Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 44

2009

2010

2011 .
()

, ,

.

International Bar Association


4th Floor, 10 St Bride Street
London EC4A 4AD, United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)20 7842 0090
Fax: +44 (0)20 7842 0091
Website: www.ibanet.org


5
6

A. , 6

B.  ,
-6

C. 7

D.  ,
8

: 10
15

A. 15

B. 16

C. 16

D. 17

E. - 18

F. 19

22

A. ( ) 22

B. 23

C. , 24

D. 25

27

A. 27

B. 28

C. : - , 28

D. : 31

E. 34

F. 35

878 38
40

A. 40

B. 41

C. 42

D. , 43

E. 43





PricewaterhouseCoopers PwC
-


2011 . 


A. ,
, ,
,
, 10
14(1) ().
, , 1973 , .
9(b) ,
,
1998 .

.
(), ,
.
,
.
B. ,
-

( ) ( ),
3 2009 30 2010 .
,
1 ()
, ,
, , , .2

,
.3 4 ,
,
2007 , .
.

2
3
4

6

( 4493/04 13773/05) , .
( 5829/04 11082/06), , ,
, , ,
. . , 4493/04, 25 2007 ., 13772/05,
27 2010 ., , 5829/04, 20 2009 .
-, : www.theyukoslibrary.com.
.
. 18-432766-07,
18-230252-02; 18-253-545-04; 18-325501-04; 18-325531-04; 18-325543-04; 18-41-03; 18-41-06; 19-09-11.
, . WE Butler, Russian Law ( ), 6.846.120 (3-
, Oxford, 2009), W Burnham, P Maggs and G Danilenko, Law and Legal System of the Russian Federation ( ),
XI XII, , . 487632 (4- , Juris, 2009). -
: 3 ( ), 4 ( ,
), 19 ( ), 20 ( ), 21 (
), 22 ( ), 23 ( . ), 24 (.
. ), 25 (. . - .
. () ), 26 (. . .
), 27 ( ), 28 ( ), 29 (
), 30 ( ), 31 ( ,
) 32 (), http://legislationline.org/
WE Butler, Russia and the Republics Legal Materials ( ), 3 4 (Juris, 2010).

2011 .

,5 .

31 2009 2010 .
(
) ,
.
,
.
- - ,
. ,
,
, ,
. , , ,
,
, , . ,
- .
.
, .

, - , .
, , 200-
,6
. (
, ).
, , ,
, ,
.
, ,
. , ,
23 2010 .
C.

, ,
, .
7 16 2009 .
(
) . 20 27
-, ,
(, 38- ),
, ,
, , , ,
.
5

, , , :
( (solicitor) ) ( (barrister) ).
, . . WE Butler, Russian Law ( ,
5.015.58 6.1296.155 (3- , Oxford, 2009). .
6  259 , . .
, , 16 , ,
. : ,
( 259(3)(6)); ( 259(3)(10)); , , ( 259(3)(11)).

2011 . 

27 , ,
, .
28 2009 . 29 2010
.
58 ,
, .
,
6 2010 , .
.
24 ,
. 30 .
14 ,
28 . -
( ), ,
2 2010 ,
. .
, 878 ,
27 30 2010 .
D. ,

, ,
, ,
, ,
.7 ,
,
, , ,
,
,

.8
2009 , ,
( ( ),
( ) )
9. 2010
, ,
. , .10 :

7
8
9
10

8

14.
14(2)(3).
(, 2009).
The Rule of Law in Russia: Issues of Implementation, Enforcement and Practice
2026 (Statut, 2010). (www.lecs-center.org),
.
2010 28.11.2009 -3169.

2011 .


.
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
, , , .
, ,
-, -,
.
, ,
,
: , ,

.
.
.
, ,
.
, . ,
, .
. ,

.

, ,
.
.
, ,
,
.

