse the lamina and answer the questions that follow.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Calculate and write down the area of the square. Calculate and write down the area of the triangle. Calculate and write down the total area of the lamina. Write down the centroid of the square from AA. Write down the centroid of the triangle from AA. Use the above information and the formula given below, and calculate the position of the centroid from AA. Round off your answer to two decimals.

Position of c = (A1 d) + (A2 d) Total area Solution: 1. 4900 mm2 2. 288 mm2 3. 4612 mm2 4. 35 mm 5. 62 mm 6. (A1 d) (A2 d) c from AA = Total area (4 900 35) (228 62) mm3 = 4 612 mm2 171 500 + 17 856 mm3 = 4 612 mm2 153 644 mm3 = 4 612 mm2 = 33,31 mm

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Activity 8
1. The figure below shows a shaped lamina. Analyse the lamina and answer the questions that follow.

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

Calculate and write down the area of the rectangle. Calculate and write down the area of the triangle. Calculate and write down the total area of the lamina. Write down the centroid of the rectangle from XX. Write down the centroid of the rectangle from YY. Write down the centroid of the triangle from XX. Write down the centroid of the triangle from YY. Use the above information and the formula and calculate the position of the centroid from XX and YY. Round off your answer to two decimals.

2. The figure below shows a shaped lamina of uniform thickness. Calculate the centroid of the lamina from line AA. Round off your answer to two decimals.

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3. The figure below shows a shaped lamina of uniform thickness. Calculate the centroid of the lamina from the axes X and Y. Round off your answer to two decimals.

4. The figure below shows a shaped lamina of uniform thickness. Calculate the centroid of the lamina from the axes X and Y. All measurements are in metres. Round off your answer to two decimals.

5. The figure below shows a shaped lamina of uniform thickness. Calculate the centroid of the lamina from AA. Round off your answer to two decimals.

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6. The figure below shows a shaped lamina of uniform thickness. Calculate the centroid of the lamina from AA and BB. Round off your answer to two decimals.

7. The figure below shows a shaped lamina of uniform thickness. Calculate the centroid of the lamina from AA and BB. Round off your answer to two decimals.

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8. The figure below shows a shaped lamina of uniform thickness. Calculate the centroid of the lamina from the axes X and Y. All measurements are in metre. Round off your answer to two decimals.

9. Calculate the position of the centroid of this composite object from line MN and line KL.

10. Calculate the position of the centroid of this composite object from line RS and line PQ.

11. Calculate the position of the centroid of this composite object from line CD and line AB.

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12. The figure below shows a shaped lamina of uniform thickness. Calculate the centroid of the lamina from A-A and B-B. Round off your answers to two decimals.

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Chapter 7

Construction

Piling Formwork Drywalls Cavity walls Roofs Arches

Concrete

Reinforcement Struts and scaffolding

Stonework Woodworking

Beam filling Windows Finishers

Waterproofing

Civil Techology

The construction industry


Houses, factories, offices, schools, roads and bridges are only some of the products of the construction industry. This industrys activities include the building of new structures, including site preparation, as well as additions and modifications to existing ones. Other activities in the industry include maintenance, repairs and improvements on these structures. Construction usually is done or coordinated by general contractors who specialise in one type of construction, such as residential or commercial buildings. They take full responsibility for the complete job, except for specified portions of the work that may be omitted from the general contract. Although general contractors may do a portion of the work with their own crews, they often sub-contract most of the work to heavy construction or speciality trade contractors. Speciality trade contractors usually do the work of only one trade, such as painting, carpentry or electrical work, or of two or more closely related trades, such as plumbing and heating. Beyond fitting their work to that of the other trades, speciality trade contractors have no responsibility for the structure as a whole. They obtain orders for their work from general contractors, architects or property owners. Repair work is almost always done on direct order from owners, occupants, architects or rental agents. In this chapter we will look in more detail at some of the civil trades in the construction industry.

Foundation piles
Purpose
A pile is a component of the foundation that helps to transfer the weight of a building to ground that is firmer or more stable. This type of foundation is used when the soil cannot support ordinary foundations. Foundation piles distribute the load across more stable ground, whether they are used underground or underwater. The type of soil in an area and the weight of the structure play a role in the excavation, drilling and pouring of piles. When stable soil lies deep below the natural ground level, holes for the foundation piles can be drilled and filled with reinforced concrete (tarred poles are also sometimes used); alternatively prefabricated piles can be driven into the ground. A raft or floating foundation usually rests on the pile foundation system, thus providing stability.

Figure 7.1: Piling with raft (floating) foundation resting on it

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The positioning of the foundation piles (i.e. where the piles are used) is influenced by the following factors: Low carrying capacity of the soil New filling material that has not been thoroughly compacted An exceptionally high water table Clay subsoil that is subjected to movement (expanding and shrinking) High moisture content in subsoil Foundation piles (various types) can be divided into the following categories: Precast concrete piles Steel-driven pile foundation Driven displacement piles Churn-drill pipe piles Swivel auger piles Auger-cast piles Auger-drilled piling holes How are piles installed? Drills, tampers and pile drivers that are used for the installation of piles are mounted on trucks or cranes and can be used at any site. The following rules must always be followed during foundation piling in order to ensure a sturdy construction: Piling construction requires a sturdy platform. Piles can be used in any type of soil. Concrete pouring must be done thoroughly. Prescribed joints must be used for extensions. SANS quality must be maintained. Good reinforcing material must be used. A sturdy pile cap must be used for driven piles. Make sure that vibrations in the soil do not cause damage.

Advantages of piles
The use of foundation piles is viewed as a specialised design feature since extraordinary measures are applied in order to ensure a stable construction. The advantages of using piling rather than other uncommon methods include the following: It can be used in poor soil. It can be used anywhere, even in water. The larger base ensures stability. It is relatively quick and easy to install if the equipment is available. If prefabricated piles are used, much time is saved. It resists tensile stress well. It is quick and less expensive to produce. It can be manufactured elsewhere beforehand. The installation can continue even when poor weather conditions hamper the excavations. The length of the piles can easily be adjusted, depending on the circumstances. It offers sound resistance against moving soil.

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In-situ (driven) foundation piling


Piles that are driven into the ground in-situ are used instead of prefabricated piles in cases where the length of the piles differs. This method entails driving metal pipes filled at the tip with a dry concrete mix into the ground. The pipe is held firmly in position while a drop hammer is used to expel the previously applied, dry concrete mixture in order to provide an extended base (toe). Concrete is then poured into the pipe and compacted using a drop hammer. The steel pipe is gradually extracted as the concrete is poured.

Steel cable

Ground Steel casing Drop hammer Steel casing When solid ground is reached, the concrete plug is hammered into fresh concrete to form an enlarged base. Extended base

Plug (dry concrete mixture)

First step
Steel casing is extracted as concrete is compacted

Second step

Drop hammer that compacts the concrete Reinforcing

Enlarged base

Third step Figure 7.2: Steps to drive a pile into the ground in-situ

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Prefabricated piles Prefabricated piles are used where inefficient subsoil covers the more stable layers of soil.

Figure 7.3: Pre-formed piling

A drop hammer is used to drive prefabricated concrete piles into the ground.
Steel casing (protecting pile)

Steel cable

Unstable (soft) soil Precast concrete pile

Drop hammer Steel tip

Figure 7.4: Drop hammer piles

Steel pipe casing piles This method entails driving the steel pipe casing through unstable soil or water until a stable ground formation is reached. The prefabricated casing is partially filled with dry concrete that has low water content and which acts as a plug. The pipe pile is driven into the ground using a drop hammer. Some pipe piles do not need reinforcing since the steel casing is strong enough and forms part of the construction.

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Steel casing is driven into the ground

The steel casing is filled with concrete Reinforcing is placed in position in the hole.

Figure 7.5: Steel pipe casing piles


Steel cable

Unstable soft soil Steel pipe-casing that is driven into the ground Drop hammer (hammers dry concrete plug)

Plug (dry concrete mixture)

Figure 7.6: A steel pile is driven (drifted) in

Short-hole piles These piles are most frequently used to counter ground movement (the expanding and contraction of clay soil). Short-drilled piles are usually used for smaller buildings. They are round piles that are shaped in holes in the ground. An auger drill (large spiral drill bit) is used to drill the holes into the soil. It penetrates the soil as soon as it starts rotating and pushes the loose soil to the surface. The drilling process continues until the desired depth to carry the load of the building has been reached. Auger drill can be operated manually or mechanically. Hand drills are suitable for smaller jobs. A mechanical auger drill that is mounted on a vehicle is used for larger piles that require deeper holes. Enforcing that has been previously prepared is now lowered into the hole. The concrete is pumped into the hole using gravity.

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Concrete is poured into the hole through a plastic (PVC) or rubber pipe to prevent any soil from falling into the hole with the concrete, since this will contaminate and weaken the concrete mixture. Auger drills that are used for light loads can drill up to a maximum depth of 15 meters and are 600 mm in diameter.
A large auger is used to drill holes in the ground

The hole is filled with concrete Reinforcing is placed in position in the hole

Figure 7.7: Positioning of bored (short-drilled) piles

Auger

Shaft

Figure 7.8: An auger drill boring holes for bored (short-drilled) piles

Activity 1
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the purpose of a pile driver? Which factors determine the positioning of the pile driver? Which categories are pile drivers divided into? What are the benefits of pile drivers? Name FOUR types of pile driver constructions.

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Concrete
Ready-mixed concrete
Ready-mixed concrete is often used in the building industry because it is a fast, cost-effective alternative to mixing concrete on site. Because accurate measurements are very important when using ready-mixed concrete, it is essential that all measuring instruments are in good working order and calibrated. Ready-mixed concrete is fluid concrete that is delivered to the construction site. It is transported in the familiar, barrel-back trucks and poured into a desired mould. Ready-mixed concrete is manufactured at concrete plants where raw materials, especially cement, are stored in silos to protect them against moisture in the air.

Mixing method for ready-mixed concrete


1. Batch the dry ingredients or raw materials. 2. Load the ingredients into a barrel. 3. Mix. 4. Add water. 5. Pour the concrete into the rotating barrel of a truck. 6. Deliver the concrete to the building site for placing. 7. Use concrete pumps to pour the concrete at the site.
Advantages Ready-mixed concrete suppliers have the resources and technical know-how to provide a wide range of mixtures. The concrete has the same density throughout. Concrete can be ordered according to the construction programme. Delivery schedules can be changed at fairly short notice (avoid pouring concrete in bad weather). A load of ready-mixed concrete can be cast at various spots on site, which saves time and manpower since the concrete does not have to be transported in wheelbarrows. Casting ready-mixed concrete takes less time than it would to convey the concrete in wheelbarrows. Materials do not have to be stored on site. There are thus no environmental concerns. No cleaning-up operations are needed after construction. Concrete is thoroughly mixed. The strength of each batch is the same. This method is much faster. The strength of each batch can be specified. The quality of the concrete is guaranteed. Disadvantages It is very expensive. Delivery and pouring delays may affect quality. Site batching in residential areas raises concerns about noise levels, duration of operation, soiling of house frontages and sidewalk and contamination of storm-water drains

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Application and mixing proportions of concrete


Table 1: Material for a two-bag batch of concrete, using 25,6 mm or 19 mm stone
Category Strength in MPa 15 MPa 25 MPa Mixing ratio Cement 2 bags 2 bags Sand 3 wheelbarrows 2 wheelbarrows Stone 3 wheelbarrows 2 wheelbarrows Unreinforced foundations (only singlestoreys) mass filling Unreinforced slabs or floors; reinforced slabs and foundations; footpaths and driveways. Use

Low-strength concrete Mediumstrength concrete High-strength concrete

30 MPa

2 bags

2 wheelbarrows

2 wheelbarrows

Reinforced concrete sections; heavy-duty floors; precast items such as paving or flagstones

Table 2: Material for a two-bag batch of concrete, using 13,2 mm stone


Category Strength in MPa 15 MPa 25 MPa Mixing ratio Cement 2 bags 2 bags Sand 3 wheelbarrows 2 wheelbarrows Stone 2 wheelbarrows 2 wheelbarrows Unreinforced foundations (only singlestoreys), mass filling; filling of masonry Unreinforced slabs or floors; reinforced slabs and foundations; footpaths and driveways Reinforced concrete sections; heavy-duty floors and precast items such as paving or flagstones Use

Low-strength concrete Mediumstrength concrete High-strength concrete

30 MPa

2 bags

2 wheelbarrows

2 wheelbarrows

Components of concrete
Purpose of ingredients of concrete
Ingredients (concrete) Riversand Purpose It fills the gaps between crushed stone making concrete more stable or solid. It reduces the amount of cement paste needed to produce concrete and reduces the cost. It gives the mixture more substance. It reduces the cost of concrete since it is cheaper than cement. It sets in motion the chemical processes responsible for the curing of concrete. It serves as lubricant in the mixing process. Too much or too little water reduces the strength of the mixture. It provides substance. It is more economical since stone is cheaper than cement. It makes the mixture less fluid, thus more stable. It reduces shrinking and deformation.

Water

Concrete Concrete is a workable plastic mixture in controlled proportions of cement, water, riversand and crushed stone which is placed in a mould and allowed to harden.

Crushed stone

Cement

It binds the various aggregates. It reacts with water to form a glue that binds the aggregates in the concrete.

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Main objective when mixing concrete The main objective is to obtain a uniform and close mixture of all the ingredients. The mixture must be such that the various sizes of aggregates are uniformly distributed throughout the mass. Each particle of aggregate must be adequately coated with cement paste of uniform consistency. The properties of concrete Concrete is extremely strong and can withstand very high forces of compression. It is not very resistant to tensile forces. In order to resist tensile forces, it has to be reinforced with steel. It can be cast into any mould design. After casting, it can be finished smoothly or left rough to be plastered. It is water-resistant. It can be made waterproof and is thus suitable for use as roofs, walls and floors. Maintenance is easy and inexpensive. It is easy to handle. It is fireproof, weatherproof and rodent-proof. It is durable. Factors to be considered before mixing concrete Always use clean and graded materials. Avoid joining new concrete to old. When joining new and old concrete, always soak the old concrete thoroughly. Dry ingredients must be thoroughly mixed before adding water. Do not guess quantities, always measure materials to suit the job. Do not prepare more concrete than can be placed within 30 minutes. Have protective material on hand in case of inclement weather. Difference between massive and reinforced concrete Mass concrete Concrete that is not subjected to tensile stress or bending stress is referred to as mass concrete. Reinforced concrete Concrete that is subjected to tensile stress or bending stress and which is reinforced with steel rods, stirrups, wire, or drawn-out metal is referred to as reinforced concrete. concrete Precast Concrete used to manufacture bricks, windowsills, storm-water pipes, kerbstones, lintels, etc.

Transport, placing, levelling, compacting and curing concrete


Transport There must be no drying out or contamination of the mix. Segregation of the ingredients must be prevented. The concrete should be tipped vertically and directly over its final position to prevent dispersal of aggregates. The concrete must be well compacted in its final position. Procedures when placing concrete The casting of concrete must be planned well in order to ensure that the process takes place quickly and easily. Bear the following in mind: If ramps are needed, they must be constructed before placing the concrete.

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Try to pour all the concrete (e.g. an entire foundation or floor) on the same day. Always start the pouring process in the corner furthest from the mixer/truck. Each batch must be poured near the previous one. Pour the concrete higher than required. Manual compacting can be done using rods spades and rammers/tampers to ensure that the concrete is spread into the corners and spaces. Use a straightedge to level the surface. Allow the concrete to set for seven days before building on it commences.

Methods of levelling concrete Level the compacted concrete slab, such as a floor, using a heavy wooden beam that has a handle at each end. Use a chopping action followed by a sawing motion to level the surface in line with the sides. A pipe-roller can be used on thin slabs to compact the concrete and finish the surface simultaneously. Reasons for floating concrete Once the concrete has been levelled, floating is required for the following reasons: It creates a smoother surface for the subsequent layers or floors. It removes marks left by the straightedge. It helps to compact the concrete surface. It forces pieces of gravel under the surface. Some concrete surfaces require a smoother finish and this is achieved by using a steel float. Methods of floating concrete After the concrete has been levelled in the normal fashion, it must be left to set. The concrete surface is then smoothed to the required finish using a steel trowel. The concrete is floated by bearing down on the trowel while it is being moved about the surface. Large areas can be finished using a petrol or an electric power trowel. Procedures when compacting concrete Manual compacting can be done using rods, spades and rammers/tampers. This ensures that the concrete is forced into all the corners and spaces. Mechanical compacting can be done using a compactor/vibrator. This ensures that the concrete is forced into all the corners and spaces of the slab or beam that was cast. Vibrator operators must be properly trained and the work should be supervised. The vibrator must be the right size for the job. The concrete must be poured in shallow layers (not exceeding 450 mm) and each layer should be compacted before the next layer is poured. Insert the compactor in sections that are close enough together to allow thorough compacting of the area. Insert the poker into the concrete quickly and withdraw it slowly. A little extra vibration is needed in corners and along construction joints. Make sure that the poker does not touch the formwork.

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Methods of placing concrete Before placing concrete in foundations or against soil or other materials, wet the area thoroughly. However, water should not be allowed to pool in the area where the concrete is to be poured. Deposit concrete as near as possible to its final position (in layers not exceeding 150 mm for hand compaction, or 450 mm for poker vibration). Air becomes trapped in fresh concrete during placing. To ensure that the concrete attains its full potential strength, pay special attention to the compacting of the edges of slabs, corners of paving, etc. Reasons for curing concrete Newly placed concrete must be protected against extremely quick drying. Sufficient water is needed in the concrete for a considerable time to complete the hydration (i.e. the complete hardening) of the concrete. If concrete is kept moist, it will gain strength for months, even years, after it has been placed. Methods of curing concrete Excessively quick drying of the concrete is assisted by the sun and wind; thus after concrete has been cast, it can be kept moist in the following ways: Sprinkle or spray water on the concrete regularly to keep it moist. Allow water to pool on the concrete surface. Wet the surface with a hose as soon as the concrete is hard enough not have its surface damaged by the spray. This process can be repeated for 7 to 10 days, depending on conditions. Avoid pouring concrete on very cold days. If it is unavoidable, warm water can be used to maintain a minimum temperature of 5 C to ensure proper hardening of the concrete. Materials used for curing concrete Cover the surface with a water-retaining substance such as sand, earth, straw or hessian that is kept moist. Sprinkle or spray water on the surface often to keep the concrete moist. Allow water to pool on the surface. Cover the surface with plastic sheeting or waterproof paper. The cover must be held in place along the edges without damaging the concrete and it must overlap at the joints. Leave the formwork in place and cover any exposed concrete surfaces. Admixtures in concrete Admixtures are materials that are added to concrete before or during mixing to improve its workability, curing, temperature range, setting time or colour. Admixtures such as calcium chloride have long been used for cold-setting concrete, while more recent admixtures improve a range of other properties. Some admixtures may be uneconomical for a particular project, while characteristics, such as low absorption, can be achieved simply by sound, proven concreting practices. Admixtures should always only be combined in a concrete mix by competent persons because some of these admixturesm may interact in undesirable ways. Admixtures can be classified into five major categories according to their effects: Retarded setting Accelerated setting or plasticising Water reduction, and Air-entrapment. Important admixtures outside these categories include admixtures for improving bonding, shrinkage reduction, damp-proofing and colouring. These admixtures are discussed in more detail:

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Retarding admixtures These slow down the hydration of cement by extending setting time. They are beneficial in hot weather to overcome the accelerating effects that higher temperatures and large concrete masses have on setting times. Most retarders also act as water reducers. Retarding admixtures produce concrete with greater compressive strength because of the lower water/cement ratio. They also slow down the initial setting time by at least one to three hours when used at temperatures of between 18 and 40 C. Accelerating admixtures Accelerators shorten the setting time of concrete, allowing cold-weather pouring and the early removal of shuttering, early surface finishing and, in some cases, early loading. Care must be taken in choosing the type and proportion of accelerators, as some common accelerators may increase the drying shrinkage of concrete. Calcium chloride is used to reduce setting time and increase strength gain. Excessive amounts of calcium chloride may result in rapid setting, increased drying shrinkage and corrosion of reinforcement. Calcium chloride should not be used as an antifreeze, as the large amount required to lower the freezing point may weaken the concrete. Super plasticisers Super plasticisers include high-rate water-reducing admixtures that can maintain a specific consistency and workability for a greatly reduced amount of water in concrete. High-rate water reducers improve flowability without substantially slowing setting time or increasing air-entrapment and can produce high-strength concrete. Each type of super plasticiser and its dosage must be adapted to particular concrete mix ingredients to allow for its corresponding effects. As with most types of admixtures, super plasticisers may affect other concrete properties as well. Water-reducing admixtures These admixtures allow less water to be used to make concrete with equal slump, or increased slump of concrete for the same water content. They may affect initial setting times. Water reducers are mostly used for hot-weather concrete placing and easier pumping. These plasticisers are hygroscopic, which may entrap more air in the concrete mix by reducing the water surface tension, with all theits attendant benefits. Air-entrapment admixtures Air entrapment refers to the process by whichcaptures many small air bubbles are trapped in concrete to become part of the matrix and bind the aggregates together in the hardened concrete. These air bubbles are dispersed throughout the hardened cement paste but do not form part of the paste. Its major benefit is improved durability in freeze-thaw cycles, especially in cold climates. Some strength loss may result from increased air in concrete, which may be overcome by reducing the water-cement ratio or through other appropriate admixtures. Bonding admixtures Bonding admixtures, including materials such as polyvinyl chlorides (PVC) and acetates, acrylics and butadiene-styrene co-polymers, can be used to assist in bonding new/fresh concrete with old/set concrete.

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Colouring admixtures Colouring agents generally synthetic or natural oxides are becoming more common. Most are surface-applied and often have the added the benefit of promoting surface hardening. Such surface-applied colouring admixtures generally should not be used on airentrained concrete. These pigments add colour to sidewalks, driveways, patios, streets, parking lots and other concrete structures. Some integral pigments are made with pure, concentrated pigments especially treated for mixing into concrete and require little additional labour to finish. These integral colours extend throughout the slab and show through even if the slab chips or is exposed. They are resistant to light, alkalis and weather, and have a recycled content of nearly 60%. Waterproofing and damp-proofing admixtures These admixtures, which include soaps, butyl stearate, mineral oil and asphalt emulsions, are used to decrease the amount of water penetration into the larger pores of concrete. Antifreeze admixtures are typically accelerators used in very high doses to achieve a very fast setting-time. They do not have any anti-freezing properties and they are generally not used for residential work. Disadvantages of admixtures in fresh concrete A thorough understanding of potentially complex, interrelated side-effects is required to successfully use a number of admixtures. This is even more critical when a numbervarious of parties are involved in the manufacture of the concrete, for example the producer, the placing contractor and the builder, and where the finished concrete is the result of a number of individual decisions. Choosing an appropriate admixture for a specific job should be the responsibility of an expert and alternatives to admixtures should always be considered first. Most organic, chemical-type admixtures are affected by the cement type and brand, water/cement ratio, aggregate grading, and temperature. Damp-proofing and waterproofing admixtures are still of uncertain value and may have unforeseen side-effects. In some cases, supplemental materials must be added as prescribed to avoid negative or undesirable side-effects. Most retarding admixtures may result in rapid concrete setting which, in turn, results in difficult concrete placement and finishing. Environmental effects The environmental impact of certain admixtures isare not fully understood yet. Some super plasticisers may well pollute ground and surface water. Admixtures must never be used to compensate for bad practices or low-quality materials. Testing of concrete Various tests are performed on concrete to test its quality. In large projects, the quality and price of concrete are critical factors and regular tests are conducted to ensure that the concrete is the correct quality without being too expensive. The two main tests to determine the quality of concrete are the slump test (performed on fresh concrete) and the compressive test that is performed on sample cubes of cured concrete. The slump test is not as accurate as the cube test, but provides immediate results, unlike the cube test that only produces some results after a week, and the final results after a month.

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Slump test
Purpose of the slump test This test is performed using appropriate equipment to test the density of concrete before it is placed, mainly by determining the percentage of water it contains. The purpose is to determine the consistency of the batches that are mixed. The purpose is to determine the slump of the mixture. Apparatus for the slump test An open cone, 100 mm in diameter at the top and 200 mm at the bottom, is used. It has two handles and a square base of 600 600 mm. Before use, the cone is placed firmly in the centre of the base. A tamping rod that is 16 mm in diameter, 600 mm long and which has a rounded end, is used for tamping the mix.
Ruler or tape measure Rod or spirit level

Measure this distance Concrete Mould

Figure 7.9: The slump test

Procedure for conducting the slump test The cone must be free of old concrete on the inside. Place the base plate on a firm, level surface or floor. Place the cone squarely on top of the base plate, with the wide, open end facing down. Overfill the cone with concrete and tamp down 25 times with the rod. Repeat three times. Scrape excess concrete from the top of the cone using the tamping rod. Lift the cone slowly and carefully straight up off the concrete, allowing the concrete to slide out easily. Place the cone upside down on the base plate next to the concrete mass. Place the tamper or a spirit level horizontally across the top of the cone so that it extends over the concrete mass. Measure the vertical distance between the rod (level) and the top of the concrete. The reading (in mm) is the amount of slump of the concrete.

Figure 7.10: Measuring the slump

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Analysis of the results of the slump test Natural or true slump (70 to 100 mm - see Figure 7.11) just enough water in the mix. Shear slump not enough water Collapse too much water
75 100 mm (manually compacted concrete) 50 75 mm (vibrated concrete)

True slump
100 mm

Shear slump

Collapse

Figure 7.11: Measuring the slump

Cube test
Purpose of the cube test To determine the compressive strength or crushing strength of the concrete This test is used to enable the architect or civil engineer to specify concrete of the right compressive strength for a project and to ensure that the concrete is suitable for the duration of the project. Concrete samples are usually taken from every 10 m of the mix and after every new load of aggregate. The cube moulds are then filled with fresh concrete, tamped and set aside to set and cure. Six moulds are usually filled, of which three are tested after seven days and the rest after 28 days. The first three samples are kept damp under hessian and the others are immersed in water after removal at a temperature of 22 C to 25 C. Apparatus for the cube test The moulds must be of cast-iron or steel, with perfectly vertical and parallel 100 mm sides. The 100 mm moulds are used for aggregates of not more than 19 mm. Moulds of 150 mm are used for aggregates exceeding this figure but not exceeding 37,5 mm. The insides of the moulds are lightly coated with oil.

Figure 7.12: Cube test moulds

Figure 7.13: Post-treatment of concrete samples

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300 mm

Construction

Procedure for conducting the cube test


Filling the cubes Samples must be representative, i.e. they must be taken from various parts of the batch, say from every 10 m3 for smaller jobs. Samples must be taken immediately after the concrete has been mixed. The mixture is placed in the mould in 50 mm layers. Each layer must be compacted using a 400 mm rod weighing 1,8 kg with a tamping pas 35 mm square. The number of strokes will vary according to the type of concrete, but for 100 mm cubes at least 38 strokes per layer is required. The concrete must be level with the top of the mould. The mould must be filled with concrete 30 minutes after the concrete has been mixed.

Figure 7.14: The cubes are tamped 25 times. Every 50 mm layer of concrete added to the cube is tamped 25 times and left under a wet cloth for 24 hours

Figure 7.15: The cubes are immersed in water for 28 days and then tested

Testing the cubes The cubes must be taken to the laboratory covered in plastic and stowed in crates of wet sand. The cubes must rest in the laboratory for at least 24 hours before being tested. A steel press with accurate gauges is used. The cubes are subjected to destructive testing, i.e. placed under pressure until they crack or break and a reading is then taken. This reading in kN must comply with the minimum specified by the architect or engineer.

Figure 7.16: Test apparatus for compressive strength

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Figure 7.17: Schematic representation of crush test

Rib and block / Block and beam construction A rib or beam floor consists of precast concrete beams or ribs that are spaced evenly and blocks are placed between these beams/ribs. These units are very strong and can carry heavy loads or weights. Rib and block constructions include the following: Precast units Hollow core units (rib/block) Wafer or honeycomb units Channel sections Compressed units Reinforced units Pre-stressed units
In-situ concrete layer

In-situ concrete layer

Steel mat

Pre-stressed concrete ribs Pre-cast hollow-core concrete blocks Props

Figure 7.18: Breakdown of a rib and block floor slab

Figure 7.19: Precast concrete blocks

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Advantages and disadvantages of rib and block structures
Advantages The units are cast in exact shapes and exposed to thorough curing and testing. Inflatable, foam-rubber, plastic-centred, etc. rib moulds are used during the shaping process. This reduces costs and restricts the weight. Lightweight components require less support during construction. This construction can immediately carry a load (no curing is needed). The surface is ready to be plastered or to receive a cover (type of insulation or other covering). Reinforcing can be inserted during construction. To ensure effective reinforcing, high-pressure pumps and vibrators can be used to force concrete into openings and passages. Materials are cost-effective. There is excellent structural integrity. Easy set-up procedures save time. No schooled labour is needed. There is improved sound and temperature insulation. They require minimal formwork. There are quality plastered soffits (no joints). The units greatly reduce the amount of concrete needed. Disadvantages Because the units are precast, mechanical handling is required on site. The placing of the blocks between the ribs require manual labour.

Method of installation Space the ribs approximately 600 mm apart. The spacing can be achieved by placing the precast hollow-core concrete blocks between consecutive ribs. Ensure a minimum bearing of 35 mm of the sides on the load-bearing wall (concrete beam). Ensure a minimum bearing of 90 mm at the rib ends on opposite walls. Place props under the ribs (1500 mm apart) before the rest of the hollow-core concrete blocks are placed between the ribs. Make provision for the prescribed beams and strengthening ribs. Plumbing and electrical installations can commence and safety mechanisms can now be installed. Avoid installing these services on the ribs since this will reduce the strength of the concrete slab. Service holes can now be made in the hollow-core blocks. Place the steel mat over the blocks and services. Remove any unnecessary material from the slab and wet the slab thoroughly. The final 5080 mm screed coat can now be cast. The installations must be checked by an inspector or an engineer before the final screed coat can be cast. Precautionary measures before installation Make sure that provision has been made for the concrete beams, as prescribed in the specifications. Ensure that at least 35 mm of the ribs side rests on the load-bearing wall (concrete beam) and that 90 mm at each rib end rests on opposite walls Do not place the plumbing or electrical installations or safety mechanisms on the ribs. Service holes can be made in the hollow-core blocks. Place enough props under the ribs to carry the weight of the slab. The concrete slab must be poured as a continuous unit to ensure a sturdy surface. The cast concrete must be mechanically vibrated to ensure that it fills the entire space.

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Precautions following installation A minimum strength of 25 Mpa must be used. Allow 28 days for the setting of the concrete slab. The concrete has to be kept moist for seven days after casting. Temporary props can be removed after the concrete slab has reached a strength of 17 Mpa. Use of rib and block structures in the construction industry Rib and block constructions are designed for use in residential, commercial and industrial developments. This includes the following: Townhouses and flats Office blocks Schools Hostels and hotels Shopping centres Factories and warehouses.

Blocks Ribs

Figure 7.20: Completed rib and block construction

Services provided by rib and block manufacturers The manufacturers of rib and block products provide a variety of services to contractors in order to facilitate this construction method. These services include the following: Engineer-designed ribs and blocks Detailed instructions On-site assistance and consultation Construction contractors for installation Prompt and personal attention to any queries and orders Engineering certificates.

Figure 7.21: A completed rib and block construction prior to the casting of concrete

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Activity 2
1. Explain what you think premix (ready mix concrete) is. 2. Briefly describe the mixing method for premix concrete. 3. Name the advantages and disadvantages of ready concrete. 4. Define concrete. 5. Complete the following table by describing the purpose of each ingredient of concrete.
Ingredient (concrete) Riversand Water Crushed stones Cement Purpose

6. Describe the properties of concrete. 7. Which factors should you consider when mixing concrete? 8. What is the difference between mass and reinforced concrete? 9. Which procedures have to be following when pouring concrete? 10. List the reasons why concrete has to be cured. 11. Which methods are used to cure concrete? 12. Which materials are used to cure concrete? 13. What is the purpose of the slump test? 14. Briefly describe the steps you would follow when performing the slump test. 15. Describe the results obtained when doing the slump test. 16. What is the purpose of the cube test? 17. Briefly describe the steps you would following when performing the cube test.

Reinforcement
Introduction
Reinforcement plays an important role in the erection of structures for buildings. If the reinforcement work is not done properly, the building may collapse. Structural engineers provide the building contractor with the necessary plans to indicate the reinforcement layout in order to ensure the erection of a safe structure. These specifications must be met if accidents are to be avoided.

Function
The function of reinforcement is to increase the carrying capacity of concrete. The compression strength of concrete is ten times stronger than its tensile strength, while steel possesses stronger tensile strength than compression strength. By combining these two materials in concrete, the compression and tensile strength of reinforced concrete is increased. The forces that act on structures: Tensile force: A force that is inclined to stretch a beam

Tensile force

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Compressive force: A force that is inclined to shorten a beam or column

Compressive force

Shear force: A horizontal and vertical shear stress that acts at an angle and is inclined to cause diagonal stress fractures.
Did you know? The reason why steel bars are ribbed or twisted is to ensure that concrete adheres to them more firmly, thus providing a sturdier construction.

The function of any type of foundation is to transfer the load of a structure to the underground. Mass concrete strip foundations are suitable for dwellings with a light load. However, it is uneconomical to use mass concrete foundations when buildings carry bigger loads or when the load is concentrated on a number of points, as is the case with framed structures. The extra thickness and weight of mass concrete foundations overload the subsoil; reinforced concrete foundations are not only more suitable but also easier to construct. However, these foundations must be designed by a structural engineer, who can determine where the tensile force will act on the structure and, thus, where reinforcement is needed. Rods are available in the following sizes in the market: 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 25, 32 and 40 mm thickness and come in lengths of up to 13 000 mm. A designer worth his salt will limit the size of the rods that are to be used in order to erect an economical structure as well as to facilitate the purchasing, storing and processing of these rods. Properties of reinforcement steel There are strict regulations that determine the condition and placement of reinforcing steel. Reinforcement steel bars must be: free of salt spray, mud, rust, splinters and any oiliness before they are placed in position completely covered in concrete to protect them against rust and fire hazards resistant to tensile stress easy to bend into any shape able to bind firmly with the concrete in order to provide tensile stress so the surface of the rods must be correct limited expansion ability in order to prevent unnecessary tension when the temperature fluctuates readily available and affordable rustproof a wire brush or scrubber can be used to remove rust, which would otherwise impair the binding. The minimum amount of concrete that should cover the steel is also prescribed and it must always have the same thickness as the bar that is being used; if groups of bars are used, the cover must be as thick as the thickest bar.

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The types of steel used for reinforcement There are two types of steel that are used for the reinforcement of concrete: Soft or mild steel High-tensile steel. The surface of mild steel provides a sufficient bond (connection) while high-tensile steel has transverse ribs that provide better bonding. In reinforcement terms, mild steel bars are referred to as R and high-tensile steel bars as Y. Steel reinforcement bars (rolled) with patterns ensure better ability to bind with the concrete. Here are examples of the most common types of bars:

Twisted, ribbed bar

Ribbed bar

Square, twisted bar Figure 7.22: Manipulation of bar surfaces

Round bar

Did you know? Steel bars are ribbed or twisted to ensure that concrete adheres to them, thus guaranteeing a firm, sturdy construction.

Flexures and hooks The ends of steel bars that are used in reinforcement are sometimes bent to form flexures or hooks to facilitate fixing.

Figure 7.23: Flexures and hooks

Methods of joining steel bars It is of the utmost importance that the regulations regarding the spacing of steel bars are adhered to. The spacing is provided on the bar schedule. The sketches below show three ways in which steel bars can be joined.

Crosswise method Figure 7.24: Wire joints

Hair knot method

Crown method

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Spacers The steel has to be kept in position away from the boxing to ensure that the required concrete coverage is obtained during the pouring of the concrete. Spacers can be used to keep the steel the correct distance away from bottom of the boxing. These can be concrete blocks (separator blocks), steel stands or plastic spacers. Concrete blocks are supplied with wire for attaching the reinforcement. Plastic spacers are used to prevent the reinforcement touching the sides of the boxing.

Concrete blocks supplied with wire

Steel stands

Plastic spacers

Figure 7.25: An example of a plastic spacer

Placing of reinforcement in concrete In order to place reinforcement correctly, it is necessary to understand the forces that act on beams, floors and columns. An engineer determines the reinforcement that will be used by preparing detailed drawings that would provide the contractor with the necessary information to erect the structure. Detailed drawings should contain the following: Ample cross referencing to identify one element in relation to the entire structure The necessary measurements for the design and construction of the boxing. Reinforcement detail Minimum coverage of concrete over the steel Concrete mixtures that will be required if this is not mentioned in the specifications. Reinforcement is indicated on drawings according to a code to make the reading of the drawing and the preparation of the steel easier. Example 9 R 16 01 200 can be interpreted as follows: 9 amount of rods in the group R round soft steel rod 16 diameter of the rod in mm 01 rod number 200 heart spacing

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Activity 3
An example of a typical design and drawing for a specific application is provided below.

Study the diagram above and identify the codes for the following: Amount of rods in the group Round soft steel rod Diameter of the rod in mm Rod number Heart spacing

Reinforced concrete floors/slabs


Floors are treated like beams because they react in the same way. The designer or architect must calculate the loads, bending moments, shear forces and reactions in order to determine how much steel reinforcement is required for the construction of the floor. One strip measuring a metre in breadth is usually indicated; this is called a mat and is used most generally. For light loads, each mat is usually welded. There are three reinforced concrete floor types, namely: horizontal level top for floors and roofs beam and top floors rib floors and roofs. The thicknesses that are usually specified for a concrete top or floor are: Mass concrete (no reinforcement) 100 150 mm Reinforced concrete floor 150 mm Suitable concrete mixtures are as follows: Mass concrete 1:3:6 Reinforced concrete floor 1:2:4

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Reinforced concrete beams

Shear force Division line

Compressive force

Tear line

Figure 7.26: The forces that act upon a beam

Three different types of beams are used in the building industry: Simply supported beams Continuously supported beams Cantilevers. Simply supported beams are only supported at the ends by struts or props such as concrete columns or brick walls. The support provided by a brick wall is illustrated below.

Figure 7.27: Simply supported beam

Continuously supported beams are not only supported at the ends, but also between these points of support. This may be achieved by using a cast beam, as indicated in the illustration below.

Figure 7.28: Continuously supported beam

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A cantilever is only supported at one end by either brickwork or concrete columns.

