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...........................................................................................................................................2
1 .......................................................................................3
1.1 ...........................................................................................3
1.2 ...............................................................3
2 ..........................................................................................................3
2.1 ...........................................................................................................3
2.2 .........................................................................4
2.3 ............................................................5
2.4 ..................................................................7
2.4.1 ..........................................................7
2.5 ()...................9
2.5 ....................................................................................10
3 ............................................................................................................11
3.1 .......................................................................11
3.2 ..........................................................12
3.3 ................................................................13
3.3.1 ........................................................13
3.4 ()....................15
4 ()........................................................................................17
5 ....................................................................................................17
.....................................................................................................................................19
........................................................................................................................20



. -,
.

, 75- ,
.
, .
() ,
, (
).
, .
,
,

. , ,
.

.

, ,
.
100 10
3 .

1
1.1
, ,
,
. .

:

1 -

U
20 lg max
K ()
U min = lg 50 = 1, 67 2 .
n=
=
20
20
, .

1.2
:
M i =

M
= 1
(n + 1)

:
.

2
2.1
913,
.

2.2
.
.
,
. ,
.

2.

2
: R = 75 ,
U = 5 , I = 5\75 = 0.067 = 67 .
, :
IK0 = I + I , I = 0.1I
IK0 = 0.067 + 0.0067= 0.074 = 74 .

U0 = U + U, U = (1..2)
U0 = 5 + 1 = 6 .
R:
UR = 5,55
,
.
= IK0 R + U0 + UR=0+6+7,5=11,55

12 .
IK = \ R = 160 .

IK0 U0,
:

3 .
: IK0 = 100 , U0 = 6 , UR = 5,55 , = 15 .
: ,
.
= IK0 U0 = 600
= 0.5 I U = 167
= + = 767

= (\ )100% = 21,7%
:
X L = 15 R = 15 150 = 2250
L =

XL
XL
2250
=
=
= 3,58
2 f H 2 105

2.3

,
.
Y-
,
.

, .
, ,
.
5

4
:

CK (U K 2 ) = CK (U K 1 )

U K 1
28
= 7 10 12
= 11, 711
U K 2
10

:
g =

11, 711 1012


=0,651
18 1012

:
26

r = I + I , = 4.
0
0
r =

26 4
+ = 0.66
100 10

:
g- =

1
, 0 = 100
r (1 + 0 )

g- = 0,015
:
=

1
1
=
= 2, 654
8
2 fT r (1 + 0 ) 2 3,14 9 10 0, 66 (1 + 100)

0 =

0
100
=
0,99
0 + 1 100 + 1

:
G=

0 0,99
=
= 1,5
r 0, 66

S0 =

0 g g 0,99 0, 6511,515
=
= 1, 466
g + g
0, 651 + 0, 015
0 = S0 R = S0 R = 1, 466 75 = 109,95

2.4
2.4.1
,
.

5
R :

R =

U R
9
=
= 90
I K 0 0,1

.
:

20
20
=
= 0,354
2 f r R 2 3,14 105 90

0 :
I0 =

IK 0
= 1
0

:
I = (5..10) I 0 = 5
:
R1 =

(U R + 0.7) 15 (6 + 0, 7)
=
= 1660
I
0, 005
R 2 =

U R + 0.7 6 + 0, 7
=
= 1340
I
0, 005


. ,
:
I K 01 = SU , U = ,

= 3 / (); -

( 25 ):

= + R = 35 + 600 0,1 = 95 ,
= = 70 ,
R ,
, -:
P = I 0 U 0 = 0,1 6 = 0, 6 .


:
R = (0.1...0.5) / = 0,1 /.

U = 3

70 = 210 .

I K 01 = 1, 466 (210 ) = 307,86 .