,
.11

11 , .
.
31 2011 . ( 5829/04). ,
( 260). , :
( 70276/01), 10 2004 .

2011 . 

:

1963
- .
, , 12
() .

. 1980- ,
.13 ,
1917 .
,
.14 ,
15, . 1992
.

.
.16
,
.17
, 300 .
1995 .
1998 , ,
, 236 . . ,
, , , .
250 ,
, , ,
.18
,
.19 2001 .
1,1 .
.20 21 .
2003 36 . .21

21

Profile: Mikhail Khodorkovsky (: ) BBC News: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3213505.stm


( 6 2011 .).
Andrew Meier, Who Fears a Free Mikhail Khodorkovsky, ( , ) NY Times, 18 2009
.: www.nytimes.com/2009/11/22/magazine/22khodorkovsky-t.html ( 6 2011 .).
.
Russian Banks, Whos Who? ( : ?) http://home.swipnet.se/~w-10652/whobank.html ( 6 2011 .).
The Times, He Got Rich in Wild East but Rules of the Game Changed, ( , ) 28
2010 ., . 7.
, : (2008): http://works.bepress.com/dmitry_gololobov/6/ ( 6 2011 .).
www.how-to-make-million-dollars.com/russian-billionaires/khodorkovsky.html ( 8 2011 .).
.
Malcolm Salter, Oao Yukos Oil Company ( , (2001) Harvard Business Review 5: http://hbr.org/
product/oao-yukos-oil-co/an/902021-PDF-ENG ( 6 2011 .).
. 17 .

10

2011 .

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

.22 2000 ,
,
.23 ,
, , , ,
.24 2001
, .25
.
. 2003 100 .
. , 1 .
.
,
. 2004 ,
15,2 . , 16-
Forbes 2004 .26
,
.
,
( ),
,
,
.

.27
,
.28 2003
.
.
, , , .29
- , 35
, .30
Die Welt ,
;31 ,
.

22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Andrew Meier, Who Fears a Free Mikhail Khodorkovsky, ( , ) NY Times, 18 2009 .:


www.nytimes.com/2009/11/22/magazine/22khodorkovsky-t.html ( 6 2011 .).
. 17 .
. 16 .
www.old.khodorkovsky.info/openrussia ( 6 2011 .).
www.forbes.com/finance/lists/10/2004/LIR.jhtml?passListId=10&passYear=2004&passListType=Person&uniq ueId=M1IF&datatype=Person
( 6 2011 .).
Jeremy Scott-Joynt, Khodorkovsky: an oligarch undone, ( -, : ) BBC News, 31 2005 .:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/4482203.stm ( 6 2011 .).
Tom Reilly, Newsmaker: Mikhail Khodorkovsky, ( , : ) Daily Liberal, 1 2011 .:
www.dailyliberal.com.au/news/world/world/general/newsmaker-mikhail-khodorkovsky/2037603.aspx ( 6 2011 .).
Timeline of the Yukos Affair, ( : ) :
www.khodorkovskycenter.com/media-center/timeline-yukos-affair ( 7 2011 .).
Grigory Chkhartishvili, Esquire Interview with Mikhail Khodorkovsky: Part 3 of 5 Esquire, 8 October 2008:
www.robertamsterdam.com/2008/10/esquire_interview_with_mikhail_3.html (accessed 6 January 2011).
. 29 .

2011 . 

11

25 2003
. ,
.
. 2003
, ,
1994 , ,
.
.
. 2009 ,
.32 .33
.
.34
:
... [ ],
( ) . 1994 ,

.
1994 .
, ,
,
. () ,
, . , ,
,
. , ,
, .35
() 31 2005 ,
11 , .
. , 15 .
.36
. 2005 .37
, ,
, .