Figure 7.29: Cantilever

Reinforced concrete beams To prevent beams from caving in, steel reinforcement is inserted in specific areas. The concrete is able to bear heavier loads when steel reinforcements are used. The expansion of the reinforcing depends on the nature and position of the load. Advantages of reinforcement: The size of the beam or column can be reduced. The beam can carry heavier loads. Disadvantages of reinforcement: It is time-consuming. It is more expensive. The reinforcement of a concrete beam consists chiefly of the following: Main bar to counteract tensile forces Pressure bars (anchor bars) to counteract compressive forces (A short beam, measuring up to 6 m, does not need a pressure bar. However, a pressure bar will strengthen of the beam.) Shear bars (crutch bars) to counteract shear forces Stirrups to join main bars and help to counteract shear forces
Tear bar: prevents concrete from tearing Stirrups: support tear bars Prevent the tearing of concrete Space main bars Pressure bars (anchor bar) Placed in compressive face for extra strength

Figure 7.30: Typically reinforced concrete beam

Concrete beams can differ in reinforcement and complexity, from simple beams that are used over doors and windows to more complicated beams that carry the load across columns.

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2/9 6 Stirrups 6 Stirrups

2 / 20 Main bars

Concrete cover = of bar minimum of 12 mm 4 m and shorter

Figure 7.31: Beam measuring four metres or less

Reinforced concrete beams must be designed correctly to ensure that they will be strong enough to resist both pressure and tensile forces. Vertical braces are spaced closer to one another at the ends of the beam closer to the slide line. Fewer braces are used in the centre of the beam.
2/9 6 Stirrups 6 Stirrups

3 / 20 Anchor bar 4,5 m and longer

Concrete cover = of bar minimum of 12 mm

Figure 7.32: Beam that is longer than four metres

Method of fastening

Tear force bar

Anchor bar

Tear force stirrups

Stirrups

Concrete column Main bar

Column bar

Concrete column Stirrups

Figure 7.33: Concrete beam with ends resting on columns

Figure 7.34: Reinforcement bars in a simply supported beam

Figure 7.35: Reinforcement bars in a continuously supported beam

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Figure 7.36: Reinforcement bars in a cantilever

Reinforced concrete columns A column is a vertical structure that transfers the floor and beam loads to the foundations and it is always subjected to compression stress. The minimum number of bars per column should not be fewer than four in square or rectangular columns, or five in round columns. The total cross-sectional area of the bars must not be more than 1% of the cross-sectional area of the column. The bars must have a minimum diameter of 12 mm. To prevent the bending of the main bars, which may cause a wave-breaking effect in the concrete, stirrups and ties are used. The diameter of the stirrups/ties must be the diameter of the thickest bar. The centre-to-centre spacing of the stirrups must not be more than 12 times the diameter of the thickest bar. All bars that are subjected to compression stress must be joined by ties so that they will be inclined to move inwards. Forces that act on concrete columns There are three forces that act on concrete columns: compression forces tensile forces lateral forces These forces must be considered during the fixing of the steel bars in the concrete columns. Tensile and compression forces These occur when the column bends as the result of an off-centre load. The downward load is placed on only one side of the column, which causes the bending of the column to the other side. This results in tensile and shear stress. Elongated, thin columns bend more easily than short columns.
Eccentric load

Compressive force Tensile force

Figure 7.37: Forces that act on a column

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Lateral forces These are the result of downward loads that cause the column to become fatter and shorter. Lateral movement causes a lateral force. These forces attempt to bend, move or snap the concrete, or to cause a crack in the space between the reinforcements and the sides of the concrete structure.

Lateral tension

Figure 7.38: Lateral forces in a column

Pouring of concrete In order to ensure a safe, strong construction, the following questions must be asked before concrete is poured into the formwork of a beam or column: Have the correct bars been used? Does the thickness of the bars meet the specifications? Are the bars fixed as prescribed? Have the correct spacers been used to ensure minimum concrete cover? Have you ensure that there are two stirrups to cover the tear line. Do the corners of the shear bar cover the tear line at a 45 angle.
Column with 4 main bars The stirrups must be tightened around the main bars. Column with 6 main bars The stirrups are tightened in pairs. The stirrups are placed around the centre bars.

Column with 8 main bars Two types of stirrups are used: Stirrups are tightened around the corner bars. Stirrups are tightened around the centre bars.

L-shaped column with 8 main bars Single stirrup joins all the bars.

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Round column Helical stirrups are used in round columns.

Figure 7.39: Stirrup arrangements in reinforced columns

Activity 4
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Describe the requirements that must be met by reinforcing steel. Name the two types of steel that can be used in reinforcement. Explain the term minimum concrete cover. Name the forces that act on a beam. Name three different types of beams. Make simple, freehand sketches to illustrate the following types of beams: 6.1 Simply supported beam 6.2 Continuously supported beam 6.3 Cantilever The description below is found on the reinforcement schedule. Explain the meaning briefly: 6 R 22 05 300 Spacers are used to ensure the minimum concrete cover. Name three types of spacers. Name three ways in which steel bars can be joined. Make a simple sketch to illustrate the position of main bars in a square and a round column.

Formwork and shuttering


Bricks are no longer the only material used for construction work in the building industry. Modern architectural designs require formwork for concrete structures in order to enhance the features of buildings. Formwork enables a builder to incorporate elements which could previously not be used, in the construction of contemporary buildings: organic shapes, domes, intermediate or mezzanine floors, etc.The aesthetic features of modern buildings are achieved as a result of formwork. The substructures and frames of modern buildings are cast in massive concrete, with columns and beams to provide stability and durability. Formwork enables construction companies to substitute ordinary stonework with concrete structures by providing temporary support for concrete work of any shape, pattern or size. The mould or container into which the wet concrete is poured and compacted is constructed to ensure that the concrete takes on the shape of the required structure when it hardens or sets. Materials to be used for shuttering Wood is still the best shuttering material. It can be in the shape of boards (planed or rough), depending on the final surface finish required.

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Softwood boards used for the sides of concrete beams or columns may be reinforced with battens. Plywood is often used because it is available in large sheets and is strong. It should be exterior grade and thick enough for the estimated load. Chipboard is also used, but more reinforcement is needed due to its lower strength. Chipboard is also not as reusable as plywood, solid wood or steel. Steel shuttering is one of the best materials, but is often subject to patents. It has a longer useful life than wood, but is not as versatile. Fibreglass and moulded plastic are also used to construct distinctive shapes. Ideal shuttering should be: strong enough to bear the mass of the concrete (1m = 2 400 kg) able to bear the mass of people and equipment working on it able to be nailed together accurately according to the intended size and shape watertight so that mortar does not leak out and cause honeycombing or fins that need fettling afterwards designed to be easily placed in position by hand or lifting equipment made of material that is easily nailed together or assembled designed to be easily erected and dismantled without replacing any parts strong enough to support the weight of wet concrete have joints that are thoroughly sealed made of timber that has been treated to prevent it from adhering to the concrete.

Types of shuttering
Column shuttering Because column shuttering is vertical, it must bear considerable pressure during the casting process. It is advisable for column shuttering to be located by means of a 75 mm kicker, which is cast into or onto the floor. This will limit to a minimum mortar leaking from where the shuttering rests on the floor. Horizontal and vertical battens can be used to reinforce the sides across the whole length of the floor. It is common to cast columns up to the soffit height of concrete beam, which means that the tops of columns and beams are cast as a unit. Column shuttering is held together by a yoke (a wooden or metal collar). Yokes are usually custom-made for a particular column, while steel yokes, being adjustable, can be used for various sizes of column. The spacing of the yokes up the column will be determined by the weight of the wet concrete, with the greatest pressure being at the bottom of the column. The pressure will vary according to: the speed at which the concrete is cast the amount of mixture used the more mixture, the heavier the casting method if vibrators are used the pressure may be 50% higher than with hand casting air temperature the lower the temperature, the slower the hydration process and the longer the pressure is exerted.

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Rectangular columns The shuttering consists of four sides as indicated in Figure 7.40. The four sides are made up of vertical boards (25 mm or 38 mm thick) nailed to clamps (50 mm 76 mm). The cross clamps are spaced at 300 mm to 600 mm centres. The sides are securely held by yokes (50 mm 76 mm or 76 mm 100 mm) with holes near the ends, through which 16 mm diameter bolts threaded at both ends are passed and bolted together. Wedges are driven between the bolts and clamps to hold the sides securely together. The shuttering is removed by knocking out the wedges, from one to four days after casting.

16 mm diameter bolt

Yoke 76 50 mm

Tongue and groove joint planks 100 22 mm

Clamp 76 50 mm

Wedges

Figure 7.40: Shuttering for square/rectangular columns

Figure 7.41: Shuttering for square columns

Figure 7.42: Shuttering for rectangular columns

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16 mm diameter bolt Yoke 76 50 mm

Clamp 50 22 mm

Clamp 76 50 mm

Wedges

Figure 7.43: Shuttering for octagonal columns

Figure 7.44 shows shuttering for a round column. The battens are attached in bands, the width of which is determined by the circumference of the column. The shuttering as well as the yoke is designed in two half-sections. Each half is sawn from two pieces (50 mm thick) reinforced at the joints on both sides with 25 mm clamps. The ends, where the two collars fit together, are drilled and bolted together with 16 mm bolts. A smoother finish can be achieved by lining the inside of the shuttering with hardboard.

Vertical clamps

Laggings 50 25 mm Collar 38 mm

Bolt 16 mm

Figure 7.44: Shuttering for round concrete columns

Figure 7.44 shows shuttering designed in two halves for a round column.

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Thick clamps

Laggings 25 50 mm

Collar 50 mm

Bolt 16 mm

Figure 7.45: Shuttering for a round concrete column

Figure 7.46: Shuttering for a round concrete column

Figure 7.47: Round concrete columns on a construction site

Stairs
Stairs are used to move people between floors/storeys or up and down changing levels of a structure. A typical staircase comprises a number of steps/treads that are cast as a unit or fastened to a frame. Safety aspects in this regard are of the utmost importance and all the regulations stipulated by local authorities and/or SANS must be observed when staircases are constructed or cast. Material customarily used for the construction of stairs is: timber/wood steel concrete. The formwork for a concrete staircase, as illustrated in Figure 7.48, is constructed as follows: The measurements of the riser (stair rise) and run (going) must be calculated accurately. The landing must be constructed first. The bearer beams are then placed in position, followed by the beams.

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The soffit boards, with the bridgeboard, wall string and riser, are completed next. The riser boards are then nailed to the wall string using clamps. The bearer beams are supported by props that rest on the base plate. The base plate must always be supported against a sturdy construction or the nearest wall to prevent it from slipping. The head of the strut is fixed to the bearer beam using a fishplate.

Clamp Riser boards Joist Bearer Soffit boards Strings Tread Struts Riser Diagonal bracing

Figure 7.48: Formwork of a staircase

Precast concrete slab Slab Finished floor level

Handrail

1st floor landing

Finished floor level

Figure 7.49: Sectional view of a concrete staircase

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Figure 7.50: Front view of formwork

Figure 7.51: End-elevation of formwork

Regulations regarding stairs The headroom, measured from the flight line, must be at least 1,2 m at any point on the staircase. The steps must be at least 750 mm wide. Each run must be at least 250 mm deep. The vertical distance between two consecutive landings must not exceed 3 m; and there should not be more than 16 treads between landings. The risers must be at least 75 mm high and should never exceed 200 mm. Stairs must have railings. The height of the risers and the width of the runs must be uniform. The flight line (pitch) of public stairways must not exceed 38 and those in private use must not exceed 42. Stairways must have side rails (guard rails) to prevent users from falling off the sides of the stairs. Beam shuttering Beam shuttering consists of a three-sided box held in position by cross beams. These are also called head beams and are held against the bottom of the soffit by supports. The soffit board must always be thicker than the sides because it supports the full load until the concrete beam is strong enough to bear the load itself. The soffit boards are nailed to the inside of the side board so that the latter can be removed first to speed up drying and can also be used again elsewhere. Beam shuttering helps to support floor shuttering, which also means the two parts can be cast as a unit. Three panels, the soffit and two sides, are illustrated in Figure 7.52. The boards (38 mm thick) are nailed to supports (50 mm 76 mm) that are spaced at 100 mm centres, which may differ depending on the thickness of the material used. The props are usually spaced 1 000 mm apart, but the distance may vary depending on the thickness of the soffits and the sides that are used.

Did you know? A stairway that has an open side(s) must be provided with any one the following safety features: a railing a banister a wall a balustrade.

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150 mm concrete 38 mm 225 mm boards 38 mm 114 mm beams 50 mm 76 mm clamps 22 mm 76 mm struts 50 mm 76 mm fixing plate 50 mm 76 mm head tree 22 mm 76 mm struts 38 mm thick, soffit and sides

76 114 mm struts against 1 000 mm centres

Folding wedge 76 228 mm sole plate

Figure 7.52: Shuttering for a concrete beam and concrete floor

Figure 7.52 shows the shuttering supported by a support with a double head bearer and two bearers. The supports may even be spaced at two metres in this case. A beam soffit must be erected with a positive arc of 10 mm per 6 metre span to allow for settling during the casting process. It may leave a slightly positive arc after building is finished. Shuttering for beams must always be designed for the sides to be removed without disturbing the soffit and the temporary function of the supports.

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50 76 mm head tree at 500 mm centres

76 114 mm bearers

76 114 mm head tree

All shuttering out of 22 mm thick tongue-and-groove boards

76 114 mm struts at 2 000 mm centres

Folding wedges Sole plate

Figure 7.53: Shuttering for a concrete beam 300 mm 450 mm with a 100 mm concrete floor at both ends

Formwork oil Concrete is prone to cling to formwork as it hardens or cures. There are products on the market today that can prevent this adhesion of concrete. These are oils that are applied to the interior surfaces of the formwork. They must not be used on or near reinforcing steel sections, since this will weaken the bond between the steel and concrete. Shuttering oils are available as oil or as an emulsion. Defects in reinforced concrete Various defects may occur during the pouring of the concrete into the formwork as well as after the pouring has been completed: Blowholes small holes that are caused by the air that is trapped between the concrete and the formwork. They can affect the strength of the beam or column. It can be prevented by compacting the concrete thoroughly, either manually or by using a portable concrete vibrator, while it is poured. Uneven colour (discolouration) caused when old boards and new boards are used jointly to construct the formwork. The uneven absorption of water by the old and new timber leads to the discolouration of the concrete.

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Dismantling formwork too soon Formwork must not be removed too soon, since the concrete will dry too quickly and this will weaken its structure. A beam or column can collapse if the formwork is removed too soon. Concrete only reaches its full strength after 28 days. (Refer to Dismantling formwork that is discussed later in this chapter.)

Activity 5
1. What is formwork? 2. Name three structural requirements that must be observed regarding formwork. 3. Which materials are suitable to be used as formwork? 4. Name the defects that may be found in formwork. 5. Use sketches to illustrate square, rectangular and round formwork. 6. Briefly discuss the regulations that must be observed during the construction of stairs. Removing shuttering Shuttering must be removed with great care and attention. The decision to remove shuttering rests with the architect and engineer and is done in conjunction with the builder. It is important to consider the setting qualities of concrete, temperature during pouring and also the nature and purpose of the sections. The following factors must be considered: The type of formwork used (pillar, beam or concrete slab; horizontal or vertical) The average temperature while the concrete is poured and after it has been poured The setting properties of the concrete The nature and function of the various components. The following time schedule can safely be accepted: Concrete floors soffit boards used for floors spanning 3 m can be removed after seven days; decking must be kept in place for two weeks should the span exceed 3 m. Concrete beams sides can be removed after three days; the soffit and props must remain for three weeks. Concrete column sides can be removed after three days (even earlier) if the column is not subjected to horizontal or vertical pressure.

Struts and props


Struts and props offer the most economical and safe support for formwork, floor slabs, beams, walls and pillars. They are also useful when building repair work is being done. Using vertically adjustable steel struts or props eliminates the expensive, timeconsuming labour associated with wooden structures (such as sawing, assembling and inserting wedges) and a wide variety of struts, with different heads, is available.

Supports
These support the shuttering for beams and floors. Supports must be spaced closely enough to avoid distortion and sagging. The material used for supports must be carefully selected so that it does not fracture under the load and tension applied to it.

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Figure 7.54: Supports


Concrete Soffit board Bearer Clamp

Pole Strut

Wedges Base plate

Figure 7.55: Sectional view of formwork for floors

Types of struts
Clevis-ended-head They are used to keep bearer beams in position. They prevent the sides of formwork from slanting.
Figure 7.56: Clevis-ended-head strut

Flat-head struts Flat-head struts are used to provide temporary support together with bearer beams under concrete slabs. They may also be used with other types of struts.

Figure 7.57: Adjustment device of a flat-head strut

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Adjustable push-pull steel props They are used to keep formwork level. The bottom base plate is anchored to the ground. The top is attached to the formwork. Multi-prop The multi-prop is made of an aluminium alloy and can be used individually or with scaffolding to support various types of formwork. The multi-prop is light and can be erected by one person. Fewer multi-props are needed for formwork, which cuts the costs of decking. Multi-prop post shores have a built-in tape measure, which facilitates adjustments beforehand and a self-cleaning, free-running nut thread on the strut for easy adjustment.

Figure 7.58: Built-in tape measure and free-running nut

Because of its self-cleaning thread, the adjusting nut always runs free, even if the prop itself is dirty or covered in concrete.

Figure 7.59: Self-cleaning thread

Every multi-prop can be adjusted continuously without first having to place a pin in position, even if it is carrying weight. The multi-prop has a safety-stop mechanism that prevents the inner pipe from slipping out during handling or when unscrewed accidentally. A universal tripod is used as an erecting aid. Different types of head can be used with the multi-prop.

Multi-prop accessories
Chuck Used to support bearer beams without nails Has a self-locking connection Transverse head Also has a self-locking device Keeps structures, especially beams, in position Prevents sides of beam formwork from bulging

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Prop head The head is equipped with a self-locking device. It provides support for panels, bearer beams and timber.

Figure 7.60: Multi-prop with self-locking bearers with collapsible head

The collapsible head is hit with a hammer to release it, which will cause the entire formwork structure to drop 60 mm. The collapsible head enables construction workers to dismantle formwork after just one or two days. It makes it possible for the contractor to stock less formwork equipment on site. Bearer beams and panels are now ready for the next formwork job. Shorter periods of use make formwork panels easier to clean since the concrete can be removed easily. The collapsible head is adaptable and can be installed in inclement weather or poor light. Panels and girders can be removed quickly and easily while the collapsible-head props continue supporting the shuttering panels.

Figure 7.61: Multi-props with collapsible heads that remained after formwork sheets had been removed

Main and secondary bearer beams Bearer beams are used with collapsible-head props. They fit onto prop heads and serve as supports for decking. Formwork construction has a high accident rate since bearer beams break due to damage or aging. Modern bearer beams are supplied with a safety date, manufacturing date, uniformity and length details.

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Requirements for erecting and dismantling formwork The distance between the props and the number of props required, is usually specified by the structural engineer according to the type of formwork that will be erected. The period of waiting between the pouring of the concrete and the removal of the formwork must be determined by a qualified person the architect or engineer in conjunction with the builder.

Activity 6
1. 2. 3. 4. Name four different types of modern props and provide the uses of each type. The multi-prop can be fitted with different types of heads. Name and discuss the various types. The dismantling of formwork under concrete floors depends on certain conditions. Name them. Discuss the uses of a bearer beam, as well as the safety measures involved.

Scaffolding
Scaffolding is a temporary platform or gantry that is erected to reach those parts of a building that cannot be reached from ground level. These gantries support material, tools and workers during construction work, maintenance work and when demolition takes place. Scaffolding is made of steel alloy pipes that are fitted or jambed together. Requirements for scaffolding Scaffolding must be safe for workers working on it as well as for people who pass underneath or work in close proximity to them. There must enough space for materials, tools and the workers, who must be able to move safely. It must be strong enough to carry the weight of the workers, materials and tools. Workers must be able to move freely in order to do the work comfortably. The strength and condition of the pipes are mainly responsible for the stability and sturdiness of the scaffolding. Consequently, the pipes have to be inspected regularly in order to identify any defect, for example: The pipe must be straight along its entire length. The ends must always be clean and square, otherwise the pipes may crack when they are used as stands. Make sure that the pipes remain free of rust, weak spots, tears, dents and other defects. Ensure that the pipes are covered with protective coating.

Types of scaffolding
Trestle scaffold This scaffolding comprises light, movable trestles on which scaffold boards are placed. The legs of the trestles can fold in and runners can slide in and out, which makes handling easier. Use three trestles under one length of scaffold board. Trestles can be used effectively in small spaces and can be erected easily. They are limited to heights below two metres and do not need safety railings.
Figure 7.62: Working platform and trestles

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Tower-type scaffolds These scaffolds consist of frames (modules or sections) that can be assembled and dismantled quickly. Different types and sizes are available, but each module is 2 m high. Tower frames are manufactured from lightweight steel pipes that are self-locking to ensure a firm structure. The modular components can be connected to reach the required height and width and comprise: self-locking frames, diagonal bracing and steel scaffold boards pipe couplers that are used to connect the pipes in order to reach the required height. Portable platform This is a scaffold that comprises various fixed sections of 900 mm. These sections fit into each other and can be assembled to reach the required height. A protective railing is required along the top of the platform to prevent workers from falling. Wheels or gussets (foot plates) can be attached to the bottom of the corner pipes. The terrain will determine which of these will be used.

Figure 7.63: Tower-type scaffolding

Lightweight platforms Lightweight platforms are used in places where ordinary scaffolding and platforms cannot be used due to the limited space available. The lightweight platform is assembled beforehand and is simply unfolded at the site, immediately ready to be hoisted up for use. These scaffolds are fixed to the building for safety, using a clamp (anchor stay).
Figure 7.64: Lightweight platform

Pipe scaffold Pipes of various lengths and accessories are assembled to form a pipe scaffold. The pipes are clamped together to reach any height and width that is needed for the specific job. Platforms are then placed two metres apart as the height of the building increases, to allow a workspace that is comfortable and safe for the workers. Workers must feel safe at all times in order to do their jobs properly. Two types of pipe scaffolds are used in the building industry: Separate scaffolds Short-railing scaffolds.

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Guard rail Close-boarded platform Kickboard

Diagonal brace Vertical standards

Horizontal transoms

Sole plate

Base plate

Figure 7.65: Scaffolding with short guardrails

Scaffolding accessories Scaffolding accessories are made of steel, aluminium alloys and timber. The following components are used: Pipe connectors Rectangular clamps Rotating joints Base plate Scaffold pipes U-plate (head) Wooden beams Ties. Pipe connector It is used to connect vertical stands (scaffold pipes) with one another.
Figure 7.66: Pipe connector

Rectangular clamps They are used to connect vertical and horizontal scaffold pipes.
Figure 7.67: Rectangular clamps

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Rotating joints They connect scaffold pipes at various angles.
Figure 7.68: Rotating joints

Base plate It is used under the stands to prevent the scaffold pipes from sinking into the ground.

Figure 7.69: Base plate

Scaffold pipes These are the steel pipes that are used for scaffolding.
Figure 7.70: Scaffold pipes

U-plate (head) A beam is placed into this angled plate for stability (must be able to carry maximum weight).
Figure 7.71: U-plate

Base wheels They are placed under the scaffold pipes to facilitate easy movement of the scaffold tower.
Figure 7.72: Base wheels

Scaffold boards Scaffold boards can be made of steel or SA Pine. Timber scaffold boards must meet the SANS requirements. The measurements of a timber scaffold board is 228 83 mm and it may not exceed 4,8 m in length. The ends must be be reinforced with a 25 mm hoop iron strap that is placed 150 mm from each end. They must be able to carry a load of 6,5 kN. They must rest on three supports and not protrude more than 230 mm over the end piece. They must be secured firmly so that they do not move about. Safety measures Under no circumstances must the scaffold be moved or adjusted while workers are using it, or without permission from the responsible individual. The parts of the framework must be made of the same material. Never use unsafe supports such as drums, loose bricks or crates. Remove protruding corners and sharp objects. Always affix separately standing scaffolds to the buildings. When working on swing and roof scaffolds, workers have to wear safety belts. Make sure that the work surface is safe. No workers may be allowed on scaffolding during bad weather. Do not allow more than two workers on swing scaffolds. Always ensure that material and equipment are hoisted safely. Never overload scaffolds. Always wear protective gear goggles, boots, gloves and belts. Remove rubbish and unnecessary tools from the scaffold.

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Activity 7
1. What is chiefly responsible for the strength and stability of a scaffold? 2. Name and describe three types of scaffolding. 3. Name three requirements that a scaffold must meet. 4. What is the function of each of the following scaffolding accessories? 4.1 Pipe connector 4.2 Rectangular clamps 4.3 Rotating joint 4.4 Base plate 4.5 Base wheel 4.6 Scaffold pipes 4.7 U-plate head 5. Which safety measures must be considered when workers are using a scaffold?

Drywall
Drywall construction
Drywalls (the installation is referred to as drywalling) are the lightweight partitions used to create subdivisions in a building. These dividers are called drywalls since no wet cement or mortar are used in the construction or installation process, i.e. the walls do not need time to dry. They are basically immediately ready for use. These walls are used globally for the installation of internal walls and ceilings and they usually consist of any of the following types of covering materials: Gypsum board Decorative plywood Decorative hardboard Chipboard Supawood Fibro (fibrous asbestos cement board). The advantages and disadvantages of drywalls
Advantages Drywalling prevents delays during construction since the internal walls do not have to dry before the work can continue. Wallboards are manufactured with either a finished or an unfinished surface. Boards that have finished surfaces are covered with vinyl or other material. They are available in a vast variety of colours and textures and thus do not require painting. Because the drywalls are attached to the building using a framework, the wood/boards that are used must be straight in order to ensure a neat, flush wall. The wood/boards must be dry to prevent it/them from warping and to prevent the nails from falling out. The installation is a dry process. Drywalls are adaptable and can thus be installed in awkward or hard-to-reach places. The material is easy to handle and also requires less storage space than bricks. Drywalls are not as heavy as brick walls. Drywalls are cheaper to install. Disadvantages They are less soundproof than brickwork. They are less fire-resistant than brickwork. Drywalls must be joined together or attached to existing walls to ensure sturdiness. Drywalls cannot carry heavy loads.

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Drywall products and their applications
Product Edging strips Application Pre-glued 0,6 mm galvanised edging strips used to protect the outside edges of dry walls

Drywall screwdriver bit for A special device fitted to an electric drill to drive drywall screws into electric drill steel or wood (not recommended for series production) Screwdriver bits Drywall door frames Sealing layer Adhesive fibreglass mesh Joint filler Drywall screws Used in electric screwdrivers to drive in drywall screws Steel doorframes (900 mm aperture) with tags for attaching to floor studs Used for sealing drywall board in bathrooms and kitchens before tiling Used for filling drywall joints, wall repairs and as a substitute for wire mesh on plastered walls Used for filling gypsum board when finishing joints by hand 25 mm Streaker screws for attaching 12,5 mm gypsum board to channel strips 32 mm Grabber screws for attaching board to wood 41 mm Streaker screw for attaching double 12,5 mm gypsum board to channel strips 0,5 mm galvanised steel channels used as vertical elements in drywall structures 0,5 mm galvanised steel channels used as floor and ceiling channels to which partition standards are attached

Partition standards Channel strips

Gypsum board This building material is made mainly from gypsum and consists of a gypsum core sandwiched between firm cardboard covers. It is used for drywalls and non-load bearing interior partition walls in office buildings that can be easily dismantled or moved.

Figure 7.73: A stack of gypsum boards

These large, stiff boards are attached directly to the framework that is attached to the building using nails, screws or fittings. They may also be attached to wooden framing battens attached to partitions, joists, purlins or walls. The following special equipment is needed in drywall construction: A drywall hammer A jointing tool (similar to a gauging trowel, but more flexible and slightly concave) is used to apply smooth jointing compound to the joints to make them invisible after painting. Nail heads are also countersunk slightly and hidden by the same method.

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Installing wallboard Wallboard can be installed vertically or horizontally. Cut the board to size with a carpet cutter. First, cut the face, snap the board and cut through the back. The board must be 10 cm above floor level. Whichever way the board is installed, horizontally or vertically, the edges of alternate layers must not overlap. See that vertical joints do not create straight lines parallel to doorframes and openings. Boards must meet at the centre above doors and openings. Where two superimposed layers are used, both must be installed vertically and their joints may not coincide. Wallboard is attached by screws at 220 mm centres using a drywall screwdriver. A drywall screw attachment is also available. Insert the screw until its head is just below the board surface, not deep enough to tear the paper. Unless required, do not attach wallboard to floor or ceiling channel sections. Apply edging strip coat inside with jointing compound and press firmly into position. Clean off and finish.
Centre line

Drywall screw Drywall screw Drywall screw

Drywall partition standard

Figure 7.74: Attach partition standards at corner of drywall

Figure 7.75: Attach partition standards at T-junction

Checklist Board is correctly attached to partition standards. No screws are standing out. Screws are 9 mm from the edges. Door frames and openings are still plumb and in line. Wallboard surface is not damaged, all joints fit closely and they are staggered.

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Steel frames Work according to plan, but leave an opening in the bottom channel strips for doorframes. Attach drywall channel strips firmly to the floor and ceiling with attachment points at 600 mm centres. The drywall standards are inserted into the floor and ceiling channels with a twisting action. There must be a 100 mm gap between the top of the standard and the ceiling channel strip. Partition standards are spaced at 400600 mm centres.
Steel rail

Insert standard with twisting action

Sole plate Boards

Filler piece

Figure 7.76: Steel frames for drywall construction


Drywall screw Steel ceiling rail Ceiling batten Ceiling board Crown moulding/cornice

Gypsum board

Steel prop

Steel floor rail Hilty

Skirting board aluminium /wood Screed Concrete floor

Figure 7.77: Sectional view of a drywall with a steel frame construction

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Drywall screw Steel ceiling rail

Ceiling batten Ceiling board Crown moulding/cornice

Gypsum board

Steel prop

Steel floor rail Hilty

Skirting board aluminium/wood Screed Concrete floor

Figure 7.78: Sectional view of a drywall with a steel frame construction (alternative method)

Hand finishing method Check board surface; all faults and joints bigger than 5 mm must be filled first. Apply adhesive tape across centre of the joint. Apply first layer of jointing compound with a 125 mm spatula. Clean the edges. Apply second layer of jointing compound with 300 mm trowel. Clean edges and let dry. Adhesive tape is also applied in the usual fashion. When dry, apply the second layer of jointing compound to either side of the tape with a 300 mm trowel. When dry, apply the third layer of jointing compound over the centre of the joint and let dry. Apply adhesive tape evenly to the inside corner, leaving equal widths on either side and let dry. Apply a layer of jointing compound to one side with a spatula. Let the first side dry before starting on the other. Outside edge apply a layer of jointing compound to both sides of the corner standard with a 125 mm spatula. Let dry and apply a second and third layer of compound on either side with a 250 mm trowel. Use a 125 mm spatula to fill screw head holes. Apply a bit of compound in one direction, then smooth off in an opposite direction. Apply another layer in the same way. Remember to let dry after each application. Where the dry wall meets a brick wall in line, a control joint must be inserted. There must also be joints to control expansion in long dry walls. Walls above 10 m must have an expansion joint every 5 m. A full-length door can act as a joint. Leave a 1 cm opening between the wallboard/gypsum board and the brick wall. Apply jointing compound to joint and push the control joint firmly into position. Fill the joint in the usual fashion.

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When all layers have dried, sand lightly with fine sandpaper (100 grit). Do not sand too deeply.
Jointing compound

52 mm

Adhesive tape

2nd layer

Final layer

Figure 7.79: Hand finishing method

Precautions Remember to remove all excess compound after each application and sure that the material is smoothed off. Remove all powder/dust from the surface with a damp cloth before starting to decorate. Decorating Primer coat good quality acrylic PVA must be applied to the whole surface of the board. Do not use oil- or solvent-based primer. Topcoat any quality paint. Checklist Check that: the jointing compound has dried properly after each application before applying the next layer all screws and metal fittings are covered joints are neatly finished and dry the surface is free from uneven or unfinished spots.

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When the surfaces are joined (broadened), the seams have to be patched to provide a neat finish. A joint compound mud is applied in and along the length of the seams. Gauze drywall tape is placed along the length of the seam, using a second coat of joint compound as bonding material. A sealing coat/block coat of joint compound is applied over the seam and left to cure. A thin layer of plaster (skimming coat) is applied to the board and, when it has dried, sanded to provide an even, smooth surface.
Tape coat Using a 150 mm putty knife, spread a 100 mm wide layer of joint compound along the seam

Drywall tape Apply drywall tape along the joints

Block coat Apply a second layer of compound on top of the tape

Skim coat Use a 300 mm putty knife to apply a thin and smooth final layer of joint compound

Sanding Wait 24 hours and use 120-grit sandpaper to ensure a smooth finish

Figure 7.80: Drywall finish


Master plate Laminated veneer panel

Recessed joint Bolt casing Cover strip

Figure 7.81: Alternative method of joining struts/railings to main plate and base plates

Figure 7.82: Cover strip

Bolt casing Bolt casing Board

Rebate

Base plate


Epistyle Skirting board

Figure 7.83: Door frame

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Construction
Ceiling batten Ceiling board Crown moulding/ cornice

Main board

Gypsum board

Prop/Railing

Base board

Skirting board Screed Concrete floor

Figure 7.84: Section of a drywall with a wooden frame


Main board Ceiling batten Ceiling board Crown moulding/ cornice

Gypsum board

Prop/Railing

Base board

Skirting board Screed Concrete floor

Figure 7.85: Section of a drywall with a wooden frame (alternative method)

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Civil Techology
Drywalling in moist areas When installing a shower set against drywalls: Use a prefabricated shower unit. Refrain from using joints/seams in the shower cubicle. Use full-sized, waterproof boards. Use glazed tiles in the shower cubicle. If tiles are not the preferred finish, use waterproof paint. Use rivets to fix the shower unit to the steel props. The shower cubicle must be supported by a mixture of dry cement and river sand. Seal the joint between the shower cubicle and the tiles with a layer of silicon sealant.
Drywall screw Steel ceiling rail Ceiling batten Ceiling board Cornice

Crown moulding/ cornice

Tile Silicon sealant Shower cubicle Cement and sand filling Shower trap Base board Hilty

Gypsum board Steel prop Rivet Skirting board aluminium/wood Screed Concrete floor

Figure 7.86: Installation of a shower set against drywalls

Mounting a hand basin onto a drywall The gypsum board must first be tiled. The hand basin can then be mounted against the gypsum board by placing a wooden brace behind the board to ensure a rigid fixing. The hand basin can also be placed on a pedestal. Seal the gap between the basin and the tiles with silicon. Waterproof boards must always be used when a hand basin is installed.

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Construction
Drywall screw Steel ceiling rail Ceiling batten Ceiling board Cornice

Crown moulding/cornice

Gypsum board Silicon sealant Tile Hand basin Bath trap Steel prop Bolt and nut Rivet Wooden brace Skirting board aluminium/wood Screed Concrete floor

Base board Hilty

Figure 7.87: Installation of a hand basin against drywalls

Activity 8
1. Name the materials used in drywall construction. 2. Name the advantages and disadvantages of drywall constructions. 3. Briefly describe the drywall installation method.

Brickwork
In this chapter, the various types of general bricklaying methods used in the building industry will be studied. The focus will be on how bricks are laid at junctions and in corners, how beam filling is completed and on the construction of cavity walls, including the advantages and disadvantages of these walls. In conclusion, various types of brick arches will also be studied: the advantages and disadvantages that are associated with each type and how each type of arch is supported during construction. T-junctions in half-brick, stretcher bond walls Two types of courses are alternated to form a T-junction between two single-brick walls:

Figure 7.88: Consecutive courses for a T-junction in half-brick stretcher bond

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Civil Techology

Figure 7.89: Consecutive courses for corners in one-brick stretcher bond

Figure 7.90: Consecutive courses for corners in half-brick stretcher bond

Figure 7.91: Consecutive courses for corners in one brick English bond

Figure 7.92: Corner junction in English bond


Queen closer

Figure 7.93: Front elevation of a corner junction in English bond

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Construction

Layer 1

Layer 2

Figure 7.94: Consecutive courses of a corner junction in English bond

Figure 7.95: T-junction in English bond

Layer 1

Layer 2

Figure 7.96: Consecutive courses of a T-junction in English bond

Activity 9
Draw basic diagrams to illustrate the sequential plan levels for the following walls: 1. T-joints for half-brick walls in stretcher bonds 2. T-joints for one-brick walls in stretcher bonds 3. Corner joints for half-brick walls in stretcher bonds 4. Corner joints for one-brick walls in stretcher bonds 5. Corner joint in English bond 6. T-joint in English bond

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Civil Techology

Beam filling
Beam filling refers to brickwork that is used on the exterior half of the external wall of a building when the final height has been reached. This brickwork is laid between the lower sides of the roof trusses up to the roof covering. Beam filling refers to the brickwork between the rafters and roof trusses. The construction follows after the roof trusses have been placed in position. The brickwork is the same height as the roof batten. It is usually a half-brick wall (110 mm). The height of the beam filling is indicated by the number of layers two, three, etc. or by the height: 75 mm, 150 mm and 225 mm.
Ridge plate Roof rafter (114 38) Principal/king post (114 38) Wall plate Beam filling Facia board (228 28) Square gutter (100 100) Galvanised zinc sheet Purlins (76 50)

75 mm crown moulding

Ceiling battens (38 38)

Downpipe NGL

Downpipe (75 75) 100 mm concrete floor VVV NGL Hardcore 600 250 (1 : 3 : 6) Ridge plate Galvanised zinc sheets Section BB Scale 1:50 Wearing course Undisturbed soil 600 250 (1 : 3 : 6)

Purlins (76 50)

Beam filling Square gutter (100 100) 75 mm crown moulding Ceiling batten (38 38) Downpipe (75 75) Section BB Scale 1:50 75 mm Concrete floor VVV DPC Hard-core filling Undisturbed soil Wearing course 600 250 (1 : 3 : 6)

284

Figure 7.97: Sectional views of a house to indicate beam filling

Construction
Purpose of beam filling The purpose of beam filling is to fill the spaces between the roofing rafters/principal rafters from the wall plate up to the roof covering with brickwork. This is done for the following reasons: To keep out birds and insects To prevent wind from blowing in under the roof To prevent birds from nesting/perching in the roof To improve the stability of the roofing rafters
Advantages Prevents wind from penetrating the building. Provides good insulation. Keeps warmth or coolness inside the building. Prevents perching and breeding spots for birds should building have open eaves. Prevents insects from entering the roof area and attacking the roof truss timber. Prevents dust from entering the building. Disadvantages The construction is time-consuming work. It is an uncomfortable area in which to work.

Roof batten Roofing rafter Beam filling Wall plate Tie beam Ceiling batten Ceiling cornice Fascia board Gutter Plaster

Figure 7.98: Detailed illustration of beam filling

Beam filling

Figure 7.99: Beam filling as viewed from the inside

Activity 10
1. What is meant by beam filling? 2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of beam filling?