,
() :
I K 02 = I 0 ( 0 +1) ,

I 0 :
I 0 = I 0 ( )[exp(T ) 1] = 5 10 6 25 [ exp(0,1 70) 1] = 54,8 ,
= (0.083...0.120) - .
I 0 = 5 (.)
I 02 = 54,8 101 = 5,5348 .
, 0 ,
:
I 03 = 0 ( I 0 + I 0 ) ,

0 = k 0 , k = 0.005 ../.
0 = 0, 005 100 70 = 35 .
I 03 = 35 ( 5 + 1 ) = 35,175 .
8


:
I = S T 1 I K 01 + S T 2 ( I K 02 + I K 03 ) ,


, :
ST 1 (1 + S0 R ) 1 =

1
= 0, 00752219
1 + 1, 466 90

1 R
ST 2 1 + 12 ,
R
0
R12 =

R1 R 2 1660 1340
=
= 741, 467 .
R1 + R 2 1660+1340

ST 2 =

1 741, 467
1 +
= 0, 092 .
100
90

I = 0, 0075 (307,86) + 0, 092 (5,53 + 0, 035) = 0,51 .


I K I
.

2.5 ()
( ):

2 i + 1
= 22,51 ,
2 f

i - ( ),
.
() :

= + 1 + 2 =

S0 r
+ S0CK R + R ,
2 fT

= (2..5) , .

1, 466 1,536
+ 1, 466 11, 7111012 75 + 5 1012 75 = 2, 061 .
6
6, 28 900 10

< , , ,
.
:
- :
R =

R R12
.
R + R12
9

R =
R12 =

1
g

= 83,33 .

R1 R 2
= 741, 467 .
R1 + R 2
R = 74,912 .

- :
g =

1
R

g g
0, 6510, 015
=
= 0, 012 .
g + g 0, 651 + 0, 015

- :

0 g
109,95 11, 711 10 12 0, 651
10
= g +
= 3,982 10 0, 651 +
= 1,518 .
g + g
0, 651 + 0, 015

2.5
() .

( ).
:
= 2 2 + 32 = 0, 017 2 + 0, 003892 = 0, 017 ,
2 3
(
).

:
2 =
3 =

U
0,1
=
= 0, 017
2
3
2 (1 + )
2 25, 6 10 (1 + 9, 763) 2

U 2 (1 + 2 )
0,12 (1 + 2 9, 763)
=
= 0, 00389
62 (1 + ) 4 6 ( 25, 6 103 ) 2 (1 + 9, 763) 4

= 25, 6 , .
=

R + r + (1 + h21 ) (r + r ) 75 + 1,536 + (1 + 15) (0, 66 + 1)


=
= 9, 763 .
r (1 + h21 )
0, 66 (1 + 15)

R , r - .

10

3
3.1
: U =


U
5
=
= 45 , R = 74,912 , = 1,518 .
0
109,95

329, .
.
:
R = (2..3) R = 2 74,912 = 149,82 .
R :
U R = (1..5) = 3,8
:
R =

R R
74,912 149,82
=
= 49,941 .
R + R 74,912 + 149,82

( 10%
):
I K 0 = 1.1

U
= 1 .
R

- :
U 0 = 1.1U + U H = 2, 05 ,
U H = (1..2)
.
:
EK = U K 0 + U R + U R = 2, 05 + 3,8 + 1 10 3 149,82 = 6
:
= 6
, .
, ,
, :
P = U K 0 I K 0 = 2, 05 1 103 = 2, 05 ;
0, 045
P = 0,5 I U = 0,5
0, 045 = 0, 013 ;
74,912
P = + = 2, 053 .
:
11

6 .

3.2
,
.
:
g =

2 1012
=
= 0,133
15 1012

:
26

r = I + I , = 4.
0
0
r =

26 4
+ = 30
1 1

:
g- =

1
, 0 = 300
r (1 + 0 )

g- = 0,11 .
:
=

1
1
=
= 0,176 .
8
2 f r (1 + 0 ) 2 3,14 10 30 (1 + 300)

0 =

0
= 0,996
0 + 1

:
12

G=

0 0,996
=
= 0, 0332 .
r
30

S1 =

0 g g 0,996 0,133 0, 033


=
= 0, 033 .
g + g
0,133 + 0,11 103

R R
1 = S1 R = S1 = 0, 033 49,941 = 1, 648
R + R

3.3
3.3.1
,
.

