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2004

512.643, 512.644

. . - . ,
..

; . ; / . . . .
; . , 2004 43 .

, .

512.643, 512.644

, 2004
..
2004

1.
2


mn
, m n
a11

a 21

a m1

a1n

a 2n
.

a mn

a12
a 22

a m2

, .
, ,
, .
,

a11

a21

a12

a22

. :
A,B,C...

a ij ( A) ij - A, i-
j- .
n ,
a11 = a22 =... = an n =1 ,
.
E. ,

1, i = j
( E )ij =
0, i j

i, j = 1, 2, 3, ... , n. ,

1
0
, 0
1

0
1
0

0 .

B,
.
A B ,
, .. A = B
a ij = bij i =1,2,...,m ; j =1,2,...,n.

1) .
- , A - mn.
A , ( A) =
ij

aij

, i=1,2,...,m; j=1,2,...,n. , 2

1 2 1

3 4 5

2 4 2

6 8 10

,
.
2) .
A, B - mn. A B
A + B, ( A + B) ij = aij + bij ,
i =1,2,...,m ; j =1,2,...,n.
,
. ,

3 1 4

2 0 + 3

1 5 1

5 7 4

2 = 1 2 .

4 0 1

3) .
A - mk, B - kn.
A B AB
mn, ( AB ) ij = ai1b1 j + ai 2 b2 j +
+ a ik bkj =

a
l =1

il

blj . , AB,

i- j- ,

i- j . ,

1
4
3
7
1

5 6

1 4

3 4 + 1 7

= 2 4 + ( 3) 7

1 4 + ( 1) 7

3 5 + 11
3 6 + 1 ( 4) 19 16

2 5 + ( 3) 1 2 6 + ( 3) ( 4) = 13 7

4
1 5 + ( 1) 1 1 6 + ( 1) ( 4) 3

14

24 .

10


. , - , A,B,C . : 1) A
+ B = B + A; 2) (A + B) + C= A + (B + C); 3) (A) = ()A; 4) ( + )A
= A + A; 5) (A+ B) = A + B; 6) (AB)C = A(BC); 7) (A + B)C = AC +
BC (, ; ,
); 8) = , A -
, - .
, , 7). A B
mk, C kn.
(A + B)C, i j
[(A + B)C] ij =
k

ir

r =1

( A + B)ir crj =

(air + bir ) crj =

r =1

r =1

(air crj + bir crj ) =


r =1

a
r =1

ir

crj +

crj = (AC) ij + (BC) ij = (AC + BC) ij i = 1, 2, , m; j = 1, 2,

, n. , (A + B)C
AC + BC , .
, , , AB BA. , , A =
B=

2
,
0

AB =

1 3

3 1

. ,

4
4

2
2

, BA =

1
,
3

9
.
1

, A
, A A T .

( AT ) ij = ( A) ji .
,

A = 2
1

0
3

4
7

4 ,
1

0
T
A =
4

2
3
7
4

1
.
3


,
. () A
detA. ,

a11

a12

a1n

a 21

a 22

a2 n

a n1

an2

a nn

det A A.
1 a11 ,
5

, .. detA = a11 .
, n > 1.
.
M ij aij
n-1, A,
i- j- .
,
4
7

5
8

M 13

2
5
8

. aij A
Aij = ( 1) i + j M ij .
, Aij = M ij , i+j
- , Aij = - M ij , i+j - .
a11

a 21
, A =

a n1

a12
a 22

an2

a1n

a2n

a nn

detA = a11 A11 + a12 A12 ++ a1n A1n = a1k A1k .


k =1

1. .
,
,

2
3

1
2

a11
a 21

a12
a 22

= a11 A11 + a12 A12 = a11a 22 a12 a 21 .

= 2 ( 2) ( 1) 3 = 4 + 3 = 1 .

2. .
a11

a12

a13

a 21
a 31

a 22
a 32

a 23
a 33

a 22
a 32

a 23

a 33

a11 A11 + a12 A12 + a13 A13 =


a12

a 21
a 31

a11 M 11 a12 M 12 + a13 M 13

a 23
a 21
+ a13
a 33
a 31

a11

a 22
= a11 (a 22 a 33 a23 a 32 )
a 32

a12 (a21a33 a 23 a31 ) + a13 ( a 21 a 32 a11 a 22 a33 + a12 a 23 a 31 + a13 a 21 a 32 a11 a 23


a 32 a12 a 21 a 33 a13 a 22 a 31 .