32
33
34
35
36
37

12

Miriam Elder, Arrest of Mikhail Khodorkovsky partner illegal, court rules, ( , )The Guardian, 23
2009 .: www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/dec/23/arrest-mikhail-khodorkovsky-partner-illegal ( 7 2011).
( 4493/04), 25 2007 .
Biographicon: www.biographicon.com/view/jfpfn ( 7 2011 .).
.
. 29 .
Court rejects Khodorkovsky appeal, ( )The Times, 22 2005 .:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/4270718.stm ( 7 2011 .).

2011 .

2005 .
. ,
. 2006
, .
2006 , 38,
.
, , . 2006
. ,
2007
,
.39
2006 PricewaterhouseCoopers (
PwC) 2002 2004
.40 PwC , ,
. ,
2007 PwC . , ,
, , ,
, , 41
2008 PwC,
.42
2007 , ,
. , ,
,
.43
2007 - ,
. , 2008 ,
- .
,
.44
, ,
. 2008
- .45

38
39
40
41
42
43
44

45

Creditors vote to bankrupt Yukos, ( ) BBC News, 25 2006 .


http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/5212570.stm ( 10 2011 .).
Dutch court voids Yukos bankruptcy in Netherlands, ( ), Reuters, 31
2007 . http://uk.reuters.com/article/idUKL3131955920071031 ( 10 2011 .).
Elizabeth Judge and Tony Halpin, PwC faces court action in Russia over Yukos audits, ( , PwC
, The Times, 28 2006 .: ( 10 2011 .).
Auditor withdraws Yukos reports, ( ), BBC News, 25 2007 .
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/6236064.stm ( 10 2011 .).
David Jetuah, PwC wins Yukos appeal, ( , PwC , Accountancy Age, 28 2008 .:
www.accountancyage.com/aa/news/1751509/pwc-wins-yukos-appeal ( 10 2011 .).
, , 4493/04, 25 2007.
Catrina Stewart, Russian court turns down Khodorkovsky parole bid, ( , ), Seattle Times, 22 2008 .:
http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2008129186_aprussiakhodorkovsky.html ( 10 2011 .).
Guy Faulconbridge, Russian court denies Khodorkovsky parole appeal, ( ,
- ), Reuters, 16 2008 .:
http://uk.reuters.com/article/idUKLG56146920081016 ( 10 2011 .).

2011 . 

13

2008 . ,

.46 ,
2004 , 42 . , , ,
,
,
.47 2009
48, 2010 .
98 . .
, 2007
.49 , , ,
, , , . ,
350 25 .
. , ,
,
2012 , ,
, .
. ,
,
. . ,
.50

.
3 2009 .

46 Anna Nemtsova, Rite of Passage, ( , ), Newsweek, 21 2008 .:


http://www.newsweek.com/2008/02/20/rite-of-passage.html ( 10 2011 .).
47 . 29 ( 10 2011 .).
48 ( 14902/04), .
49 New fraud charges in Yukos case, ( ), BBC News, 5 2007 .:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/6330411.stm ( 10 2011 .).
50 , , 16 2007 .:
http://en.rian.ru/russia/20070416/63735751.html ( 13 2011 .).

14

2011 .



A.

. ,
- . , .51
.
, . ,
. ,
/ .
7 80
,
( ).
,

.
.
.
, , , ,
, ,
, .
.
50 .
, , , .


, 7 .
12 .
.
( )
, ( , ) ,52
, 53 (
, ).
( )
, ,
.
.

51

52

53

, .
,
.
, .
-77/1
1945 .
():
() ().
.

2011 . 

15

B.
7 , (
). ,54
, , (
).
(
) ,
,
.
.
,
. .
, , ,
, .55
,
. ,
, ,
, . ,
.
,
.
, ,
. ,
, , .
C.
,
( ), -
. 56
.
, , .
,
. ,
. ,
.

54
55

56

16

, , . , ,
10:00 18:00 15- .
, , . , ,
, . , ,
- .
, ,
, - , .

2011 .