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Civil Techology

Cavity walls
A cavity wall consists of two separate brick walls (slabs) that are built next to each other, with a 50 mm space (cavity) between them and connected by wall ties. The purpose of a cavity wall Because solid walls are not entirely capable of preventing the penetration of water, cavity walls are used since they have better waterproofing properties. Cavity walls help to protect a house against moisture, extreme temperatures and noise; and it is cheaper to construct than a solid, double wall. Advantages of cavity walls Cavity walls: prevent rainwater from penetrating the interior wall surface provide good heat, cold and sound insulation facilitate the use of cheaper materials for the internal walls prevent expensive exterior finishes (plastering). Disadvantages of cavity walls Cavity walls: require expert designs/higher design standards require highly skilled workmanship need constant supervision during construction are fitted with vertical damp-proof coursing in the cavities are more expensive than solid wall constructions cause the loss of 50100 mm internal floor space. Construction The following construction regulations must be met when cavity walls are built: The space between the two walls must be 50 mm wide and may never exceed 100 mm. The individual walls must be 110 mm thick. The walls must be built in a firm bond and the layers must be bound using mortar. The walls must be connected using wall ties that are set 900 mm horizontally and 450 mm vertically apart, as closely as possible to any opening. Wall ties must also be placed at 300 mm intervals along the junctions and openings of the wall. Except for the wall ties, any contact between the two walls must be avoided. Weep holes must be inserted under the horizontal damp-proof coursing as well as above the damp-proof coursing over the opening. Wall ties must be rust-free and must prevent the penetration of rainwater. When wall ties are used on inner and outer walls that have uneven joints (mortar joints), they may cause rainwater to run down to the inner wall. The cavity between the walls must be kept clear of mortar when bricks are laid. Mortar must be removed from the wall ties, since it may cause seepage of water to the internal wall (capillary action). In parapet walls, the cavity must be maintained right up to the coping. Cavity walls must be restricted to a length of 8 m and height of 3 m. This has to be considered in the design. Restrict gables to a height of 5 m. During construction, provision must be made for inspection holes to allow the removal of wasted mortar. These holes have to be sealed when the construction is complete.

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Construction
Openings that are connected by brick bonds do not require wall ties. Any bridging of the cavity, excluding the wall ties, must be provided with dampproof coursing. No wall ties may be placed on the damp-proof coursing. Damp-proof coursing must be laid 150 mm above ground level. Use lateral supports along long cavity walls during construction. Ventilating bricks must be placed at the bottom in the external walls in very wet regions. In ordinary weather conditions, a butt joint must be inserted at 1 m intervals.
Plaster inside 75 mm Meranti skirting 15 mm quarter round

Facebrick outer wall Weep holes every 5th butt joint

30 mm screed 100 mm concrete slab 50 mm sand bed 250 mm hardcore filling

Minimum 200 mm

Damp-proof coursing Grout: cement and sand Strip foundation 230 740 mm mass concrete foundation

Figure 7.100: Construction of a cavity wall

Front elevation

Left elevation

Figure 7.101: The front and left elevation of a cavity wall

Layer 1

Layer 2

Figure 7.102: Consecutive courses of a dead-end in a cavity wall

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Civil Techology

Butterfly pattern

Nylon wall tie

Twisted pattern Figure 7.103: Different types of wall ties

Double triangular pattern

Figure 7.104: Placing of wall ties in a cavity wall

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Construction

Rafter Beam filling Tie beam Wall plate One or two header courses (seal hole and spread evenly)

Wall tie Plaster

Weep hole

Damp-proof coursing (DPC) Wooden window frame

Outer reveal

Inner reveal

Threshold Windowsill

Bottom rail of window Damp-proof coursing (DPC) Cover over opening

Wall tie Damp-proof coursing (DPC) Screed Weep hole Min 150 mm Concrete slab Sand Hardcore filling

Earth filling Undisturbed earth Strip foundation 630 220 mm NGV

Figure 7.105: Sectional view of a cavity wall

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Activity 11
1. 2. 3. 4. Briefly describe the purpose of a cavity wall. Name THREE advantages and THREE disadvantages of a cavity wall. In your own words, briefly explain the regulations that must be considered when constructing a cavity wall. Name FOUR types of wall ties that are used in cavity walls.

Arches
Arches as a form of construction have been used by mankind for centuries. Not only are arches sturdy constructions, they also serve to visually enhance the appearance of buildings. Arches vary from country to country and, as a result, certain styles have come to be associated with specific countries. Function of arches An arch is a curved construction for spanning an opening and it consists of a number of wedge-shaped units (bricks, stones) that are joined using mortar. It carries the mass by transferring the downward forces on the keystone to the adjacent arch stones (voussoirs) in the form of lateral stress and eventually to the arch closer and wange. An arch is the strongest structure that can be used to span an opening. It is not necessarily rounded it can also be flat. Arches do not only serve to carry the weight of the constructions above them; they also enhance the appearance of the walls. An arch can be arched, round or flat (straight). Arches are classified according to their shapes and finish.

Arch shapes
The three basic shapes are: Semi-circular arch Segmental arch Flat arch Finish Arches can be subdivided further according to the types of finish, namely: Rough arches bricks are placed in wedge-shaped mortar joints and plastered. Gauged arches special, wedge-shaped bricks with uniform mortar joints are laid and not plastered. (Gauged arches are chiefly used for face brick structures.)

Figure 7.106: A rough, double ring semi-circular arch

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Construction
Construction As soon as the walls reach the height of the arch, a turning piece/profile has to be constructed. Construction of the arch begins with a brick course that is laid on edge across the turning piece. The rest of the construction then proceeds according to the plan. Turning piece/profile This consists of a timber construction that serves as temporary strut/support. It can be used repeatedly or once-off. The turning piece supports the wet masonry until the arch has set or can support itself. The arch is finally able to carry the load on top of it.
75 38 mm

Principal post 75 38 mm Strut 75 38 mm Segments 75 38 mm


75 38 mm

Hardboard
50 38 mm

Centering pieces (boarding) 75 25 mm

75 38 mm

75 38 mm

Carrier 75 mm 38 mm

Folding wedges Strut 4 75 mm of 075

Figure 7.107: Construction of a timber turning point for a half-round gauged arch

Figure 7.108: Turning point and construction of a segmented gauged arch

Exposition of arches: Complete/round arch: the radius is equal to half the span. Segmental arch: Step 1 Choose an appropriate scale. Step 2 Draw a horizontal line according to scale and determine the centre point. Step 3 Draw a vertical (perpendicular) line on the centre point of the span.

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Civil Techology
Step 4 Join the centre point of the span and the height (diagonally). Step 5 Halve the diagonal line and draw a perpendicular line towards the vertical line. The point of intersection of the perpendicular line and the diametral line indicates the original radius. Flat arch: A flat arch may create the illusion that it is sagging. This can be rectified by raising the soffit of the arch slightly in the middle. A suggested ratio of 10:1 is recommended.

Figure 7.109: Flat arch turning piece

Figure 7.110: Building in a flat arch

Figure 7.111: Segmental arch

Figure 7.112: Building in a segmental arch

Figure 7.113: Complete/round arch

Figure 7.114: Building in a complete arch

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Construction
Key brick English bond

Extrados

Toothing Intrados Voussoirs

Springer Abutment Span

Figure 7.115: Semi-circular gauged arch

Gauged arches Gauged arches are constructed from bricks or blocks that are cut into the shape of wedges before they are used in the arch. The wedges can be shaped in one of three ways: Bricks are pressed or moulded to form wedges (done at the brickyard). Bricks are rubbed down or grinded on a rough or fine-grained surface. Bricks are cut into shape using a special saw, an axe or a scotch. If many arches of the same size are needed for the construction of a building, the bricks should be pressed or moulded at a brickyard. This will ensure both a uniform appearance of the arches and good quality.
Key brick Extrados

Voussoirs Rise 225mm Springing Abutment Span Skewback

Springing line

Centre of percussion

Figure 7.116: Segmental gauged arch

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Figure 7.117: Turning point and construction

Figure 7.118: Completed segmental gauged arch

Rough arches Rough arches are built using standard (i.e. not wedge-shaped), common bricks that have wedge-shaped mortar joints between them. These types of arches are usually used in areas where they will be completely plastered, e.g. relieving (discharging) arches. A relieving arch is used on the internal surface of a wall to support and carry the mass of the wall above the opening (lintel) and it is usually plastered. An unplastered (naked) rough arch on the exterior of a wall is really unsightly. These arches are not recommended for facebrick walls. The advantage of this type of arch is that it is inexpensive and thus economical.
Flemish bond

Stretcher bond

Rise of arch 225 mm

Voussoirs Radius

Figure 7.119: Illustration of a segmental rough arch

Figure 7.120: Illustration of a semi-circular rough arch with double rings/arches

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Construction

Figure 7.121: Rough, double ring semi-circular arch

75 38

Principal post 75 mm 38 mm Strut 75 mm 38 mm Segments 75 mm 38 mm 75 38 50 38 Hardboard Centering pieces (boarding) 75 mm 25 mm

75 38

50 38

Carrier 75 mm 38 mm

Folding wedges Strut aa 4 75 mm of 075 mm

Figure 7.122: Detail of a wooden turning piece

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Civil Techology

Lag

Formwork board Folding wedges Bearers 114 mm 52 mm Wooden prop 114 mm 38 mm

Figure 7.123: Wooden turning piece for a segmental gauged arch (open lags)

Open lags Closed lags Top of formwork and battens can also be covered in hardboard Bearers 114 mm 52 mm Wooden prop 114 mm 38 mm

Formwork board Folding wedges

Figure 7.124: Wooden turning piece for a semi-circular gauged arch (open and closed lags)

Activity 12
1. What is your understanding of the term arches? 2. What is the function of an arch? 3. Name the different types of arches. 4. Briefly describe the steps that you would follow when setting out a segmental arch. 5. What is a turning piece/profile? 6. Use sketches to illustrate the following gauged arches: Semi-circular gauged arch Segmental gauged arch. 7. Gauged arches are constructed using bricks that are cut into wedges. Which methods can be used to produce these wedge-shaped bricks? 8. Name one advantage of rough arches. 9. Use a sketch to illustrate the structure of a wooden turning piece.

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Construction

Woodworking
Ceilings
Ceilings are installed beneath the roofing timber for aesthetic reasons to conceal the unsightly timber and lend an attractive appearance to the room. They also prevent dust falling from the roof structure and serve to insulate sound between rooms. A variety of materials for ceiling construction is available on the market. However, the material and accessories supplied by the various manufacturers may differ as to measurements (or dimension) and composition. Requisites for a ceiling The following types of materials are commonly used in the construction of ceilings:
Name Wooden cover strips Metal cover strips Half-round mouldings Branderings Position/place Where two ceiling boards meet Where two ceiling boards meet Where two ceiling boards meet Nailed at the bottom of tie beams at right angles Under the ceiling board and against the internal walls Under the ceiling board and against the internal walls Under the ceiling board and against the internal walls Can be fixed to screed coat or floor covering along the walls. 3 000 mm and increases in multiples of 300 mm to 4 200 mm 1800 mm and increases in multiples of 300 mm to 6,6 m 3 000 mm ain increases in multiples of 300 mm to 4 200 mm 2700 mm and increases in multiples of 300 mm to 4800 mm Only 3 000 mm 8 13; 10 19 14 32 38 38 38 50 50 50 14 67 22 63 22 44 75 75 Length 3 000 mm and increases in multiples of 300 mm to 4 200 mm Thickness and breadth 8 32 8 44 16 44 Purpose To close the opening between ceiling boards To close the opening between ceiling boards To close the opening between ceiling boards Ceiling boards are nailed to ceiling beams

Wooden crown mouldings (cornices) Gypsum crown mouldings (cornices) Gypsum crown mouldings (cornices) Skirting boards

To close the gap (corner) between the wall and the ceiling in order to prevent dust from falling from the roof To close the gap (corner) between the wall and the ceiling in order to prevent dust from falling from the roof To close the gap (corner) between the wall and the ceiling in order to prevent dust from falling from the roof To close the gap between the wall and the floor or floor covering and to provide a neat finish

75 125

3 000 mm and increases in multiples of 300 mm to 4 200 mm

13 44 13 67 13 94 19 70 22 69 22 94 22 144 6,4 900 6,4 1200 9,5 900 9,5 1 200

Gypsum ceiling boards

Are nailed to ceiling beams

2 700 mm and increases in multiples of 300 mm to 4 800 mm

As ceilings to finish rooms and to cover electric wiring

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Civil Techology
Knotty pine V-tongue and groove ceiling boards Insulation ceiling board Nailed to the ceiling beams 3 000 mm and increases in multiples of 300 mm to 5 400 mm 13 65 13 100 22 63 22 100 25, 30, 40 and increases in multiples of 10 mm to 80 mm. Breadth is always 600 mm 4 900 4 1200 6 900 6 1 200 As ceilings to provide a decorative and durable appearance

Nailed to ceiling beams

1200 mm and increases in multiples of 600 mm to 7200 mm, the longest being 8000 mm

To keep heat in rooms/to provide thermal insulation

Fibre-cement ceiling boards

Nailed to ceiling beams

4-mm board is available in lengths of 2400 mm, 3000 mm, 3300 mm and 3600 mm. 6-mm board is available in 2400 mm, 3000 mm and 3600 mm lengths

As waterproof ceilings for rooms and used outdoors under verandas and eaves

Roof timber This timber is usually used in areas where it will not be visible. The most common format used to indicate the measurements and lengths of such timber is the following: Thickness Width (depth) Quantity/length 152 mm 5 /3,6 m 50 mm It is abbreviated as follows: 50 mm 152 mm 6/3,6 m Measurements of roof timber The nominal thickness and width (depth) of the timber is: 38 mm 114 mm; 38 mm 152 mm; 38 mm 228 mm. 50 mm 114 mm; 50 mm 152 mm; 50 mm 228 mm. 76 mm 114 mm; 76 mm 152 mm; 76 mm 228 mm. Roof timber lengths start at 1,8 m and increases in multiples of 300 mm to 6,6 m. Nominal measurements Nominal thickness and depth refer to the measurements provided by the sawmills. Measuring size Roofing contractors also use timber that has been machined to specific sizes. The Nominal size of the coarse-cut wood provided by the sawmills is, e.g. 50 mm 152 mm, but if it is machined for use by roofing contractors, the actual size will be 48 mm 148 mm. The advantage of using timber that is machined after it has come from the sawmills is that all the timber can be finished to the exact same size.

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Construction
The position and placing of timber for roofs
Name Rafter Tie beam Position/place Lateral component on the outside of the truss to which all the components of the truss are attached Horizontal beam to which all the truss components are attached; forms the span of the roof truss; rests on the wall plate Vertical components in the middle of the roof truss Attached to rafter and tie beam Vertical components between principal (king) post and hak of a roof; attached to rafter and tie beam Lateral components that join the rafters and tie beams and/or posts The maximum centre-to-centre spacing of purlins must be 1200 mm. Purlins are nailed to the top of the rafter. Usually attached to the inside of the (load-bearing) external walls Purpose Roof battens/purlins are nailed to it Forms the span of the roof truss; rests on the wall plate It determines the height of the roof truss For sturdiness To provide solidity to the trusses Roof cover is nailed to purlins/roof battens. The ridge plate is nailed to the ridge purlin To spread the load of the trusses more evenly along the upper levels of the external walls The ends of the tie beams rest on it Used to attache roof trusses To affix gutters To finish eaves neatly To provide a finish to eaves of gable walls

Principal/King post Queen post Roof tie Purlins/roof battens

Wall plate

Facia boards Bargeboard

Attached to the roof rafters; usually laminated wood and are available in lengths of 600 mm to 12000 mm Attached to purlin

Layout of a ceiling for a room The minimum height for all rooms, from the completed ground level to the underside of the ceiling, is 2,4 m. The minimum height for entrance halls, passages and bathrooms is 2,1 m. At least one trapdoor of 650 650 mm must provide access to the roof to allow the installation of the geyser or other electrical work. Steps for the layout of the ceiling lathing 1. Ceiling laths are nailed at right (90) angles to the tie beams of roof trusses/ principals. The distance between the tie beams determine the size of the ceiling laths. The sizes of the ceiling laths: 38 38 mm if the centres of the tie beams are up to 1 000 mm 38 50 mm if the centres of the tie beams are between 1 001 mm and 1 200 mm 50 50 mm if the centres of the tie beams are between 1 201 mm and 1 400 mm 2. Ceiling laths are nailed at centres of 38 mm from the walls if the cornice measures 75 mm and at 86 mm if the cornice measures 125 mm. The laths must not be nailed to the walls, since provision has to be made for expansion, contraction and movement of walls resulting from ground movements. 3. Use a pipe level or spirit level to check that the ceiling laths are level, by inserting wedges between the opening where the ceiling laths and the tie beams meet. 4. Ceiling laths must be skew-nailed to the tie beams with round wire nails of 75 mm to 100 mm. 5. The centres of ceiling boards that are 900 mm wide must not be more than 450 mm and for 1 200 mm boards, the centres must not be more than 600 mm. 6. If the ceiling boards are going to be plastered, the centres must not be more than 400 mm in order to carry the heavier board.

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External wall Tie beam Interior wall 110 mm Interior wall 110 mm

Wall plate 114 38 mm

Tie beams 114 38 mm

Ceiling batten Wall plate 114 38 mm Tie beam Ceiling battens 38 38 mm

Ceiling battens

Figure 7.125: The construction of a ceiling for a room

Various types of materials used for ceilings


Ceiling boards When the ceiling laths are in place, they have to be covered by ceiling boards. Various types of ceiling boards, such as gypsum, knotty-pine and fibre-cement (NUTEC) boards, are available on the market today. Gypsum ceiling boards are commonly used, because they are: cheaper fire-resistant durable easy to handle. Gypsum board is available in widths of 900 mm and 1 200 mm and thickness of 6,4 mm. The minimum length of a board is 2 700 mm and the length increases by multiples of 300 mm up to 4 800 mm.

300

Construction
Gypsum board must always be fixed to the ceiling laths at a right (90) angle. The boards must be fitted with the clean side (side that contains no writing) facing down if it is going to be painted. If the ceiling is going to be plastered, the boards must be fitted with the dull side, which has a rougher finish, facing down since the plaster adheres more readily to the rough surface. The gap between the boards must not exceed 2 mm. Wooden cover strips, metal cover strips, joining tape and plaster, paper gaffer tape and half-round mouldings can be used to cover the opening between two ceiling boards. Galvanised nails, 38 mm in length, with large, flat heads, are used to nail the ceiling boards to the laths. The centres of the nailing on the inside of the ceiling board must be 300 mm maximum. Scaffold trestles of 228 38 mm, planks that are suspended between two ladders or even drums on which 228 38 mm planks are balanced, can be used as scaffolds when the ceiling is fitted. Ceiling beams The dimensions of ceiling beams are determined by the spacing of the roof trusses. Ceiling beams are nailed to the tie beams with 75 mm to 100 mm nails. Measurements of ceiling beams
Spacing of roof trusses Under 1000 mm 1001 to 1200 mm 1201 to 1400 mm Measurements of ceiling beams 38 38 mm 38 50 mm (50 mm vertical measurement) 50 50 mm

Spacing of ceiling beams The spacing of the ceiling beams is determined by the thickness of the ceiling board and on whether it will be plastered or not.
Types of gypsum ceiling boards Gypsum ceiling board 6,4 mm Gypsum ceiling board 6,4 mm Gypsum ceiling board and plaster 6,4 mm Gypsum ceiling board and plaster 6,4 mm Width of ceiling board 900 mm 1200 mm 900 mm 1200 mm Spacing of ceiling beams 450 mm 600 mm 300 mm 400 mm

Gypsum ceiling boards with plaster finish Gypsum ceiling board is finished using gypsum plaster, such as Cretestone or Rhinolite, which not only gives the ceiling a smooth finish but also serves to enhance its aesthetic value. The gypsum ceiling board must be laid with the rough, dull side facing down since the plaster clings to this surface more readily. To accommodate the weight of the plaster, 9 mm boards must be used. Sagging may occur after some time if 6 mm boards are used because they cannot carry the weight of the plaster. The centres used to nail the ceiling boards to the beams must be 100 mm at the most. Ceiling tiles Lightweight tiles are made of polystyrene and fitted using tongue-and-groove joints. They can be pasted onto existing ceilings or attached to the ceiling beams using clips.

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Civil Techology
Properties of ceiling tiles They: can be used to create patterns on the ceiling are available in various colours are maintenance-free and easy to install are easy to clean serve as insulation against heat and sound are light because of their hollow cores Knotty pine ceiling Planks of SA pine that have many knots are used for ceilings. The tongue-andgroove joints allow the planks to slot into one another easily and firmly. Properties of knotty pine It: creates a durable finish looks attractive because of the knots shows the natural grain when finished is easy to clean after it has been varnished shows no nails Insulating ceiling boards Insulating board does not heat or cool a building as such but merely delays the transfer of heat or cold from the outside to the inside of the building or vice versa. In South Africa, it will keep buildings cooler in summer and warmer in winter months. Insulating board is made of polystyrene foam that has excellent thermal insulating properties. Tongue-and-groove joints are used to fit the boards. For a ceiling that is 100 mm thick, two 50 mm boards can be place over each other. Clips and glue are used to attach the board. Properties of insulating boards They are: excellent thermal insulators durable and guaranteed to last light and very strong available in long lengths and great thicknesses easy to install cost-effective imporous and resistant to moisture fire and flame-resistant boards in contact with fire simply melt not good at muffling sound. Fibre-cement ceiling boards Fibre-cement ceiling boards are made of cement and organic fibres. They are environmentally friendly and contain no asbestos fibres. Properties of fibre-cement ceiling boards They: are available in shades of natural grey need no pre-treatment before being painted are suitable for use with all water-based paints moisture-resistant suitable to use for eaves and verandas do not rot and are resistant to termites are brittle and break or snap easily

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Construction
Ceiling beams The measurements of ceiling beams are determined by the spacing of the roof trusses. The table below indicates the measurements of the ceiling beams
Spacing of roof trusses Under 1050 mm 1001 to 1500 mm 38 38 mm 38 50 mm (50 mm vertical measurement) Size of ceiling beams

Spacing of ceiling beams


The spacing of the ceiling beams is determined by the thickness of the ceiling board
Types of gypsum ceiling boards Fibre-cement ceiling boards 4,0 mm Fibre-cement ceiling boards 6,0 mm Width of ceiling board 900 mm and 1200 mm 900 mm and 1200 mm Spacing of ceiling beams 450 mm 600 mm

Cornices (crown mouldings)


The cornices (crown mouldings) used will depend on the type of ceiling, as the material used for cornices is determined by the type of ceiling. Wooden cornices are used for wooden ceilings, while gypsum cornices are used for gypsum ceiling boards. Homemade mitre boxes are used to saw the corners of the cornices. A coped joint is used for walls with interior angles, while a mitre joint is used for coign walls (walls with external angles). The cornices that are used for walls with interior angles are sawed at right angles. Other cornices are cut at a 45 angle using a mitre box, after which the reverse sides of the mitre angles are skewed using a saw. This joint is called a coped or scribed joint. Gypsum cornices are available in widths of 75 mm and 125 mm. 75 mm gypsum cornices are available in lengths of 2 700 mm, which increase in multiples of 300 mm up to 4 800 mm. 125 mm gypsum cornices are available in lengths of 3 000 mm. A splayed heading joint is used to join cornices where walls are longer than 4 800 mm. Steel nails are used to fix the cornice to the walls and galvanised nails with large heads are used to fix it to the ceiling boards. The heads of the nails must always be level with the surface. Finishing methods used for the ceiling of a room Ceiling boards can be painted, plastered or finished using wallpaper. A special type of plaster, like Crestestone or Rhinolite, is generally used and is readily available. The plaster must be applied in the same direction as the ceiling board. Metal strips are used to join ceiling boards along their lengths if the room is longer than 4 800 mm. The ceiling boards must be staggered in order for the joints to be at various places. Finish Fill all nail and screw holes with filler. Sand all the filled holes until smooth after the filler has dried. Ensure that the surface is free of dust. Apply the base coat. Apply two coats of paint as final layers.

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Ceiling insulation Insulation is installed if it is specified on the plans. It is commonly used in areas that are either very hot or very cold. This material is placed on top of the ceiling boards to trap the heat inside during winter, but also to prevent the heat from penetrating through the roof in summer. Pink insulation material made of fibre-glass is available in rolls and it is laid in the ceiling like blankets to regulate the inside temperature. Fire-resistant polystyrene can also be used.

Activity 13
1. 2. Name the function of the following ceiling components: 1.1 Cornices 1.2 Cover strip 1.3 Ceiling beams Copy the table below into your workbook and complete it by filling in two advantages and disadvantages of the following types of ceilings:
Type of ceiling board Gypsum ceiling board Gypsum ceiling board with a plaster finish Ceiling tiles Knotty pine ceiling Insulating ceiling board Fibre-cement ceiling board Advantage Disadvantage

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

3.1 What is the function of facia boards and to what are they attached? 3.2 What is the function of bargeboards and to what are they attached? The distance between the roof trusses determines the size of the ceiling beams what will the size of the ceiling beams be if the spacing between roof trusses is: 4.1 up to 1 000 mm, 4.2 between 1 001 mm and 1 200 mm and 4.3 between 1 201 mm and 1 400 mm? What determines the centres between ceiling beams? What type of nail is used to: 6.1 nail ceiling beams to tie beams? 6.2 nail ceiling board to ceiling beams? Why is it advantageous to use screws in gypsum ceiling boards? You are expected to order ceiling board for the rooms listed below. What would be the width of the boards if the measurements of the rooms are: 8.1 2 400 mm 8.2 2 700 mm 8.3 3 000 mm? In a 3 600 mm room, four ceiling boards that are 900 mm wide or three ceiling boards that are 1200 mm wide can be used. How many ceiling boards would you use? Explain your choice. Name three precautionary measures that must be taken before the application of the first coat of a finish. Name three ways in which gypsum ceiling boards can be finished. What type of finish would be used for knotty pine ceilings? Make a two-dimensional sketch and indicate how the heads of two cornices are joined.

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Windows
Windows are installed to allow light and air into a room and they usually open either horizontally or vertically towards the outside. Nowadays most new windows are fitted with pivoted lever hinges rather than the older, book or butt hinges. A vast variety of windows framed in an assortment of materials is available. However, only windows that have wooden (timber) frames will be discussed in this section, more specifically double casement windows without fanlights. Timber windows are usually manufactured using meranti or other hardwood and the panes can be either large or small. Timber frames give windows a natural, attractive appearance, especially when varnish rather than paint is used as finish. The advantages of windows with timber frames They: look stylish, natural and attractive are durable if properly painted or varnished can be custom-made to suit individual tastes can have panes inserted into the timber frame using glaziers putty. The disadvantages of timber windows: They: need regular maintenance. cannot be effectively burglar-proofed because the burglar bars are screwed to the window frame and are expensive since imported hardwood is scarce. Purchasing windows Windows complete with frames are available on the market. Manufacturers usually have catalogues displaying their windows and suitable windows can be ordered according to their codes, which indicate the type and measurements of the windows. Window frame Frame head/head: 44 mm 90 mm has a throat at the top Frame sill/windowsill: 44 90 mm has a throat and a groove for a metal bar that prevents water from damming up between the casement and the window at the sill and the rebated sill slants towards the outside to allow rainwater to run off it Throats in the head, sill and style prevent rain from being blown in by the wind. They also prevent water running down the windowsill from penetrating the wall Stopwater groove: groove into which metal strip is placed to prevent water from penetrating the walls Straps/Flanges: metal straps built into the wall opening to secure the frame Two jambs: 44 mm 68 mm Mullion: 44 mm 68 mm Window frames have a rebate of 22 mm 12 mm along the outside into which the sash frame fits.
Did you know? Glaziers putty has to be painted or varnished approximately 48 hours after it has been applied in order to protect it against desiccation, shrinking and cracking.

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Example of a window frame Sash frame Each sash frame has: two window styles: 44 mm 54 mm a top rail: 44 mm 54 mm a bottom rail: 44 54 mm breadth may be increased to prevent sagging and to carry the weight of the sash frame glazing bar: 22 mm 44 mm can be horizontal or vertical, depending on the design (number of smaller panes). The rebates of sash frames are 20 mm 10 mm to allow the fixing of the windowpanes using putty or wooden glazing strips. Glazing bars are finished by machining mouldings into them to provide a decorative appearance. The two rebates on either side are 20 mm 7 mm.
Window frame 44 90 mm Rebate 12 22 mm Jamb 44 68 mm Rebate 12 22 mm Mullion/muntin 44 68 mm Rebate 12 22 mm Rebate 12 22 mm Frame sill 44 90 mm Horne

Figure 7.126: Example of a window frame

Double casement windows without fanlights The sketch below illustrates various designs of standard double casement windows with one pane. The same basic designs that have smaller glass panes are also available.

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Construction
Frame head 44 90 mm

Top rail 44 54 mm Mullion/muntin 44 68 mm

Window pane

Jamb 44 68 mm

Stile of frame 44 54 mm Bottom rail 44 54 mm Windowsill 44 90 mm Horne

Figure 7.127: Outside elevation: double casement window with full glass pane

Figure 7.128: Outside elevation: double casement window with one fanligtht

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Stop-water grove

Jamb 44 68 mm Stile of window 44 54 mm Ovolo moulding Throat Window pane Planted/wooden moulding

Figure 7.129: Horizontal section of the jamb and post (AA)


Sash mullion 44 68 mm

Glass Glass Planted/wooden moulding Glaziers putty Stile of window 44 54 mm

Figure 7.130: Horizontal section of the mullion and post (BB)

Glass Glaziers putty Bottom rail 44 54 mm

Frame sill 44 90 mm Water-stop groove Throat

Figure 7.131: Vertical section of bottom rail and sill (C-C)

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Construction
(Planted) moulding 18 22 mm

Throat Frame head 44 68 mm Top rail 44 54 mm Glaziers putty Glass

Figure 7.132: Vertical section of frame head and top rail


Frame head 70 110 mm Top rail 84 60 mm Jamb 70 110 mm Stile of window 44 60 mm

Sash mullion/muntin 70 110 mm Glazing bar 22 44 mm Window pane Bottom rail 44 110 mm Frame sill 70 110 mm

Figure 7.133: Double casement window with three panes/windows


Jamb 70 110 mm

Stile of window 44 60 mm

Glass Glaziers putty

Figure 7.134: Horizontal section of jamb and post

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Mullion (muntin) 70 110 mm

Ovolo moulding

Glass Glaziers putty

Stile of window 44 60 mm

Figure 7.135: Horizontal section of mullion and adjacent post


Glass Planted/wooden moulding Bottom rail 44 60 mm

Throat Windowsill 70 110 mm Water-stop groove Throat

Figure 7.136: Vertical section of bottom rail and windowsill

Frame head 70 110 mm Throat Top rail 44 60 mm

Planted moulding

Glass 44

Jamb

Figure 7.137: Vertical section of top rail and head

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Construction

Figure 7.138: Vertical section of a sash bar

Activity 14
1. 2. 3. What information must be supplied when windows are ordered? Why should glaziers putty be painted 48 hours after application? What are the advantages and disadvantages of choosing timber windows for a house?

Drawings: 1. Sketch a glazing bar and provide the sketch with a title and the necessary measurements. 2. Copy the drawing below into your workbook and provide a title and the necessary measurements.

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3. 4. The frames of a double casement window have one full window pane each. Sketch and name the components of the double casement window with a centrelight. A double casement window is shown in the figure below.

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6

Identify the window and the members A-H. Sketch section AA. Sketch section BB. Sketch section CC. Sketch section DD. Sketch section EE.

Roof trusses
Introduction Roof trusses are one of the most important as well as the most expensive components of the timberwork of a house and their design must ensure that they are: waterproof and do not collect water sturdy enough to carry the roof cover safely able to withstand wind and other forces that act on them neat and solid to enhance the appearance of the building. Types of roofs Various types of roofs are used, among which flat and pitched roofs are the most popular. The type of roof needed for a building will depend on: the size and shape of the building the type of roof flat or pitched the affordability of the roof. National Building Regulations applicable to roofs Part 1 In order to design, manufacture and erect roofs, the abovementioned regulations must be considered. They contain clear instructions that must be followed to ensure that roofs are erected according to the given standards. An extract of the said regulations is as follows:

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Dimensions of roof The first consideration when designing any type of roof will be the type of roofing that is going to be used. There are three types of roofing: Class A: Metal and fibre-cement these materials are lightweight Class B: Tiles of stone, clay or cement, or other similar materials and thatch of these, thatch is the heaviest Class C: metal roof tiles the heaviest of all roofing materials. The size of the roofing rafter/rafter The following sizes for determining the maximum span of up to 10 m are stipulated in the regulations: 38 mm 114 mm; 38 mm 152 mm and 38 mm 228 mm. The dimensions of the tie beam The following sizes for a span of up to 10 m are stipulated in the regulations: 38 mm 114 mm 38 mm 152 mm 38 mm 228 mm The pitch of the roof The dimensions of the rafter and tie beam for Class A and C roofing are determined by the pitch of the roof, which must be pitched at a minimum of 15 and not exceeding 30. The dimensions for the rafter and tie beam for Class B roofing are also determined by the pitch of the roof truss, which must be pitched at a minimum of 17 and not exceeding 35. One may deviate from these dimensions as long as the pitch still meets the requirements mentioned on above. The design of the truss as well as the necessary calculations must be submitted to the local authorities in the event of any deviation. The grading of the timber that is used Industrial wood of grades 4, 6 and 8 are used for roof trusses; grade 4 is rated lower than grade 6, while grade 8 offers the best quality. Maximum span of timber Timber has a maximum span that it can cover without support and without its snapping. The maximum span depends on the load that the timber has to carry. The weight that timber must carry is determined by: the size and spacing of the roof battens the type of roof covering the dimensions and spacing of the ceiling beams the type of ceiling board the pitch of the roof the spacing of the roof trusses. Maximum distance between roof trusses The centre line to centre line measurement (distance between centres) of roof trusses should not exceed the following distances: Metal or fibre-cement sheets: 1 400 mm Concrete tiles, clay tiles or such similar materials: 760 mm Metal tiles 1 060 mm

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Construction at the ridge of the roof
E D C B A

Figure 7.139: Construction at the ridge of a roof

Components: A Rafter B King (principal) post C Galvanised zinc sheet Ridge purlin/roof batten D E Ridge plate Construction of the roof The components of a roof must be accurately sawn to ensure that they fit closely together. The rafter serves as support for the purlins and roofing; the king post, which determines the height of the truss, is positioned in the middle of the roof truss and fixed to the rafter and tie beam. Purlins/roof battens must have a nominal breadth of 50 mm and depth of 76 mm to accommodate metal roof covering. The maximum centre-to-centre spacing of purlins must be 1200 mm. The roofing is nailed to the purlins. The ridge purlin must be specifically positioned to facilitate the fixing or the ridge plate. Purlins are fixed on top of the rafters. If a purlin must be joined, the joints on the abutting beams must be staggered.

Joining the components of a pitched roof truss


Nails Nailing is the traditional method of fixing the components of a roof to the trusses. This remains the fastest, simplest, cheapest and safest method if the instructions are followed closely: Nails must be approximately 25 mm longer than the combined thickness of the components so that they can be finished at the back. They can only be used if the components are placed one on top of the other. Nails alone will not hold firmly enough and must be complemented by nuts and bolts. Bolts Bolts are commonly used with nails because: they ensure a more solid construction than would have been the case had only nails been used the components can be kept compactly together they are easy to use and last long.

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Construction
Fish/fishplate This joint component comprises pressed galvanised rectangles of various sizes that have sharp, nail-like points on one or both sides. Combed washers are bolted between the timber components. Fishplates are used: when the roof components are joined using butt-joints on building sites where a beater is used to drive the fishplate into the component, and thereafter a hammer is used to complete the process on both sides of the purlin/truss joint.

Figure 7.140: Example of a fishplate

Wall plate It is usually fixed to the inside of external walls and measures 38 mm 114 mm. The purpose of the wall plate is to: spread the load of the trusses more evenly across the top levels of the external walls serve as fixing point for tie beams and rafters have the roofing rafter is fixed to it using a twisted clamping plate. Anchorage (staying) of roof trusses, rafters and beams The type of anchorage that is used will depend in the pitch of the roof and the spacing of the roof trusses. The following instructions must be followed: All the roof trusses and beams that are supported by a brick or concrete block (or even a stone) must be securely mortared (plastered) into the wall. In the case of heavy roofing, such as concrete, clay or slate tiles, two 4 mm loops of galvanised steel wire must be built at least 300 mm into the wall. For roofs that have a sheet-metal cover, galvanised steel ribbon of 30 mm 1,2 mm or 30 mm 1,6 mm or loops of 4 mm galvanised steel wire must be inserted at least 600 mm into the wall and sealed in. Galvanised steel ribbon or galvanised steel wire is anchored in suitable spots. The steel ribbon (hoops) or steel wire is bent on both sides of the rafter or tie beam, after which it is nailed to the timber. Roofs comprised of rafters If a roof is constructed using only roofing rafters, as is the case with lean-tos and a couple (span) roof/couple truss, the following regulations must be met: The spacing between the rafters is usually 600 mm, 760 mm, 1050 mm or 1400 mm in the case of Class A and C roofing. The spacing between the rafters is usually 600 mm and 760 mm in the case of Class B roofing. Grades 4, 6 or 8 timber is used.

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The nominal depth and breadth of the rafters must be: 38 mm 114 mm; 38 mm 152 mm; 38 mm 228 mm. 50 mm 114 mm; 50 mm 152 mm; 50 mm 228 mm. 76 mm 114 mm; 76 mm 152 mm; 76 mmx 228 mm. The nominal depth and breadth of the rafters depend on the class of the roofing, the spacing between rafters and the span of the rafter. The rafters must preferably be pitched at less than 10.

Roofing rafter 114 x 38 mm

Wall plate 114 x 38 mm Wall 220 mm Couple truss

Figure 7.141: Example of a roof comprised only of rafters

Couple (span) roof/couple truss Couple roofs fall under the category of pitched roofs. These roof trusses comprise a few (two) rafters with or without a ridge purlin between them.
Ridge purlin

Purlin 76 x 50 mm

King post Rafter 114 x 38 mm

Corrugated zinc

Tie beam 114 x 38 mm Foot purlin 76 x 50 mm Fascia board 228 x 32 mm Soffit board 6mm Soffit hanger 38 x 38 mm Quarter round (moulding) 20 mm Wall plate 114 x 38 mm Wall 220 mm Plaster 12 mm thick Scale 1:10

Figure 7.142: Principal post roof truss with closed brow

Another example of the group of pitched roofs as the name suggests, these roof trusses consist of a few (two) roofing rafters, one king (principal) post and a tie beam.