,
,
.
( ,
),
,
,
,
,
6

,
. ,

1
3

= 1(1)(-5) + (-2)2(-2) + 4(3)(3) - 3(1)(-2) - (-

2)(4)(-5) - 2(3)1 =
-5 +8 + 36 + 6 - 40 - 6 = -1.
3. .

4-, 5- .. .
.

1
1

3
0
1

3
2

0
1

1
2

2
2

1 2 3
2
2

3
0
1

= 1 A11 + 2 A12 1 A13 = M 11 2 M 12 M 13 =

2
2
1 3
2
2

2 (0 6 + 6 + 0 18 + 2 )

1
1

1 =(0 + 3 + 2 + 0 6 1)
2

(4 + 2 6 4 + 6 2 ) = 2 2 (16) = 30 .

, ,
, ,
. ,

a33 0
a43 a44

an 3 an 4

0
0

an 5

a 11

a 22

a 21

a 22

0
a 32
= a11

a 33

0
= a11 a 22

a n1

a n2

a n3

a nn

a n3

a n4

a nn

a n2

0
0
= =

ann

= a11 a 22 a nn . ,
2
3
5

. ,

0
4
2

0
0 =
3

2 4 ( 3) = 24 .


A - n.
n

1) i (1 i n) detA = a i1 Ai1 + a i 2 Ai 2 + + a i n Ai n = a i k Ai k ;
k =1

j (1 j n) detA = a1 j A1 j + a 2 j A2 j + + a n j An j = a k j Ak j .
k =1

, i-
(j- c) .
2) det A = det A T ,

a11

a12

a1n

a 21

a 22

a2n

a n1

an2


a nn

a11

a 21

a n1

a12

a 22

a n2

a 1n

a2 n


a nn

,
. , -
, (
).
.
3) -
,
a11
a 21

a n1

a12

a1n

a 22

a2n
=

an2

a nn

a11

a12

a1n

a 21

a 22

a2n

a n1

an2

a nn

1. , ()
.
,

a 11
a 21
a 31

0 a 13
0 a 23 = 0 .
0 a 33

4) , -
, ,
p1 + q1

a12

a1n

p2 + q 2

a 22

a2n

pn + q n

an2


a nn

p1

a12

a1n

p2

a 22

a2n

pn

an2


a nn

q1

a12

a1n

q2

a 22

a2n

qn

a n2


a nn

5) A ,
.
,

a 11

a 12

a 13

a 13

a 12

a 11

a 21
a 31

a 22
a 32

a 23 = a 23
a 33
a 33

a 22
a 32

a 21
a 31

2. , ,
. , 5) det A = det A ,
det A = 0 .
3. 3), 5) , ,
, 0.
4. , -
, ,
a11 + a12

a12

a1n

a11

a12

a 21 + a 22

a 22

a2n
=

a 21

a 22

a2n

a n1 + a n 2

an2

a nn

a n1

an2

a nn

a1n

6) i, j = 1,2,...,n , i j

ki

k =1

Ak j = 0 .

, -

.
7) A B n, det AB = (det A)(detB).


. A B
, AB = BA = E, E -- .
A A 1 .
. , B B
A, AB = BA = E AB = B A = E .
B = B E = B ( AB ) = ( B A) B = EB = B .
. A ,
, detA 0;
A 1

A11

1 A12
=

det A

A1n

A21 An1

A22 An 2
,

A2 n Ann

Aij -
,
( A 1 ) i j =

Aji
det A

(1)
a ij

A.

, i =1,2,...,n ; j =1,2,...,n.

. A A 1 .

7)
,
A A 1 = E ,
1
1
det( A A ) = det A det A = det E =1 . , det A 0 (
det A = 0 , 0 = 0 det A1 = 1 , ).
det A 0 . , (1) ,
A:

n
A
1
1 det A, i = j 1, i = j
ki
1
1
(A A)ij = ( A )ik akj = akj = akj Aki = =
det A 0, i j 0, i j
k= 1
k = 1 det A det A k = 1
n

, A 1 A = E . , , A A 1 = E .

1
.
3

2
A =
1

A 1 ,

detA = 6 + 1 = 7 0.

, A 1 .
A: A11 = 3, A21 = M 21 = 1, A12 = M 12 = 1, A22 = 2 .
,
A 1 =

1 3

7 1

1
.
2
1 3 1 1 7

=
3 1 2 7 0

1 2
AA 1 =
7 1

. A ,
1

A =2

1
3
1

0 1
=
7 0

1 .