, :

 , ,
, , ,
, . . , . . ;

 , ,
, , . . .
.
57 ( ),


. ,
, .
, , . . ,
-

. , - - . .
. -


. ,
, ()
, , .
. .,

. .
; . .
,58

. ,
, ,
.
D.
/ ,
, ,
( , , ,
, )
,59
, .

57
58
59

, (. WE Butler, Russian Law ( ), 6.1036.104 (3- ,


Oxford, 2009) 37 ) , .
54 55 .
, : ,
( () ), , (. 120 121
) , , . , ,
, . ,
, ,
- . .

2011 . 

17

, , , .
.
. .
, , .
. , ,
, .
E. -

2010 , -,
; , ,
.60
- , ,
, , , , ,
, .
;
;
,
,
.
,
. , ,
, -
.

, . ,
, .
,
. 264
. ,
, , ,
, .

60

18

, ,
( ) ,
, - .
, ,
, -.

2011 .

F.
,
, 2005 . ,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
,
. , , ,
, , , .

. .61
, 255(3) ,
,
, 108; , ,
.

.
,
, .
.

. ,
. , ,
,
, ,
, .
, , ,
,
,
. ,
,
. ,
, , ,
. .
61 . 13 , 97110 . 110
. , .

97 99 , , , (1) , (2)
, (3) ,
, (4) , (5) , , ,
, .

108 :
(1)
,
, , .

(2) ,
.
,
. , .

255 :
(1) , .
(2) ,
6 , ,
(3) .
(3) ,
6 .
3 .

2011 . 

19

, /
, ,
.62
,
. , 7 2010 60-
63 ,
.
2010

.
.

.
14 2010 ,
. .
. 21 .
, , ,
,
108 .
,
,
, . , 10
. ,
22 29 2009
, ,
, , .
, 108 .

21 . .

62

I 2008
. .).
28 2009 : www.onk-moskva.hrworld.ru/.

(
), , , , ,
, ,
. ,
. , , , ,
.

63

7 2010 . 60-

20

2011 .


2010 . ,

, . ,
-
.
, ,

16
2 , .
18
2011 ,
.
( )
, , , ,
, .
.
2011 64 ,
16 2010 ,
( )
. ,
7 2010 60- .

64

www.supcourt.ru/stor_pdf.php?id=438396.

2011 . 

21



A. ( )
,
.
188 . ,
. .65
275 69 000 .
66
.
2007 2008 . ,
, ,
.

. , ,
.
,
. ,
. ,
, .
.
.
, 20

, .
.67

65

215, , ,
( 217) ( 216)
( 219). . 166 167.

66

,
. . S Thaman, Comparative Criminal Procedure (. ,
, 16, 125126 181182 (2- , Carolina Academic Press, 2008). , ,

, .
240 , :
(1) (1) ,
, X . , , ,
, , ,
.
(2) , , ,
276 281 .
(3) , .

67

22

, .

2011 .

B.
150
4 . ,
,
, .
220(2), :
.
, .
.
( ) ,
, , ,
.
:


160(3)(a) () , 19962003 .;

174(3) , 19962003 .;

160(4) , 2003 .;

174.1(4) , 2003 .
159(3)()
285(2). ( 160),
( 174), ( 159)
( 285). , ,
, ,
.
, ,
.
, , , ,
. , ,
.

. ,
, ,68 .
, ,
.
,
, ,
,
,
.

68

, 8(d)
. , . . K
Kszywienski, Roadblocks in the Search of Truth (. , ) (2006) 37 University of Toledo LR 1111.

2011 . 