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Construction
South African roof truss (SA roof truss) or Howe roof truss This is another example of a pitched roof and it is a very popular when houses are built. Construction The roof truss comprises: a principal rafter and hangers with oblique struts between the rafters tie beams that are the same length as the span of the roof truss; the tie beam is divided into equal braizes to determine the position of the principal rafter and hangers two rafters that are divided in half by the number of sections on the tie beam: if there are two parts on the tie beam, each rafter is divided into two equal parts.
Rafter 114 x 38 mm King post 114 x 38 mm Strut 114 x 38 mm Queen post 114 x 38 mm Wall plate 114 x 38 mm Tie beam 114 x 38 mm A Wall 220 mm

A = Eaves projection

Figure 7.143: Howe roof truss

The W-roof truss This is another example belonging to the group of pitched roofs. Construction: It has no posts. The struts are W-shaped, hence the name. The tie beam is divided into three equal braizes to position the struts. Each rafter is divided into two equal sections.
A = Maximum spacing (corner to corner) for Class A roofing is 1 200 mm Fascia board 228 x 28 mm Foot Gutter purlin Beam filling Wall plate 114 x 30 mm Plaster 12 mm Downpipe Wall 220 mm Ridge plate Ridge purlin 76 x 50 mm Corrugated zinc sheeting Rafter 114 x 50 mm Purlin 76 x 50mm Strut 114 x 38 mm Strut 114 x 38 mm Plaster Tie beam 114 x 38 mm

Figure 7.144: W-roof truss

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Examples of a roof consisting only of rafters Lean-to Lean-tos fall into the flat roof category and their construction may differ, but these lean-tos look more attractive and use less wood. Construction Lean-tos have no posts or struts and consist only of rafters. The purlins of conventional lean-tos are nailed to the tops of the rafters. The purlins of modern lean-tos, as illustrated in the drawing below, are fixed between the rafters. Waterproofing of flat roofs Flashing is used at the junction between a roof, such as a lean-to and a parapet wall. Flashings must be embedded at least two brick layers above the level of the roof into the horizontal frame of the brickwork. Attaching the components of a lean-to A variety of galvanised steel connection plates is available and these plates are sturdy because they are joined using bolts. Truss hangers They are U-shaped and the roof timber rests in the U. They are suitable for T-junctions where beams are affixed to a wall or when two beams are joined. Corner metal connectors They are rectangular. They are suitable for use in T-junctions where two beams must be joined. Metal clamping is twisted at a 90 angle to point in two directions is suitable for joining components that rest on each other, e.g. the wall plate and tie beam.
Scale 1:25 Roof pitch 5o Sqaure gutter 100 x 100 mm Plaster 12 mm Parapet wall 220 mm Flashing

Corrugated zinc sheet

Purlins 152 x 50 mm Rafter 228 x 50 mm Downpipe 76 x 76 mm Pillar 350 x 350 mm Super structure 220 mm

Cement screed coat 30 mm Concrete slab 75 mm

Sectional view/vertical sectional elevation

Figure 7.145: Lean-to roof

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Construction
Framed lean-to These lean-tos fall into the flat roof category. Construction They have only one rafter. They are constructed in the same way as half of an SA roof truss. They also use less timber.

Ridge purlin Flashing

Hanger 114 x 38 Galvanised zinc sheeting Roofing rafter 114 x 38 Roof batten 76 x 50 Foot purlin 76 x 50 Strut 114 x 38 150

Wall plate Fascia board Gutter

114 x 76

Tie beam 114 x 38

Span 6000

Figure 7.146: Framed lean-to-roof

Eave projection/brow of roof The section of the roof that protrudes past the walls is called the eave or the brow. The brow can be closed or open. Brows vary between 300 mm and 900 mm. Open eave projection Roof timber is visible and appears unfinished. Birds nest under the open eaves. Beam filling is compulsory to prevent birds from entering the roof area.

1. Corrugated zinc sheeting 2. Roofing rafter 114 38 mm 3. Tie beam 114 38 mm 4. Wall plate 114 38 mm 5. Wall 220 mm 6. Gutter 7. Fascia board 228 28 mm 8. Foot purlin 76 50 mm 9. Downpipe 10. Beam filling 11. Plaster/Plaster filling 12. Purlin 76 50 mm

Figure 7.147: Open eave projection

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Closed eaves These provide a more attractive and finished appearance to the overhang of the roof because the roof timber is invisible. They prevent birds from nesting there. Beam filling is not compulsory. 6 mm soffit board is generally used. Wire netting fixed with 50 mm 16 mm soffit battens is suitable for areas where the wood has to be kept dry.

Figure 7.148: Closed eaves

1. Corrugated zinc sheeting 2. Roofing rafter 114 38 mm 3. Tie beam 114 38 mm 4. Wall plate 114 38 mm 5. Plaster 12 mm 6. Wall 220 mm 7. Downpipe 8. Quarter-round (moulding) 18 mm 9. Soffit hanger 38 38 mm 10. Soffit board/Fibre-cement board 6 mm 11. Gutter 12. Fascia board 228 28 mm 13. Foot purlin 76 50 mm 14. Purlin 76 50 mm

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Construction

Activity 15
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Name one advantage of both a gable-end and a hipped-end roof. Describe the function of the wall plate. Explain how the roof trusses of a sheet-metal roof will be anchored. Name the factors that determine the depth and breadth of the roofing rafters for a lean-to. A South African-type king post roof truss spans seven metres and is pitched at 30. Draw a little more than half of the roof truss that has been nailed, using a scale of 1 : 20. Use the following specifications: Tie beam: 152 mm 38 mm Rafter: 114 mm 38 mm Hangers: 114 mm 38 mm Struts: 114 mm 38 mm Wall plate: 114 mm 38 mm King post: 114 mm 38 mm Eave projection: 500 mm and open Provide a title, the scale and all the necessary labels. A king (principal) post, single-rafter roof truss spans seven metres and is pitched at 30. Draw a little more than half of the roof truss that has been nailed and bolted, using a scale of 1 : 20. Use the following specifications: Wall: 220 mm Wall plate: 14 mm 38 mm Tie beam: 114 mm 38 mm King post: 114 mm 38 mm Rafter: 114 mm 38 mm Hanger: 114 mm 38 mm Strut: 114 mm 38 mm Ridge purlin: 75 mm 50 mm Roof batten: 75 mm 50 mm Base shoe: 75 mm 50 mm Facia board: 230 mm 30 mm Eave projection: 400 mm and open Roofing: Fibre cement sheet Half-round gutter: 150 mm diameter Downpipe: 80 mm diameter Plaster : 12 mm Ridge plate: Ceiling beam: 38 m 38 mm Soft ceiling board (gypsum board): 6 mm Cornice: 75 75 mm

The following must also be illustrated: Beam filling The distance of the end lap of the asbestos-cement sheets The spacing between the base shoe, roof batten and ridge purlin. Provide a title, the scale and the necessary labels and dimensions.

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7. A framed lean-to spans two metres and is pitched at 15. Draw the framed lean-to, that has been nailed and bolted, using a scale of 1 : 10. Use the following specifications: Wall: 220 mm Wall plate: 14 mm by 38 mm Tie beam: 114 mm by 38 mm Rafter: 114 mm by 38 mm Hanger: 114 mm by 38 mm Strut: 114 mm by 38 mm Ridge purlin: 75 mm by 50 mm Roof batten: 75 mm by 50 mm Base shoe: 75 mm by 50 mm Facia board: 230 mm by 30 mm Eave projection: 300 mm and open Roofing: galvanised, corrugated zinc Square gutter: 100 mm by 100 mm Downpipe: 75 mm by 75 mm Plaster: 12 mm Indicate the flashing. Indicate the spacing between the base shoe, roof batten and ridge purlin. Provide a title, the scale and the necessary labels and dimensions.

8. Using a scale of 1 : 5, draw a vertical sectional elevation of the closed eave/ brow of a king post roof truss pitched at 30 degrees to illustrate the following: Use the following specifications: Rafter: 114 mm by 38 mm Tie beam: 114 mm by 38 mm Wall plate: 114 mm by 38 mm Facia board: 230 mm by 30 mm Soffit hangers: 38 mm by 38 mm Soffit: 4 mm asbestos finished with 18 mm quarter-rounds Roof batten: 75 mm by 50 mm Roofing: Corrugated iron King post: 114 mm by 38 mm Eave projection: 400 mm Provide a title, the scale and the necessary labels and dimensions. Use the information that has already been provided and draw, on a scale of 1 : 25, a vertical sectional elevation of a carport. The following must be illustrated: Wall 220 mm Plaster on both sides of the wall 12 mm Inside measurement between pillars and wall (western side) 3 000 mm Concrete slab 75 mm Cement screed coat 30 mm Square stone pillars 350 350 mm Height of face-brick pillars above concrete slab 2 550 mm (30 layers of bricks) high Height from the top of the concrete floor slab to below the bearer beam against the wall 2 840 mm Pitch of roof 5 Height of wall from top of concrete floor slab 2 805 mm (33 layers of bricks) high

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Construction
Height of parapet wall 1 020 mm (12 layers of bricks) high Rafters 228 50 mm Square gutter 100 100 mm Square downpipe 76 76 mm Flashing Provide a title, the scale and the necessary labels and dimensions. The concrete foundations for the pillars and the wall do not have to be shown.

Setting out roof trusses for a gable-end roof


Advantages Roof trusses for gable-end roofs are: easier to manufacture and can be manufactured more quickly safe if the gable end does not exceed 6 m use less timber in the construction of roof trusses cheaper because they are less labour-intensive.
Ridge

Verge board Gable wall Fascia board

Figure 7.149: Gable-end roof

Verge board Wall Wall plate

Roofing rafters max. spacing 1 400 mm

Fascia board

Fascia board A = Eaves projection B = Eaves projection usually smaller than A Rafter 75 mm from wall due to moisture

Roofing rafters max. spacing 1 200 mm

Figure 7.150: Plan to show the top elevation of a gabled roof

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Setting out a hipped roof A hipped roof has a durable appearance. The timberwork is complex, but this is what makes the roof all the stronger.
Ridge IBR sheeting

Hipped end

Fascia board

Fascia board Hipped roof

Hip

Figure 7.151: Setting out a hipped roof

Setting out roof trusses for a hipped roof

Construction to determine the true length of (hip) corner rafter

Scale 1:50

Front view True length of (hip) corner rafter

True length of Jack truss A and B

Jack truss B Jack truss A

Top view

Full truss

Half truss

Hip truss

Jack truss A

Jack truss B

Figure 7.152 (a): Setting out roof trusses for a hipped roof

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Construction
Jack rafter Ridge Hip/corner rafter Roof batten

Valley rafter Principal rafters Verge

Hipped end

Gabled end

Overhangs Fascia board

Figure 7.152 (b): Setting out roof trusses for a hipped roof with a valley
Jack truss Corner rafter Ridge Dorhang 220 wall Verge board

Gable end

Full truss Ridge Purlin Jack rafter Corner rafter Ceiling joist

Hipped end

Half truss Wall plate

Figure 7.153: Top elevation of a hipped roof

Rafter joist

Hip rafter

Figure 7.154: Construction details of the corner of a hipped end

The lengths of the short rafters differ because the corner (hip) rafter is connected to the ridge at an angle.

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Details regarding the various roof trusses used in the construction of a hipped roof.

Full truss

Half truss

Hip corner truss

Jack rafter

Figure 7.155: Roof trusses of a hipped roof

To determine the true lengths of the hip (corner) rafters of a hipped roof 1. Draw a line diagram of the top elevation of the roof, including the overhang, according to scale. 2. Measure the rise of the roof on a line that runs perpendicular to one of the hip (corner) rafters. 3. Connect the points to find the true length. 4. The plumb cut and the tail cut can also be deduced from this drawing.

Ridge Plumb cut True length of hip corner truss

Rise of beam

Hip corner truss Tail cut Hipped end

Figure 7.156: Top elevation of roof with hipped end

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Construction
To determine true lengths of the short rafters

Front elevation

True length

Jack truss

Hip corner truss

Top elevation True length of Jack truss True form of hipped-end True length of Jack truss True length of hip corner truss True length of Jack truss

Figure 7.157: How to determine the true lengths of the Jack rafters

A list of terms relating to roofs Hipped-end roof: A roof with two slanting ends, sometimes across a short, flat gable. Gabled roof: A roof that ends against one or between two triangular gables. Hip (corner) rafter: Roofing rafters on the external angles of a hipped-end roof. Valley: The internal angle created when two sloping sections of the roof meet. Valley rafter: The hip (corner) rafter of a valley. Jack rafter: The short rafter that run from the corner rafter to the wall plate, or from the ridge to the valley rafters.

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Wall plate: A board that is situated on top of the wall, level with the inside edge.The roof trusses rest on the wall plate and are attached to it. The wall plate distributes the weight or load across the full length of the wall. The longest, slanting legs of a truss, also called principal Roofing rafter: rafters. Verge: The edge of the roofing that projects over the gable of a roof. King (principal) post: The vertical post in the middle of the truss, attached to the roofing rafters and the tie beam. Queen post: The vertical posts on both sides of the king post. Strut: The sloping legs of the truss between the tie beam and the rafters. Horizontal timbers that strengthen the roof structure and Purlins: to which the roof is attached. Fascia board: A board that covers the rafters along the outside edge of the roof. Verge board/ barge board: A board that covers the projecting edge of a gabled roof. Span: The horizontal distance between two external walls. Tie beam span: The horizontal distance between the outer edges of the wall plate. To ensure accuracy, the measurement must be taken on the building site by measuring the distance between the edges of the actual wall plates. It can also be calculated as follows: Length of tie beam Distance between the internal walls of the building + 2 times the width of the wall plate. Example Calculate the length of the tie beam if the span (internal measurements of the walls) of a building is 8 700 mm and the wall plate is 114 mm wide. Span = 8 700 mm + 114 mm + 114 mm = 8 928 mm Ridge: Highest point of the roof where the slanting rafters intersect. Plumb cut: The corner at the apex of the roof where the rafters intersect. If the rafters are laid at the right angle, the section will be vertical. Heel: Where the roofing rafter and the tie beam intersect or overlap. Tail cut: The corner at the heel of the roof truss where the roofing rafter and tie beam meet. Pitch: The incline of the roof; equal to the angle between the rafter and the tie beam. Rise: The vertical distance from the underside of the tie beam to the ridge.

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The layout of roofing rafters for a lean-to

1 = Rafter 2 = Purlin 3 = Drabalk 4 = Verge board 5 = Fascia board 6 = Hipped roof 7 = Hipped end

228 x 50 mm 152 x 50 mm 228 x 50 mm 228 x 50 mm 228 x 50 mm

Figure 7.158: The layout of roofing rafters for a lean-to

Layout of roof trusses for a roof with parapet walls

Purlin 76 x 50 mm Roofing rafter 152 x 50 mm Wall 220 mm

Purlin 76 x 50 mm Roofing rafter 152 x 50 mm Wall plate 114 x 76 mm Wall 220 mm

Figure 7.159: Layout of roof trusses for a roof with parapet walls

Figure 7.160: Attaching rafters to a wall

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Activity 16
1. A rectangular building has to be fitted with a gabled roof. Draw the external walls and indicate the top view of the roof using broken lines. 2. Use cardboard and build a scale model of a gabled roof. 2.1 A rectangular building has to be fitted with a hipped roof. Draw the external walls and indicate the top view of the roof using broken lines. 2.2 Use cardboard and build a scale model of a hipped roof. 3. 3.1 A rectangular building has te be fitted with a hipped roof with a valley. Draw the external walls and indicate the top view of the roof using broken lines. 3.2 Use cardboard and build a scale model of a gabled roof. 4. The ground plan of a dwelling, not drawn according to scale, is shown. Draw the ground plan of the dwelling using a scale of 1 : 100. Only the walls must be shown. The windows and doors do not have to be indicated. 4.2 Design a gabled roof for the dwelling based on this ground plan. The roof has an overhang of 600 mm. 4.3 Design a hipped roof for the dwelling based on this ground plan. The roof has an overhang of 600 mm.

5. The ground plan of a dwelling, not drawn according to scale, is shown. 5.1 Draw the ground plan of the dwelling using a scale of 1 : 100. Only the walls must be shown. The windows and doors do not have to be indicated. 5.2 Design a gabled roof for the dwelling based on this ground plan. The roof has an overhang of 600 mm.

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5.3 Design a hipped roof for the dwelling based on this ground plan. The roof has an overhang of 600 mm.

Roofing
There are various materials that are used as roofing but in this course, only the following will be considered: Sheet metal (zinc or corrugated sheets) Concrete roofing tiles Thatch Regulations concerning roofing The general regulations that govern the specifications regarding the installation and functionality of roofing are listed below. More specific regulations that apply to each type of roofing will also be provided: No employee is allowed to work on a roof in inclement weather conditions that pose a threat to his/her health and safety. Effective and sufficient precautionary measures must be taken in order to prevent, as far as possible, a person, material or equipment from falling from the roof. Devices used to affix roofing must be corrosion resistant.

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The functionality of roofing Ideally, roofing must be designed to ensure that it: can resist weather conditions such as wind and rain looks durable and enhances the appearance of the building fire resistant provides insulation against heat and cold.

Installation methods
Steel roofing The installation of steel roofing, such as corrugated or square-section zinc sheets (IBR), is faster, simpler and more economical than the installation of tiles or other roofing material. Installation of steel roofing Space the purlins by calculating the centres between them. Purlins are usually fixed approximately 900 mm between centres. The length of the principal rafter is then divided by the number of purlins, determined beforehand, to ensure that the distances between them remain the same. Always start at the brow of the roof and place the first sheet into position. Holes for the roofing screws are drilled through the crests of the corrugations The holes along the sides of the roofing sheet must be at least 75 mm from the outer edge to accommodate the necessary end lap. Screw the sheets to the purlins using roofing screws. Each rustproof screw must be fitted with a neoprene washer to prevent leakage at the screws. Each sheet that is laid must overlap (end lap) the previous one along the length of one full corrugation. Repeat until all the sheets have been laid. Attach the ridge capping. Add flashing where necessary. In the case of gable-end roofs, the barge boards must be nailed to the purlins. Nail the fascia boards to the rafters. Affix the gutter hangers, gutters and downpipes. Where necessary, install wire netting to keep out birds. If square-section zinc sheets are used, horizontal joints are unnecessary since the sheets are available in continuous lengths. This roofing material requires a pitch of at least 30. These types of roofs are economical since they require fewer purlins. Installation of concrete roof tiles Nail sheets of underlay (PVC-material) to the roofing rafters, making sure that the sheets overlap by at least 300 mm. Start at the brow of the roof and work towards the top. This layer of plastic allows rainwater that is blown in under the tiles to flow to the gutters. The tile purlin at the ridge is usually 50 mm 38 mm; one side is angled to serve as support for the fascia board. It is also higher than the other purlins, that measures 38 mm 38 mm, to facilitate the fixing of the plastic underlayment that prevents water from leaking into the roof. This ridge purlin is also called an eaves board/lath (or an arris fillet). The topmost purlin is fixed 25 mm from the roof crown. The rest of the purlins are evenly spaced between the two distances.

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The spacing between the purlins can be calculated as follows: For ordinary tiles: Spacing = Length of tile overhang 2 Example An ordinary tile is 405 mm in length and has an overhang of 60 mm. Calculate the distance between the centres of the purlins. Spacing of an ordinary tile = 405 60 2

= 172,5 mm Spacing of interlocking roof tiles = length of tiles overhang Example Calculate the distance between the centres of the purlin/purlins if the tile is 420 mm long and has an overhang of 75 mm. Spacing = 420 75 mm = 345 mm

Start at the lowest point of the roof: Lay the first tile at the bottom, right-hand side of the roof and work from right to left. Lay the tiles in rows by first placing three tiles horizontally along the brow of the roof, for example. Allow a 50 mm overhang at the brow to prevent rainwater from running directly into the gutter. Use chalk line to transfer a line from the third tile to the summit of the roof. Lay the top row of three tiles, working from the chalk line. Attach the tiles mechanically to the eaves and gables. Lay the rest of the tiles between the top and bottom rows. Start at the bottom with the next row of three tiles and repeat the steps until all the tiles have been laid. Place a strip of damp-proof coursing (DPC) along the length of the ridge. Apply a layer of mortar (dagha), approximately 50 mm thick, on top of the DPC on both sides of the ridge to lay the ridge capping. Soak the ridge tiles in water, position them correctly on the strip of mortar and press them firmly into place. Repeat this process and ensure that the overlaps of the ridge tiles are suitable. Fix the flashing and brow finishes as required. Installation of thatched roofs Nail the rafter poles to the roof trusses. The roof poles must be at least 100 mm in diameter and the rafter poles must be 38 mm in diameter. Place a layer of special aluminium foil or other fireproof material on top of the rafter poles to delay the spread of a fire. Use bundles of clean, dry, high-quality thatch measuring at least 150 mm thick and fix them to the rafter poles using baling or tie wire. The thatched roof overhangs must be constructed at least three metres from any neighbouring property in order to reduce the fire hazard. Finish the ridge capping.

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A lightning conductor (a wooden pole with a copper-wire core) must be mounted in the ground approximately one metre from the building and it must extend approximately one metre above the highest point of the building. Since the conductor is positioned next to the building, the length may vary considerably. Spacing of the roof trusses and purlins The type of roofing determines the minimum pitch and the spacing between the roof trusses and the purlins . The table below provides specifications regarding the most commonly used roofing:
Roofing Minimum pitch in degrees () Maximum distance between roof trusses Maximum distance between purlins Dimensions of purlin

CLASS 1 Corrugated zinc, square-section (IBR) zinc sheets, transparent sheets Corrugated fibre-cement roof sheets 5 1 1 400 mm 1 200 mm 50 76 mm

76 76 mm CLASS 2 Concrete and clay tiles Fibre-cement tiles CLASS 3 Thatched roof: Thatch thickness 150 mm Thatch thickness 300 mm Metal roofing 17 10 760 mm Type and size of tiles determine the calculation of centres; usually 350 mm

38 38 mm

45 35 10

760 mm

300 mm

38 mm round poles

1 050 mm

As above

38 38 mm

Concrete roof tiles


Specifications The colour of each tile must be such that, regardless of weathering, it will not look out of place among the rest of the tiles covering the roof surface. Tiles must overlap by at least 100 mm for pitches varying between 17 and 25; a 75 mm overlap is required for a pitch in excess of 26. Advantages Concrete roof tiles are the most economical roofing material. They are durable and aesthetically pleasing. The tiles are available in various colours and profiles. Composition A strong concrete mixture is compressed into aluminium moulds under high pressure and thereafter sawn into the required lengths. Curing takes 24 hours given normal conditions and 7 to 8 hours if heat is applied. After this process, the tiles are removed from the moulds and kept moist to ensure further hydration before they are distributed for use. Advantages Available in a wide variety of shapes Affordable

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Can enhance the appearance of a dwelling Are available in various colour shades and shapes Require no maintenance and material is rustproof Are warm in winter and cool in summer Environmentally friendly no health risks Are waterproof and durable.

Disadvantages Quite prone to chemical weathering Fragile and must be handled with care Heavier than most other roofing materials Not always uniform in colour Not able to resist extreme weather conditions if they are made of inferior concrete More expensive because more roof battens (purlins) are needed than for sheet metal roofing More labour intensive Porous AT times Fixing The tiles must each be nailed into position in the following ways, using copper, aluminium or stainless steel nails: Each third tile in every layer All tiles in the ridge layer All cut tiles along each side of the corner (hip) rafter and the valleys All tiles along open brows and bargeboards All the tiles of roofs in coastal regions must be nailed to the purlins using approved, nylon storm clips. These clips must be adapted to suit the tile profile. Hip ridge and ridge tiles must be laid in solid, pigmented, 3 : 1 mortar and Each tile must be tested to ensure firm placement.

Sheet metal roofing using IBR sheets


Specifications Metal roofing sheets must run continuously across the roof. Roofing sheets used inland must be galvanised. Roofing sheets used in coastal regions must be galvanised and painted at the factory using approved paint. IBR roofing sheets must be raised above the ground and ventilated well before they are installed. Properties These roofing sheets are especially suitable for commercial and industrial use. The 890 and 686 roofing sheets are available on the market; IBR 686 is most commonly used. Technical details regarding IBR 686 metal roofing Manufacturers must specify their products according to the official requirements for roofing sheets. Profiled metal roofing sheets must be galvanised. A sheet consists of five trapezoid corrugations . Corrugations are 37 mm deep across 171,5 mm centres. The general width is 740 mm. The effective width is five corrugations across 171,5 mm centres for a width of 686 mm.

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Fixing The roofing sheets are screwed into position. Holes for the screws are drilled into the roofing sheets, not punched. Threaded spikes may not be used. Special weatherproof timber screws with proper, sharp screw threads must be used in combination with neoprene and metal washers. Hooked hold-downs fasteners must be provided with neoprene and metal washers under each bolt. Sheets must be laid with one corrugation overlap along both sides. Sheets must be laid according to the manufacturers directions. Advantages The roofing sheets are: easy to handle and not excessively heavy rigid and strong because of the angled sections extremely suitable for drainage of rainwater durable available in any length, only limited by the availability of transport rustproof if galvanised suitable for covering large areas can be bent at radii of 600 mm and more relatively easy to cut. Disadvantages Sharp edges can be dangerous. Gloves must be worn when sheets are handled in order to prevent cuts. If the sheets are too thin, they may bend or crack when stepped upon. The sheets can rust along the edges if they have been cut using an angle grinder rather than a pair of tin snips or a nibbler.

Corrugated zinc sheet roofing


Regulations Metal roofing sheets must run continuously across the roof. Roofing sheets used inland must be galvanised. Sheets used in coastal regions must be galvanised and painted at the factory using approved paint. Properties This is the most common, traditional type of profiled, galvanised roofing that is used in South Africa. Composition The quality of the steel is prescribed and manufacturers must certify that they have met the specified requirements. Roofing sheets must be 0,8 mm thick for roof pitches between 8 and 14; and 0,6 mm for roof pitches in excess of 15. Corrugations must be 17,5 mm deep across 76 mm centres. The effective covering width must be between 601 mm and 672 mm. Method of fixing The roofing sheets are screwed into position. Holes for the screws in the roofing sheets must be drilled, not punched. Threaded spikes may not be used. Special, weatherproof timber screws with proper, sharp screw threads must be used in combination with neoprene and metal washers.

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Hooked hold-down fasteners must be provided with neoprene and metal washers under each bolt. The side laps of the sheets must not be fewer than 1 flutes. Sheets must be laid according to the manufacturers directions. The end laps depend on the pitch of the roof: the steeper the incline, the shorter the end laps:
Roof pitch More than 30 30 25 20 15 and less End lap 150 mm 175 mm 200 mm 225 mm 300 mm

Advantages Corrugated zinc sheeting: is relatively affordable and durable is available in various standard lengths is rigid during use and handling because of its profile is also available in various alloys or in aluminium, copper and stainless steel is manageable because it is not excessively heavy is rustproof because of the galvanisation process can cover large areas easily and quickly is easy to cut is resistant to lateral bending. Disadvantages Sharp edges can be dangerous. Gloves must be worn when sheets are handled in order to prevent cuts. If the sheets are too thin, they may bend or crack when stepped upon. The sheets can rust along the edges if they have been cut using an angle grinder rather than a pair of tin snips or nibbler.

Thatched roofs
Regulations: The SANS 0040:1990, Part T, does not elaborate on thatched roofs. It merely refers to the fact that should the area of the roof exceed 20 m2, the roof must be constructed at least 4,5 metres from any boundary or neighbouring structures. Insurers, however, have strict directives that must be obeyed before a thatched roof can be insured. The directives are often adapted and are available upon request. Properties Thatching grass is a natural, ecologically advantageous material that comes from a renewable source. Different types of reeds and grass are used, e.g. Cape thatching reed and red grass found in the Bushveld and Lowveld regions. This very old method of roofing is aesthetically pleasing, cool in summer and moderate in winter. Thatched roofs are laid thickly enough and at the right pitch to ensure that rainwater cannot penetrate the thatch. Thatching grass is available in bundles that are laid over timber structures by schooled workers. Thatch must be harvested after the rainy season and must be completely dry before it is used as roofing.

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Only straight pieces of grass 760 mm to 1 020 mm in length with ends ranging from 120 mm to 150 mm in diameter must be used. The grass must be well combed and cleaned of all loose leaves. Method of fixing Skilled thatchers must be employed to lay and fix the thatch on roofs. A team usually comprises four workers one to throw the bundles to the two workers on the roof and another on the inside to attach the thatch using baling wire or twine which he then pushes back up to the workers on the outside surface of the roof. The best bundles are used as the bottom layer (spray layer) to ensure that the exposed interior appears neat and clean. The butt ends of the bundle must be evened out by butting the bundle on a butting board; this action also ensures that any sharp ends are blunted. The thatch bundles are laid, starting at the verge with the butt ends at the lowest end, parallel with the roofing rafters. Each bundle in the first course at eaves level is secured to the second batten with thatching twine at 75 mm intervals. Subsequent courses are secured to the roof batten with thatching twine or sways. Where the trusses (principals) usually round, treated poles meet, they are bolted down, as are the horizontal collar beams (purlins). Thatchers usually prefer to nail the battens to the purlins personally in order to ensure the best possible spacing for the specific lengths of thatch used. Advantages Cool in summer and warm in winter Ideally suited for roofs that have irregular profiles and compilations and appear more organic Require less timber for the roof structure Do not need ceilings. Disadvantages Extremely vulnerable to fire and must be treated with fireproof chemicals before use More expensive to install than ordinary roofs because thatching is a labourintensive activity Demand more maintenance Susceptible to decay because thatch is an organic material Ridge capping need to have to be re-thatched every four to six years.

Figure 7.161: The interior of a thatched roof (Source: Thatch guide: CSIR)

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Activity 17
1. Name the hand tools needed to install square-fluted profile sheeting (IBR) on a roof. Explain the use of each piece of equipment. 2. Which safety measures must be considered when sheeting is hoisted? 3. 3.1 What type of roofing would suit a rondavel? 3.2 Why would this roofing be suitable? 4. A roof is pitched at seven degrees. What type of roofing is available for this pitch? 4. Why must the ridge tile batten be nailed 25 mm from the ridge? 5. Why is the batten higher than the other tile battens of a tiled roof? 6. What is the purpose of the neoprene washers affixed to roofing screws? 7. Where is flashing mounted when steel roofing is used? 8. The measurements of a clay tile is 405 mm 280 mm. The manufacturers indicate that an overhang of 75 mm must be used. Calculate the distance between the centres of the tile battens. 9. The measurements of the tile battens is 420 mm 333 mm. When they are installed, the overhang should be 60 mm. Calculate the distance between the centres of the tile battens. 10. What type of ridge capping is used for a rondavel? 11. Name two advantages and two disadvantages of: 11.1 concrete tiles. 11.2 IBR sheeting. 11.3 corrugated zinc sheeting. 11.4 thatched roofs.

Waterproofing
Introduction A large amount of water is present underground, especially during the rainy season. When it rains, rainwater penetrates the tops of walls or seeps through cracks, screw holes or crevices. Parts of buildings that lie underground are in direct contact with the groundwater and this may cause water to move up into the walls due to capillary action. In most buildings, rising damp in walls is prevented by a layer of plastic known as damp-proof coursing (DPC), which is positioned under the walls before they are constructed. Damp-proof coursing must: be durable be completely waterproof be strong enough to carry weight without tearing or leaking be corrosion resistant be resistant to termites, rodents, bacteria and fungi not have an adverse effect on the stability of the building Material used as DPC: Polythene a very strong plastic, usually black; must not be thinner than 0,38 mm

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Tar bitumen DPC is available in rolls of varying widths; paper, felt and hessian fabric are soaked in tar; it tears easily Malthoid (asphalt) rolls of membrane that have been treated with a type of pitch; cracks if it is bent and is very expensive; SANS 298 specifies mastic asphalt(us) for water tanks Sheets of lead of various thickness; sold in bulk; flexible and commonly used to seal roofs; very expensive Copper sheets very expensive and sold in sheets; used on roofs for an exceptional finish; rarely used because of the expense PermaFlex liquid polymer that sets to form an elastic substance when mixed with a catalyst Submersible pumps used in areas where there are large amounts of groundwater Waterproofing concrete floors Insulate a concrete floor at ground level by using a good-quality DPC (0,25 mm) immediately below the floor slab it prevents the capillary rise of damp from the soil. The figure below indicates the position of the DPC in relation to the floor.
Damp proof course Damp proof course

Double Storey Strip Foundation

Double Wall Strip Foundation

Weak concrete

Water proofing on top of parapet Filler G3 waterproofing Brick wall

Concrete

Plaster Cavity Wall Foundation

Figure 7.162: Waterproofing of concrete floors

On drenched or soaked soil, the joints of the DPC sheets must always be sealed. Collect information on very wet conditions where the foundation will lie under the natural ground level. Damp-proofing walls at ground level DPC must be used in all external walls. Place it between two layers of plaster, not between the bricks. Lay it horizontally to extend at least 5 mm over the external walls. DPC must be laid at least 200 mm above the finished floor level and even higher if soil can pile up against the walls. The sides of the DPC must never be covered with plaster or dagha (mortar).

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Regulations regarding DPC in cavity walls The DPC must be placed along the tops of window and door recesses if the eaves projection is less than 750 mm and the distance between the wall plate and the top edge of the window or doorframe is less than 700 mm. The DPC must be placed under all the windowsills. The DPC must cover the entire width of the wall, including the cavities. The DPC must extend 100 mm beyond the reveals. The cavities immediately below the DPC must be filled with mortar. The DPC on the interior wall should be higher than the DPC on the outside (stepped). The cavity must be 150 mm below the DPC. Weep holes should be inserted in the outside wall, at intervals not exceeding 1 m, where necessary. Care must be taken not to tear or damage the DPC. Waterproofing roofs (parapet walls) Sealoflex This waterproofing system consists of a membrane and a polyester. The membrane is laid and coated with acrylic emulsion paint. The acrylic penetrates deep into the grooves and pores. A lighter membrane can be used to seal cracks in walls. A thicker membrane can be used along the sides of parapet walls. Fibreglass (GRP) Place woven fibreglass cloth on top of the dry parapet wall. Make sure to cover the entire top surface of the wall. Mix resin with a catalyst and soak the fibreglass cloth in it. Repeat on the sides of the parapet, but embed the fibreglass cloth in the mortar two bricklayers from the top. The fibreglass cloth must stretch down and across the roofing tiles or zinc sheets and must be soaked in resin.
Fibre glass membrane Fibre glass ornamental flashing

Truss Mono-pitched roof and fibre glass membrabe to parapet

Figure 7.163: Fibreglass waterproofing

Pre-cast concrete trusses Place a layer of DPC on the parapet wall first. Apply a layer of strong mortar on top of the DPC. Press the concrete truss, which is as broad as the wall, into the wet mortar. The concrete trusses are available in widths of 370 mm and 222 mm.

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Figure 7.164: Waterproofing roofs

The Torch-On system This system is used for parapet walls and even for flat roofs. It contains polymers, pigments, processed bitumen and weatherproof polyester reinforcements and can accommodate structural movements. A membrane soaked in bitumen (pitch) is draped over the parapet wall up to the roofing tiles or sheets. The membrane is heated using a blow lamp and spread using a trowel. The heated pitch penetrates the pores and clings to the tiles or sheeting. Paint the membrane white or silver to protect the pitch after application.

Figure 7.165: Painting of bitumen membrane

Lead sheets Lead sheets bend easily around sides into corners and this makes it ideal for waterproofing roofs and parapets. In the past, entire roofs used to be covered in lead sheets because of its corrosion-resistant properties. Today, however, it is rarely used, not only because of the expense, but also because of its toxic properties and the pollution threat to the environment. Lead sheets are joined by soldering, which is a difficult and dangerous process. Waterproofing a cellar A cellar that is built in an area that has a high water table can easily be drenched in seepage water and it is, therefore, very difficult to make and keep it waterproof and water-free. When constructing a building on soil that has a high water table, special care must be taken to waterproof the structure from the outset. Rising damp can cause problems such as damp spots against walls, the peeling of paint or wall paper and, eventually, it may result in plaster dropping from the walls. In the long run, it may even cause structural damage. Because the cellar usually forms part of the foundation of a building, it must be built to withstand the effects of groundwater, which may weaken the entire structure. Salts and acids in groundwater attack the cement and mortar located between the bricks as well as in the plaster. These salts combine with the moisture in the air and cause masonry to crumble, which weakens structures.

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There are a number of reasons why cellars are not waterproof, among which the following are the most common: DPC layers were not installed properly. The builder forgot to install DPC. The original DPC has sprung leaks because of the sagging of the building, vibrations of passing traffic or general bottoming. The first step is to keep water as far away from the foundation of the building as possible: Dig a trench directly under the discharge pipes or connect the pipes to a 110 mm PVC pipe located approximately 1,5 metres from the wall. Fill cracks and holes in the concrete walls and floors with hydraulic cement. Use waterproof cement plaster to coat the insides of the cellar walls. Build the cellar with a structural wall on the outside and a retaining wall on the inside. Use a channel between the walls to get rid of moisture that has penetrated the walls. Lead water to the outside or pump it out using an electric, submersible pump in a waterproof sump. Use membrane sheets on the exterior of the retaining wall or cellar wall and under the cellar floor. Prevent back fill from damaging the membrane. Discharge pipes must lead outpour well away from the building and underdrains (subsurface drains) can be dug to carry off rainwater. Sub-soil filling must be placed in trenches and subsurface drainpipes can also be laid in the trenches.
Cellar DPC Damp-proofing Ground level Cavity filling

Bricks Subsoil filling Sand layer Hard-core filling

Sub-surface drain

Plaster

Back filling Bricks DPC DPC

DPC

Figure 7.166: Waterproofing the exterior of a cellar wall

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Waterproofing can also be applied to the interior, but this is difficult if the cellar walls are already damp. PermaFlex a liquid rubber that solidifies when a catalyst is added is extremely effective and can be applied as follows: Relieve hydrostatic pressure by drilling holes in the bases of cement blocks. Remove paint that has peeled or any loose material in cracks, or scrub the walls using a wire brush. Fill the seams or joints, cracks, holes and rough areas using liquid PermaFlex rubber. The rubber base is mixed with an activator and then solidifies in the holes and cracks. Place a PermaFlex layer where the cellar wall meets the floor. Concrete block walls must be covered with three layers of PermaFlex because they are very porous. Advantages of PermaFlex It is easy to mix. It is fluid and easy to apply. When it sets, it bonds with cement, concrete, wood, plastic and metal. It can be rubbed, rolled or sprayed onto the chosen surface. It remains flexible and does not desiccate. It is sticky and penetrates deep into the cracks. Its disadvantage is that it is inflammable in any form.

Activity 18
Explain how you would waterproof a cellar that is constantly wet. Consult the builders in your area and do further research on the topic. Test to determine the most suitable material for waterproofing. 1. Place a cement brick in a bowl, laying it on its flat side. 2. Fill the bowl with water until it reaches to just below the top of the brick. 3. Weigh a second brick and write down its weight. 4. Place various waterproofing materials on top of the brick in the bowl and then place the dry brick on the waterproofing material. Leave it for 24 hours. 5. Weigh the brick and write down the weight. 6. The test must be repeated using all the waterproofing materials. 7. Which material allowed through the least moisture? 8. Explain how you arrived at your answer.
Material Paper Cardboard Leather Plastic Lowest weight of brick Proofing material Dry weight of brick Weight of brick after 24 hours

Use this table for your experiment.