0
.
1

detA = -6 + 0 + 0 + 0 - 4 + 1

= -9,
A11 = M 11 =

A13 = M 13

3 1
= 5,
1 2

2
=
0

3
= 2,
1

AA

A21 = 2,

A31 = 1,

A23 = 1,

A33 = 5 .

1
1
= 2
9
0

1
3
1

A12 = M 12 =

2 1
= 4,
0 2

0 5

1 4

2 2

2
2
1

A22 = 2,

A32 = 1,

5
1
= 4
9
2

1
9

1
1 = 0
9

5
0

0
9
0

2
2
1

0 1

0 = 0

9 0

1 .

5
0
1
0

0 .


. A - mn. k
k A. ,
, k k
k A.
. k A ,
, k+1 0
.
. A .
A r ( A) Rg A.
,

B =0

2
2
0

1
5
4

1
0
0

2
2
0

1
5
4

, 8,
. , r ( B ) =3 . , B
:
2
2
0

1
5
4

3
7
6

1
0
0

10

2
2
0

1
5
4

1
0
0

2
2
0

3
7
6

1
0
0

1
5
4

3
7
6


A mn
n , -
m . ,
. ,
a1 j

a2 j

Pj =

a m j

a1i

a2i
Pi =

a m i

a1 j

a2 j
Pj + Pi =

am j

+ a1 i

+ a2 i
,

+ ami

j- i- A, - ,

Pi =

a1 i

a2 i
.

a mi

. c1 , c2 , ... , c k - , Pi , Pi , ... ,
Pi - A. c1 Pi + c 2 Pi + + c k Pi
Pi , Pi , ... , Pi c1 , c2 , ... ,
ck .
. , k Pi , Pi , ... , Pi -
A , c1 , c2 , ... , c k ,
, ,
,
c1 Pi + c2 Pi + + c k Pi = 0 .
(2)
c1 = c2 = = c k = 0 ,
Pi , Pi , ... , Pi .
. Pi , Pi , ... , Pi

.
. Pi , Pi , ... , Pi .
c1 , c2 , ... , c k , , ,
(2). , , c1 0.
1

(2) Pi = 2 Pi 3 Pi k Pi .
1
1
1
P
P
c
. i = 2 i + + k Pi .
Pi
- c2 Pi k Pi = 0, Pi
1.
, .
1


1). , .

11

, P1 = 0,
1 P1 + 0 P2 + + 0 Pk = 0 (k n) ,
0. , P1 , P2 , , Pk
.
2). , ,
.
, , P1 = P2 .
1 P1 P2 + 0 P3 + 0 Pk = 0 ,
0. , P1 , P2 , , Pk .
3). , ,
.
P1 , P2 , , Pk (k < n) P1 , P2 , , Pn
. c1 , c2 ,..., c k ,
, , c1P1 + + ck Pk = 0 .
, c1P1 + + ck Pk + 0 Pk +1 + + 0 Pn = 0 ,
P1 , P2 , , Pn .
4). P1 , P2 , , Pn ,
.
, -
, , 3),
, .
a11
a1k
a12

a21
a2 k
a22
5). P1 = , P2 = ,, Pk =

a
am1
amk
m2

'
'
'
. P1 , P2 , , Pk ,

P1 , P2 , , Pk ,
, .
, P1 , P2 , , Pk
.
.
P1 , P2 , , Pk ,
P1' , P2' , , Pk'
.
, , P1' , P2' , , Pk'
m-s (s < m) ,
a11
a1k
a12


a21 ' a22
a2 k
'
'
,, Pk = .
P1 =
, P =
2


a
a
a
s
1
s
k
s
2

P1 , P2 , , Pk . ,
c1 , c2 ,..., c k , , ,
12

c1 P1 + + ck Pk = 0 .

c1a11 + c2 a12 + + ck a1k = 0


c a + c a + +c a = 0
1 21
2 22
k 2k
.