23


(),
.69
,
,
,
, .
C. ,
, ,
,
. , :


( . 18);

(. 1832);

() (. 3293);

 ()
(. 93146).
.
200- ,
, ,
; , ,
, .
,
. ,
, .70
147
. ,
,
, , -
,
,
,
.
69

70

24

,
. ( ) :
1 2
, ([2006]
International Company and Commercial Law Review, 304317 369380 (Sweet & Maxwell, 2006).
,
. ,
(. L Spedding, Due Diligence Handbook (. ,
) (Elsevier, 2009); RW McGee and GG Preobragenskaya, Accounting and Financial System Reform in a Transition Economy: A
Case Study of Russia (.. . . , :
) (Springer, 2005)), ,
.
.
: (The Yukos Money Laundering Case: A NeverEnding Story) 28 Mich J Intl Law 711764 (2007), 1 . 713 , ,
, - ,
- ( ) - ( ). V
, - ,
( ) . , -
( ) , .
, .

2011 .

, ,71 -,
-72 ,
. ,
, .
, , ,
. (i) (
, )
, 2000 ;
(ii) (
, ) ,
1998 2000 . 73
,
74 (
); , ,
, ,
, ( ,
- ()75 ).

,
.
.76 ,
, ,
, .
. ,
212 , ,
, ( )
- ( , ).
D.
,
, 172(5) . :
, , ,
, .
, ,
47 , ,
.
47(4) :
: (1) , ;
71 . 55.
72 , . . WE Butler, Russian Law ( ) (3-
, 2009), 11, Entrepreneurial Law, ( ) 11.0111.145 , , 11.5011.71.
, , 11.7211.79.
.
73 . 99100.
74 PricewaterhouseCoopers 2007
. , PwC 10
, , ,
Behles, Baltic South Petroleum, . . http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10
001424052748704095704575473630120957538.html?mod=WSJEUROPE_ hpp_LEFTTopWhatNews#printMode; http://online.wsj.com/public/
resources/documents/0906yukos01.pdf; http://online.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/0906yukos02.pdf; http://online.wsj.com/public/
resources/documents/0906yukos03.pdf; http://online.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/0906yukos04.pdf; http://online.wsj.com/public/
resources/documents/0906yukos05.pdf.
75 , - .
76 1- 13:12.

2011 . 

25

, ,
. .
,
.
,
, , , ,
,
, ,
.
( ) :


;

 , ,
.
,
,77 .
( ), , ,

(), .
. , ,
,

.

.
. , .

77

26

, ,
, .
, , , . ,
, : ,
.

2011 .


A.

, : (1)
; (2) ; (3)
,
; (4)
, ,
; (5)
; (6) ,
, .
; .
.
,78
31 .
()
, , ,
, ,
.
,
.79 .
,
.
. , ( ,
), .
, , , ,
.
, ,
, ,
.
,
, . , ,
, .
, , .
, .

78

79

. , 2010 ,
, ,
.
. 215220, , 217(4) 219 , .

2011 . 

27

B.
,
, .
, , .80
17 2009 ,
,
,81
. 21 2009 ,
,
, . ,
. , ,
, ,
, ,
- .
27 , .
. ( ,
.)
2009 ,
188 .
, ,
.
: , .
,
.
: -, ,
-, .
C. : - ,
,82
, , .
, ,
,
1990- 2000- .

, , ,
.83
,
80

, .
, 31 2009
.
81 , , : (a) , , , ; (b) , ,
, , .
82  250 15 . 478 .
.
83 Russias Criminal Procedure Code Five Years Out (- )
(33 Review of Central and
Eastern European Law ( ) 32): [] .

56 187191 , , 56(7),
. 88 , ,
. , , ,
. ,
,
, .

28

2011 .

,
.84
.
, ,
.85
, ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
, , .., , ,
(, )
. .

