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. 2011. . 7. 3. . 489512.

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: 514.755
MSC 2010: 37D50, 37J50

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: 23 2011
Regular and Chaotic Dynamics 2003 .: Eugene Gutkin, Billiard
dynamics: a survey with the emphasis on open problems on billiards, Regul. Chaotic Dyn., 2003, 8 (1),
pp. 113.
, ,
.
MNiSzW N N201 384834.
-.

gutkin@mat.umk.pl
Department of Mathematics
Nicolaus Copernicus University
Chopina 12/18, 87-100 Torun, Poland;
IM PAN, Sniadeckich 8, Warszawa 10, Poland
2011. T. 7. 3. . 489512

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2011. T. 7. 3. . 489512

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2011. T. 7. 3. . 489512

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2011. T. 7. 3. . 489512

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2011. T. 7. 3. . 489512

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. P X(p, q) f (P ) P .
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[58] [30].

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2011. T. 7. 3. . 489512

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2011. T. 7. 3. . 489512

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2011. T. 7. 3. . 489512

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4. i) ? ii) ?
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2n , Z.
, Z . Y Z 2n- , Y .
, P (. 3 ).
m = 1 4 9 3.

2011. T. 7. 3. . 489512

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n . [100] : eh n  fY (n).
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n

log fY (n)
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 lim sup
 h+ < .
n
n
n

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n

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2

2011. T. 7. 3. . 489512

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. (halftranslation surfaces). . [6567, 90].
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[17, 28, 90]. ,
.
(. . ) . T (n) n- ( a). , a. T (n) , . .
T (n), . , T (3) R2 , T (3) =
= {(, ) : 0 <  < /2}. , T (3) . [65] , E(n) T (n) n- ( )
[71].

2011. T. 7. 3. . 489512

500

7. , (E(n)) > 0 ?
n = 3 ,
(. . 5) .
[26] [13].
[69]. m1 , m2 , m3 .
(m1 , m2 , m3 )

m1 + m2 + m3
(3.2)
tg i = mi
m1 m2 m3 , i = 1, 2, 3.
, -
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. (m1 , m2 , m3 )
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"
tg 2 = m2 /m1 .

. 5. .

P , P [103].
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[3, 13]. , , .
8. .
P n-, a1 , . . . , an . 1  i  n
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2011. T. 7. 3. . 489512

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, [51, 104].
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.
[66, 67] [9, 10], 0 < c (P )  c (P ) < ,
c (P )2  fP ()  c (P )2 . . c (P ) c (P ) fP ()/2 ,
.
12. c (P ) c (P ).
fP ()/2 , . . c (P ) = c (P ) =
= c(P ). , . , . ,
3

. . [81].

2011. T. 7. 3. . 489512

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(lattice condition). o [41, 42, 91].


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2011. T. 7. 3. . 489512

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1a. Y .
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1 1a ,
. . [98] 1a.
R2 . || .  > ||
G(, ), . G(, ) . , , , . ,
, .
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, [6].
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Y [43, 88, 109]. 1 1 > |1 |, 2 =
= G(1 , 1 ) . 2 > |2 |. 3 = G(2 , 2 )
, 1 . 3 , ,
3 = G(1 , 3 ). . ?
1b. , .
. . 1b . [1]. [1] .
.  > || Y () =
= Y (, ) 0 < () <
< 1/2 Y (). () = () .
 || , () , , ,
. r (0, ) , 1 (r) = [a(r), b(r)] . i) r , ii)  [a(r), b(r)] Y ()
. ; (phase locking).
. [44] , . ,
(), [44].
. G(, ) . C 1 -
C 2 -. , Y (, )  > ||. . , Y (, ) () , , Y (, ) () [57].
[43],
, .
. [43], [57]
(). . , () Y (, )
.

