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HLR - Home Location Register

The Home Location Register is a database within the Home Public Land Mobile Network. 1. It provides routing information for Mobile Terminated calls and Short Message Service. It is also responsible for the maintenance of user subscription information. 2. This is distributed to the relevant VLR -Visitor Location Register or SGSN - Serving GPRS Support Node through the attach process and mobility management procedures such as Location Area and Routing Area updates. 3. HLR stores and manages all mobile subscriptions belonging to a specific operator. The HLR is considered the most important database because it stores permanent data about subscribers, including subscribers supplementary services, location information, and. authentication parameters buys When a person a subscription, it is registered in the operators HLR. 4. The HLR can be implemented with the MSC/VLR or as a stand-alone database. 5. A HLR contains user information such as account information, account status, user preferences, features subscribed to by the user, users current location, etc. The data stored in HLRs for the different types of networks is similar but does differ in some details. 6. HLRs are used by the Mobile Switching Centers (MSCs) to originate and deliver arriving mobile calls.

HLR Redundancy

When a single HLR fails, all subscribers with records in that HLR will not be able to roam or receive calls. HLR Redundancy can prevent such a loss of subscriber activity. This feature is achieved by having an additional HLR node for each HLR node in the network. HLR Redundancy provides protection against disaster situations such as fire at an HLR site. At the same time, it will give protection against Signalling failures towards an HLR and will also lower the lack of availability caused by HLR restarts. With this feature, the subscriber can make and receive calls even in disastrous situations like an earthquake with little or no change in network continuity or functionality. The HLR Redundancy feature, allows failure to be invisible to the network and the subscriber. A mated HLR is introduced in such a way that subscribers and load are shared in normal operation, and when one HLR fails, the other picks up all traffic normally routed to the pair.

2. VLR
A VLR is a database, similar to a HLR, which is used by the mobile network to temporarily hold profiles of roaming users (users outside their home area). This VLR data is based on the user information retrieved from a HLR. MSCs use a VLR to handle roaming users. Database contains information about all mobile stations currently located in the MSC service area. VLR contains temporary subscriber information needed by the MSC to provide service for visiting subscribers. The VLR can be seen as a distributed HLR. The Ericsson VLR is always integrated in the MSC. When a mobile station roams into a new MSC service area, the VLR connected to that MSC requests and stores data about the mobile station from the HLR. If the mobile station makes a call at another time, the VLR will already have the information needed for call setup.

3. How are the HLR and VLR used?


Each mobile network has its own HLRs and VLRs. When a MSC detects a mobile users presence in the area covered by its network, it first checks a database to determine if the user is in his/her home area or is roaming, i.e., the user is a visitor.

a. User in Home Area: HLR has the necessary information for initiating, terminating, or receiving a call. b. User is Roaming: VLR contacts the users HLR to get the necessary information to set up a temporary user profile. The users location is recorded in the HLR, and in case the user roaming, it is also recorded in the VLR. Suppose that the user wants to make a call: a. User in Home Area: MSC contacts the HLR prior setting up the to call. b. User is Roaming: MSC contacts the VLR prior to setting up the call. Suppose that there is a call for the user (call goes to the home MSC): a. User in Home Area: Home MSC delivers the call immediately. b. User is Roaming: Home MSC contacts the VLR to determine the appropriate switch in the roaming area to handle the arriving call and then transfers the call to the roaming area MSC.

Commands Via HLR


Displays User Profile: Hgsdp:msisdn= axxxxxxxx,all; PRINT OUT: HGSDP:MSISDN=919702900269,ALL; HLR SUBSCRIBER DATA SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY MSISDN IMSI STATE AUTHD 919702900269 405799008027031 CONNECTED NAM 0 PERMANENT SUBSCRIBER DATA SUD CAT-10 DBSG-1 TSMO-0 OBO-2 OBR-2 TS11-1 TS21-1 TS22-1 OFA-1 PWD-0000 CFU-1 CFB-1 CFNRY-1 CFNRC-1 CAW-1 SOCFB-0 SOCFRY-0 SOCFRC-0 SOCFU-0 SOCLIP-0 HOLD-1 MPTY-1 CLIP-1 SCHAR-8-0 AMSISDN NONE BS BC