.
,
, . , ,
, . -
, ,
.86
, , ,
- .
,

.87 ,
.
;
,
.88 ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
. , , ,
, , , ,
, , .
84

,
http://untreaty.un.org/unts/1_60000/24/26/00047259.pdf,
http://www.hcch.net/upload/conventions/txt14en.
pdf. . , , 20 1959 (
17 1978 ) http://conventions.coe.int/treaty/en/treaties/html/030.htm.
85 , , . 150207
, , , , ( 187194),
( 190).
, . ,
(. 189(5)), , .
86 . . - 2000 2004 ; . .
, Independent Media,
Financial Times The Wall Street Journal ; . .
( 1992 1994 . 1998 2002 .)
2004 2007 .; . . 2000
2007 ; . . ,
-, 2004 .
87 . , 520 US 681 (1997); K Oellers-Frahm, Italy and France: Immunity for the prime minister of Italy and the president of
the French Republic, 3 Int J Constitutional Law 107 (2005).
88 , , ( ,
) (
2007 .). , , , .
..

2011 . 

29

, 2009
2010 ,
.89 ,
,
, .
.
:
(a)  ,
, , ;
(b) 
, ;
(c)  ( )
, .

.
.
, . , ,
.

, .
, , , ,
.90 , ,
, .
, . ,
,
.

89

90

30

, , ,
( 160), , ,
X W Z. , ,
, .
. JW McElhaney, McElhaneys Trial Notebook (. . , ), 52 Evasive Witnesses (
), 53 The Witness Doesnt Remember (, ), 54 Make Something Out Of It ( )
(4- , 2005).

2011 .

D. :
( 57) :
 , ,
, .
.
,
()91 1999 . ,

, ,
. , 92
.
(),93 .
,
1999 .
. ,
264 278 .94 ,
, ,

. ,
.
.
,
.95
,
, . ,
, (
),
, , . ,
,
.

91
92
93

, , .
(), , . www.valuation.ru/.
() , . www.naa.ru.

94

264(2) :

, ,
, .
278(1) :


1. .
95  , , ,
2004 1999 .

2011 . 

31

, ,
,
, .
,
. ,
.
,
.

. ,
, . ,
, ,
, , .
, .

. , , ,
, .
, .
, .

, - Compass Lexecon.

, ,
, /,
.
.
. , ,
, , ,
, .
,
- , ,
, .
96
. , , ,
.
Compass Lexecon ,
,
, .
96

. . , . ,
. . , , 3 2010 ,
, ,
, ,
, . , . .
, . ,
, ,
. .
, . . . .
. . . , .
, .
. . . . , .
. . , , ,
, . ;
. . .: , .

32

2011 .


Compass Lexecon. 97
. .
,
. , ,
.98 ,
, .99
, ,
, . ,
, ,
, .

, .
,
,
, , , ,
, .
,
, .100
.
,
, PwC 15 2007
US-GAAP 1995 2004 .
PwC .101
, PwC
; ,

PwC; ,
, ,
,
, PwC.

97

2010 ,
.
, 44 :

, ,
, , -?
98 , .
, ,
, , ,
. - , ,
, Compass Lexecon, .
, ,
.
. , , ,
. , .
99 ,
, .
100 , ,
, , .
101 : ;
,
, ;
,
, .

2011 . 

33

, ,
,
.102
, ,
.
,
,
,
, ,
, , , ,
. ,
1999 ,
, .
,
,
, , ,
,
, ,
, 103 .
E.
.
, .
,
. ,
, (,
).
, :
.
, ,
, .
,
;
; , ;
, ;
;
.

102 I PwC, ,
, , ,
.
103 , .

34

2011 .

, ,
, , .
, , . ,
,
, .

, ,
, .
,
. ,
.
. ,
, .
, , ,
, , ,

. (,
), .
, ,
. ,
, .

,104 ,
, .
F.

. ,
,
. ,
.
,
. , ,
,
, .
( ).
,
,
2009 ,
. 2009 ,
,
, . ,

100 .

104 14 2011 , , ,


, .
. . Clifford J Levy, Russian Tycoons Trial was Rigged, Assistant Says, (
, ) New York Times, 15 2011 .

2011 . 