2011. T. 7. 3. . 489512

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4.2. 1
3, . [5] . , [5]
(P3 ) = 0. [36] 3. , [36]
; , 3 . [49] ( )
. 3.
: i) , ; ii) , ; iii) , . iii) : P
, , ,
. , P?
, , P.
. 0 <  /2 . Y . , Y P , Y ,
Y , Y .
P . P ; .
/2 : [6, 27]. Y ,
. , .
P ( 0 < < /2) P . P
20 ,
1993
[30]. . i) P
,
tg(n) = n tg

(4.1)

n > 1. An (0, /2) (4.1). An ; n  4. ii) An


Y (s) P : 0 < s < 1.
s 0, Y (s) . Y (s) s 1
, .
, , P
, . Y P ,
C = Y R [23]. [38]
[30], , .

4.3. 3
3 - , [56, 77, 78] , -

2011. T. 7. 3. . 489512

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. . ,
> /2. [77, 78] . , , 100 ,
. [56] , , , . = ,
. ,
. , , , . ,
, ,
.
a, b, c . [56, 77, 78] [104];
, a, b, c, . , . , [104]. , ,
a, b, c , . T R2 . , ,
T = {(x, y) R2 : 0  x, y  1}. (, ) x + y < 1 (,
x = y). Wk a, b, c k,
W = k Wk . w W Tw T ,
w. (tiles).
.
Wsuf f W , Tw , w Wsuf f T . ,
, .
McBilliards .
, , , [56, 77, 78] ,
, .
, [33]
, 11. . P
, a, b, c, . . . .
, . w()
A = {a, b, c, . . .}. , w() ; w() . Wn (P ).
n. F (n) = kn |Wk (P )|
P . , ,
, , F (n). , fP (n) 11 P . , 11
.
14.
.
14
, . ,

2011. T. 7. 3. . 489512

506

. [39, 59],
. ,
n F (n) < ean a > 0;
F (n).
14 .
, .
1. d  3, ,
d.
1
d = 3. , [45, 49]. P . 0  < 2
, z P . , (, z),
n, F (n) (
Fz (n)) P . , , . . d > 0, P , , F (n) = O(nd )
[50]. [45] , P > 0
F (n) = O(n1+ ). [45] , P > 0 z P
Fz (n) = O(n2+ ).
. [49] , -
(piecewise convex polygon exchange). .

4.4.
[33].
, , .
R2 . x, y ( , x, x) (x, y) , x y. , x, y ,
{z1 , . . . , zn } \ {x, y}, , (x, y)
zi . , z1 , . . . , zn x, y.
, x, y . , , , x, y, . . i)
? ii) , ? , ,
x, y ; x, y . .
, ,
. ,
[55]. [55], , . [55] ,
. [34] , . n- [55].
[34] , n- ,
n = 3, 4, 6. a, [34]

2011. T. 7. 3. . 489512

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507

.
[28, 40, 42, 89, 91].
(. [34, 35]).
15. . ,
.
, 30, 60, 90 45, 45, 90 , .
, , , ,
[28]. [28], . P , P . [34],
.
2. , .
, , . 2, , , . .
. , M ( , , ).
, x, y , ,
x, y M .
, , [12, 37]. ,
. .
, , x, y
, [87] .
. M , [12, 34]. , M
, a [34]. M
[12].
3.
, .
3 [4, 12, 46].
, [4].
, , M 2-. [25].


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Billiard dynamics: a survey with the emphasis on open problems


Eugene Gutkin
Department of Mathematics
Nicolaus Copernicus University
Chopina 12/18, 87-100 Torun, Poland;
IM PAN, Sniadeckich 8, Warszawa 10, Poland
gutkin@mat.umk.pl

The survey of the subject, emphasizing the open problems.


With a supplement written by the author for a Russian translation.
(The 2003 English original: Eugene Gutkin, Billiard dynamics: A survey with the emphasis on
open problems on billiards, Regul. Chaotic Dyn., 2003, 8 (1), pp. 113.)
Received August 23, 2011

MSC 2010: 37D50, 37J50


Keywords: billiard ow, billiard map, periodic orbits, elliptic dynamics, hyperbolic dynamics,
parabolic dynamics, Birkho conjecture, phase locking, security
Citation: Rus. J. Nonlin. Dyn., 2011, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 489512 (Russian)

2011. T. 7. 3. . 489512