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Finishing
Tiling
Tiling was studied in Grade 11. In this section, wall and floor tiling will be discussed. (Read more about tiling in the Grade 11 book on pages 257261.) The patterns according to which tiles are laid depend on the owner of the building, but the actual tiling process remains the responsibility of the builder. Tiles can be used indoors or outdoors, but the right material must be chosen and they must be laid using appropriate adhesives. Here are some of the most common materials used for tiles: PVC, vinyl or other types of plastic Ceramics (baked clay) Wood block/wood mosaic flooring Textiles (carpet) and cut or natural stone. The tiling process The proper preparation of the substrate (floor surface) on which the tiles are to be laid is of the utmost importance. Assuming that the builder has provided a smooth, sturdy and even floor slab, proceed as follows: Step 1 Clean the floor surface thoroughly. All dust, building rubble and other material must be hosed, brushed, scraped or swept away to provide a suitable surface for the tiling to commence. Step 2 Determine the centre of the room by connecting opposite corners using chalk line. Snap the diagonal chalk lines the centre of the room (midpoint) is where the lines intersect. Step 3 Lay the tiles without using any adhesive or cement. This so-called dry run determines the line along which the first row of tiles will be laid and the spacing of the grout lines. Step 4 Snap an additional chalk line the width of a tile from each wall. This will help keep the tile placement perfectly straight. Continue laying out tiles and spacers until placement is correct. Step 5 Mix the tile cement. Use a self-mix mortar for the tile installation. Pour water into a bucket, add the mortar and begin mixing. Continue to mix until the texture is creamy. Then let the mortar stand for about 10 minutes to get tacky. Step 6 Apply the creamy mortar mixture. Spread the mixture on the floor and use a notched trowel to obtain an even layer of mortar. Work in small sections to keep the mortar from drying before the tile is in position.

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Step 7 Place or press the tiles into position. Use a rubber hammer to ensure that the tile surface is level. Lay one tile at a time on either side of the first one. Space them exactly for even grouting. Use spacers if necessary to ensure even spacing between the tiles. Step 8 When you reach a wall where a standard tile will not fit, mark the tile and make cuts with a standard tile cutter. If you dont use a tile cutter, mark the tiles and have a tile supplier cut them to size prior to installation. Step 9 Place the spacers. When the tiling is complete, allow the tiles to dry in place for a day or two before grouting. Step 10 Grout is available in a variety of textures and colours. Pick a colour that matches the colour of the tile. Use a rubber trowel or float to spread the grout across the tiles. Step 11 When the grout is in place, wipe away the excess with a damp sponge or cloth. Repeat this process several times, being careful not to remove the grout lines around the tiles.

Did you know? The word filmis used because the layer of grout that remains on the tile is very thin.

Polish the tiles with a dry cloth or dry brush for a clean, shiny surface. Wash the floor, but avoid using abrasives and steel wool.

Tiling walls
Step 1 Clean and prepare the walls: Floor levels are very often uneven. Make sure that the walls are clean and dust-free. It is not necessary to determine the centre of the wall, as is the case when tiling a floor, but the lowest point must be determined. Step 2 Determine where to start tiling: Place a tile and mark its position at the top. Mark the level height across from this first mark and secure battens to the wall below this mark. Secure the next batten vertically on a level with the horizontal line (90 angle). Step 3 Chalk lines: Snap chalk lines along these battens. Step 4 Mix the tile cement (adhesive): As for floor tiles, mix with water until the texture is creamy. Allow to stand for approximately 10 minutes.

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Step 5 Apply the creamy cement (adhesive): Apply the mixture to the wall above the horizontal batten using a notched trowel to ensure an even layer of cement against the wall. Tiling can now start at the point where the horizontal and vertical lines intersect. Step 6 Place the tiles: Place or press the tiles into position using a twisting motion. Continue laying the tiles until the appropriate height is reached. Use spacers if necessary to ensure even spacing of tiles. Make sure that the tiles adhere firmly to the wall. Step 7 Cut tiles: Remove the battens when the wall is tiled completely. Tile the bottom and last row, where a standard tile will not fit. Mark and then cut the standard tile using a tile cutter. Step 8 Grout: As for floor tiles, use a rubber trowel or float to spread the grout across the tiles. Step 9 Remove excess grout: When the grout is in place and almost dry, remove excess grout using a damp sponge or cloth. Follow the same steps as for floor tiles to complete the process.

Standards for laying tiles


VINYL floor finishes Semi-flexible vinyl floor tiles must meet the requirements stipulated in the SABS Standard Specification 581 and flexible vinyl (PVC) floor tiles and sheets must meet the SABS Standard Specifications 786 all tiles must be 2 mm thick unless otherwise stated. Vinyl cove skirtings must be 70 mm high and manufactured using the approved standard.

Painting
The purpose of paint is to protect a surface against rust, corrosion, seepage of water and moisture and to enhance its appearance. Pre-painting When you wish to paint a surface, study it carefully. You can only start preparing once you have checked the surface. Decide on the colour and type of paint that you wish to apply. Various products, such as Plascon or Dulux, can be used. Consider the quality of the product before making a final decision. In the paint industry, paint is mixed with many chemicals. Some of the products used in paint can cause harm to the environment and are dangerous to human health. Paint also has a strong, pungent odour when it is applied or drying. Some of the gases, called volatile organic compound (VOC), contribute to the greenhouse effect.

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In order to meet the standards of Building Regulations 14001 , a company such as Plascon has removed dangerous metals, solutions and additives from their paint. VOC stains have been reduced to make sure that products meet international standards. Using technologically advanced Plascon products, together with thorough preparation of the surfaces and the correct application of the products, will protect and enhance the aesthetic qualities of your surfaces. Ingredients of paint Pigment provides the colour Binding agent keeps pigments together and provides a strong finish that clings to the surface Fluid ensures uniformity Additives ingredients with specific properties (preservatives to keep paint fresh and prevent the growth of fungi) Advantages of using top quality interior paint It can be applied smoothly and evenly without showing brush or roller markings. There is very little spatter during application. Adhesive properties are stronger, thus less paint is needed to cover the surface. It is more resistant to dirt and stains, which makes cleaning and maintenance easier. Advantages of using top quality exterior paint Clings easily and firmly, thus less likely to peel, flake or pop Improved resistance to colour changes, thus excellent retention of colour Improved resistance to dirt, thus remains looking fresh Improved resistance to mildew (mould), so the paint will not be marred by unsightly black or brown spots Overall improved durability

Methods of applying paint (interior and exterior)


Paintbrushes
Rollers and sprays may be fast, but a paintbrush still provides the best application. Woodwork should be painted using a brush. The slightly imperfect strokes of each application and brush marks give the woood a warmer, richer feel. Brushes are necessary when most painting is done, since they allow one to reach into corners. Acrylic paint, that represents 90% of all sales, is best applied using a synthetic brush with nylon and polyester (right) bristles. Natural-hair paintbrushes (right) are traditionally used to apply oil paint, polyurethane and varnish, but a new synthetic-bristle oil-paint brushes have taken the markets by storm. The ultimate test of any brush is how well it picks up and places the paint. Nylon brushes These durable bristles (the same formula as used for toothbrushes) can be used on brick and other rough surfaces without being damaged.

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Synthetic brushes Combine nylon for durability with polyester for firmness. Most are used for acrylic paint, but these brushes work as well with oil paint, thanks to the tough nylon bristles.

Rollers
A good roller has a woolly, thick nap so that it has the capacity to hold more paint. These rollers do not drip and spatter as much as brushes and a thicker coat of paint can be applied more smoothly. Good mohair rollers are used for the smooth application of solvent-based paint. Synthetic rollers are used for water-based paint.

Sprays
They ensure a uniform application for a smooth, drip-free finish. They are used to paint hard-to-reach places and to cover larger areas more quickly.

Application methods
How you hold a paintbrush will depend on the type of brush you are using. A thin brush will be held like a pen, while a larger, heavier brush will require a firmer grip. (See illustrations on the right.) Paint the ceilings first when an entire room is being painted. Paint half-metre strips around the room. Start closest to the window. Work sideways to cut in where the ceiling and wall meet. To paint corners using a paintbrush Paint horizontal strokes away from the corner and then use vertical strokes to the top or bottom (see photo). Roller application Use a roller tray with a slanting surface. Pour just enough paint into the tray to fill up to a third of the trays well. Push the roller forwards and backwards down the slope of the rake and into the paint well to cover it in paint. Remove excess paint at the top of the tray (the rake). Cover the surface of the wall using diagonal strokes until the strokes of paint merge. The corners of the room must first be cut in using a paintbrush, since the roller cannot fit into the corners. Spray-painting Before starting the paint job, make sure that the surface is clean and dust-free. Spray-painting is a skill that is acquired over time. It is done using a high-pressure compression system and spray gun. Only certain paints can be used, since the mixture must flow through the nozzle of the gun. Do not spray or apply the paint in an arch. Move the spray-gun parallel with the surface. Move to and fro or from left to right and vice versa.

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Figure 7.167: Do not spray the paint in an arch.

Figure 7.168: Sweep spray parallel with the surface.

Special finish or modern finishes


Other methods of applying paint are being tried and tested these days and more apparatus (applicators) is being used.

Figure 7.169: Examples of sponge rollers used to paint patterns

Figure 7.170: Tray with roller and type of hand-held sponge (sharp end can be used in corners)

Wallpaper Wallpaper is used as a finish worldwide. It is most commonly used in first-world countries. Various types of wallpaper are manufactured and available, e.g.: Machine-printed wallpaper Hand-printed wallpaper that is printed using a stencil and screen Embossed paper that is pressed using a metal roller Flocked paper with silk, nylon and/or wool fibres affixed to paper Wood chips that are pulped and then rolled out A facing strip is a paper strip with cotton backing and is available in sheets.

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Wood finishing or coverings Framing panels/wood panelling are/is most commonly used since they can cover large surface areas. Fastening is mounted against the wall, the panel strips are nailed to this and the nails are hidden. Hardboard panels are attached to the wall using glue.

Figure 7.171: Example of a wood panel

Stone finishes or covering Proper installation of stonework will ensure an aesthetic finish. It not only enhances the appearance of your property and increases its value, but is also practical and durable. It is easy to affix to concrete and brick walls. This finish can also be used in entrance halls, behind fireplaces, in showrooms, in open fireplaces, on garden walls and even in living rooms. Sandstone tiles These tiles are popular these days and are manufactured to resemble natural sandstone. The tiles are commonly used in kitchens, living areas and even foyers. They can be sealed using a colourless sealant to make the tiles waterproof. The tiles are mounted on walls like any other wall tiles. Grout must be applied carefully to prevent it from staining the tiles. The wall surface and backs of tiles must be rough and free of any loose material in order to ensure proper adhesion. Sandstone tiles are laid using tile adhesive. Acid and cleaning agents must never be used to clean sandstone since this may damage the surface of the product and destroy the natural richness of colour. Wall finishes using metal or aluminium These methods offer modern finishes for walls and even ceilings. They can be purely decorative or serve as protection against the elements. Aluminium covering is most frequently used in hospitals and shopping centres to protect walls against weathering and damage. Stainless steel and aluminium are durable and available in various patterns. Machine-brushed sheeting is preferred by many consumers. Plasterwork Plaster is used to seal walls, cover structures and decorate surfaces.

The SA standards regarding plasterwork


Thickness of the plaster Plaster on walls may not be less than 12 mm or more than 20 mm thick and the plaster on concrete ceilings and beams may not be less than 9 mm or more than 16 mm thick. Wet the walls before commencing with the plasterwork.

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Modern plastering techniques Two primary methods are used to finish the constructed interior and/or exterior of modern houses: Rough-cast plastering Smooth plaster finish. Plaster finishing The owner of the house and the plasterer, usually decide on the style before the work commences. Typical walls and ceilings are smooth. Homeowners may choose to use texturing techniques if these prove to be easier, are quick to complete and thus cheaper than a smooth finish. Rough-cast plastering How is this done? After the plaster has been mixed, it must be placed on a plasterboard (mixing board). Scrape the plaster onto a steel plastering trowel (hawk) and then spread it onto the wall. The way in which the board is held will determine how the plaster is applied. Cover a small area at a time. However, the entire wall must be completed on the same day. As soon as the plaster has hardened slightly, level and smooth the surface using a wooden or aluminium trowel. Hold it at a very shallow angle to the wall, moving across the entire surface in a sawing motion. Once the plaster has been levelled, wet the surface by flicking water onto the wall using a large paintbrush. Use a wooden float to smoothen the surface. Circular motions are recommended since this ensures an even surface. Keep the plaster moist for as long as possible, since quick drying can cause cracks and hair seams. Cover with plastic, if at all possible, should the plastered surface be exposed to direct sunlight or if conditions are very windy. Wet the surface regularly in very dry weather. Smooth plastered finish If a smooth finish is required, the final step will be carried out using a steel plastering trowel. This tool is used to finish mortar (dagha) smoothly. It ensures a smoother finish than would be obtained using a float. Plastering ceilings Plasterers will divide a large room because Cretesone is used. Crates or scaffolding must be used at the right height to enable plasterers to spread the Cretestone, since it dries very quickly. It is applied in thin layers in square metre areas and immediately levelled. A large paintbrush must be at hand to keep the Cretestone moist as it is smoothened.

New plastering methods


Rapid plastering A gypsum-based product called MP75 is used to cover much greater areas in less time. The finish is equal to or better than Cretestone or plastering using mortar and it leaves minimal mess. There are other welcome cost-saving benefits too, for example, as much as 30% of the plaster that is mixed on site ends up wasted. This wastage is negligible with MP75 plaster and the site is much cleaner for it. Waste removal is reduced too another saving.

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With MP75 plaster, you do not need to use a primer when you wish to paint a wall surface. It provides a durable, smooth, white finish and is better than any product that is currently available on the South African market. It is suitable for surfaces such as brickwork, block work, concrete and polystyrene; the exceptions are wood and metal. It is compatible with the G4 projection plastering machine. External plastering is usually a spray-on service; the plaster is floated and smoothened after application.

Covering plumbing pipes, electrical installations and drainpipes against walls and on floors
Cutting into walls and floors to lay cables and pipes Making cuts in floors and walls is the most common method used to install cables, pipes and wiring under the surface. This cutting can be done in concrete, bricks, blocks, plastered walls, etc. The depth and width of the cut will depend on its purpose. When dry cutting is done, a vacuum cleaner can be used simultaneously with the cutter. This will leave less dust and dirt behind. This is the neatest and best method of concealing cables and pipes. There are certain guidelines to follow when cutting is done to install cables and pipes in walls and floors: Cuts must always be vertical or horizontal. Cuts must not be deeper than one third of the thickness of the wall. Use a cold chisel to remove left-over plaster and pieces of brick from the groove. Steps to cutting a groove in walls: Step 1 Mark the area that has to be cut. If you are installing a draw-box, make sure that it is positioned at the correct height. Also make sure that the plaster is completely dry before you start cutting. Step 2 Use a wall-cutting tool as shown in the adjacent figure. Wear safety goggles and a mask when cutting. The cutting can also be done using an angle grinder. The cut must be deep enough only to suit the purpose. Step 3 Break or chip away the redundant material left in the groove, using a cold chisel and a sledgehammer. Make sure that the cut is deep enough to accommodate the cable or pipe. Step 4 When the grooves have been opened completely, the pipes or cables can be fitted. Use steel nails to keep the pipes and cables in position (to prevent them from falling out). When a draw-box is being installed, the hole has to be plastered before the box is inserted into the hole. Step 5 Mix a batch of strong mortar and use it to cover the pipes or cables and fill the grooves. A small brick trowel can be used to push the mortar in behind the pipes or cables. The plaster must be allowed to dry before it is smoothed and levelled to match the rest of the surface. (Refer to the section on plastering in this chapter.)

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Step 6 The final finishing of the wall: If the wall is going to be tiled, it is not necessary to finish it neatly and smooth, but walls that have to be painted must have a smooth finish. Use newspaper or plastic to cover the draw-box for the final finish. Paint or tile the area when the plaster has dried. (Refer to the section on tiling and painting in this chapter.)

Cutting floors and concrete

This cutting method uses a machine that has a hoover apparatus attached to it. This type of cutting is done when large pipes or cables have to be laid in floors. It can only be done on a flat surface. A concrete floor saw (cut saw) machine is used for cutting concrete, asphalt and other structural material, such as tar or even concrete decks.

Activity 19
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What is the purpose of painting? What should first be done before you begin painting? What are the ingredients of paint? List THREE ways to apply paint to a wall. What does it mean when we talk about smoothly finished plaster? Why would pipes that are intended to be used to carry wiring, be installed below the level of the wall? How would you cut grooves into a wall?

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Chapter 8

Civil services

Household water Sewerage

Water sources Storm water

Plumbing

Electrical systems

Civil Technology

Introduction
South Africa is an arid country. The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry allege that South Africa will experience a serious water crisis in 2030. There is a vast and ever-growing demand for fresh water supply in our country, while the natural fresh water sources are not increasing. The need to supply water to sustain vital activities, such as irrigation, the generation of electricity (power stations), industrial development, etc., far outweighs the need to supply drinkable water. In South Africa, with its ever-increasing population, it is thus of the utmost importance to conserve water sources in any way possible and to save water. In this chapter the focus will be on the practical apsects associated with water supply to premises and buildings such as houses.

Household water
Purified water used by households is supplied under high pressure from municipal reservoirs and water pipeline. A water meter is installed to link the households water supply to the municipal pipeline. The supply or consumption of each household or business is measured by a water meter located between the municipal pipeline and the consumer.
Did you know? Humankind cannot survive without water.

Water supplied to towns flows from the main pipelines to dwellings through pipes that are 15 mm in diameter industries and farms are supplied by larger pipes. For more information regarding water supply and the two most common systems of supply, refer to pages 243 to 245 in the Grade 10 Civil Technology Learners book. Please consult this text.

The quality of water


The quality of the water, supplied by most of the local authorities, is controlled by the SANS and there are stringent requirements that must met. However, the taste, colour and other qualities may vary from place to place. The most common criterion is how hard or soft the water is. Soft water This is water that has a very low mineral content and it is most often found in wetter regions. Distilled water is the softest since it contains no dissolved salts. It is usually alkaline and tastes pleasant (sweet). It allows soap to foam easily. It does not change the colour of washing and leaves a scummy residue. It leaves no deposit in kettles and pipes. Hard water It contains a higher concentration of dissolved minerals than soft water and it is usually found in dryer regions. It does not taste like soft water; it is sometimes salty, acrid even bitter. It usually contains salts, such as common salt and minerals, such as calcium and magnesium or fluoride. When soap is used in hard water, it does not foam easily and a thick, scummy residue is left on washing. It helps to develop strong teeth and bones.

Water pressure
A certain amount of pressure is required in order to move water through pipes to where it is needed. Most water sources, such as rivers, are located in low-lying areas and water has to be pumped to dams, from where gravity or pumps are used for further distribution.

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The water pressure varies from municipality to municipality. The higher the pressure, the better the output or supply. Low water pressure causes the flow of water to premises to weaken, especially for example when more than one tap is opened simultaneously.

Standards of water systems


The SANS has determined specific standards for the following apsects pertaining to the water system in and around buildings and plumbers must familiarise themselves with these regulations. These include: SANS 10252 Part 1 : Water supply installation for buildings SANS 10252 Part 2: Drainage installation for buildings SANS 10254 : Installation, maintenance, replacement and repair of fixed electric storage water heating systems SANS 10106: Installation, maintenance, repair and replacement of domestic solar water heating systems Municipal water supply installation for new premises: Before water can be supplied to a new plot, thorough planning and research must first be done in order to ensure that the system works and that all the regulations are met. Each system must be adapted to suit the premises. Step 1 Inspect the site and study the site plan and building plans. The plans indicate where all taps, stopcocks, sanitary plumbing, hand basins, baths, etc. will be positioned. Determine where the sewage, discharge pipes and drainage must be installed. Determine where the municipal water supply is located with respect to the street. Determine the strength of the water pressure and the flow of water from the main pipeline. Contact the local authority to arrange the water supply connection and a water meter from the main supply near the street (if such a connection does not already exist). Step 2 Important: Make sure that the site is safe and that you have access to the site. As a plumber, you need permission to enter private premises. Before any work commences, safety measures must be in place. Material and equipment must be stored and secured on site. Step 3 Set out the details before you start the cutting and excavations. The work is subdivided into indoor and outdoor plumbing. The installation of outdoor pipes is determined by the slope of the premises and the position of the municipal connection point. The site plan will provide all the locations and depths, according to which the slope of the premises must be calculated this will be discussed later in this chapter. After the house has been constructed, the plumbing must be planned according to the position of all installations. If you are doing the layout on a hard surface, regardless of whether you are working inside or outside, you can use a chalk line, a piece of chalk or builders pencil. Use a spirit level to mark off vertical or horizontal lines on a wall.

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Step 4 Estimate the quantity of material needed and order it. After the layout has been completed, the quantity of material needed must be estimated and ordered. Ask the dealer to deliver the material to the site and store it properly. Step 5 Excavating and cutting Once the layout has been completed and approved by a building inspector, excavations and the cutting of walls and floors can commence. Excavations that have 90-degree angles must be marked out using the 3 : 4 : 5 method. Ensure that the excavations have reached the required depth and have the correct slope before laying the pipes. Ensure that the required depth is reached when cutting into walls and floors. Step 6 The laying and testing of pipes Lay the water pipes, starting at the water meter. Connect all the sanitary and other fittings to their pipes. Make sure that the hot-water cylinder (geyser) is placed correctly the pipes and electricity will be installed later. Ensure that the pipes that are installed in the walls and floors have been properly soldered or that the screw joints have been completely tightened. Test the water system by opening the main water supply the pressure must meet regulations. Step 7 The final inspection Repair any leaks or loss of pressure before the final inspection takes place. After the inspection, all the pipes and joints can be covered and/or plastered.
Vacuum breaker Overflow (to fall) Geyser

Expansion relief valve

Cold water from mains Washing machine Overflow

Hot supply Cold supply

Shower tray Trap Bath Basin P trap Toilet

Sink

Meter

P trap

Figure 8.1: Cold water supply to a house

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Water sources
Boreholes
These are one of the most basic sources of water, although boreholes are still in use all over our country. Now that water is becoming even scarcer and more expensive, more and more people are sinking boreholes. There are several ways of sinking boreholes: A 59 mm steel pipe is connected with a water pump. Water is then pumped to blast a hole in the ground. A faster method uses a diesel engine to drive an auger into the ground. This method is more expensive because you have to hire the machine and its trained operators. These machines can drill much faster and deeper, up to 30 metres. Whenever underground water is hit, a polythene pipe is let down into so that a motorised pump or wind pump can pump the water to the surface. A fine mesh is placed over the lower end of the pipe to keep sediment out. Borehole water is usually used for livestock, farming or gardening, although the water may be pure enough for human consumption. Maintenance Boreholes need minimal maintenance. What can happen is that the pump motor may break or need maintenance or that the pipes may get blocked and need to be lifted out for cleaning. Advantages It provides a reliable supply of water. It is quite cheap sinking the hole is the only major expense. It is often suitable for household use. It is independent of the municipal supply. Disadvantages During a power outage an electric pump wont pump. The water may be polluted or dirty. The water may be too acid or alkaline. Pumps can break or need expensive repairs.

Shallow wells
A well dug by hand can also provide water. These wells are often dug with the help of concrete sections as follows: A circular concrete section is placed where the well needs to be dug and the ground inside the rings is dug out. As the hole is dug, a new section is placed on top of the first. As the well gets deeper, the sections sink and new ones are placed on top. In this way the rings form a lining for the well. The water is lifted out in a bucket or pumped out with a hand pump. The water can also be lifted with an electric pump. The water can be stored in a tank. A well (or borehole) must not be sunk within 40 m of a pit latrine, septic tank, French drain, sewerage line or waste dump. A well must be built up 30 cm above ground level to keep out dirt or polluted water.

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Advantages Water savings A reliable water supply The water is easy and therefore cheap to access. Disadvantages Possible water pollution by nitrates or chlorides The well may dry up or need cleaning. Danger children may fall into an open well Pollution may make the water unusable.

Did you know? The Big Hole at Kimberley, the worlds largest man-made hole, was dug by hand to extract diamonds.

Desalination
Researchers have been looking for economical methods of desalinating brackish and salt water for human use. Various methods are presently in use, but they are all expensive. Some of the methods include: Evaporation Water is heated in some way and the steam is condensed into fresh water. Flash evaporation Seawater is heated and pumped into vacuum tanks, where it evaporates rapidly. Steam condenses and is tapped as fresh water. Freezing Salt water is frozen and ice crystals of pure water are screened out, washed and melted as fresh water. Osmosis is an efficient process, but is very expensive. Water is forced through thin membranes only fresh water is let through while salts stay behind. Electrodialysis is a process using electricity to desalinate brackish water. Advantages The supply of raw water (sea water) is unlimited. Desalinated water contains little or no pollutants. By-products like table salt can be obtained in the process. Disadvantages May still contain salts. These processes are all expensive. The upkeep of machinery and equipment is expensive. The fresh water may have an undesirable colour.

Basic plumbing for a dwelling


When you are installing pipes, various bends and couplers, it will be worth your while to consider the following pipe system. This range is unique and quick to install. Even a handyman can use this material to install a system. Few tools are needed for the installation.

Figure 8.2: Couplers

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Materials
Pipes that are used for sewage and drinking-water are manufactured from different materials which are all rustproof to a certain extent, such as copper, PVC, galvanised iron, glazed clay pipes or other types of plastic. Because of the wave of copper theft during the past year, the use of copper pipes, especially on the exterior of buildings, has decreased. Instead, sturdy plastic pipes are used virtually everywhere and in all new buildings. Underground pipes are made of fiber-cement, PVC, pitch-fibre or cast iron. Soft steel, which is covered in a layer of concrete to make it rustproof, is also used in the manufacture of large water pipes.

Various fittings used in plumbing


Table 8.1: Copper fittings (soldered) and brass connections (screw joints)
Fitting Straight coupler Copper Brass Polythene (PVC) Function To connect straight pipes

Reducer

Allows a change in connection size, from bigger to smaller or vice versa

90 elbow fitting

To connect pipes at a 90 angle

45 -elbow fitting

To connect pipes at a 45 angle

T-pipe

To make a T-shaped connection

Reducing tee

To make a T-shaped connection where one opening is larger or smaller than the others

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Pipe-to-tap fitting To connect a tap to a pipe

Pipe cap

To stem the flow of water at the end of the pipe

Plumbing tape or piping

To fix a pipe to a surface or to keep it in position

Crossover pipe

To make a joint where there is an obstruction.

Installing plumbing at various points


Kitchen sink or sink
It is used to facilitate the washing of cutlery and crockery. It is made of stainless steel, plastic, enamel, or soft steel. The water is supplied by wall-mounted taps or mixers. Wastewater flows away through a 40 mm PVC pipe that is equipped with a trap.

Figure 8.3: Cold and hot water supply to a sink

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Showers are installed to save water when cleansing the body. Two pipes are installed via the roof or from the bottom to provide water to the showerhead. A low-pressure showerhead is preferable since it does not use too much water. A tap is fitted to both the hot water and the cold water pipes to regulate the flow of water.

Figure 8.4: Hot and cold water supply to the shower

Bath
Baths are available in various sizes and colours. The water is supplied by wall-mounted taps or mixers. The taps are usually mounted on the top or on the side of the bath. They can also be mounted on the wall.

Figure 8.5: Hot and cold water supply to the bath

Toilet
The toilet has a tank that allows flushing. It is usually made of porcelain.

Figure 8.6: Cold water supply to the cistern

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Material used for cold and hot water supply


Polyvinyl-chloride (PVC)
A polyethylene pipe can have either a low or a high density, depending on the pressure that it has to withstand and its use. Properties It is rust and corrosion resistant and resistant to most chemicals. It is durable and has a long working life. It is lightweight, malleable and has a smooth internal surface. It is easy to cut and join. It has excellent shock-absorbing properties. The pipes are heat and water-resistant. PVC pipes are available in white or grey. Advantages It is light and easy to handle. It is available in lengths of up to 6 m. It is easy to install. It is resistant to sunlight and many chemical materials. It is rustproof and corrosion-proof. Disadvantages It is not resistant to very high pressure. It is deformed by excessive heat. It snaps and breaks easily, which may result in leaks.

Copper
Properties Copper is a reddish metal with high electrical and thermal conductance. Until recently, it was the most commonly used material for the manufacture of water pipes. Copper is malleable and ductile. The thickness varies from 15 mm to 28 mm. It is available in lengths of up to 6 m. Advantages It is rustproof. It can easily be bent. It is strong and the colour does not fade when exposed to direct sunlight. Pipes can be connected easily and firmly using soldered couplers. Bacteria do not grow in these pipes. It is extremely durable. Disadvantages Copper pipes are very expensive. They are not suitable for use where water contains high acid levels.

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Galvanised steel
Properties It is available in lengths of up to 6 m. Pipes can be joined using threaded pipe and couplers. The joints can be waterproofed by using plumbing tape. The colour varies from light grey to a more silvery sheen. The zinc content in the steel reduces corrosion. Advantages It lasts very long. Iron pipes are considerably cheaper than copper pipes. It is strong and easy to bend. It is almost as rust-resistant as copper. Disadvantages The pipes are difficult to bend. It contains lead, which makes corrosion inevitable. Sediment and other materials can form a layer in the pipes. It is difficult to get rid of rust once a pipe has started rusting.

Cast-iron pipes
Like PVC pipes, these pipes can be used both above and under the ground. Properties It is only available in grey or black. It is stable, durable and tough. No vibration occurs when rubber seals are used. Pipes are relatively easy to join. It is a versatile material that is used for sewers, manholes, storm-water pipes and vent pipes. It has high compressive and tensile strength. It is resistant to heavy traffic, weathering and extreme heat and cold. It is corrosion resistant. It is heavy and difficult to transport. It allows a certain degree of expansion and contraction. Joints can be leak-proof which will ensure that the pipes are sealed on both the inside and the outside. The rough surface may allow bacterial contamination. Advantages It is very strong and tough. Once treated, it can be exceptionally resistant to rust. It can withstand high pressure. It is very durable. It is relatively inexpensive. The colour varies from grey to dark grey and sometimes black. Disadvantages It is very heavy. It is difficult to waterproof the joints. It is very brittle.

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Domestic hot water


Water is heated by means of electricity, gas or the sun and the hot water is piped to taps inside the house. Below is a diagram of the operation of a domestic hot water system (Figure 8.7). In Figure 8.8 the diameter of a real geyser indicated.

Electrical element Inlet valve Swivel outlet

Cold supply Single-point electric storage water heaters

Figure 8.7: Push through geyser

Outer cover (galvanised metal) Inside tank/cover (in this case copper)

Centre layer (polyester insulation)

Thermostat Element Drain

Wall bracket

Figure 8.8: Geyser

Geyser maintenance
The drain is used to tap sediment from time to time. Water with high calcium content can clog pipes the system must be cleaned to remove lime scale. Set the thermostat at 55 to 60 for domestic use. Ensure that the expansion pipe is always clear. Insulate the hot water system to reduce heat loss.

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Because cold and hot water be placed or installed in the same way, there are certain aspects or facts you should know about hot water supply. When installing hot-water pipes, you must: Use the shortest and most direct route. Not change the direction of the pipe, unless it is unavoidable. Install the valves in a way that will allow a plumber to do necessary repairs without damaging the pipes. Ensure that bends and joints can be replaced easily when necessary. Use compression joints because they can easily be repaired or replaced. Use only SANS-approved materials for the installation. Air bubbles in a hot-water system Air bubbles are easily formed in a hot-water system. It happens when the installation is faulty. It occurs when new systems are installed. It also occurs when the pressure in a high-pressure geyser is too low to push the air bubble through the pipe. This air bubble usually remains in the highest section of the hot-water system. How does one get rid of air bubbles? Open the hot-water taps about a quarter of the way as the geyser fills with water. This will cause the air that is trapped in the pipe to be pushed out. Close the taps when the water flows steadily.

Heating water
There are various ways in which to heat the water, e.g. using electricity, gas or solar energy.

Electric hot-water systems


The cold water must be heated before it flows to the taps of the wash basins, baths, washing-machines and/or showers. This type of geyser is used where the water pressure of a municipal area is low (from 50 kPa to 600 kPa). Most residences use this type of installation nowadays. A geyser comprises the following: A cylinder made of copper or galvanised steel. A round or square external cover (galvanised metal). Insulation material made of polyester (also referred to as the middle layer). A thermostat, element and drain valve. An inlet valve and an outlet valve, as well as a safety valve and a relief valve. The drain valve and pressure-control valve are connected to the pipe system directly outside the geyser. An overflow pipe that conveys water to outside the building. The geyser rests on a drip tray.

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Figure 8.9: High pressure geyser

Geyser
How does a high-pressure geyser work? Water flows into the cylinder through the pressure control valve. The element that is mounted inside the cylinder heats the water. The pressure of the hot water and that of the water flowing into the geyser is balanced. A safety valve controls the pressure by releasing excess pressure in the cylinder (water boils over and is ejected outside the building). The pressure in the cylinder enables the water to flow to the taps. Once the water reaches the set temperature, the thermostat switches off the electric current; it turns the current on again when the water is too cold. If the pressure in the cylinder is lower than the pressure of the water that is flowing in, the vacuum valve (installed approximately 300 mm above the highest inlet) should be opened to let more water flow into the cylinder. The vacuum valve protects the cylinder against cracking. Advantages and disadvantages of an electric geyser Electric geysers have more advantages than disadvantages when it comes to household use. Advantages It is clean and environmentally friendly. It does not require much repair work or maintenance. It is not visible because it in mounted in the roof. It is easy to maintain. It produces sufficient hot water to supply various taps. Disadvantages The electricity needed to keep the water hot is expensive. Smaller geysers cannot provide sufficient volumes of water. Elements can be damaged if the acid level of the water is too high. Dirt in the tank can cause blocks. If the temperature of the thermostat is set too high, it can cause the geyser to burst.

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Gravity geyser
How does a gravity geyser work? Cold water flows into the cylinder from below. The electric element heats the water. The thermostat regulates the temperature of the water. Gravity allows the hot water to flow through the pipes to the taps. The geyser is automatically refilled with cold water as the hot water is used. What causes problems in hot-water systems? Piping that is not used correctly, e.g. using pipes that are too thin. Air bubbles result in the poor flow of water to the taps. Cylinders may burst if the pressure is too high. Excess dirt may accumulate in the cylinder and flow through the pipes to the taps. If the acid level of the water is too high, the element corrodes and this may cause shorts. A rubber seal that has not been properly tightened may cause leaks.

Solar heaters
More and more homes are using solar hot water systems because of the high cost of electricity and power outages. Such systems are now to be seen on many roofs. Israel has the most solar heating systems in the world. As their name indicates, water is heated by the sun in solar collectors or panels. The hot water storage tank is mounted higher than the panel so that the hot water rises by means of convection. A pump may also be used for this. A solar heating system can also be linked to an electrical system to save electricity. The temperature of sun-heated water depends on: the season cloud cover the time of day the duration of the sunshine. Other factors playing a role in the maximum exploitation of sunshine are: The angle at which the panel is mounted (an angle of 35 to the horizontal is ideal) The height of the panels on the roof for the effective operation of the other parts of the system The position of the solar panel (facing north for the most sun).

Did you know? Israel is the country with the most solar-powered heating systems in the world.

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The independent (autonomous) system.
Aluminium frame

Double glazing

Fibreglass tray Hot water outlet Cold water inlet Copper hot water tanks Isolation material

Figure 8.10: Independent heating system

This system consists of a shallow glass-fibre or corrosion-resistant tray containing water chambers of copper or glass. The tray is covered with glass set in a durable material like aluminium. This glass frame keeps dirt out of the system and helps trap heat inside. The bottom of the tray is insulated to prevent the heated water from cooling down (usually polystyrene). The inside parts of the tray are painted matt black as this colour absorbs the most heat of all. The only maintenance needed is to keep the glass clean. Solar heating system with hot water reservoir

Frame Glass

Hot water outlet Fibre glass Isolation material Copper pipe Cold water inlet

Figure 8.11: Hot water reservoir system

The hot water reservoir system is similar to the independent system, except that instead of water chambers that both heat and store water, there are thinner (copper) pipes inside the tray through which the water circulates before flowing or being pumped to an electric geyser for storage. All pipes may be insulated to prevent heat loss.

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Gas geysers (The full-flow gas geyser)


Gas geysers are still relatively few in townships in South Africa, but because of the electricity supply problems there are more people who may switch to gas heating systems. Gas geysers are generally used in more remote areas where electricity supply is limited. Operation A gas bottle supplies flammable gas to the unit. A mechanical trigger ignites the pilot flame. Opening a hot-water tap causes gas to be fed to the main burners, where it is ignited by the pilot flame the water flow and size of the flame are adjusted to the right temperature. Cold water flows to the geyser through the inlet. The burner heats the water, which flows out through an outlet with a breather valve. Hot gases from the burner are led away through a cowling into a chimney. Installation Gas geysers need to be properly installed for safety. The location of the unit must meet the following demands: The unit, chimney and fireproof insulation must be installed to leave enough space for repairs. All gas pipe joints must be tight to avoid leaks. Gas pipes to the unit must flexible and have bayonet couplings for easy cleaning. The system must have a shut-off valve and exhaust valve to be closed in an emergency or for maintenance. Gas bottles should preferably be stood on a concrete slab outside and behind a locked enclosure. A safety notice No open flames must be installed near the gas bottles. If gas bottles are kept inside the house, they must be placed in a well-ventilated room. Never run gas pipes inside a hollow wall, as leakages are difficult to trace and repair. Gas pipes must be led inside the house through a metal casing. Use copper piping inside the house only to avoid damage by theft.
Vent pipe Open flue Cold feed Baffle Hot supply Thermostat Weep holes Gas supply Relay Insulation Casing

Cowling A hood or cover.

Burner Pilot supply

Cistern fed gas storage water heater

Figure 8.12: Gas heating system

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Advantages Saves electricity. Water is heated quickly. Warm water at all times despite power outages. Disadvantages Gas leaks are poisonous to humans. Gas mixed with air can cause a serious explosion. A gas explosion can cause loss of life or damage to buildings. Gas has an unpleasant smell. Empty gas bottles have to be physically exchanged and gas is expensive. Regular maintenance is required. Maintenance Pipes and gas bottles must be checked regularly. Gas leaks must be checked using soap and water, not open flames. Close the shut-off valve when the system is not in use. Do not allow open flames near gas bottles. Ensure that the pilot flame trigger is in good working order. Refill gas bottles when empty, not when half full. Check and clean chimneys regularly. (Test by warming the chimney with a blowlamp for five minutes. Light a smoke tablet and hold it at the bottom end of the chimney to see if it draws properly.)