AVAILABLE

SUPPLEMENTARY SERVICE DATA BSG TS10

SS

STATUS FNUM TIME SADD CAW NOT ACTIVE CFU NOT ACTIVE 919702900268 CFB NOT ACTIVE CFNRY NOT ACTIVE CFNRC NOT ACTIVE LOCATION DATA VLR ADDRESS MSRN 4-919891730001 SGSN NUMBER 4-919891030078 PACKET DATA PROTOCOL CONTEXT DATA APNID PDPADD EQOSID VPAA PDPCH 0 1 NO IPV4 1 1 1 NO IPV4 2 2 1 NO IPV4 3 5 1 NO IPV4 6 END < Displays Permanent Subscriber Data (Network Set): hgsdp:msisdn=614xxxxxxxx,suda; Displays Message Waiting Indicator (and message source) hgmwp:msisdn=9197020900269; PRINT OUT: HGMWP: MSISDN =919702900269; HLR SUBSCRIBER MESSAGE WAITING DATA LIST MSISDN IMSI MCE MNRF 919702900269 405799008027031 NO SCADD NONE END HLR SUBSCRIBER MESSAGE WAITING DATA LIST MSISDN IMSI MCE MNRF MNRG 61433429052 505060000011555 NO NREACH REACH SCADD 4-61430004010 END MNRG REACH REACH PDPTY PDPID MSC NUMBER 919891730001 LMSID

Executes Call Forwarding: hgssi:msisdn=614xxxxxxxx,bsg=ts10,ss=cfu,fnum=04xxxxxxxx; (mobile or landline without country code) bsg = variable (as below) TS10 = Voice/Telephony TS20 = SMS TS60 = Fax BS20 = Asynchronous Services (MMS, email, browsing - all IP based) BS30 = Synchronous (real time video calls) ss = variable (as below) CFU = Call Forwarding Unconditional (overrides all others) CFB = Call Forward Busy CFNRY = Call Forward No Reply (specifys seconds) CFNRC = Call Forward Not Reachable (out of coverage, handset turned off) *** Please note that unconditional call forwarding to an international number needs to be performed using different commands. Please see page 3 of this document for details ***

Network Barring: hgsdc:msisdn=614xxxxxxxx,sud=obo-1; OBA = BAR ALL incoming and outgoing calls OBI = bar ALL incoming calls OBO = bar ALL outgoing calls 0 = OFF 1 = ON 2 = International Barring

OBR-2 = PLMN country (restricts country via IMSI ie. would not be able to roam internationally) OBR-1 = Home PLMN (restricts to home network via IMSI ie. would not be able to roam on Voda)

User Barring Customers are able to activate barring via the handset, if customers are unable to perform this function via the handset you can enable the customer to be able to perform this function via the handset. If customer is not enabled to perform a certain type of barring it will not appear on the list. Eg. BAIC for SMS (TS20) is not enabled for this customer (below) therefore customer would be unable to active barring for all incoming SMS if desired BSG TS20 SS STATUS FNUM SADD

TIME

BAOC NOT ACTIVE BICRO NOT ACTIVE BOIC NOT ACTIVE BOIEXH NOT ACTIVE ACTIVE-OP = Activated NOT ACTIVE = Enabled/available but not activated by user To enable: hgsdc:msisdn=614xxxxxxxx,sud=baic-1; Or if customer is unable to remove barring via handset: hgsse:msisdn=614xxxxxxxx,bsg=ts10,ss=baic;

Parameters: BAIC BAOC BICRO BOIC BOIEXH TS10 TS20 TS60 BS20 BS30 Barring all incoming Barring all outgoing Barring of all incoming calls when roaming outside the home PLMN country Barring of all outgoing international calls Barring of all outgoing international calls except those directed to the home PLMN country

Voice/Telephony SMS Fax Asynchronous Services (MMS, email, browsing - all IP based) Synchronous (real time video calls)

fgntp:msisdn=x; Check msisdn against FNR (Flexible Number Registar). If msisdn is not in the FNR subscriber will not be able to receive calls, but can make calls. N Prefix will hold a value if customer has ported out of 3. N Prefix follows CAC values. IMSI will hold value if subscriber is with 3 network. Subscriber on 3
<<fgntp:msisdn=61404936629; FNR SUBSCRIBER NUMBER TRANSLATION DATA NUMBER DATA MSISDN 61404936629 IMSI NPREFIX 505060000001884 SUBTYPE

Subscriber ported out of 3 to other carrier


<fgntp:msisdn=61412691423; FNR SUBSCRIBER NUMBER TRANSLATION DATA

NUMBER DATA MSISDN 61412691423 IMSI NPREFIX SUBTYPE 1411 OTHER

hgslr:msisdn=x; Purges location data from the HLR (Home Location Registar) which in turn signals the serving VLR (Visitor Location Registar) to purge the subscriber location details. The subscriber will need to powercycle handset to re-attach to the network. This command can also be used to purge subscribers from roaming carriers such as Vodafone & International carriers. The VLR address shows the country, carrier, state and VLR location address of where the subscriber is presently located or the last place the network saw the subscriber.
VLR ADDRESS 4-61430004020

VLR Location Address Carrier Country Code


NB: The CPM Tool Subscriber Status can be used as a shortcut to find subscribers current RNC location.