7
R :

R =

U R 3,8
=
= 3800 .
I K 0 103

.
:

20
20
=
= 8,38
2 f r R 2 3,14 105 3800

0 :
13

I0 =

IK 0
= 3,33
0

:
I = (5..10) I 0 = 33,3
:
R1 =

(U R + 0, 7) 6 (3,8 + 0, 7)
=
= 45045
I
33,3 106

R 2 =

U R + 0, 7 3,8 + 0, 7
=
= 135135
I
33,3 106


. ,
:
I K 01 = SU , U = ,

= 3 / (); -

( 25 ):

= + R = 35 + 2 0,1 = 35, 2 ,
= = 10, 2 ,
R ,
, -.


:
R = (0.1...0.5) / = 0.15 /.

U = 3

10, 2 = 30, 6 .

I K 01 = 0, 033 (30, 6 ) = 1, 01
,
() :
I K 02 = I 0 ( 0 +1) ,

I 0 :
I 0 = I 0 ( )[exp(T ) 1] ,

= (0, 063...0, 091) - .


I 0 = 5 (.)
14

I 02 = 6,307 106 (300 + 1) = 1,898 .


, 0 ,
:
I 03 = 0 ( I 0 + I 0 ) ,

0 = k 0 , k = 0.005 ../.
I 03 = 0, 005 300 10, 2 (5 10 6 + 3,33 106 ) = 127 .

:
I = S T 1 I K 01 + S T 2 ( I K 02 + I K 03 ) ,


, :
ST 1 (1 + S0 R ) 1 = 0, 008
S T 2 (1 / 0 )(1 + R12 R ) ,

R12 =

R1 R 2
45045 135135
=
= 33780 .
R1 + R 2 45045 + 135135

33780
ST 2 = 0, 003 1 +
= 0, 03 .
3800

I = 0, 008 (1, 01 10 3 ) + 0, 03 (1898 10 6 + 127 10 6 ) = 52, 67 .


I K I
.
,
R , , ,
.
R =

0
15 6
=
= 8682 .
I K 0 + I + I 0 0, 001 + 33,3 106 + 3,33 10 6
=

(10..20)
20
=
= 3, 666 .
2 f H R 2 105 8682

3.4 ()
( ):
2 i + 1
1, 28182 + 1
=
=
= 25,87 ,
2 f
2 3,14 107
i - ( ),
.
15

() :

= + 1 + 2 =

S0 r
+ S0CK R + R ,
2 fT

= 1,518 , .

0, 033 7,5
+ 0, 033 2 1012 49,941 + 1,518 10 9 49,941 = 76, 21 .
6
6, 28 100 10

> , , ,
.
:
A = 1 + S0 Roc = 1 + 0, 033 91 = 4
:
Soc =

So 0, 033
=
= 0, 00825
A
4


() :
K 0 oc =

K 0 1, 648
=
= 0, 412
A
4

2
0, 033 7,5
1,518 10 9 49,941
12
+ + 1 =
+
0,
033

10

49,941
+
= 19, 05 .

6, 28 100 106 4
4

:
- :
R =
R =

1
g

R12 =

R R12
.
R + R12

1
= 9098 .
1,1 104

R1 R 2
= 33780 .
R1 + R 2
R = 7168 .

- :
g =

1
R

g g
0,133 0,11 103
=
= 1,1 104 .
3
g + g 0,133 + 0,11 10

- :
=

3,939 1010
+ (1 + K 0oc ) =
+ 2 1012 (1 + 0, 412) = 15,95 .
A r
4 7,5

,
, , .
16

R =

R . R .
75 7168
=
= 75,8 .
R . R . 7168 75

4 ()
- :

1
2 f

2
Hi

+1

= 79, 6 108 .

- :
=

; R = R ; R = R .
R + R

= 3,541 .
- :

79, 6 108
=
= 9, 648 105 .
S0
0, 00825

5
,
.

8
D = 18 ./. .

:
R =

D 1
17
=
= 2061 .
S0
0, 00825

,
()
.

17

9

:
R1 =
R2 =

R0 ( D 1)
= 134
D +1

R0 ( D 2 1)
= 1344 .
2D

18



, 75-
.
.
, - .

19


1 .. :
. : , 2006 55 .
2 .., .. :
. .: , 1981 656 .
3 http://www.trzrus.narod.ru/

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