Smoke tablet A tablet lit by a flame which emits thick smoke.

Photovoltaic cells
Panels with photovoltaic cells are connected in series or parallel to capture solar energy able to be stored in batteries. The electricity from the batteries can be used directly in suitable 12 V appliances or converted to 230 V use. Installing the panels is the same as for solar water heaters (see above). The only maintenance required is to keep the panels clean and check the electrical cables and connections regularly.

Figure 8.13: Photovoltaic cells mounted on a roof

The purpose of pressure-reducing valves


Before choosing a water pressure-reducing valve, various questions have to be asked. 1. Firstly, what is the maximum and minimum inlet pressure? 2. Secondly, what is the desired outlet pressure? Based on the answers to these two questions, the differential pressure can be determined. 3. Thirdly, what is the maximum flow rate that the system should be able to handle?

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The device has two functions: Reducing the high pressure of the water flowing from the citys main pipeline Regulating the pressure of the water in a dwelling ensuring that the domestic pipes and appliances function safely, at more moderate but sufficient pressure levels. The reason for this is that water pressure varies and, therefore, a pressure-reducing valve is necessary in a pipe system to ensure that hot-water taps can be opened simultaneously without experiencing a loss of pressure. It is usually set by the manufacturers and is colour-coded to make it easy to choose one. The standard valves are: 100 Kpa valve (blue) 200 Kpa valve (black) 400 Kpa valve (red) 600 Kpa valve (green)

Figure 8.14: Pressure-reducing valve

Activity 1
1. What is a solar water heater system and how does it work? 2. Which factors influence the heating of water by the sun? 3. What is the best angle of inclination for a solar panel? 4. Mention two advantages and two disadvantages of gas geysers. 5. List four kinds of maintenance required for gas geysers. 6. Briefly explain flash condensation. 7. Describe the action of osmosis in desalinating sea water. 8. Why must photovoltaic glass panels be kept clean? 9. Name the factors to be considered when installing a gas geyser. 10. What is the function of a pressure-reducing valve?

Sewerage
Introduction
More and more human and domestic wastes have to be carried away by sewerage systems. Most urban and suburban dwellings or buildings have sanitary or bathroom fittings using water. Dirty or polluted water, known as sewerage water, is removed for health reasons or to avoid pollution. Where there is no central sewerage network (reticulation) in an area, sewerage must be handled and treated in one of several different ways. In these cases septic tanks with French drains, holding tanks or vacuum tanks are used for this purpose. These systems are all in use in various parts of our country.

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This refers to any system, construction or pipe that removes sewage or surface water (groundwater) for safe disposal through a series of drains. Sewerage This is water that contains organic contaminants, mainly human excretions such as urine and solid waste, which comes from flushing toilets, urinals, wash troughs, squat pans and sluice-rooms. Sewage This refers to the waste that has been collected and removed by a network of drains and pipes. Wastewater This is a general term that refers to water that has been contaminated by human waste and other pollutants, whether from a commercial, industrial, domestic or agricultural source, which may contain a broad spectrum of chemical and organic matter, some harmless and others lethal. Groundwater This refers mainly to rainwater present in the spaces between the soil particles in the top 10 cm layer of soil.

Figure 8.15: Sewerage system

Venting system
A drain-waste-vent (DWV) is a system that removes sewage and grey water from toilets, basins, sinks and showers and prevents the gases produced by the aforementioned waste from entering the building. The water flowing from these sources runs through a U-shaped disconnecting trap that always contains a little water. This water prevents malodorous or poisonous gases from entering the building. All the fittings are connected to drainpipes, which take the water to a central sewer. An ascending pipe extends from the lowest point of the main sewer to above Figure 8.16: Venting system the roof. This waste disposal system is made up of pipes that are connected to drainpipes and the vent pipe, which release the sewage gases into the atmosphere. These pipes also ensure that the air pressure on both sides of the disconnecting trap remains the same in order to keep the water inside.

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This pipe runs vertically from the underground sewerage and allows odours and gases from the sewage to be vented into the atmosphere where they offend anyone. At the same time, it allows air into the system to prevent the siphoning of water from sinks, baths and shower traps. Plastic is used for modern systems. An ordinary soil vent pipe can be a simple pipe that conveys gases from the drainpipes to the sewer; it also carries wastewater from the toilets, basins, baths and showers on upper levels that are linked to the underground sewerage system.
Branch vent Basin Slope Stack vent Wet vent Slope 2 cm/m Soil stack

Toilet

Figure 8.17: Soil vent system

Air valve
This is a mechanical valve in a sewage system that renders the use of conventional ascending pipes obsolete. When wastewater is released, it opens the valve. This reduces the partial vacuum and allows air into the system so that the water can flow away freely, without releasing sewage gases inside the building.

Traps
Various traps are used in gulleys. A grease trap, used to trap fats, can form part of the system, especially in the kitchen. This prevents solid fats from entering and affecting the sewerage system. The functions of the various types of traps are provided below.

Figure 8.18: P-trap

S-trap

U-trap

A trap is a device that allows water to pass through while keeping back the gases. It is used under sinks, baths and toilets. Most traps have an inspection hole through which they can be cleaned.

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A gutter is often connected to a downpipe. Rainwater runs into this combined system and a disconnection trap is used to prevent odours from rising up from the sewer. Like a toilet bowl, it has water in the flexure. If the flexure contains no water, it indicates that there is a leak and this may result in water reaching the foundation, possibly causing damage. Gutters have to be cleaned regularly, especially after heavy rain. Wear gloves when performing this task.

Figure 8.19: Gully trap

Regulations
Each pipe must be inspected before it is laid to ensure that it is not cracked and has no defects. Pipes must be laid according to the gradient and in as straight a line as possible. Approved tools must be used to cut or saw the pipes to ensure straight ends. The ends of all pipes must be sealed to prevent water, stones or any other material or waste from entering the pipe system while the pipes are being laid or after they have been laid. Rodding eyes must be installed as indicated on the plan. All pipes must be laid according to the manufacturers instructions. Sharp inclines must be avoided where possible. After covering the pipes, all traps must be filled with water to keep out any gases and inspection eyes must be covered. Air will be pumped into the system until a minimum pressure of 0,35 kPa is reached. If the pressure has not dropped to below 0,25 kPa after three minutes, the system is deemed acceptable. An air conduit or a vent must be built into the system in order to rid it of gases and unpleasant odours.

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Sewerage plan
A plumber must be able to work according to a plan when he installs the system. The typical layout of a plan is provided in Figure 8.20.

Cover with heavy duty metal drain cover

Figure 8.20: Sewerage plan

Existin

g sewe

r line

Colour codes
The following details are indicated on the plan in colour, as required by the municipality and according to SABS 04001990. Soil pipes Green: sewage and wastewater pipes Sewage for storm water Brown: wastewater vent pipe Sewage and vent pipe (combined) Red: existing sewage Black: Pipes used for industrial water Orange: No colour
Table 8.2: Abbreviations and symbols related to plumbing and sewerage systems
Abbreviation WM MH Description Water meter Manhole Symbol Abbreviation IE G Description Inspection eye Gully Symbol

VP

Ventilating pipe

RE

Rodding eye

Sink

BT

Bidet

WC

Water closet

WB

Wash basin

SH

Shower

Urinal

GL

Ground level

IL

Invert level

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Grease trap

DP

Drain pipe

AO

Access opening

RWP

Rainwater pipe

RWS

Rainwater shoes

Bath

Table 8.3: Other terms and abbreviations


Description Surface coating Natural ground level Inspection room Storm water pipe Clay pipe Abbreviation DL NGL IR SWP CP Description French drain Septic tank Soil water pipe Trap Waste water pipe Abbreviation FD ST SP T WP Description Access eye Bitumen Cast iron Cleaning eye Fire pump connection Abbreviation AE BIT CI CE FPC Description Inspection chamber Stormwater drain Soil vent pipe Abbreviation IC SD SVP

Drainage plan and sectional drawing of the sewerage


Drainage plan The details regarding the drainage are usually indicated on the site plan. Heavy (thick, dark) chain lines with short dashes are used to indicate the sewage pipes. Sewage pipes and vent pipes are indicated in red or brown on the site plan. (Ref. SANS 0143) The position of the hand/wash basin, sink, water closet/flushing toilet, shower, etc. must be indicated on the site plan. Labels should be added to indicate the type of pipe, the diameter of the pipe and the incline along which the pipe must be laid. The incline of sewage pipes varies between 1 : 40 and 1 : 60. The positions of the manholes, rodding eyes and inspection eyes must be clearly indicated on the site plan. The positions of the inspection eyes that indicate the connections of the sanitary fittings are very important when a sectional view of the sewerage is drawn. The height above sea level, also referred to as the datum level, is converted to metres to indicate the height of the ground level on the site plan. Some draftspeople number the connection points 1, 2, 3, etc. in order to know precisely which connection point is the focus of the work. Sectional drawing of the sewerage Consult the site plan and determine the position of the manhole. The Local Authority (LA) will provide the position of the manhole, i.e. the distance from the boundary lines, as well as the depth of the manhole. These measurements may differ, depending on the L A. The position of the manhole and its depth, as provided by the LA, will ensure that the incline of the connection to the municipal sewerage is acceptable.

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In order to draw a sectional view of the sewerage, the measurements must first be calculated and tabled. Start the sectional drawing with a horizontal line representing the natural ground level (NGL). Draw the municipal manhole in the appropriate place. Measure the depth vertically, as indicated by the LA. A scale of 1 : 100 is usually used to represent the vertical heights or depths. This is referred to as the vertical scale. Measure the distance to the following connection point on the site plan horizontally according to scale. Scales of 1 : 100 or 1 : 200 are used to represent horizontal distances on the ground line. This is referred to as the horizontal scale. The scale will depend on the total distance from the municipal manhole to the furthest connection point, e.g. if the distance is 30000 mm, the line will be 150 mm long if a scale of 1 : 200 is used; and it will be 300 mm long if a scale of 1 : 100 is used. Draw a vertical line after this distance has been measured. The calculated depth of the sewage pipe will be measured on this later. This will indicate the position of the first sewer connection point with respect to the municipal manhole. Indicate the fittings that will be added at this connection point on this vertical line, e.g. WB (hand/wash basin), WC (water closet) and S (sink). Repeat the previous step for every inspection eye until the inspection eye furthest from the manhole is reached. It is not necessary to have a separate connection point for every fitting. If the fittings are located in separate rooms but lie close enough to each other, they may be led to the same connection point. To depict the depth of the sewer graphically, the depth at each connection point has to be CALCULATED and then measured according to the vertical scale. Calculating the invert and depth of sewage pipes In order to draw a sectional view of the sewerage, the invert and depth of the sewage pipe must be known. The invert depends on the incline and the distance between consecutive sewer connections. To calculate the invert at the manhole of the local authority: Always start at the manhole and use the following formula: Invert = Ground level depth of manhole This measurement is usually obtainable from the local authority. To calculate the inverts at other connection points: Invert = incline distance to sewer connection + previous invert To calculate the depth of the sewer connection The depth of the sewer connection = ground level invert The draftsman can deduce the ground levels using the datum lines that are indicated on the corners of the plot on the site plan. Ground levels are rarely the same everywhere, because the ground is never as smooth as a mirror. However, when the ground appears to be more or less even, i.e. when there are no perceptible differences in height, architects or draftspeople may consider the ground as being level when calculating the dimensions of the sectional drawing. Some site plans indicate the ground levels according to which the contour intervals are then estimated since the actual contours are not available. When working from the manhole to the furthest point from it, the difference in the calculated level must be added to the previous invert. When working from the furthest connection point towards the manhole, the difference in the calculated level must be subtracted from the previous invert.

Take note You can also start the calculations at the point furthest from the manhole and then work towards the manhole.

Take note The inverts of all sewer connections should first be calculated.

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Example 1 A sewage pipe must be laid at an incline of 1 : 40 between a manhole and an inspection eye. If the ground level is 100000 mm, the manhole is 1100 mm deep and The distance between the inspection eye and the manhole is 8000 mm and the ground level for the inspection eye mm.
Invert of sewer Ground level (GL) Invert (I) Distance between two points (PA) Gradient (GRAD) 1 100

100 mm Datum level

Incline of pipe

1 Municipal connection

Figure 8.21: Graphic illustration of incline (not according to scale)

Incline of sewerage pipelines In order to determine the gradient and the correct incline, you have to be familiar with the calculation method. Use the plan provided in this chapter to do the following. If the slope is too steep or too shallow, the water will flow too fast and the solid waste will move too slowly, which could result in blockages. The recommended incline of a sewerage pipeline is 1 : 40 or 1 : 60. The bottom depth is measured from below the sewerage pipe, thus implying that the ground above the pipe as well as the diameter of the pipe must be considered. Therefore, if the datum level of the ground above the pipe is 400 mm, the bottom depth is: 400 + 110 = 510 mm deep. Bear in mind that the groundcover, diameter of the pipe, length of the pipeline and the slope play an important role in determining the incline.
Setting IO MG

SO

IO

IO Ground level height

Datum level Bottom depth

Figure 8.22: Graphic illustration of incline (not according to scale)

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Invert level of sewerage Ground level (GL) Bottom depth (BD) Distance between points Gradient (GRAD) 510 1 500 0 150 547,5 2 400 220 607,5 8 716 825,4 7 383 0 1 010 0

Table 8.4: Invert levels of sewage

How do you proceed to calculate the incline? Read the following in conjunction with the table provided above. Firstly, determine the highest point of the sewerage (in this case, the groundcover is 400 mm deep). The diameter of the pipe is 110 mm. Now determine the distance along which the sewerage pipe must be laid. (in this case 20 m). Remember that sewerage pipes must run in a straight line as far as possible. Determine the incline given on the plan (1 : 40 in this case). Determine the two ends. (Top invert level (A) and Bottom invert level (B)) (A) Top invert level = Groundcover + Pipe diameter = 400 + 110 = 510 mm (B) Bottom invert level = Top invert level + (Distance slope) = 510 + (20 000 40) = 1 010 mm At the initial point (datum level) the top invert level is now 510 mm. The lowest point (connecting with municipal or public connection) is thus 1 010 mm. Measure the distance between each point that is connected in the pipeline from the first inlet to the second inlet or connection = for each metre, the incline is 40 mm 1 500 40 = 37,5 + 510 = 547,5 mm From the second inlet or connection to the third inlet or connection, where an inspection eye must be installed: 2 400 40 = 60 + 547,5 = 607,5 mm. From the inspection eye to the next inlet or connection a manhole: 8 718 40 = 217,95 + 607,5 = 825.4 mm From this point to the municipal connection: 7 383 40 = 184,575 + 825,4 = 1 010 mm These distances are now illustrated graphically according to scale, but are effectively indicated in the table.

Septic tank
The function of the septic tank is to collect and treat sewerage. The system consists of a tank with one or two chambers. The second chamber simply slows down the flow of water. A small septic tank must have a capacity of at least 3 000 l (3 m3). Provision is made for air space above the chambers. The outlet of the second chamber is slightly lower than the inlet of the first. The size of the tank depends on the amount of sewerage to be collected a greater capacity is required for larger dwellings. One or two manholes are fitted. A septic tank is usually built underground of brick with concrete floors, although plastic tanks are also used. These structures must be watertight. Solid sewerage wastes are digested by anaerobic bacteria until nothing but sludge remains and only water leaves the tank. The outflow then runs into a French drain or into underground pipes from where it soaks away. No chemicals must be thrown into a septic tank as it may be poisonous to the bacteria in the tank, but there are enzymes

Anaerobic bacteria Bacteria that do not live or grow in the presence of oxygen.

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on the market that help treat sewerage. A septic tank must be cleaned when the sludge level rises above the outlet and starts flowing out. The sludge can be scooped or pumped out through the manhole.
Cover Soil Liquid level Foam Outlet

Impermeable plaster Inlet

Floor slab Septic tank

Cover Ventilation Pipe Inlet 75 Specifications A. Not more than 0,2 of liquid level B: Outlet quick level Length section

Cover

Cover

150 mm soil cover Concrete slab

Sloping

Gas Liquid level A

Outlet to French drain Impermeable plaster 220 mm brick or 110 mm concrete

150 x 150 mm opening

2 500

2 000 B

Foundation

Figure 8.23: Diagram of a septic tank

The operation of the septic tank 1. Sewerage flows from the home into the first chamber. 2. Heavier parts sink to the bottom. 3. Bacteria digest/decompose the solid sewerage into a liquid. 4. The sludge remains at the bottom of the tank. 5. All digested solids eventually flow into the second tank. 6. Only liquid flows from the outlet at chamber two. 7. This liquid flows into a French drain or soaks into the ground.

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Sewerage tank (vacuum tank)


This is a holding tank that just stores sewerage and needs to be pumped out regularly, usually by the local authority. These tanks are used where no municipal system exists. It is an underground watertight tank of brick and cement with a concrete floor. (Plastic models are also available.) The tanks are built as close to the road as possible to simplify removal of the waste. An exhaust or outlet valve on the tank allows the sewerage to be pumped out and taken to a central treatment plant. The system must be regularly inspected for leaks and the street valve must be provided with a cover.
Concrete slab Inlet chamber Manhole Interseptic tank Liquid level SECTION Draw-off valve Pavement level 100 mm dia outflow Waterproof cement plaster Channel PLAN Slope Curbstone Road Slope Hinged cover Manhole Curbstone

Vent

Figure 8.24: Diagram of sewerage tank

Figure 8.25: Street valve

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French drain
The French drain allows sewerage to soak into the ground in a controlled fashion. It consists of a trench 1,62,5 m deep and 80 cm wide, which is filled with broken rock or coarse gravel, The trench is covered with soil. Grey water (soapy kitchen sink, laundry or even bathroom water) is led to the French drain. The nature of the soil determines how fast the water soaks away The outlet from septic tanks is also led into a French drain. It is not advisable to dig French drains close to boreholes, as the groundwater may become polluted.
Inspection eye cover Compacted filling Coarse sand Distribution pipe Gravel filling Inspection pipe

Figure 8.26: French drain

French drain is usually maintenance-free. A new trench may be needed when the existing one is unable to absorb the required volume of water, due to more people and household activities. Stormwater should not be led into a French drain.

Did you know? Up to 40% of all sewerage systems in rural towns are on the brink of collapse due to lack of skills, maintenance, infrastructure and management. The Water Research Commission advised the government in 2006 to intervene in some 30% of sewerage installations to avoid polluting rivers and the outbreak of waterborne diseases like cholera. Source (Die Rapport of 8 March 2008 Headline : SA facing sewerage crisis by Lizel Steenkamp)

Activity 2
1. 2. 3. 4. Name three materials used for making sewerage pipes. What precautions are needed when running a sewer under a building? Mention two requirements for the design of sewerage installations. Draw a simple sketch to illustrate the working of a septic tank. Show the direction of flow in such a system. 5. How does a septic tank work?

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Activity 3
Simulation Scenario: Charlton and Sandy live on a Free State farm with their children Garren and Jodi. Charlton, owner of the farm, has just built a cottage for his foreman. The cottage has a bedroom, kitchen, lounge and bathroom. Charlton has forgotten that there is no municipal street sewerage system. Design and plan a septic tank system and simulate its operation. Choose your materials so that you can give a practical demonstration to your classmates.

Stormwater
Stormwater is rain, hail, or snow that falls to the earth. It then has to be carried away in order to avoid flooding or dangerous puddles. Large quantities of water raining down on roofs, paving, driveways, parking areas, roads, etc. must be safely channelled to the municipal stormwater system via gutters and channels in order to ensure public safety. The method used to collect and dispose of rainwater will depend on the intensity, duration and frequency of the rainfall and it is determined by local town laws. Removal of stormwater Stormwater is removed by: Gutters that lead to downpipes. Being conveyed to central points by means of channels or inclined surfaces. Street gutters and kerbs that lead the stormwater to manholes, from where it is drained. Underground canals that carry the water from the streets to rivers and dams. Stormwater regulations Municipal authorities have regulations that determine how stormwater should be handled. The purpose of stormwater systems or pipes is to carry the water to rivers or low-lying dams. Stormwater drainage must: carry stormwater away from buildings not allow stormwater to run into the sewerage system be designed and built by specialists in the field not have downpipes with elbows of less than 135 fall within the boundaries of private property be laid above or below the ground, with the permission of the municipal authorities have manholes with cast-iron covers have gratings or grids over openings to prevent objects from falling into the stormwater pipes be designed in a way that would limit the destruction of the natural environment.

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Gutters
Gutters are fitted to dwellings and other buildings to collect rainwater and drain it through downpipes. Gutters are made of PVC or aluminium. There may be joints in the system.

Figure 8.27: Different gutter profiles

Figure 8.28: Different gutter installations

Figure 8.29: A stormwater outlet

A manhole cover lifted by stormwater

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How are stormwater systems maintained? Regularly clean the gutters of your roof. Repair leaks in the gutters. Manholes and open stormwater canals must be cleaned regularly by municipal authorities. Never dump dangerous chemicals or solid waste in a stormwater system. By taking these precautions, you can prevent floods, blockages, pollution, damage to buildings and even landslides.

Electrical systems
In short, this section will examine electricity installation and the position of the meter box as well as the distribution board. Meter box The meter box should be placed in a meter compartment outside the property close to the street. The distribution board The distribution board will be installed in the kitchen or garage.

Installation and position of the distribution board


Installation
The following points must be considered when the installation takes place: A qualified electrician must do the job. The power supply has to be relayed from the junction box. A kick pipe must be used to hide the cables and it serves as a safety device. The plans or drawings must specify exactly where the distribution board has to be placed (usually in the garage or kitchen). Conduits are installed after channels have been cut in the walls using an angle grinder. Conduits are usually made of PVC or mild steel and have to be mounted under the surface of the walls in order to hide and direct the cables. They can be fitted in the roof or under the floor surface. They must be pressed firmly into the channels before being plastered. The main cable is pulled from the meter box to the distribution board. Electrical wires are pulled from the distribution board and along the conduits to where they are needed using a fishertape (lights, power plugs, geyser, electrical garage doors, pool, oven, etc.). All the switches, power plugs and lights are then installed and have to be tested after installation. During the installation process, a building contractor has to ensure that all the requirements of SANS 10142 (the wiring of the household) are met.

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Civil Technology Siting and installation of cables


A cable may not be laid in the following locations: in the same trench or conduit as the service cable, except if permission has been obtained from the electricity supplier in the same conduits as the cables or wires used for utility equipment such as telecommunications, radio and/or signal circuits within 150 mm of heating devices, such as hot-water pipes and stovepipes, because the heat generated by the pipes may damage the cable; it may be done should the cable be cooled or protected against the heat where it may possibly be damaged unless it is protected mechanically.

Conduit above ceiling

Conduit chased into wall

Light

Did you know? A multimeter is used to test how many volts through a wire. It can also be used to test the total resistance in ohms.

Conduit MB

DB

Light switch Kick pipe Power point Ground level Cable 16 mm Conduit buried in concrete

Figure 8.30: Installing conduits and kick pipes

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Civil services

Installing conduits and kick pipes


Conduits The pipes (conduits) in which the electrical cables are run are made of PVC. These conduits are used where wires need to be run under concrete, or where they are laid above the ceiling to reach rooflights. Conduits for wires are also set into the wall to serve switches and plugs channels are chased into the wall with an angle grinder and chiselled out with a cold chisel. The conduits are then plastered into the channels. Conduits are fitted with flat metal strips and, after the conduits have been laid, the necessary wires are pulled along the conduit to where they are needed by means of these strips. Conductors used for kick pipes These conductors or pipes are installed outside the house to connect the cables of the main electricity supply point located at the plot boundary to the meter box of the house. These conductors are buried and are made of a PVC cover that encloses a steel-wire armoured cable. The conductors are reinforced in order to protect them against incidental damage that may be caused during excavations and also to guard against theft. A circuit breaker is installed in the distribution board for the purpose of protecting the equipment from an excessively high electrical current, such as when a short circuit occurs. This prevents electrocution or the melting of all the electrical wiring in a house or factory, which is a serious fire hazard. From the distribution board, electrical wiring conveys a single-phase current of 220 V to the distribution points in the house. Standard colour-codes are used for conductors to facilitate easy identification, namely red or brown for the live wires, black or blue for the neutral wires and green or yellow for the earth wire.

Prepaid card system (buying electricity)


Most municipalities provide consumers of electricity with a prepaid card system option. This system can only be installed by an official of the municipality. The Electricity Control Unit comprises a keyboard and an electronic window that allows one to read the meter. Consumers can by power (electrical units) at any suppliers and simply enter the pin code on the meter. The pin code registers the units of power/electricity which are automatically loaded onto the card system. As the units are used, the total number of available units decreases. The meter must therefore be checked regularly to ensure that the household does not run out of electricity. The purchase price will vary according to the number of units required and the usage. Geysers use more electrical units than any other household appliance.

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Civil Technology Installation components standards for service circuit

Figure 8.31: Installation components of service circuit

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Civil services Installation components standards for fixed electrical installations according to SANS 10143

Figure 8.32: Installation components for fixed electrical installations

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Civil Technology

Basic electrical symbols


In the installation of electrical cables, appliances and accessories, the architect makes use of various symbols to indicate what is to be installed where. These symbols are used countrywide. Familiarise yourself with the symbols, as they are commonly in use in the industry. Table 8.5: Symbols for electrical installation
Electrical installation Distribution board Earth Electricity meter One-way switch single pole One-way switch double pole One-way switch three pole Two-way switch Regulator switch, e.g. dimmer Socket outlet Emergency light Fluorescent light (3 tubes of 40 W) Light (3 lamps of 40 W) Light wall-mounted Telephone, internal Telephone, public Switch Socket outlet

Table 8.6: Basic electrical symbols for appliances


Dishwasher Washing machine Freezer (upright) Microwave oven Sub board Hot water geyser Bell Buzzer Spin dryer Refrigeration Freezer (chest) Distribution board Main control Meter box Siren

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Civil services

Activity 3
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Where may a distribution board be positioned when installed? Name four locations where electrical cables should not be laid. Provide the symbols for a one-way single pole switch and a one-way double pole switch. What is your interpretation of the term prepaid electricity? Name the materials that are used to manufacture kick pipes? Why are these materials used?

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Civil Technology

394

Chapter 9

Quantities

Substructure Gable walls Ceilings

Superstructure

Beam filling

Roof trusses and roof covering Cutting lists for doors, ceilings and windows

Civil Technology

Quantities Introduction
At this stage, you should be able to calculate the quantities of materials needed for the construction of a building up to its superstructure level. In this section, the quantities required to construct a building up to roof level will be calculated, after which you will be expected to identify and calculate the materials needed for the construction of a one-bedroom dwelling. Four-column dimension paper will again be used for the calculation of quantities. The quantity surveyor calculates the dimensions of the areas, linear measurements and volumes of material required to construct the dwelling. This data is then used to compile a list of the exact quantities of all the necessary materials. The list makes it possible for all the tenderers to tender for the same quantities of materials. The building contractor compares the prices obtained from the various suppliers before the final submission. The building contractor or tenderer compares the prices obtained from the various suppliers before finalising and submitting the list. Tip: If you have to draw your own dimension paper in your workbook, the following measurements may be considered: Width of column A = 15 mm Width of column B = 30 mm Width of column C = 20 mm Width of column D = 100 mm Example 1 An end view of the gable end of a gable wall containing a window is shown.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Make a freehand sketch of the end view in your workbook. Draw the four-column dimension paper in your workbook. Calculate the number of bricks required to build the gable wall. Calculate how many cubic metres of plaster will be needed to plaster the front and back of the wall if the layer of plaster is 12 mm thick.

Use the following specifications: Gable wall is 220 mm thick and built in stretcher bond. Use 50 bricks per square metre for a half-brick wall. Allow 5% wastage of bricks.

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1 500

Quantities
Solution
Steps (This column is not part of the four-column dimension paper; it merely serves to explain the steps) Calculate the area of the triangular wall. Area of triangle = bh Calculate the area of the window. Calculate the total area of the brickwork by deducting the window. Multiply the brickwork area by the number of bricks per m2.. Then multiply it by 2 to calculate the number required for a single-brick wall. Multiply the number of bricks by 5% to calculate the number of bricks that will be wasted. Add the number of bricks to determine the total. Multiply the brickwork area by the thickness of the plaster. Then multiply it by 2 for the plaster on both sides. 2/ 5,12 0,012 0,12 m 2/ 5,12 50 512 bricks A B C D

1,5 7,9 0,9 0,9

5,93 m2

Area of gable wall: Area of wall of gable wall = 5,93 m2 Area of window: Area of window = 0,81 m2 Total area of brickwork: Area of wall area of window = 5,93 m2 0,81 m2 = 5,12 m2 brickwork Number of bricks = area of wall number of bricks per m2 50 bricks per m2 for a half-brick wall 512 bricks are needed Plus 5% wastage: 5% of 512 bricks = 25,6 bricks 26 bricks must be added to accommodate wastage. Total number of bricks: 512 + 26 = 538 bricks Plaster layer on both sides of wall: Thickness of plaster is 12 mm 0,12 m

1/

0,81 m2

Beam filling Beam filling refers to the brickwork between the principal rafters and the roof trusses. It is constructed after the roof trusses have been positioned. The brickwork is the same height as the roof batten/lathe. It is usually a half-brick wall (110 mm). Beam filling is used to prevent birds, insects and wind from entering the roof area. The height of the beam filling is indicated by the number of brick layers (two, three, etc.) or by the height of the brick plus the thickness of the mortar layer, e.g. 85 mm, 170 mm, 255 mm. Roofs that have gable ends only have beam filling on two external walls. Hipped roofs have beam filling on all the external walls. To calculate the number of bricks required for beam filling: 1. Since no beam filling is used at the gable walls, the centre line is only calculated across two walls. In all other instances, it is calculated across four walls. 2. Calculate the surface area of the beam filling wall by multiplying the centre line by the height of the beam filling. First convert the measurements to metres before starting the calculations in order to ensure that the area is indicated in square metres. Multiply the area of the beam filling wall by the number of bricks used per square metre for a half-brick wall. The number of bricks will be part of the specifications.

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Civil Technology
Example 2 The external measurements of a building are 10 800 mm by 6 500 mm, and the building has a hipped-end roof. Calculate the number of bricks required for the beam filling. The beam filling is 225 mm high. Solution
Steps Calculate the centre line of the beam filling. A B C D Beam filling: Centre line: 2/10 800 = 21 600 2/6 500 = 13 000 Total = 34600 Minus: 4/110 Centre line is 34,16 m long 1/ 34,16 0,225 7,69 m2 Area of beam filling: Height of beam filling = 225 mm Area of wall for beam filling = 7,96 m2 Number of bricks: 50 bricks per m for half-brick wall Thus 385 bricks are needed for the beam filling

Calculate the area of the beam filling wall by multiplying the centre line by the height of the beam filling. Multiply the area of the beam filling wall by the number of bricks per square metre used for a half-brick wall.

1/

7,69 m2 50

385 bricks

Ceilings Four ceiling battens are fixed at 86 mm centres along the walls. A gypsum cornice of 75 mm 75 mm is used for the gypsum ceilings. The ceiling battens are 38 mm 38 mm if the centres between the tie beams are less than 1000 mm. The ceiling battens are 50 mm 38 mm if the centres between the tie beams are between 1001 mm and 1200 mm. Ceiling battens are 50 mm 50 mm if the centres between the tie beams are between 1200 mm and 1400 mm. The minimum length of the gypsum ceiling board is 2,7 m. The length of gypsum ceiling boards increases in multiples of 300 mm up to a maximum length of 4,8 m. Gypsum ceiling boards are available in widths of 900 mm and 1 200 mm. Wooden cover strips of 45 10 mm, 20 mm half-round mouldings or metal cover strips can be used to seal the spaces between ceiling boards. The ceiling battens are fixed transversely in relation to the roof trusses, and the ceiling boards are laid transversely to the ceiling beams. When the number of ceiling battens is being calculated, one ceiling batten must always be added in order to ensure that there are two ceiling beams close to the walls. Inside dimension Number of ceiling battens = + 1 ceiling batten between centres Distance The number of cover strips is always one fewer than the number of ceiling boards; if there are three ceiling boards, for example, two cover strips will be required.

398

Quantities

To calculate the material for a ceiling


To calculate the quantities of materials needed to construct a ceiling, only the internal measurements are used. Example 3 A rectangular, single-room building with external measurements of 6 740 mm 5 240 mm has to be erected and provided with a ceiling. Calculate: 1. The area of the ceiling board required. 2. The number of ceiling boards needed. 3. The total length of ceiling battens required, measured in metres. 4. The total length of cornice needed. 5. The total length of cover strips needed. Use the following specifications: All the walls are 220 mm thick. The width of the ceiling boards is 900 mm. The distance between the centres of the ceiling beams is 450 mm. Solution
Steps Determine the internal measurement (if this is not provided) by subtracting the thickness of the walls from the external measurement. Calculate the area of the ceiling board required. Multiply the internal measurements. Calculate the number of ceiling boards required by dividing the appropriate internal measurement by the width of the ceiling board. Calculate the number of ceiling battens needed by dividing the applicable internal measurement by the distance between the centres. Round off the answer to the next integer. Calculate the total length of the ceiling battens required by multiplying the number of ceiling battens by the internal measurements. Add the totals to determine the total length. 12/ 2/ 6,3 4,8 75,6 m 9,6 m 85,2 m 1/ 6,3 4,8 30,24 m A B C D Ceiling boards: Internal measurements: 6 740 2/220 = 6 754 440 = 6 300 mm 5 240 2/220 = 5 240 440 = 4 800 mm 30,24 m ceiling boards are needed

Number of ceiling boards: 6 300 900 = 7 ceiling boards of 900 mm 6,4 mm are needed Number of ceiling beams: 4 800 450 = 10, 66 = 11 = 11 + 1 (always add one) = 12 ceiling battens Total metres of ceiling battens needed: 85,2 m ceiling battens

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Civil Technology
Calculate the length of the cornice by multiplying the internal measurements by two. Then add the totals to determine the total length of cornice needed. Determine the length of one cover strip and multiply this by the number of cover strips. 2/ 2/ 6,3 4,8 12,6 m 9,6 m 22,2 m Cornice: 22,2 m cornice required

6/

4,8

28,8 m

Cover strips (always one fewer than the number of ceiling boards): 28,8 m cover strips needed

Activity 1
1. Explain the purpose of each column of the four-column dimension paper. 2. The distance between the centres of the ceiling battens is 450 mm. Calculate the number of ceiling battens needed if the applicable internal measurements are: 2.1 4 500 mm 2.2 4 600 mm 2.3 4 900 mm. 3. The end view of the gable end of a gable wall containing a door is shown.

3.1 Make a freehand sketch of the end view in your workbook. 3.2 Draw the four-column dimension paper in your workbook. 3.3 Calculate the number of bricks required to construct the gable wall. 3.4 Calculate the cubic metre volume of the plaster that will be needed to plaster the front and back of the wall if the layer is 12 mm thick. Use the following specifications: Gable wall is 220 mm thick and built in stretcher bond. Use 50 bricks per square metre for a half-brick wall. Allow 5% wastage.

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Quantities
4. The front view of a wall with a parapet wall is shown.

4.1 Make a freehand sketch of the end view in your workbook. 4.2 Copy the four-column dimension paper in your workbook. 4.3 Calculate the number of bricks needed to build the parapet wall. 4.4 Calculate how many cubic metres of plaster will be needed to plaster the front and back of the wall if the layer is 12 mm thick. Use the following specifications: Parapet wall 220 mm thick and built in stretcher bond. Work on 50 bricks per square metre for a half-brick wall. 5. The internal measurements of a room are 4 500 3 000 mm. A ceiling has to be installed. Calculate: 5.1 The area of the ceiling board needed. 5.2 The number of ceiling boards required. 5.3 The total length of the ceiling battens provided in metres. 5.4 The total length of the cornice needed. 5.5 The total length of the cover strips needed. Use the following specifications: The width of the ceiling boards is 900 mm. The distance between the centres of the ceiling beams is 450 mm. 6. The external measurements of a building that has a hipped-end roof are 3 200 mm 2 700 mm. Calculate the number of bricks required if the beam filling is to be 170 mm high. 7. The internal measurements of a building with a gabled roof are 13 480 mm 10 480 mm. Calculate the number of bricks needed if the beam filling is to be 225 mm high.

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Civil Technology

To calculate materials when houses have inside angles


Until now, only the materials required for rectangular or square floor plans have been calculated. The corners of the walls have, therefore, all had external angles. In order to improve the designs of buildings, many plans make provision for external as well as internal angles, as indicated below. To calculate the materials needed for these buildings, the walls are simply moved out, again forming a rectangle or square. The usual steps are then followed. Example The floor plan of a student dwelling is shown. 1. Make a freehand sketch of the floor plan in your workbook. 2. Draw the four-column dimension paper in your workbook. 3. Calculate the number of bricks needed for the superstructure.