"VODA VLR Addresses.txt"

Subscriber on 3 network
LOCATION DATA VLR ADDRESS MSRN MSC NUMBER 4-61430004020 61430004020 LMSID

Subscriber roaming on Vodafone network


LOCATION DATA VLR ADDRESS MSRN MSC NUMBER 4-61415011903 61415011903 LMSID

Subscriber roaming on international network (in this case Italy)


LOCATION DATA VLR ADDRESS MSRN 4-393358807000 MSC NUMBER 393358807000 LMSID

hgcmp:msisdn=x; Camel HLR profile is related to the IN. If customer is having difficultities making calls this may be one think you might like to check is correct.
INCORRECT <hgcmp:msisdn=61411874299; HLR CAMEL SUBSCRIPTION DATA MSISDN TDPTYPE TDP SK GSA DEH CCH I 61411874299 OCTDP 2 2 61430004015 1 2 END CORRECT <hgcmp:msisdn=61411874299; HLR CAMEL SUBSCRIPTION DATA MSISDN TDPTYPE TDP SK GSA DEH CCH I 61411874299 OCTDP 2 32 61430004015 1 2 END

Setting International Call Forwarding


Setting unconditional call forwarding to an international number needs to be performed differently to national call forwarding. Use the below commands in the order stated and remember to return the customer to OFA-1. If you don't, they will have translation problems.
HGSDC:MSISDN=614xxxxxxxx,SUD=OFA-0; (turn OFA off) HGSSI:MSISDN=641xxxxxxxx,BSG=TS10,SS=CFU,FNUM=44xxxxxxxxx; (CFU to international number) HGSDC:MSISDN=614xxxxxxxx,SUD=OFA-1; (turn OFA back on)

Commands Via MSC


mgssp:imsi=x; Check mobile subscriber state. Displays IMEI (International Mobile Equiptment Identifier), IMEIs are recorded in the EIR (Equiptment Identity Registar) currently not in use on 3network.
<<mgssp:imsi=505060000001884; MT MOBILE SUBSCRIBER STATE SUBSCRIBER DETAILS IMSI MSISDN STATE 505060000001884 61404936629 RESTR IDLE LAI 505-06-20202

EQUIPMENT IDENTITY CONTROL DETAILS IMEI CHKRES CNT 353250003621090 UNSPEC 0

LAI IMSI carrier code and RNC where subscriber last seen. STATE Current state of subscriber: IDLE: Ready to rx/tx calls NOT REG: Not on VLR DET: Detached from network (phone turned off) BUSY: Subscriber on call IDET: Mobile not turned off manually. Battery ran dead or battery removed.
NB: The CPM Tool Subscriber Status can be used as a shortcut to find subscribers current state. Ie Idle, Busy etc

mgsre:imsi=x; ; Purges subscriber from VLR (Visitor Location Registar). This command is similar to hgslr:msisdn=x; although it purges directly from the serving VLR rather than via signalling from the HLR. This command does not allow you to purge from roaming carrier VLRs.

mgslp:imsi=x; Displays subscriber data received from the HLR. MSTAT output displays whether subscriber is registered at present on the MSC (Mobile services Switching Centre) / VLR. Subscriber Registered on 3
mgslp:imsi=505060000001884; MT MOBILE SUBSCRIBER LIST SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY IMSI MSTAT MSISDN CAT 505060000001884 REG 61404936629

10

Subscriber Registered Elsewhere (ie. Roaming)


<<mgslp:imsi=505060000001884; MT MOBILE SUBSCRIBER LIST SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY IMSI MSTAT MSISDN 505060000001884 NOTREG END CAT

Global Title Routing


Displays whether routing exists for certain number ranges - both national and international and for both voice (when receiving calls while roaming) and sms. International voice calls are routed via Optus and do not use the global title routing. C7gsp:tt=0,na=4,np=1,ns=x; (x = first 6 digits of number including country code)

International Number Range (in this case Hong Kong)


<c7gsp:tt=0,na=4,np=1,ns=852981; CCITT7 GLOBAL TITLE SERIES DATA OPERATING TT NP NA NS 0 1 4 852981 END GTRC 34

National Number Range (optus native)


<c7gsp:tt=0,na=4,np=1,ns=6140; CCITT7 GLOBAL TITLE SERIES DATA OPERATING TT NP NA NS 0 1 4 6140 END GTRC 3

If a number range is routing to Nilcom (for international SMS) rather than to a direct roaming partner there will be a value displayed in the MNS parameter
<c7gsp:tt=0,na=4,np=1,ns=961; CCITT7 GLOBAL TITLE SERIES DATA OPERATING TT NP NA NS 0 1 4 961 MTT MNP MNA MNS 0-338 END GTRC 37