35

,
,
.
, , ,
.
259 260 ,
,
.105 . ,
, ( 3
) 259(6),
, ,
, ,
.
, , ,
.
,
.
6 2010 ,
106 , .
,
, ,
,
.
,
, .
(, , () ), ,
(, ),
(, ). ,
(,
).
.
() .
,
,
, .
,107 .

105 259 :

6. 3
. , , ,
.
.

260 :
1.

3 .

2.

.
, , .

3.

3.
. .
106 , , 2009 , , 2010 .
107 , , ,
,
, , , .

36

2011 .

.
, , ,

. ,
. 108
, .
, ,
, .
, .
, :



;



, , , , ,
;


;

.
,
2011 .
25 , .

.
, ,
,
, , . ,

, . .
, ,
, .109 110
.
, ,
.
,
. , .

108 , 259(6) .
109 , : www.vedomosti.ru/newspaper/article/259952/a_byl_li_sud.
110 307(2).

2011 . 

37


878
288 2009 2010
304 307-309 .
.
,
2003. ,
,
16 . .

. , ,
,
.
, 111 ,

, .
,
. ,
- ,
, .
, ,

1998 .112

111 :
[a]

[b] ,
[c]

]
[i]

[ii]

[iii] .

( 160(a) () ).

112 :
(a)

,
,

(b)
(c)

(d)

38

( 174.1(3) ).

2011 .

.
. ;
.113
, ,
, ,
, ( ,
) .

113
, 45- . , 545 ,
- , , ,
, ,
, , .

2011 . 

39


,
,114
:
(i)

(ii) 
;
(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

(viii)  ,
,
;
(ix) 
.
, . ,
, ,
, .115
(UNHRC) ,
, ,
.116
.117 ,

. , , , .
, ,
. , ,
. .

.
A.
,
, .
. ,

114
115
116
117

, 14.
, 32, CCPR/C/GC/32, 23 2007 ., 13.
, 4.
244 :

[1] [2] , [3]


, [4] , [5] , [6]
, ... , [7] ,
.

40

2011 .

, .
220(2) ,
. .
,
, ,
. ,
, , PowerPoint
,
. ,
.
, ( )
, , ,
, ,
.
B.
.
, ,
.
, ,
, .
,
.118 ,

,

( )
.

,
. , ,
,

. , ,
, .
, ,
.
,
255 . .
,
,
. , ,
.119 ,
,
, . ,
, ,
.
118 , 32, CCPR/C/GC/32, 23 2007 ., 39.
119 ( 5829/04), 31 2011 ., 126, 119. ,
3 , . ,
, , .

2011 . 

41

. ,

.
, , ,
3 ).120

. ,
,
.
,
.121 ,

. ,
, , , .
, ,
.
C.
,
, (
), , .
,
, ( ) .
,
, ,
.
.
, ,
. ,
.

, ,
.122 ,

,
.123 .
,
, , , ,
, . ,
sua sponte .
,
, ,
.
, .
, ,
.

120
121
122
123

42

.
. , , .
. , , .
. , D, .

2011 .

, ,
, .
( 2009 , ).
,
,
, ,
, , ,
. ,
, , .
D. ,

,
,
.124
,
, , , ,
, , .
16 - ,
, : ,
? , .125 ,
.
. ,

,
.126 ,
,
, .127

.
E.
(),
, , ,
, . ,
, , . ()
( )

. ,
,
.
, .

124 . 104 .
125 Catherine Belton, Putin Remarks Dash Hopes for Khodorkovsky, ( , ) FT.com,
16 2010: www.ft.com/cms/s/0/b109377c-092e-11e0-ada6-00144feabdc0.html.
126 , 32, CCPR/C/GC/32, 23 2007 ., 25.
127 ( 5829/04), 31 2011 ., 25560.

2011 . 

43

International Bar Association


4th Floor, 10 St Bride Street
London EC4A 4AD, United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)20 7842 0090
Fax: +44 (0)20 7842 0091
Website: www.ibanet.org