Use the following specifications The walls of the superstructure are 220 mm and built in stretcher bond. The internal wall of the superstructure is 110 mm and built in stretcher bond. The height of the superstructure as measured from the foundation is 2 700 mm. The opening for the door is 2 000 mm high and 900 mm wide. The window is 2000 mm 1500 mm. Work on 50 bricks per square metre for a half-brick wall. Solution
A B C Centre line of external wall 2/8 550 = 17100 mm 2/6 660 = 13 320 mm Total = 30 420 mm D

Minus: 4/220 = 880 Total centre line = 29 540 mm

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2 500

Quantities
Superstructure external walls: 1/ 29,54 2,7 79,76 m Total centre line Height of wall Area of 2700 mm superstructure wall Superstructure internal wall: 1/ 3,5 2,7 9,45 m2 Total length of internal wall = 3 500 mm Height of internal wall = 2700 mm Area of internal wall = 9,45 m2 Windows: 3/ 2,0 1,5 9,0 m Windows = 2 000 1 500 Area of 3 windows = 9,0 m Door: 1/ 2,0 0,9 1,8 m Door = 2 000 mm 900 mm Area of door = 1,8 m Total area external walls: Area wall area window area door = 79,76 m2 1,8 = 68,96 m2 Total number of bricks for external walls 2/ 68,96 50 6896 bricks Number of bricks = area of wall number of bricks per m 50 bricks per m for half-brick wall 220 mm superstructure is 2 half-brick walls Thus 6 896 bricks are needed for the external walls Total area for internal walls = area of inside wall area of inside door = 9,45 m2 1,8 m2 = 7,65 m2 Total bricks for internal walls: 1/ 7,65 50 382,5 bricks Number of bricks = area of wall number of bricks per m 50 bricks per m for half-brick-wall Thus 383 bricks are needed for internal walls Total number of bricks Bricks for external walls + bricks for internal walls = 6 896 + 383 = 7 279 bricks Thus 7 279 bricks are required for the superstructure = = = 29,54 mm 2 700 mm 79,76 m2

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Civil Technology

To calculate the materials needed for roof trusses and roof covering
In order to calculate the quantity of wood needed for roof trusses, the measurements for the various components of the roof truss will be provided. However, in practice, these measurements will have to be calculated before the final quantity of wood can be determined. The following must be considered when calculating the materials needed for a roof: The external measurements are used. The maximum distance between the centres of the roof trusses for tiles is 760 mm and for metal it is 1 200 mm. Calculate the number of roof trusses needed by dividing the applicable internal measurement by the distance between the centres. Round off the answer to the next integer, and add another roof truss. Multiply the length of each component of the roof truss by the number of roof trusses required. Add up the total lengths of the various components in order to determine the total length of the wood needed. To ensure that water will run into the gutter, the roof cover must reach midway over the gutter. For this reason, 50 mm is added to the true length of the rafter in order to determine the length of the roof cover. Since roof sheeting and other roof covers must be laid in such a way that the sheets or tiles overlap, two types of widths are provided. The total width refers to the production width, while the cover width refers to the distance remaining after the overlap. The number of ridge plates needed is calculated by dividing the length of the roof by the length of one ridge plate. Useful formulae: Inside dimensions + 1 roof truss Number of roof trusses for a gabled roof = Distance between centres Length of roof cover (sheeting or tiles) = Length of rafter + 50 mm Area of roof cover for gabled roofs = Distance between gable walls length of roof cover Width of roof Number of roof sheeting = width of roof Cover Number of ridge plates = Width of roof Length of ridge plate Example 1 Calculate the number of roof tiles needed if the roof is 9,548 m wide and the true distance of the rafter is 3,65 m. Length to be covered by tiles = 3 650 mm + 50 mm (Add 50 mm for the overhang at the gutter) = 3 700 mm Area to be tiled = 9,548 m 3,7 m = 35, 328 m = 36 m (Round off to the next integer)

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Quantities
Example 2 The width of a roof is 9,548 m and the cover width of the corrugated sheet is 610 mm. Calculate the number of roof sheets needed. Width of roof = Number of sheets width of roof sheet Cover 9,548 m = 0,61 m = 15,65 = 16 sheets In other words, there are 16 sheets on one side of the roof. In total, thus, 16 + 16 = 32 sheets will be required. Example 3 Calculate the number of ridge plates required if the roof is 9,548 m wide and the ridge plate is 1,8 m in length. Number of ridge plates = Width of roof Length of ridge plate = 9,548 m 1,8 m = 5,3 = 6 ridge plates (round off to the next integer) Example 4 A single-room dwelling with external measurements 13 180 mm 9 580 mm must be erected with a gable-end roof.

Calculate: 1. the number of roof trusses 2. the total quantity of wood for the roof trusses 3. the wood for the roof batten/purlin 4. the quantity of wood required for the wall plate 5. the number of corrugated sheets 6. the number of ridge plates.

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Civil Technology
Use the following specifications: The walls are all 220 mm thick. Type of roof South African (Howe) roof truss. Measurement between centres of roof trusses is 760 mm. The wood used for roof trusses is 114 38 mm. The true measurements of the components of the roof are: Tie beam = 9,8 m Rafter (principal rafter) = 6,5 m King post = 3,3 m Queen post = 1,8 m Strut = 3,4 m Purlin is 75 50 mm. There are four purlins on each side of the roof. The overhang of the roof at the gable ends is 150 mm. The length of the corrugated sheet is 6 500 mm, with a cover width of 610 mm. The length of one ridge plate is 2 400 mm. The wood for the wall plate is 114 38 mm.
A B C D Internal measurements: 9 580 2/220 = 9 580 440 = 9 140 mm 13 180 2/220 = 13 180 440 = 12 740 mm Number of roof trusses: 12,74 0,76 =16, 76 = 17 = 17 + 1 = 18 roof trusses are needed Roof trusses: All wood 114 38 mm 18/ 18/2 18/ 18/2 18/2 9,8 6,5 3,3 1,8 3,4 176,4 m 234 m 59,4 m 64,8m 122,4 m Tie beam 9,8 m Rafter 6,5 m 2 per roof truss King post 3,3 m Queen post 1,8 m 2 per roof truss Strut 3,4 m 2 per roof truss Total quantity of wood for 18 roof trusses: Tie beams = 176,4 m Rafters = 234,0 m King posts = 59,4 m Queen posts = 64,8 m Struts = 122,4 m Total 657 m 657 m SA Pine of 114 38 mm is required for the 18 roof trusses. 2/ 12,74 25,48 Wall plate on 2 walls: Measurement of wood: 114 38 mm 25,48 m rafter plate is needed.

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Quantities
Purlins: 4 per side Measurement of wood: 75 50 mm Length of batten: 150 + 220 + 13 180 + 220 +150 = 13 920 mm 111,36 m roof battens are needed 46/ 6,55 301,3 m Roof covering: Length of corrugated sheet = 6,50 m Cover width of corrugated sheet = 610 mm Width of roof: 150 + 220 + 13 180 + 220 +150 = 13 920 mm Length of sheet = length of rafter + overhang over gutter = 6 500 + 50 mm = 6 550 mm Number of roof sheets = 13,92 m 0,61 m = 22,82 = 23 sheets Sheets for 2 sides = 23 + 23 = 46 sheets 46 corrugated sheets with a total length of 301,3 m are needed. Roof ridge cover: Length of one ridge plate = 2,4 m Width of roof = 13,92 m Number of ridge plates = 13,92 m 2.4 m = 5,8 6 ridge plates, each 2,4 m in length, are needed.

4/2

13,92

111,36 m

Activity 2
1. The floor plan of a student dwelling is shown. 1.1 Make a freehand sketch of the floor plan in your workbook. 1.2 Draw the four-column dimension paper in your workbook. 1.3 Calculate the number of bricks needed for the superstructure.

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Civil Technology
Use the following specifications: The walls of the superstructure are 220 mm and built in stretcher bond. The internal walls of the superstructure are 110 mm and built in stretcher bond. The height of the superstructure from the foundation is 2 700 mm. The opening for the door is 2 000 mm high and 900 mm wide. The window is 2000 mm 1500 mm. Work on 50 bricks per square metre for a half-brick wall. 2. A building with a gabled roof and external measurements of 10 000 mm 6 000 mm must be erected.

Calculate the: 2.1 internal measurements of the building 2.2 number of bricks required for the beam filling 2.3 number of roof trusses 2.4 total metres of wood for the roof trusses 2.5 total metres of wood for the wall plate 2.6 total metres of wood for the purlins 2.7 number of corrugated sheets and the total length of the sheet 2.8 number of ridge plates required. Use the following specifications: The walls are all 220 mm thick. Type of roof King-post roof truss. The measurement between the centres of the roof trusses is 760 mm. The wood used for the trusses measures 114 38 mm. The true measurements of the components of the roof are: Tie beam = 5,44 m Rafter (principal rafter) = 6,5 m King post = 3,3 m Purlin measures 75 50 mm. There are three purlins on each side of the roof. The overhang of the roof at the gable ends is 200 mm. The length of the corrugated sheet is 4 000 mm, with a cover width of 610 mm. The length of one ridge plate is 1 800 mm. The wood for the rafter/wall plate is 114 38 mm.

408

Quantities

To calculate the quantities of materials for a one-bedroom dwelling


Example: Various incomplete views of a house plan are provided here. As a quantity surveying student, you are required to calculate the quantities of the materials required to build the house. Study and analyse the plan, and then calculate the quantities indicated below, using the four-column dimension paper. Measurements and details not indicated are left to your discretion.

SOUTH ELEVATION SCALE 1:100

WEST ELEVATION SCALE 1:100

EAST ELEVATION SCALE 1:100

KITCHEN BEDROOM

LIVING ROOM

NORTH ELEVATION SCALE 1:100

FLOOR PLAN SCALE 1:100 Galvanised zinc sheeting

Wall plate Fascia board 228 x 28 Square gutter (100 x 100) Downpipe (75 x 75) DPC NGV 600 x 250 (1 : 3 : 6) Wearing course Section BB SCALE 1 : 50 100 mm concrete floor Screed NGV Undisturbed earth 600 x 250 (1 : 3 : 6)

75 mm cornice

Ceiling batten 38 x 38

Calculate the: 1. centre line measurements of the foundation 2. cubic metre volume of the concrete needed for the foundation 3. cubic metre volume of the cement required 4. cubic metre volume of the sand required 5. cubic metre volume of the stone required 6. cubic metre volume the concrete needed for the concrete floor slab.

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Civil Technology
Use the following specifications: Foundation for the 110 mm internal wall is 410 250 mm. The total length of the 110 mm internal wall is 10000 mm. Solution
A B C D Concrete foundation of external walls Centre line of concrete foundation : 2/8 550 2/6 220 Total Minus 4 / 600 Total centre line = = = = = 17100 mm 12440 mm 29540 mm 2400 mm 27 140 mm

1/

27,140 0,6 0,25 4,071 m

Foundation: 600 mm wide 250 mm deep

Thus 4,07 m concrete needed for external walls

Concrete foundation of internal walls: 1/ 10,0 0,41 0,25 1,025 m Total length of internal walls = 10000 mm Foundation: 410 mm wide 250 mm deep Thus 1,03 m concrete needed for internal walls

Total concrete foundation: 4,07 + 1,03 = 5,1 m3

Mix ratio: 1:3:6 = 10 parts 1 10 5,1 0,51 m Cement: 1 part total volume 10

3 10 6 10

5,1 5,1

1,53 m 3,06 m

Sand: 3 parts total volume 10 Concrete stone: 6 parts total volume 10

Concrete floor slag: 1/ 8,33 6,0 0,1 4,998 m Measurements of floor slab: 8 550 2/110 = 8330 mm 5 780 + 2 /110 = 6000 mm

Thickness of floor slab is 100 mm 5 m concrete required for concrete floor slab

410

Quantities
Example 2: Calculate: 1. The length of the damp-proof coursing needed to cover the external foundation wall. 2. The cubic metre volume of the screed needed for the screed coat. 3. How many square metres of tiles will be needed for the floor. Allow 5% wastage. 4. How many metres of skirting board are needed if the total of the internal measurement of the long walls is 8 110 mm and the total internal measurement of short walls is 5 780 mm. Use the following specifications: Ignore the reveals in all calculations. Door opening is 2 000 mm high and 900 mm wide. The screed coat is 30 mm thick. Ignore the thickness of the internal walls. Solution
A B C D Length of damp-proof coursing: Centre line of external wall 2/8 550 2/6 220 Total = 17100 mm =12440 mm = 29540 mm

Minus: 4/220 = 880 Total centre line = 28 660 mm 28 660 m damp-proof coursing needed

Screed for screed coat: 1/ 8,11 5,78 0,03 1,41 m Internal measurement of long walls: 8 550 2/220 = 8 110 mm Internal measurements of short walls: Screed coat is 30 mm deep 1,41 m screed needed 5 780 mm

Tiles required: 1/ 8,11 5,78 46,88 m 46,88 m tiles needed Plus 5% wastage Waste: 5% of 46,88 m = 2,344 m Total square metres of tiles: 46,88 + 2,34 = 49,22 m

Skirting board needed: 2/ 2/ 8,11 5,78 16,22 11,56 27,78 m Internal measurement of long walls = 8110 mm Internal measurement of short walls = 5780 mm 27,78 m skirting board needed

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Civil Technology
Example 3 Calculate the number of bricks required to construct the sub- and superstructure by: 1. calculating the area of the substructure 2. calculating the area of the superstructure 3. calculating the number of bricks. Use the following specifications: The walls of the substructure are 220 mm and are built in stretcher bond. The walls of the superstructure are 220 mm and are built in stretcher bond. The internal walls of the superstructure are 110 mm and built in stretcher bond. The height of the foundation wall is 425 mm. The height of the superstructure measured from the foundations is 2 600 mm. The height of the superstructure up to the parapet wall is 4 600 mm. The door opening is 2 000 mm high and 900 mm wide. Work on 50 bricks per square metre for a half-brick wall. The total length of the 110 mm internal wall is 10000 mm. The bricks are all stock/common bricks. Allow 5% wastage. Solution
A B C Substructure: 1/ 28,66 0,425 12,18 m Total centre line Height of foundation wall Area of foundation wall = = = 28,660 mm 425 mm 12,18 m2 D

Superstructure external walls: 1/ 28,66 4,6 131,84 m Total centre line Height of parapet wall Area of 2900 superstructure wall = = = 28,660 mm 4 600 mm 131,84 m2

Superstructure external walls: Triangular parapet wall Length of canted wall = 6220 mm Difference in height of canted wall = 4 600 2 600 mm = 2 000 mm / 6,22 2,0 6,22 m2 Area of canted wall = bh Area of one canted wall = 6,22 m

2/

6,22

12,44 m2

Total area for slanting surfaces of walls Area of two slanting surfaces of walls = 12,44 m2

Total external wall area = Area of foundation wall + area of 4 600 mm superstructure wall area of triangular parapet wall Total external wall area = 12,18 m2 + 131,84 m2 12,44 m2 = 131,58 m2

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Superstructure internal walls: 1/ 10,0 2,6 26,0 m2 Total length of internal walls = 10000 mm Height of internal walls = 2600 mm Area of internal walls = 26,0 m2

Windows: 2/ 2,0 1,5 6,0 m Window 1 = 2 000 1 500 Area of window 1 = 6,0 m

1/

0,6 0,9 0,54 m

Window 2 = 600 900 Area of window 2 = 0,54 m

2/

1,2 1,5 3,6 m

Two windows without given measurements = 1 200 1500 (own discretion) Area of two windows = 3,6 m Total area of windows = 6,0 + 0,54 + 3,6 m2 = 10,14 m2

Doors: 2/ 2,0 0,9 3,6 m Door = 2 000 mm 900 mm Area of 2 outer doors = 3,6 m

Total area of brickwork: Wall area window area door area = 131,58 m2 10,18 3,6 = 117,84 m2

Total number of bricks for external walls 2/ 117,84 50 11 784 Number of bricks = area of wall number of bricks per m 50 bricks per m for a half-brick wall 220 mm superstructure has 2 half-brick walls Thus 11 784 bricks are needed for the external walls

Total area for internal walls = Area of inside walls area of inside doors = 26,0 3,6 = 22,4 m2 Total number of bricks for internal walls 1/ 22,4 50 1 120 Number of bricks = area of wall number of bricks per m 50 bricks per m for a half-brick wall Thus 1 120 bricks are needed for internal walls

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Total number of bricks Bricks for external walls + bricks for internal walls = 11 784 + 1120 = 12 904 bricks

Plus 5% wastage wastage: 5 % of 12 904 bricks = 645,2 bricks Total number of stock/common bricks: 12 904 + 646 = 13 550 bricks

Example 4 Knotty pine is going to be used as material for the ceiling of the kitchen and the livingroom. Calculate the: 1. square metres of knotty pine needed 2. number of knotty pine boards needed 3. metres of ceiling batten required 4. metres of crown moulding required. Use the following specifications: The measurements of the knotty pine are 65 mm 16 mm. The distance between the centres of the ceiling battens is 450 mm. Solution
A B C D Knotty pine ceiling boards for kitchen and livingroom: Internal measurements: Length = 5 780 mm Breadth = 4000 mm 1/ 5,78 4,0 23,12 m Area to be fitted with ceiling: 23,12 m knotty pine ceiling boards needed Number of ceiling boards: Breadth of room = 4000 mm Width of ceiling board = 65 mm 4000 mm 65 mm = 61,5 ceiling boards of 4 000 mm 65 mm 16 mm are needed. Number of ceiling battens: 5 780 450 = 12,84 = 13 = 13 + 1 (always add 1) = 14 ceiling battens are needed. 14/ 2/ 2/ 2/ 4,0 5,78 5,78 4,0 56,0 m 11,56 m 67,56 m 11,56 m 8,0 m 19,56 m Total metres ceiling battens needed: 67,56 m ceiling beams required Total metres cornice needed: 19,6 m cornice needed

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Example 5: Gypsum ceiling boards are going to be used for the ceilings in the bedroom, passage and bathroom. Calculate the: 1. area of the ceiling battens needed 2. number of ceiling battens needed 3. total length in metres of ceiling beams required 4. total length of the cornice needed 5. total length of the cover strips required. Use the following specifications: The width of the ceiling board is 900 mm. The distance between the centres of the ceiling beams is 450 mm. Ignore the internal walls. Solution
A B C D Gypsum ceiling board for bedroom, passage and bathroom: Internal measurements: Length = 5 780 mm Breadth = 4000 mm 1/ 5,78 4,0 23,12 m Area to be fitted with ceiling: 23,12 m gypsum ceiling boards needed Number of ceiling boards: 5 780 m 900 m = 6,4 = 7 ceiling boards of 4200 mm 900 mm 6,4 mm are required. Number of ceiling battens: 5 780 450 = 12,88 = 13 = 13 + 1 (always add 1) = 14 ceiling battens 14/ 2/ 2/ 2/ 4,0 5,78 5,78 4,0 56,0 m 11,56 m 67,56 m 11,56 m 8,0 m 19,56 m 24,0 m Total metres of ceiling battens needed: 67,56 m ceiling battens needed Total metres of cornice: 19,6 m cornice needed Cover strips (always one fewer than ceiling boards): 24,0 m cover strips needed

6/

4,0

Example 6: The building is going to incorporate a framed lean-to. Calculate the: 1. internal measurements of the building 2. number of roof trusses 3. total metres of wood needed for the roof trusses 4. total metres of wood needed for the wall plate 5. total metres of wood needed for the purlins 6. number of corrugated sheets.

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Use the following specifications: Type of roof framed lean-to Measurement between centres of roof trusses is 811 mm. All the wood for the roof trusses measures 114 38 mm. The true measurements of the components of ONE roof truss are: Tie beam = 6000 mm 114 mm 38 mm Roof rafter (principal rafter) = 6 500 m mm 114 mm 38 mm King/principal post = 1200 mm 114 mm 38 mm Queen post = 800 mm 114 mm 38 mm Queen post = 500 mm 114 mm 38 mm Strut/prop = 1700 mm 114 mm 38 mm Strut/prop = 1500 mm 114 mm 38 mm Five purlins of 8110 mm 75 mm 50 mm. The overhang of the roof is 200 mm. The length of the corrugated sheet is 6 550 mm, with a cover width of 610 mm. The rafter/wall plate is 8110 mm 114 mm 38 mm. Solution
A B C D Internal measurements: Width: 8 550 2/220 = 8 550 440 = 8 110 mm Breadth: 5780 mm (given) Number of roof trusses: 8 110 811 =10 = 10 + 1 = 11 roof trusses are needed Roof trusses: 11/ 11/ 11 11/ 11/ 11/ 11/ 6,0 6,5 1,2 0,8 0,5 1,7 1,5 66,0 m 71,5 m 13,2 m 8,8m 5,5 m 18,7 m 16,5 m Tie beam 6000 mm 114 mm 38 mm Rafter 6 500 mm 114 mm 38 mm King post 1200 mm 114 mm 38 mm Queen post 800 mm 114 mm 38 mm Queen post 500 mm 114 mm 38 mm Strut 1700 mm 114 mm 38 mm Strut 1500 mm 114 mm 38 mm Total wood needed for 11 roof trusses: Tie beams = 66,0 m Rafters = 71,0 m King posts = 13,2 m Queen posts = 8,8 m Queen posts = 5,5 m Struts = 18,7 m Struts = 16,5 m Total 199,7 m 199,7 m SA Pine of 114 38 mm is required for 11 roof trusses 1/ 8,11 8,11 m Wall plate on 1 wall: Measurements of wood: 114 38 mm 8,11 m rafter plate is needed

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Quantities
Purlins: 5 Measurements of wood: 75 50 mm Length of purlin: 40,55 m 75 mm 50 mm purlins needed Roofing: Length of corrugated sheeting = 6,55 m Cover width of corrugated sheeting = 610 mm Width of roof = 8110 mm Number of sheets = 8 110 mm 610 mm = 13,29 = 14 sheets 14 corrugated sheets with a total length of 91,7 m are needed

5/

8,11

40,55 m

14/

6,55

91,7 m

Activity 3
Various incomplete views of a house plan are provided here. As quantity surveying student, you are required to calculate the quantities of the materials needed to build this house. Study and analyse the house plan, and calculate the quantities as specified below, using four-column dimension paper. Measurements and details not indicated are left to your discretion.

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Ridge plate Galvanised zinc sheeting Purlines (50 x 76)

Square gutter (100 x 100) 75 mm Cornice DPC Ceiling batten (38 x 38) VVV NGV Earth filling Hard core Wearing course Undisturbed earth Downpipe (75 x 75)

75 mm Concrete floor

SECTION BB SCALE 1 : 50

1. Calculate the: 1.1 centre line of the foundation 1.2 cubic metre volume of the concrete needed for the foundation 1.3 cubic metre volume of the cement needed 1.4 cubic metre volume of the sand needed 1.5 cubic metre volume of the stone required 1.6 cubic metre volume of the concrete required for the concrete floor slab. Use the following specifications: The foundation measurements for the 110 mm internal wall are 410 250 mm. The total length of the 110 mm internal wall is 9000 mm. 2. Calculate: 2.1 The length of the damp-proof coursing needed to cover the external foundation wall. 2.2 The cubic metre volume of the screed needed for the screed coat. 2.3 How many square metres of tiles will be needed for the floor. Allow 5% wastage. Use the following specifications: Ignore the reveals in all calculations. The door opening is 2 000 mm high and 900 mm wide. The screed coat is 30 mm thick. Ignore the thickness of the internal walls. 3. Calculate the number of bricks required to construct the substructure and the superstructure by: 3.1 calculating the area of the substructure 3.2 calculating the area of the superstructure 3.3 calculating the area of the gable wall 3.4 calculating the area of the beam filling 3.5 calculating the number of bricks. Use the following specifications: The walls of the substructure are 220 mm and are built in stretcher bond. The walls of the superstructure are 220 mm and are built in stretcher bond. The internal walls of the superstructure are 110 mm and built in stretcher bond. The height of the foundation wall is 340 mm. The height of the superstructure measured from the foundations is 2 600 mm. The height of the gable wall is 3 600 mm.

418

Quantities
The height of the beam filling is 255 mm. The door opening is 2 000 mm high and 900 mm wide. Use 50 bricks per square metre for a half-brick wall. The total length of the 110 mm internal wall is 9000 mm. The bricks are all stock/common bricks. Allow 5% wastage.

4. Knotty pine is going to be used as material for the ceiling of the kitchen and the livingroom. Calculate the: 4.1 square metres of knotty pine needed 4.2 number of knotty pine boards needed 4.3 metres of ceiling batten required 4.4 metres of cornice required. Use the following specifications: The measurements of the knotty pine are 65 mm 16 mm. The distance between the centres of the ceiling beams is 450 mm. 5. Gypsum ceiling boards are going to be used for the ceilings in the bedroom and bathroom. Calculate the: 5.1 area of the ceiling boards needed for each room 5.2 number of ceiling boards needed for each room 5.3 total length in metres of ceiling battens required for each room 5.4 total length of the cornice needed for each room 5.5 total length of the cover strips required for each room. Use the following specifications: The width of the ceiling board is 900 mm. The distance between the centres of the ceiling battens is 450 mm. 6. The building is going to incorporate a framed lean-to. Calculate the: 6.1 internal measurements of the building 6.2 number of roof trusses 6.3 total metres of wood needed for the roof trusses 6.4 total metres of wood needed for the wall plate 6.5 total metres of wood needed for the purlins 6.6 number of corrugated sheets. Use the following specifications: Type of roof South African roof truss (Howe truss) Measurement between centres of roof trusses is 1 100 mm. All the wood for the roof trusses measures 114 38 mm. The true measurements of the components of ONE roof truss are: Tie beam = 8000 mm 114 mm 38 mm Roof rafter (principal rafter) = 4 300 mm 114 mm 38 mm King/principal post = 1500 mm 114 mm 38 mm Queen post = 1 000 mm 114 mm 38 mm Strut/prop = 1700 mm 114 mm 38 mm Strut/prop = 1500 mm 114 mm 38 mm Eight roof battens of 8110 mm 75 mm 50 mm. The overhang of the roof is 300 mm. The length of the corrugated sheet is 4 300 mm, with a cover width of 610 mm. The wall plate is 114 mm 38 mm.

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Civil Technology

Cutting list
A cutting list is often also referred to as a sawing list. The cutting list is compiled according to the working drawings and it indicates all the components of an object or structure. The craftsman uses this list to enable him to saw, or issue instructions to others who will be doing the actual sawing, the various components required according to the specified measurements when timber is purchased. The cutting list makes it possible for the supplier to calculate the price per component. Example A double casement sash window mounted in a frame of solid wood is shown. Each frame contains three panes. All of the parts are joined using mortice joints. The frame is inserted 110 mm into the wall. Analyse the window and compile a cutting list of the material required to construct the window.

Thick

Cutting list
Component Frame head Windowsill/ threshold Jamb post Jamb mullion Window mullion Top rail Bottom rail Glazing bar Number 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 6 Unit mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm Length 1 130 1 130 1 050 1 050 920 350 350 350 Breadth 90 90 68 68 54 54 54 44 Thickness 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 22 Subtotal 1 130 1 130 2 100 1 050 3 680 700 700 1 400 5 080 1 400 3 150 2 260 Total Material Meranti Meranti Meranti Meranti Meranti Meranti Meranti Meranti

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Quantities

Activity 4
Cutting lists 1. A double casement sash window mounted in a frame of solid wood is shown. Each frame contains three panes. All of the parts are joined using mortice joints. The frame is inserted 110 mm into the wall. Analyse the window and compile a cutting list of the material required to construct the window.

2. A double casement sash window mounted in a frame of solid wood is shown. Each frame contains eight small panes. All of the parts are joined using mortice joints. The frame is inserted 110 mm into the wall. Analyse the window and compile a cutting list of the material required to construct the window.

A B C D J E F G H

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3. Figures 1 to 4 illustrate various doors that can be used in a house. The height of the doors is 2032 mm and the width 813 mm. Analyse the drawings and compile a cutting list for each one. Four-panel door Hollow-core flush-panel door

Figure 1

Figure 2

Three-panel door

Stable door with six panels

Figure 3 Figure 4

422

Quantities
4. The floor plan of a room that has to be fitted with a ceiling is shown. Make a freehand sketch of the floor plan in your workbook, and indicate the direction of the roof trusses, ceiling beams and ceiling boards. Analyse this information and compile a cutting list for the installation of the ceiling. No trapdoor is required.

Terminology
Reaches from the foundation to the floor slab and includes the foundation wall Superstructure: Reaches from the foundation wall to the level at which the rafter or wall plate is fitted Foundation wall: The wall that is built on top of the foundation. The height of the foundation wall indicates the position of the concrete floor. Foundation walls for external walls are usually 220 mm or 330 mm thick Gable: Triangular wall at roofs with pitches Substructure:

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Chapter 10

Joining

Roof trusses and brickwork Pipe joints Roof wire

Joining timber

10

Civil Technology

Introduction
When two pieces of the same material or different materials are joined, the joint must be strong enough to serve its purpose. In this chapter, different types of joints will be studied, including ones used for: brickwork timber plumbling/pipes. You will find more information regarding the methods of joining timber in your Grade 11 Learners book (pages 324325).

Joining roof trusses to brickwork


As you have already learned in Applied Mechanics, there are forces that act upon roofs. The roof construction must, therefore, be fixed firmly to the walls or brickwork. Rafters and trusses which have galvanised steel ribbons are used for this purpose. The steel ribbons must be at least 30 mm wide and 1,6 mm thick. Anchors or stays must penetrate at least 600 mm deep into the wall and should cover the rafters and trusses. Another method involves fixing the roof trusses to the wall plate using tie-beams which, in turn, are attached to the wall to ensure that no unnecessary lifting of the trusses occurs.

Rawl bolts
These are expanding shield anchor fasteners. This means that they have a sheath around the bolt which expands when the bolt is actually inserted into a hole to make certain that it remains there. They are multi-purpose anchor bolts that can accommodate different load capacities along with a good tolerance to variance in hole dimensions. It is most suitable to use rawl bolts in brickwork, stone or cement. These are surfaces that provide probably the most grip area for the expanding sheath of the rawl bolt. Can be purchased in different sizes and lengths.

Figure 10.1: Rawl bolt

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Screws
Screws provide better fastening ability than nails. Screws have changed much over the years in order to keep up with changing technology. Star-groove screws (the Phillips, Pozidrive and Supadrive) are chiefly designed to enable faster fixing with the aid of power tools. As you have already learned in Grade 11, screws are divided according to two measurements: stem/thread diameter and screw length; they are available in diameters of 4 mm12 mm and in lengths of 10 mm100 mm. The thinner the stem, the shorter the screw, but there is a measure of overlapping in length. Advantages of screws over nails Can often be removed more easily if need be. Screws go in without the thumping that can be a problem in some situations. More secure and hold more firmly than a nail. Can be screwed into metal with power tools. Have a more decorative appearance than a nail. Some screws can cut pre-holes in material before screwing them in. Below is a list of common screws and the purposes for which they are used in the building industry. Screws are first categorised according to the shape of their heads, as follows: Round head This is used where the screw head sticks out above the surface of the timber. It is mostly used for carpentry and the more common lengths are 10 mm to 38 mm. Countersunk head (flat head) The screws head is screwed in to be flush with the surface of the timber. In some instances, it is screwed to below the surface of the wood so that the screw head can be hidden using a wooden plug of filler. It is mainly used to attach hinges, either in cabinetmaking or for general carpentry. Lengths vary from 12 mm to 100 mm.
Figure 10.3: Countersunk head

Figure 10.2: Round head

Oval head (raised head) This is a combination of a flat head and a round head screw. It is mainly used for sheet metal and decorative work. Lengths vary from 19 mm to 38 mm. Chipboard screw This is a newer type of screw made from black sheared steel. It has a very narrow shaft with an elevated and sharp thread so that it can be screwed into chipboard without a pilot hole, using a cordless drill, power drill or battery-operated screwdriver. It can also be screwed in using a regular screwdriver or brace, but naturally this takes a little longer. It is generally used for built-in cupboards and cabinetwork, as well as in factories where furniture is made from chipboard. Lengths vary from 12 mm to 100 mm.
Figure 10.5: Chipboard screw Figure 10.4: Oval head

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Civil Technology
Drywall screw Also black in colour, this screw has a coarser thread than the chipboard screw. It is especially used to attach plasterboard to walls and ceilings. The thread pulls tight faster than a chipboard screw, and the screw has a slightly larger head to prevent it from penetrating too deeply into the plasterboard. Lengths vary from 16 mm to 75 mm.
Figure 10.6: Dry wall screw

Coach screw This is a galvanised thick screw with a coarse thread and an octagonal bolt head that is screwed in using a socket spanner. It is used for general construction work, specifically to join metal or timber, as well as to bolt metal to timber beams. It is especially useful to attach roof beams to brick walls using hangers, or to bolt gutter boards onto roof rafters.

Figure 10.7: Coach screw

Nails
Nails provide a quick joining method. They are made of soft steel (iron) because it is cheap. Most nails are still made of soft steel (iron). The advantages of nails over screws Quicker to knock in than to screw in a screw Available in a range of lengths, thicknesses and strengths Various heads for invisible or decorative use Cheaper than screws Can be be made rust free (copper or stainless steel) Can be quickly removed (drawn) if needed Tough and resilient. Lets look at the more common types of nails and the purposes for which they are used. Wire nail This nail gets its name from the method in which it is made: rolls of wire are made into short straight lengths using machinery, each length having a head, a round shaft and a sharp point. They are available in lengths of 12 mm to 200 mm. The shaft is ribbed just below the head to keep it more secure in timber. This type of nail is used in roof structures such as trusses and beams, as well as for basic or rough carpentry where a visible nail head doesnt matter. Oval wire nail This nail is the cabinetmakers choice because of the sharp chisel-shaped point and that it is hammered in across the grain, so the wood fibres are cut and the wood does not burst. The nail also has a smaller head that can easily be hammered into the timber until it is practically invisible. The shaft is slightly rough to improve adhesion. Available in lengths of 25 mm to 75 mm.

Figure 10.8: Wire nail

Figure 10.9: Oval wire nail

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Joining
Cut nail (square nail) A flat, wedge-shaped nail with a sharp end (chisel head) made from sheared black sheet steel. It is used in floorboards because it has a great holding power; it wedges into the wood and does not split the wood. It is generally available in lengths of 25 mm to 75 mm.

10

Figure 10.10: Cut nail

Steel nail These nails are made from sheared steel and are generally used to nail skirting and timber to brick or block walls. The nails usually have a strong spiralled shaft so that they can be screwed into the wall for better adhesion. Other types of steel nails have smooth or ridged shafts. Available in lengths of 25 mm to 100 mm. Clout nail A nail with a large flat head that is used to attach ceiling boards to a ceiling batten or lath. The large head stops the nail from driving in too deep into the plasterboard. The nails are also galvanised to make them waterproof. Available in lengths of 25 mm to 100 mm.

Figure 10.11: Steel nail

Figure 10.12: Clout nail

Joining timber
Connector plate (Hydronails) Connector plates are sheets of galvanised steel with rows of sharp teeth punched into them, and are used to attach structures such as roof trusses quickly and securely. The components of a truss, which all have to be uniformly thick, are laid out with butt joints and a connector plate is placed over every joint. Heavy presses are then used to press the plates into the timber to make the joint. It is a much faster and more economical way of making trusses, rather than the normal lap joints that are nailed together.
Figure 10.13: Connector plates

Hoop iron Strips of galvanised hoop iron are available in rolls, with or without holes, and are mainly used to reinforce brick or block walls and to attach roof structures to supporting walls.

Figure 10.14: Reinforcement with hoop iron

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Civil Technology

Material and joining methods used for capillary joints and compression joints Pipe joints
Capillary or soldered joints This is a quick method of joining pipes, since the two parts that are soldered together fit into each other. A soldered joint in copper pipes is made by applying a chemical flux to the inner sleeve of a pipe before the other pipe is inserted. By heating the joint using a propane torch and applying solder to the heated joint, the melted solder is drawn into the joint by capillary action.

Figure 10.15: Cold and hot water supplies of a bathroom

Figure 10.16: Connections of a geyser

Advantages Cannot rust, i.e. is corrosion resistant Easy to join Used for both hot and cold water Little maintenance or upkeep required Cutting and bending pipes are easy Minimum equipment required to join pipes Disadvantages Copper is expensive. The solder is not always drawn in sufficiently to fill the joint during the capillary action (not applying enough chemical flux to the sleeve).

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Figure 10.17: Pipe joints

Screw or compression joints A compression joint consists of a galvanised iron, PVC or yellow copper adapter with a tapered, concave seat, a yellow copper compression ring that fits snugly over the pipe and into the seat, and a hollow compression nut that is threaded onto the pipe. The end of the pipe and the ring are fitted into the adapter and the nut is tightened to make the joint leak-proof. This joint is used for copper and highdensity plastic pipes. Compression joints do not have the durability offered by soldered joints. Polythene pipes (PVC), like those of Marley Pipe Systems, can be used above and below ground. Surface pipes must be anchored securely to prevent the joints from coming undone.
Shower head Water closet

To bath

To basin

Cold water tap

Hot water tap

Figure 10.18: Cold water supply to a bathroom

Figure 10.19: Screw joints of brass and galvanized iron

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Civil Technology
Compression joint with PVC couplers Advantages Easy to join the pipes No solder required Screw joint is acid-free and corrosion-free PVC pieces are light PVC is easy to use Disadvantages Compression joint takes longer to make. The joint may start leaking and then require tightening. PVC can easily be damaged by sharp objects. Compression rings can be damaged if they are not tightened correctly. Repairing leakages is timeconsuming (joint has to be loosened and reconnected). Materials and joining methods used for thread joints and PVC adhesives Solvent welding or glued faucet joints A solvent is applied to the joint areas of PVC, CPVC, ABS and other plastic pipes to partially dissolve these areas and facilitate the connection. Joints are then made using fittings of the same (or similar) materials. Advantages Easy to do Do not require much heat or exertion Lightweight and fit together easily Can be assembled within minutes No leakages Disadvantages Pipes can easily snap, which will weaken the joint. When the joint snaps, leakages may occur. The end of the pipe must be filed. Hands have to be wiped after the solvent has been handled. PVC solder Advantages Good binding strength Water resistant Can be used indoors and outdoors Can also be used to join gutters and for plastic pipes that insulate electric wires Disadvantages Cannot be used on PVC that is too soft and pliable. Cannot be used for high-pressure joints.

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10

1. 2.

1. WBE41

2 & 3. WHB4 3.

4.

4. WB52

Figure 10.20: PVC soldered joint at the 40 mm wastewater outlet of a kitchen sink

Figure 10.21: PVC sewerage joint (soil water and wastewater)

Roof wire
This refers to galvanised binding or fixing wire which is approximately 34 mm in diameter. It is made up of two pieces of wire that run up along the sides of the rafter or tiebeam. Where they reach the top, the ends are stranded and nailed to ensure that they will not unwind. The wires are anchored at a depth of least 600 mm in the wall. It must be fixed firmly in order to withstand upward forces and it must be positioned right opposite the rafters or trusses.

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Civil Technology

Activity 1
1. What advantages do screws have above nails when it comes to attachment? 2. What are coach screws used for and why are they suitable for outside use? 3. What do you understand the term connector plate to mean? 4. Soldered joints and screw joints are used to join pipes. Explain the differences between the two. 5. Table the advantages of solvent welding or glued faucet joints and PVC solder.