Checking Local Number Routing Local numbers are routed similarly to mobiles. Portability is first checked via SMAS (similar to FNR) and routed accordingly, if no value is found in SMAS routing reverts to native number ranges. SMAS is a website that can be viewed via the O&M LANs. Native numbers ranges can be checked via the MSC using the following command: anbsp:b-240-x; (x = first six digits of the number range including the STD access)
<anbsp:b=240-029874; B-NUMBER ANALYSIS DATA

OPERATING AREA B-NUMBER MISCELL F/N 240-0 240-02 240-029 240-0298 240-02987 F=140 M=0-14113 D=4-0 END

ROUTE

CHARGE L

CC=4 L=10

The M value equals the CAC code of the carrier. Ie 1411 = Telstra therefore the number range 02987 is a Telstra native number range. It is important to check the SMAS as well, as individual numbers in this range may have ported to other carriers.

Commands Checking ALEX for commands will display a full description of the command. A brief description of commonly used standards are listed below: Commands beginning: H = HLR commands M = MSC commands F = FNR commands Commands ending: E = end P = print (display) I = initiate C= change R = reset

Fixing an IMSI/MSISDN Mismatch


The below commands are how to fix an IMSI/HLR mismatch where melbourne has a sydney imsi or vice versa This example shows melbourne having a sydney imsi and vice versa
MEL ----Hgsdp:msisdn=61433135110,all; HLR SUBSCRIBER DATA SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY MSISDN IMSI STATE AUTHD 61433135110 505060000493726 CONNECTED AMSISDN 61433135113 BS BC TS62 92

AVAILABLE

SYD ----hgsdp:msisdn=61433135110,all; HLR SUBSCRIBER DATA SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY MSISDN IMSI STATE AUTHD 61433135110 505061000007903 CONNECTED AMSISDN 61433135113 BS BC TS62 92

AVAILABLE

1) Using the PSC tool, delete the msisdn. 2) Check auc data on both hlr's Agsup:imsis=505060000611952;
AUC SUBSCRIPTION DATA AKATYPE 1 IMSI EKI KIND FSETIND A4IND AMF 505060000611952 506C542CC30FFF48A26785D561A66EF5 23 0 0 DEFAULT END

3) If the imsi is missing on an hlr, add by entering agsui:imsi=505060000611952,eki=506C542CC30FFF48A26785D561A66EF5,kind=23; MAKE SURE YOU COPY THE CORRECT DATA FROM THE HLR. EKI'S ARE UNIQUE, AND DO NOT OMIT THE KIND VALUE.

4) Reprovision the msisdn with the correct imsi using the PSC tool. 5) To add an additional msisdn - copy the bc value from the good hlr. hgami:msisdn=61433135110,AMSISDN=61433135113,bc=92; 7) You may need to enable the bsg (in this case fax) hgsdc:msisdn=61433135110,sud=ts62-1;

Remove Subscriber/Provisioning
The following commands are used to remove the provisioning for a service, from the HLR and the FNR. Commands must be run on both Sydney and Melbourne machines. hgsue:msisdn=x; HLR subscriber end. fgnte:msisdn=x; FNR number translation end. (on the FNR) (on the HLR)

Provision Service/Subscriber
In order to provision a service on the HLR, the following commands are used. hgsui:imsi=x,msisdn=y,profile=z; HLR subscriber initiate. Where Z is 4 for postpaid services, or 6 for pre-paid services. hgsdc:msisdn=x,sud=ts21-1; HLR subscriber change, to add SMS-MT. hgsdc:msisdn=x,sud=ts22-1; HLR subscriber change, to add SMS-MO. hgcmi:msisdn=x,octdp=2,sk=32,gsa=61430004091,deh=1,cch=2; HLR camel initiate, to add camel profile. hgldi:msisdn=x,univ; HLR location services data initiate. hgpdi:msisdn=x,eqosid=100,apnid=10; hgpdi:msisdn=x,eqosid=100,apnid=11; (only for postpaid services)

HLR packet data initiate, for 3Services (postpaid & prepaid) and 3NetAccess (postpaid only) When initially created, postpaid services have inbound and outbound calls barred. Prepaid services initially have inbound calls barred. The barring will need to be removed using the following command. hgsdc:msisdn=x,sud=oba-0; Finally, to add a record to the FNR. fgnti:msisdn=x,imsi=y; (on the FNR) (on the HLR, for postpaid or prepaid)