Glossary
Adhere Aesthetic Aggregate Alloy Aluminium Anchor bars Anchoring Anthroprometry Arch Architect Artefact / product / model Attach Auger bit Baluster Balustrade Balustrade wall Band course Barge board Base line Batching Beam Beam filling Stick together Characteristics of a manufactured product that makes it pleasing to look at and to touch. Refers to appearance, shape, colour and texture of the object. Dry materials used to obtain concrete, mortar, screed and plaster Quality of pure gold or silver in coins; grade of fineness, quality Light grey material and a mixture of metals Acts against compressive forces To use anchors such as galvanised steel strips and steel wire to attach roof trusses, rafters and beams to binding beams and rafters Refers to the measurements of humans. These measurements play an important role in design as they determine the size of designs A construction consisting of a number of wedge-shaped units (stones, rocks) that are joined with masonry mortar to create a wall arching over an entranceway Person who designs buildings Something that is manufactured To attach to adhere to something to bond them together, hold tightly, attachment Spiral-shaped drill Vertical parts between stairs and handrails A combination of balusters and handrails A wall that serves as a balustrade A 100 mm-wide layer of joint compound Board that is nailed to the purlins at the gable ends to give the eaves a neat appearance A line within the boundary line that serves as a fixed point / line from which can be built or measured, can be on the building line A system of mixing materials into one batch A horizontal member that will carry a load and which may be attached to a column The continuation of brickwork between the roof covering and the wall plate

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Glossary
Beam formwork Bearer/joist Binding agent Bleeding Bond Bonded screed Boundary line Bows notation Consists of a three-sided mould that is kept in position by spanning support beams A rectangular piece of timber placed on edge below a soffit to bear the load of the concrete Something that is used to make a liquid stiff or thick The movement of water to the surface of fresh concrete The arrangement of bricks in such a way so as to obtain maximum strength or a particular appearance Screed placed on a dry concrete floor A line that indicates the boundaries / sizes of a premises or site

10

Capital letters are placed in the spaces between the components and forces of a framed structure in the space diagram. The letters on both sides of the component or force indicates the name of the component or force. A rectangular piece of timber nailed at an angle between the post and the bearer to to keep the headtree steady Back sight Tiny holes that are caused by air trapped between the concrete and the formwork A line within the boundary line, established by the authorities, that may not be exceeded A place where construction / building work is taking place This survey is used to determine the boundaries of properties, such as farms, town plots etc. Correcting the settings of instruments A slight curve of the arch on the intrados of a flat skewback arch A beam that is supported at one end and no support at the other Seepage of water A open string stair equipped with supporting clamps and mitred joints Consists of two brick walls (leaves) that are built next to each other with a space (hollow) of 50 mm between them and are connected by wall ties Laggings that are attached tight against each other The adhering of different ingredients Curved support for laggings of centers and columns The height of the line of sight, which will be the same for all telescopic directions of the same instruments A vertical member that may support a beam An operation done on fresh concrete to remove air bubbles from the concrete Any person who has the knowledge, training, experience and qualifications specific to the job or task to be undertaken Acts against compressive forces

Brace BS Bubble holes Building line Building site Cadastral survey Calibrate Camber Cantilever Capillary action Carrying open string stair Cavity walls Closed lagging Cohesiveness Collar/rib Collimation height /Instrument height Column Compaction Competent or qualified person Compression bars (anchor bars)

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Concrete

Civil Technology
Force that acts toward each other as pushing forces Concrete is a workable plastic mixture consisting of specific parts of cement, water, riversand and chipped stone that are placed in a mould and allowed to set. Floor cast with concrete Precast horizontal member made of concrete over an opening Are placed like lintels about walls with hollow concrete blocks in between The uniform stiffness or floppiness of various mixes of concrete being cast in one operation over an area Large machines that are used in construction Beam supported on either ends with an attached beam in the centre Something or someone appointed by a client, and bound by a contract To corrugate; made wavy Expenses, amount, money, debt that has to be paid Used to cover something To determine the compressive strength or crushing strength of concrete a process performed on fresh concrete to prevent it from drying too rapidly A damp proof membrane laid as a course between two courses of bricks A sheath of material that will prevent damp from moving from one material to another A method used to prevent damp from moving from one material to another Protected against damp / moisture (painting) Watertight strips between layers of bricks that prevent damp/moisture from penetrating the building A switchboard which distributes the main power supply to different branches Any pipe that transports fluids away Abbreviation for damp-proof coursing A pipe that carrying away any sewage water The system / construction or pipes of a sewer or sewage system that carries away sewage and surface water A semicircular groove underneath the windowsills or lower railings or above the top railings or windows and window frames. It prevents the rain from penetrating the building when the wind blows. A wall that is built of dry materials Refers to the partitioning of a building using drywall partitions Is pasted over joints of gypsum board Ability of metal to be beaten thinner of stretched out without breaking Lasting a long time Glasses / goggles to protect your eyes from tiny dust particles A conduction wire that safely connects the electric current to the ground

Compressive forces

Concrete floor / slab Concrete lintel Concrete ribs Consistency Construction machinery Continuous beam Contractor Corrugated Costs Covering Cube test Curing Damp proof course Damp proof membrane Damp proofing Damp-proof Damp-proof courses Distribution board Downpipe DPC Drainage pipe Drainage system Drop groove

Dry wall Drywall construction Drywall joint Ductile Durable Dust goggles Earth wire

436

Glossary
Effective width Elbow Empty-cell process En suite Engineers survey Width from the roof sheet to the overhang Bent joining piece or socket with which two lengths of pipe can be joined to form an angle Also called the Reuping process; cells are not filled with preservative but merely transfused, rinsed or washed Bedroom with its own bathroom This survey is done on an existing topographical map to project and measure out details of the project onto the ground so that excavations for foundations, cellars etc. can commence. A brickwork bond consisting of alternate courses of stretchers and headers Products, building methods and techniques that dont incur any damage to the natural environment The study of the design of products or objects with the aim to ensure the safe and easy use of the item and the health of the person using it A load that is evenly spread over a beam. It can be applied to the entire length or only over a part of the beam. Creating a manmade cavity, ditch, well or depression that is formed by cutting, digging or scraping The exterior curve of an arch Board that is nailed to the rafters to give the building a rounded off appearance. The gutters are hung onto this. Assistance in an emergency; medical help A cornice that is created directly on the wood of the framework

10

English bond Environmentally friendly Ergonomics Evenly spread load Excavation work Extrados Fascia board First aid Fixed cornice Flashing

A wide range of flashings are available in the market. Watertight material to form a watertight joint between a parapet wall and the roof covering e.g. chimneys, attic windows A pattern of bricks in a wall in which each course consists of alternate headers and stretchers Vertical rise distance of stairs Stairs without landings Temporary support for fresh concrete that is to be cast in a mould or supporting structure Is applied to the insides of formwork to prevent the cement from sticking to the formwork A component of the foundation that helps to transfer the mass of a building to more stable / firmer ground The wall that is built above the foundation. The height of the foundation wall usually indicates the position of the concrete floor. Foundation walls for external walls are usually 220 mm or 330 mm thick. A supporting structure with many members Foresight Also called the Bethell process; causes maximum absorption where the timber does not easily absorb or retain the liquid preservatives; the wood cells are partially or completely filled with the preservative

Flemish bond Flight line (pitch) Flight of stairs Formwork Formwork oil Foundation piles Foundation wall

Frame FS Full-cell process

437

10

Civil Technology
The process used to prevent the corrosion of steel and iron Blue-white metal that is dipped in smelted zinc to give it a lower corrosion level; to cover metals with a layer of zinc An arch that is made of face brick or one that will notbe plastered Global Positioning System A building built mostly of environmentally friendly materials and systems Gypsum board is a building material that is made mainly from plaster of Paris and consists of a cardboard covering on both sides of a gypsum core Tools that are used by hand; in manual labour A safety railing that is attached to a balustrade or balustrade wall. This railing runs parallel to the pitch-line. A combination of the head, brace and post assembled together The bonding of high tensile steel is increased by ribs that are made on the steel surface Voids in concrete caused due to poor compacting of fresh concrete Niche to connect the heads of stairs (tread and rise) A grip made of galvanised sheeting bent at an angle of 90 to attach purlins to rafters that cross or meet each other at a right angle Relating to the equilibrium of liquids Driven in situ foundation drivers are used as replacements for the pre-formed foundation drivers if there is a difference in the length of the foundation drivers that have to be used. Is mixed and poured on site To help something along or make it happen Investigation The interior curve of an arch or the inner or lower curved face of the whole body of voussoirs taken together. Intermediate sight Add together, unite Handling, process, result of joining; connection, union The last brick laid in an arch Timber square in cross section taking the shape of arches and columns Galvanised nail that is used to fasten gypsum ceilings and cornices A drawing showing an understanding of floorplans, vertical aspects and crosssections, and containing the positioning of various spaces in a building and all its main elements Soft, heavy, easily melted, blue-white metal Passing laws; existing laws Measurement of heights only

Galvanisation (electrolosis) Galvanised Gauged arch GPS Green building Gypsum board Hand tools Handrail Headtree High tensile steel Honeycomb Housed stringer Hurricane grip Hydrostatic In situ (driven) foundation driver In situ concrete Induced Inspection Intrados IS Join Join Key brick Lagging Large-head nail Layout drawings

Lead Legislation Levelling

438

Glossary
Line of collimation Main bars Malleable Manhole The line joining the intersection of the cross hair and the optical centre of the objective and its extensions; also called line of sight or collimation Act against tensile forces A metals ability to be stretched in all directions without breaking, using a process of beating The opening to an underground cavity, tunnel or sewage which allows access for the maintenance and repairs of underground installations. Is usually covered by a cast-iron manhole cover.

10

Mansard corner Mansard roof Marking out tools Massive concrete Measuring equipment Melamine board

The edge of a pitched roof where the two corners meet, from the ridge to the eaves Combined roof where one part forms a mansard corner and the other forms a gabled end Tools used to mark out terrein as well as buildings Cast concrete slabs that are suitable for single-storey structures on a solid subsoil Equipment used to mark material for cutting or installing fittings Chipboard that is finished off with a washable material, usually plastic. Is available in a variet of finishes (wood types) and is very popular when making built-in cupboards. Standard size: 2750183016mm A structural member may be a column, beam, tie or wall Thin film or skin that is used for covering An angle of 45 that is usually found with a joint Similar to a open string stair; here the heads are connected with mitred joints The wet mixture of aggregates to obtain concrete, mortar, screed and plaster Wetness, sap, liquid, fluids, filled with damp Prefabricated cornice that is inserted above framework for decorative purposes A flat galvanised metal sheet that is pressed to form nail-shaped pins that stick out at right angles. Is used to keep the various components of a rafter together A synthetic rubber that is resistant against oils and aging, used in watertight products Overhang at the front of a tread (can be right-angled, slanted or round) Health issues relating to a particular occupation Laggings that have a space between each other Top part is cut out in the shape of the stair Material that will absorb water or liquids easily Colourant; due, pigmentation A bent joint or socket The slope or fall of a roof An imaginary line that connects all the nosing overhangs of a set of stairs Someone who installs and repairs pipes, pipe systems and equipment such as geysers

Member Membrane Mitre Mitred string stair Mix Moisture Moulded cornice Nail plate Neoprene Nosing overhang Occupational health Open lagging Open string stair Permeable material Pigment Pipe joints Pitch Pitch-line Plumber

439

10

Civil Technology
The profession relating to pipes, taps, geysers and valves for provision of water and sewage treatment A thermoplastic material produced through polymerisation of styrene. Possesses good isolating characteristics The vertical timber between other vertical timbers in a frame construction Tools that need electricity to operate Concrete used for manufacturing stones, window sills, stormwater drains, curbstones, lintels, etc. Used when inefficient subsoil covers more stable layers of soil Keeping something in its original state or in good condition Conserving, securing; covering Groove on the edge of timber Concrete that is ordered and delivered ready mixed for use Rules that are laid down Concrete that is reinforced with steel rods and stirrups, wire and stretched steel. This concrete is usually subjected to pulling, bending and shear forces. Used to strengthen constructions Collecting information and data about a specific subject / topic A rib or beam floor that consists of precast concrete beams or ribs that are spaced evenly and blocks are placed between these beams/ribs. These units are very strong and can carry heavy loads or weights. The highest point of a roof where the two sloping sides of the roof meet to form a horizontal line at the top of the roof Vertical parts between consecutive treads A galvanised sheet bent in a U-shape in which rafters and purlins are placed when it has to be attached at a 90 angle against walls or on corners with another rafter An arch that will b plastered Roughly plastered with a grainy mixture Strip boards are fixed onto them when walls are panelled Oxidisation; reddish covering on the surface of steel, iron, etc. Roof with two slanted levels / slopes Catch nets to catch falling material or objects Signs that are put up to serve as warnings. Every safety sign has a special meaning. Use 120-grit sandpaper to work the walls off smoothly A mixture of river sand, cement and water that is laid onto a concrete floor to obtain an even finish Nail-like metal (or timber) bolt with a spiral thread and grooved head, meant to be screwed (turned) in Joints that are screwed in

Plumbing work; pipe work Polystyrene Posts Power tools Precast concrete Prefabricated piles Preservation Protection Rabbet Ready mixed concrete Regulation Reinforced concrete Reinforcement Research Rib and block / block and beam construction Ridge Riser Roof truss Rough arch Rough cast Rough ground Rust Saddled / pitched roof Safety nets Safety signs Sanding Screed Screw Screw joint

440

Glossary
Screw thread Sealing coat / block coat Secure Segregation Sewage water Sewage water Sewer pipe Sewerage Shear bars Shear force Short-hole piles Shut-off valve Simple supported beam Skew nailing Skimming Skimming coat Slump test Small machine tools Soaking process Soffit Soft steel Solder Spacers Stair Stair carriage Spiral clockwise groove, e.g. in a screw A joint compound that is applied to a dry wall course Make safe The separation of different aggregates of a mixture after the mixture has been placed Water containing organic pollution, mainly human excretement such as urine and stools, that come from the bidet, urinal, wash basin, bedpans and water cisterns Polluted water that comes from the bath, basin, shower, dishwasher and washing machine A downpipe for carrying away wastewater from toilets, baths etc. Waste products that are carried away via sewers or drains Act against shearing forces Horizontal and vertical shear tension works at 45 on a beam, causing diagonal tensile cracks Is mainly used to counter ground movement (the expansion and contraction of clay soil) A tap or valve that can control or cut off the flow of gas or liquid through a pipe Beam supported on both ends Joining timber by hammering in the nails at an angle Application of gypsum plaster such as Cretestone or Rhinolite using a 300 mm steel trowel to achieve a high quality smooth surface A thin layer of joint compound

10

The determination of the workability and consistency of various mixes of concrete being cast in one operation over an area Handdriven equipment such as power drill, handheld compactor etc. This process needs a bath that is large enough and is in a good condition, to submerge timber into preservation chemicals. The bottom board that support concrete in formwork for floors, beams and ramps Ferrous metal that can erode; is relatively sssoooft and can easily be filed, drilled or welded Metal joining compound made of tin or a mixture of tin and copper, which is used for soldering Use to prevent the reinforcement from touching the sides of the formwork Tread and riser When a stair is broader than 1 m it needs to be supported in the middle. A 76 14 153 mm beam is used. It is equipped with triangular blocks or support clamps to support the tread. Platform that follows a flight of stairs Space in which a flight of stairs will be erected

Stair landing Stairwell

441

10
Steel mat Steel tubes

Civil Technology
Welded steel mat / connected steel mat with ribbed steel that is placed on top of lintels with hollow concrete blocks Steel shapes that are hollow on the inside and consist of a lining / wall of varying thicknesses This method comprises that a steel pipe casing is driven through unstable ground or water untile stable ground formation is reached Binds the main bars together A grip made of galvanised sheet metal which is used to attach roof tiles to the roof frames Single straight stair between different stair landings A bond that consists entirely of stretchers, with each vertical joint lying between the centres of the stretchers above and below Diagonal parts at the sides of stairs to which the stairs are attached Continuous strip of cast concrete with a minimum thickness of 150 mm Stretches from the foundation to the floorslab and includes the foundation wall Does the design comply with the purpose for which it was designed? The design task, specifications and limitations are evaluated to determine if a design is suitable for the purpose for which it was designed. Extends from the foundation wall until the level where the wall plate goes Is only applied superficially Survey of surfaces and heights Having no negative effect on the environment Is used with a dumpy level or other instrument to accurately measure the heights above a certain point A force that is exerted in the beam to stretch the material Instrument that regulates temperature automatically A picture drawing in which three main aspects are shown in one drawing. It indicates the three main measurements. A horizontal member onto which other members may be attached usually found in roof and center construction Here, all the details of the Earths surface within the surveyed area are determined and represented on a plan Tension opposing twisting Horizontal distance covered by steps taken forward The area where you place your foot Base of surveying instrument Consists of a timber construction that serves as a temporary strut support First finishing layer to seal small holes Results when old and new wood are used together in formwork. The uneven absorption of water by the old and new wood leads to discolouration of the concrete.

Steel-pipe casing piles Stirrups Storm grip Straight stair Stretcher bond Stringer / String stair Strip foundation Substructure Suitability for purpose Superstructure Surface treatments Survey Sustainability Telescopic staff Tensile force Thermostat Three-dimensional Tie Topographical survey Torque Tread Tread Tribrach Turning piece (arch) Undercoat Uneven colour (discolouration)

442

Glossary
Valley Voussoirs Walking level Wall plate Wall string stair Wall ties Wastewater Water tank Weathering / erosion Wedge Weep holes Winged roof Workability of concrete Yoke Internal angle formed when two parts of a pitched roof cross Bricks cut to shape used in arches

10

Walking path between different levels of a building that are created by one or more flights of stairs or landings A piece of timber that is rectangular in cross section that is used to secure roof trusses and spread the load of the roof evenly onto the supporting walls Is attached to a wall for sturdiness Two walls of a cavity wall are connected to each other using wall ties Water mixed with waste products A watertight container or tank for storing mainly water Process or phenomenon where something is weathered or eroded due to the effects of the weather Triangular-shaped timber used in formwork to raise or lower post heights, secure parts of formwork against each other and also makes stripping of formwork easier To get rid of moisture / water that has penetrated a hollow wall Roof with only one sloped surface. Stretches over the walls or down to the parapet wall The pliability of the concrete to enable you to work with it Part of the clamp used around the formwork for columns

443

Civil Technology
GRADE 12 TIME: 3 HOURS MARKS: 200 CIVIL TECHNOLOGY JUNE EXAMINATION

REQUIREMENTS 1. Answer book 2. Drawing instruments 3. A non-programmable pocket calculator INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION 1. This question paper consists of SIX questions. 2. ALL questions are COMPULSORY. 3. Answer each question as a whole do NOT separate sub-questions. 4. Start EACH question on a NEW page. 5. Leave the MARGINS open. 6. Sketches may be used to illustrate your answers. 7. ALL calculations and written answers must be done in the ANSWER BOOK or on the attached ANSWER SHEETS. 8. Use the MARK ALLOCATION of the question as a guide to the length of your answer. 9. DRAWINGS AND SKETCHES must be done in pencil, where applicable must be fully dimensioned and neatly finished off with descriptive titles and notes to conform to the SANS/SABS Recommended Practice for Building Drawings. 10. For the purpose of this question paper, the SIZE of a brick should be taken as 220 mm 110 mm 75 mm. 11. Use your DISCRETION where dimensions and/or details have been omitted. 12. NON-PROGRAMMABLE pocket calculators may be used. 13. Answer QUESTIONS 2.7, 3.2.2, 4.6, 5.2, 5.3.2, 6.1 and 6.2 on the ANSWER SHEETS provided, using drawing instruments where necessary. 14. Write your examination number on the ANSWER SHEETS and hand them in with your ANSWER BOOK, even if you have not used them. 15. The drawings and sketches in this paper is not according to scale due to electronic copying. QUESTION 1: CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES 1.1 Choose a description from COLUMN B to match the term provided in COLUMN A. Write down only the letter (A L) next to the number of the question.
COLUMN A 1.1.1 Cube test 1.1.2 Waterproofing 1.1.3 Drywall construction 1.1.4 Slump test 1.1.5 Formica 1.1.6 Scaffold 1.1.7 Ridge 1.1.8 Wall plate 1.1.9 Purlin 1.1.10 Gusset plate A B C D E F G H I J K L COLUMN B protects kitchen surfaces against heat and moisture to determine the workability of concrete to finish the brow of a roof roofing is attached to this component of a steel roof truss PVC membrane sheets used to determine the compression strength of concrete to gain access to work on higher sections of buildings constructed without using any wet cement or mortar highest point of a roof finish where the ceiling and wall of a room meet to spread the weight of the roof trusses uniformly

(10)

444

Examination papers
1.2 Indicate whether the following statements are TRUE or FALSE. Write down only TRUE or FALSE next to the number of the question. 1.2.1 Formwork is a temporary mould into which fresh concrete is poured to harden (set). 1.2.2 The purpose of spacers in formwork is to ensure that reinforcing touches the sides of the form work. 1.2.3 The section of the roof truss that rests on the wall plate is called the tie beam. 1.2.4 Drywalls are constructed using dry materials. 1.2.5 Clout-headed nails are used to nail ceiling beams to roofing rafters. 1.2.6 The length of gypsum ceiling board runs in the same direction as the roof trusses. 1.3 The diagram below represents a roof construction. Study the construction and answer the questions that follow.
B E

(6)

1.3.1 Identify the roof that is illustrated here. 1.3.2 Identify the members (components) labelled A to G. 1.3.3 What is the minimum pitch if corrugated zinc sheets are used? 1.3.4 Name one place where flashing will be used. 1.3.5 What is the function of flashing? 1.4 The seams between gypsum ceiling boards must be covered. 1.4.1 What is used to cover the seams between ceiling boards? 1.4.2 What is used to close the gap between ceiling boards and walls? 1.5 A client wishes to install gypsum ceiling board in a room that is 3000 mm wide. 1.5.1 Indicate the width of the board as well as how many boards of that particular width will be needed to cover the ceiling. 1.6 Describe FOUR safety measures that must be considered when using power tools. 1.7 Name FOUR types of cutting that require the use of an angle grinder. 1.8 Why is it necessary and imperative to use reinforcing in concrete when a building is constructed?

(1) (7) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (2) (4) (4) (1) [40]

445

Civil Technology
QUESTION 2: ADVANCED CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES 2.1 The back sight (BS) and front sight (FS) as well as the bench mark (BM) readings taken during a survey using a dumpy level are provided on the level sheet below. Use the information and complete the level sheet. Test your answers. (11)
BS 0,9 2,15 2,26 0,8 3,16 3,16 2,95 0,21 2,95 FS RISE FALL HEIGHT REMARKS Stake A Stake B Stake B Stake C TOTAL CALCULATION DIFFERENCE

655

2.2 The diagram below represents the outside elevation of a window frame.
A B C B D B B E F

2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5

What is the breadth and thickness of the frame head labelled A? What is the size of the rebate labelled B into which the window sash fits? Name the members (components) labelled C to E. What is the name and purpose of the member (component) labelled F? What is the function of the throat of the window frame?

(1) (1) (3) (2) (1) (6)

2.3 Make a neat, two-dimensional drawing to illustrate the vertical section of a frame head. Provide a title and labels.

446

Examination papers
2.4 Choose a description from COLUMN B to match the term provided in COLUMN B. Write down only the answer next to the number of the question.
No. 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 COLUMN A Concrete tiles Thatched roof IBR Corrugated zinc sheet Rough arch COLUMN B Grooves are wide and deep Widely used due to low costs Built using standard (not wedge-shaped) common bricks Available in various modern colours Not rain-resistant More susceptible to fires Nail plates are used to nail this.

(5) 2.5 Name two factors that determine the span of a roof. (2) 2.6 The diagram below represents a vertical section of a rib and block floor. Write the number 2.6.12.6.4 in your answer book and fill in the correct answers. (4) 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4

Figure 2.6 2.7 Name four advantages that a suspended rib and block floor has over solidly reinforced concrete floors. (4) [40] QUESTION 3: APPLIED MECHANICS 3.1 The diagram below shows a shaped lamina with a uniform thickness. Complete ANSWER SHEET 5 by filling in the missing details and then calculate the position of the centroid with respect to lines AA. Round off your answer to two decimals. A

A (9)

447

Civil Technology
3.2 The diagram below shows two diagrams, not according to scale, of a cantilever roof truss. Analyse the diagram and answer the questions that follow. DIAGRAM A DIAGRAM B
b f

3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 3.2.7

What is diagram A called? What is diagram B called? Identify the magnitude fo force BC. Identify the magnitude of force CD. Describe the angle formed by member AE of the structure. Describe the position of member EF in the structure. Determine the nature of the forces of the members. Tabulate the answer in your answer book as illustrated here.
Member AB BF Nature of force

(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

3.3. The diagram below shows a space diagram of a frame structure. Use ANSWER SHEET 5.3 and: 3.3.1 Using a scale of 10 mm = 1 N, develop a vector diagram to determine graphically the nature and magnitude of the forces in each member. 3.3.2 Show the nature of the forces in the space diagram. 3.3.3 Use the information in the space and vector diagrams and complete the table on ANSWER SHEET 2.2.

(2)

(6) (1) (6)

Space diagram

Member AE BE CF

Size

Nature of force

448

Examination papers
3.4 A simply supported beam spans 20 m and carries a uniformly distributed load 6 m from the right point of support. The distributed load is 6 N/m across 4 m. The beam also carries the following point loads: 6 N, 7 m from the left point of support and 5 N, 6 m from the left point of support.

3.4.1 What is the magnitude of the converted point load? (1) 3.4.2 How far is the converted point load from the LR? (1) 3.4.3 Prove that the LR = 15 N and the RR = 20 N by calculating the left and right moments. (8) 3.4.4 Test whether the beam is in equilibrium. (3) 3.4.5 Calculate the magnitude of the shear forces at A, B, C, E and F. (6) 3.4.6 Draw the space diagram using a scale of 5 mm = 1 m. (3) 3.4.7 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam using a scale of 2 mm = 1 N. (4) 3.5 Draw the bending moment diagram of the beam using a scale of 1 mm = 1 N/m if: BMa = 0 BMb = 105 Nm BMc = 132 Nm BMd = 138 Nm BMe = 120 Nm BMf = 0. (4) [60] QUESTION 4: GRAPHICS AND COMMUNICATION 4.1 Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow.

Building line

Erf 305 Play park

Erf 307

Erf 309

Curry Lane

Municipal connection

449

Civil Technology
Write the numbers in your answer book and answer the questions:
QUESTION 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 What street is mentioned on the plan? What does Erf 305 represent? What is the distance of the rear building line? Identify the SYMBOL INDICATING THE NORTH POINT and draw it in the adjacent space. On which side of Erf 307 is the street situated? Why do you think the planned location of the sewage system will be on the western side of the building on Erf 307? What does number 1 represent? ANSWER (1) (1) (1) (2) (1) (2) (2) Total = (10)

4.2

There is a need to build an additional flat on your plot since you wish to be on your own after com pleting your matric year. Your parents have provided AN INCOMPLETE sketch, as illustrated below, based on which you are required to develop a complete plan with a sewage system. This plan must be submitted at the nearest municipal office after it has been drawn. SKETCH IS INCOMPLETE BECAUSE THE WALL OF THE BEDROOM IS MISSING
Window 1

Bathroom

Bedroom

Bathroom door

Kitchen

Window 1

Door

Window 2

4.2.1 Using a scale of 1 : 100 draw the FLOOR PLAN according to the following specifications: SPECIFICATIONS: External measurement of building is 9 000 mm 7 500 mm. Wall height from ground level up to the wall plate is 2700 mm. The roof pitch is 30 degrees. External walls 220 mm Internal walls 110 mm External measurements of bathroom is 3 800 mm 3000 mm. Window 1900 mm 900 mm (Kitchen on south side and bathroom on north side) Window 1500 mm 1000 mm (wall on south side) Door opening 900 mm 2000 mm Front door opens towards the inside.

(13)

450

Examination papers
4.2.2 Indicate the following on the floor plan: Scale (1) Symbols for shower, flushing lavatory and hand basin in the bathroom. (3) 4.2.3 Draw the south elevation of the flat using a scale of 1 : 100. (12) 4.2.4 Draw the layout of the sewage system up to the manhole, and indicate the inspection and rodding eyes. 10 =(5) [44] 4.3 The floor plan of an L-shaped dwelling is shown below. The dwelling needs a hipped roof.

4.3.1 Draw the outline of the floor plan using a scale of 1 : 100. Indicate the outline of the house using a broken line. 4.3.2 Design and draw a hipped roof using dark lines. The roof has an overhang of 350 mm. (16) [60] TOTAL : 200

451

Civil Technology
FORMULAE PAGE IMPORTANT ABBREVIATIONS
SYMBOL G C L DESCRIPTION Centre of gravity Centroid Length Pi = 22 = 3,142 7 SYMBOL h b s DESCRIPTION Height Breadth Sides Diameter SYMBOL d r A V DESCRIPTION Diameter Radius Area Volume

FORMULAE
Area of Square Rectangle Right-angled triangle Equilateral triangle OR pyramid FORMULA (in words) Side side Length breadth base height base height FORMULA (in symbols) ss lb b h b h FORMULA TO INDICATE POSITION OF CENTROID x-axis y-axis s s 2 2 l b 2 2 b 3 b 2 h 3 h 3

Position of centroid = (A1 d) (A2 d) (A3 d) Total area

452

Examination papers

GRADE 12 TIME: 3 HOURS

CIVIL TECHNOLOGY

NOVEMBER EXAMINATION MARKS: 200

REQUIREMENTS 1. Answer book 2. Drawing instruments 3. A non-programmable pocket calculator INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION 1. This question paper consists of SIX questions. 2. ALL questions are COMPULSORY. 3. Answer each question as a whole do NOT separate sub-questions. 4. Start EACH question on a NEW page. 5. Leave the MARGINS open. 6. Sketches may be used to illustrate your answers. 7. ALL calculations and written answers must be done in the ANSWER BOOK or on the attached ANSWER SHEETS. 8. Use the MARK ALLOCATION of the question as a guide to the length of your answer. 9. DRAWINGS AND SKETCHES must be done in pencil, where applicable must be fully dimensioned and neatly finished off with descriptive titles and notes to conform to the SANS/SABS Recommended Practice for Building Drawings. 10. For the purpose of this question paper, the SIZE of a brick should be taken as 220 mm 110 mm 75 mm. 11. Use your DISCRETION where dimensions and/or details have been omitted. 12. NON-PROGRAMMABLE pocket calculators may be used. 13. Answer QUESTIONS 2.7, 3.2.2, 4.6, 5.2, 5.3.2, 6.1 and 6.2 on the ANSWER SHEETS provided, using drawing instruments where necessary. 14. Write your examination number on the ANSWER SHEETS and hand them in with your ANSWER BOOK, even if you have not used them. 15. The drawings and sketches in this paper are not according to scale due to electronic copying. QUESTION 1: CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES 1.1 Scaffolding plays an important role in the construction of buildings. 1.1.1 Describe what scaffolding is. 1.1.2 Explain the purpose of the base plate in a scaffolding structure. 1.1.3 How can scaffolding be moved with ease on a building site? 1.1.4 Name ONE type of scaffold with which you are familiar. 1.2 1.2.1 A worker has fallen on site and is bleeding as a result of his injury. What steps would you take to apply first aid and to prevent yourself from being infected by Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). 1.2.2 The cartoon below shows a man who is welding. Describe THREE precautionary measures that must be considered when welding work is done.

(1) (1) (1) (1)

(4) (3)

453

Civil Technology
1.3 The photograph below depicts a portable angle grinder with accessories. 1.3.1 Name TWO uses of this piece of equipment. 1.3.2 What is the component labelled A called? 1.3.3 What is the purpose of the component labelled A?

(2) (1) (1)

1.4 Mortar joints in a facebrick wall must be neatly finished. Name two pieces of equipment that can be used to provide a neat finish.

(2)

1.5 1.5.1 Where is flashing used? (1) 1.5.2 Name ONE material that is used to manufacture flashing (1) 1.6 1.6.1 Where is a gusset plate used? (1) 1.6.2 What would determine the thickness of a gusset plate? (1) 1.7 Concrete is essential in construction. 1.7.1 Name three advantages of concrete. (3) 1.8 Choose the correct answer in column B to match the statement given in Column A. Write down only the numbers 1.8.11.8.6 and the appropriate letter. (6)

Column A 1.8.1 Rib and block construction 1.8.2 Drywall construction 1.8.3 Wedge-shaped units 1.8.4 Joining oak members 1.8.5 Hipped roof construction 1.8.6 Waterproofing

Column B A Built without any wet cement or mortar B C Segmented arch Copper screw

D Membrane sheets E F Pre-cast concrete beams Hip (corner) rafter

QUESTION 2: ADVANCED CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES

[30]

2.1 When reinforcement is indicated on a drawing, a detailed code system is used. This makes it easier to read the plan and prepare the steel. Decode the following annotation: 9 R 10 01 - 200. (5) 2.2 Draw a neat, two-dimensional free-hand sketch of the top view of an L-shaped pillar with 8 main bars. Indicate how the bars must be bound together. (4)

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2.3 Formwork consists of planking/boards that are joined to facilitate the pouring of concrete. The structure must be such that it is strong enough to resist the pressure of the poured concrete. Write down the numbers 2.3.12.3.5 and provide the labels for the formwork of a concrete beam and concrete floor as represented in the sketch below. (5)

2.4 The formwork for beams consists of a three-sided box. What is used to keep the box together? 2.5 The illustration below represents a construction in the building industry.

(1)

2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4

Provide the drawing with a title. Write down the letters A, B, C and D and write the correct name of each member next to the letter. Name two advantages of rib and block flooring. List ONE requirement that must be met by formwork.

(1) (4) (2) (1)

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2.6 Closing a roof construction is very important when a roof is installed. The ridge construction must be done correctly because it is prone to leak. The drawing below represents a line drawing of a SA roof truss. Make a two-dimensional sketch of the ridge section in which the following is indicated: Roofing rafters/principal rafters Purlins Ridge capping Galvanised roof sheeting Principal (king) post

(6) 2.7 A dumpy level that is placed in various positions, thus providing various readings, is illustrated in the diagram below. Use the information that is provided below and answer the question by transferring the readings to the level sheet and processing them. Test your answers.

TP

VP

STYG

VAL

COLLIMATION HEIGHT

HEIGHT

REMARKS Stake A Stake B Stake B Stake C Stake C Stake D

TOTAL CALCULATION DIFFERENCE

[29]

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QUESTION 3: CIVIL SERVICES 3. Solar heating can be used as a good alternative for electricity these days. 3.1.1 During the summer months, the sun can heat the water in solar heating panels to up to 65C. Name three factors that determine this temperature.

(3)

3.2. The floor plan of a kitchen and two bedrooms is shown in Figure 3.2 on ANSWER SHEET 3.2.1. 3.2.1 Write the correct abbreviations for the sanitary fittings in rooms one and two next to the relevant symbol. (4) 3.2.2 Design a suitable sewage system for the building, considering the regulations governing sewage works. The sewage system must be connected to the municipal connection. The following must be clearly indicated on the sewage plan, using abbreviations: All draining pipes Inspection eyes Manhole Rodding eyes Gulleys (11) 3.2.3 What type of drainpipes would you use to carry the sewage away from the building underground, and what should the diameter of the pipe be? (2) 3.2.4 What incline would you use to install this sewage system? (1) 3.2.5 What is the difference between a rodding eye and an inspection eye as far as their individual functions are concerned? (2) 3.3 What is the best incline angle for a solar heating system? (1) 3.4 What are the following types of energy sources called? 3.4.1 Solar panels mounted on a roof (1) 3.4.2 Power generated by water (1) 3.4.3 Power generated by wind (1) 3.5 When a drainpipe is installed under a building, it must meet certain requirements. Name THREE of these requirements. QUESTION 4: MATERIALS 4.1 Choose a material in column B to match the product mentioned in column A. Write down the numbers 4.1.14.1.6 and next to each, the correct answer.
COLUMN A 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 Gutters Kitchen sinks Manhole lids Ceiling board Hot-water pipes Roofing COLUMN B Copper Thatch Brass Glass Stainless steel PVC Gypsum Cast iron

(3) [30]

4.2 There are different methods to compact concrete. Name TWO methods.

(6) (2)

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4.3 Timber has to be graded before it can be used in the construction industry. Name TWO methods that can be used to grade timber.. 4.4 What is the: 4.4.1 diameter of a half-round gutter? 4.4.2 size of a tile batten? 4.5 What is the purpose of damp-proof coursing? 4.6 The external measurement of a foundation of a garage is shown below.

(2)

(2) (2)

4.6.1 Calculate the centre line measurements for the concrete foundation if the foundation is 600 mm wide. 4.6.2 Calculate the quantity of concrete needed if the foundation is 600 mm wide and 250 mm deep. 4.6.3 Calculate the quantity of ceiling board needed in square metres. QUESTION 5: APPLIED MECHANICS 5.1 The drawing represents an irregular lamina. Calculate the position of the centroid with respect to lines AB. All measurements are in metres.

(5) (5) (6) [30]

(10)

5.2

The space and vector diagrams of a frame structure are shown on ANSWER SHEET 5.2. USE ANSWER SHEET 5.2 and determine the nature of the forces in each of the members of the structure. Tabulate the nature of the forces in the table provided on the ANSWER SHEET. (8)

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5.3

A simply supported beam spanning 12 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 10 N/m across 8 metres from the left point of support. The beam also carries a point load of 10 N 2 metres from the right point of support. 5.3.1 Calculate the shear forces at by A, B, C and D. 5.3.2 Draw the space diagram on ANSWER SHEET 5.3.2, using a scale of 10 mm = 1 m. 5.3.3 Draw the shear force diagram of the beam, using a scale of 2 mm =1 N.

(4) (2) (6)

QUESTION 6: GRAPHICS AND COMMUNICATION Answer this question on the attached ANSWER SHEETS. 6. The ground plan of a dwelling is shown. The house has a gabled roof without a valley.

[30]

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6.1 6.2 Draw the north elevation of the house, using a scale of 1 : 50, on ANSWER SHEET 6.1. The roof has one ridge in the middle of the short wall. Provide the solution of the following labels:: Title and scale Plaster and paint NGL and FFL Roof pitch Specifications: Floor height (finished floor level - FFL) Height of wall Roof pitch Eaves Roofing All windows Door openings Asbestos fascia boards Bargeboard Windowsill 170 mm 2 700 mm 30 600 mm Corrugated zinc sheeting 900 mm high en 1 500 mm wide 2 000 mm 900 mm 225 mm 15 mm 228 mm 32 mm 1 500 mm wide

(15)

A king (principal) post roof truss spans 3 metres and it is pitched at 30. On ANSWER SHEET 6.2, draw the vertical sectional elevation to illustrate the closed eaves and a little more than half of the roof truss, using a scale of 1 : 10. The members of the roof truss are nailed together. Use the following specifications: Wall 220 mm Plaster 12 mm Tie beam 114 mm 38 mm Roofing rafter 114 mm 38 mm King (principal) post 114 mm 38 mm Foot purlin 76 mm 50 mm Ridge purlin 76 mm 50 mm Wall plate 114 mm 38 mm Brow overhang 500 mm Fascia board 228 mm 32 mm Soffit hangers 38 mm 38 mm Soffit board 6 mm asbestos finished with 20 mm quarter-round mouldings Roofing Corrugated zinc sheeting (25) [40]

Provide the drawing with a title, scale and all the necessary labels.

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QUESTION 3.2.1

Municipal connection

Main sewage line

Figure 3.2

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QUESTION 5.2
Space diagram

Vector diagram Scale 2 mm = 1 N

Member BG GA CF FG ED EF AE

Nature

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FORMULAE PAGE IMPORTANT ABBREVIATIONS
SYMBOL G C L DESCRIPTION Centre of gravity Centroid Length Pi = 22 = 3,142 7 SYMBOL h b s DESCRIPTION Height Breadth Sides Diameter SYMBOL d r A V DESCRIPTION Diamter Radius Area Volume

Area of

FORMULA (in words)

FORMULA (in symbols) ss lb b h b h

FORMULA TO INDICATE POSITION OF CENTROID x-axis s 2 l 2 b 3 b 2 y-axis s 2 b 2 h 3 h 3

Square Rectangle Right-angled triangle Equilateral triangle OR pyramid

Side side Length breadth base height base height

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