c1am1 + c2 am 2 + + ck amk = 0

, s

a11
a1k
a12


a21
a2 k
a22
c1
+ c2 + + ck
= 0,


a
a s1
as k
s
2

c1 , c 2 ,..., c k . ,

.
6). P1' , P2' , , Pk' ,
P1 , P2 , , Pk , ,
P1 , P2 , , Pk .
.
.
( ). ( ) A
( ) ,
.
. , ,
k A (
k k ).
k =

a11

ak1

a1 k

0.
a kk
Pj A

,

c1 , c 2 , ... , c k , Pj =c1 P1 + +ck Pk
a1 j

a2 j
=

a
mj

a11

a21
1 +

a
m
1

a 12

a 22
+

a m 2

+ k

a1k

a 2 k

a
mk



a1 j = c1a11 + c2 a12 + + ck a1k
a = c a + c a + + c a
2j
1 21
2 22
k 2k

amj = c1am1 + c2 am 2 + + ck amk

13

, , aij = c1ai1 + c2 ai 2 + + ck aik ,


i =1,2, , m , c1 , c 2 , ... , c k i .
k+1
a11

i =
ak 1
ai1

a1k

akk
aik

a1 j

akj
aij

i > k j > k, i k+1


, i = 0. i k j k,
,
, i = 0. ,

i = ai1 B1 + ai 2 B2 + + aik Bk + aij k = 0,

B1 , B2 , , Bk , k

i . ,
i

( i). aij ,

B1
B
B
ai1 2 ai 2 k aik
k
k
k
B1
B2
Bk
i =1,2, , m c1 = , c2 = , ck = i.
k
k
k
aij =

.
.
1) detA = 0 , ,
() A .
. A n det A = 0.
k < n, ,
.

, ,
A (,
). ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
, P1 = c2 P2 + + cn Pn . ,
, detA = det( P1 P2 Pn ) =
det(c2 P2 + + cn Pn P2 Pn ) = c2 det( P2 P2 Pn ) + c3 det( P3 P2 Pn ) + +
cn det( Pn P2 Pn ) = 0 ,
.
14

2). det A 0 ,
() A .
.
3). () A, ,
.
. k
k A mn
k =

a11

a1 k

ak1

a kk

0.

, 2,

a11 a12
a1k

a 21 a22
a2 k
,
,,

a a
a
k1 k 2
kk

a11 a12
a1k

a21 a22
a 2 k
, ,,

am1 a
amk

m2

, . ,

6) ,

A .
4). A
().
.
. A , Rg A = 0
.
0, Rg A = k (k > 0). A
k, k , ,
3). , k+1
A . B
m(k+1). k+1
A 0. ,
B k+1
. ,
,
,
B (, ,
). , B .
,
k = Rg A ( , k+1 ,
, ).
,
.
15



A:
1) ;
2) , ;
3) () ().
. ,
, B A
, r ( A ) = r ( B ) .
. 1).
, ,
.
2). B A i-
t 0 r(A) = k. , B,
i- , A,
B, i- ,
A t. , k
B, A,
, k+1 B,
k+1 A, . , r(B)= k =
r(A).
3). B A i- j r(A) = k. k+1 B, j , A,
. k+1 B, i- j-
, .
( j-
i ),
k+1 A .
k+1 B, j- , i- ,
k+1 A
. , k+1 B
0 r(B) k = r(A).
C B i
(-1). A C i
j- i (-1). ,
, r(A) r(C) = r(B). ,
r(B) r(A) r(A) r(B)
, r(A) = r(B).

. ,

16

B=

b11

0
0

b12

b1k

b22

b2 k

bkk

()

b1n

b2 n

,
bkn
0

bii 0 i = 1,2,...,k; bij = 0 i > j


i > k. , r(B) = k, B
. , k B,
k ,
b11b22 bkk 0 ;
k+1 , , 0 (,
k = n, ).
. A mn

.
. A 0, aij 0 .
i- , j- ,
aij b11 = aij
. i- (i = 2,3, ,m)
a

i1
, b .
11

b11

0
A 1 =

b12
c22

cm 2

b1n

c2 n
.

cmn

cij (i 2, j 2) A 1 ,
. cij 0 , , i , j- A 1 , cij
c22 b22 = ij ( c22 0 ,
b22 = 22 ). i- (i = 3, ,m)

i2
, b .
22

b11

0
A2 = 0

b12
b22
0

17

b13
b23
c33

cm 3

b1n

b2 n
c3n .

cmn

, B,
A .
.
A=
1

0
0

0
1

0
0

1
2

2
2

10

1
2

3
3

1
3

0
0

0
2

2
.
1

0
2

: 1)
; 2) ; 3)
, -2, 3; 4)
5
; 5) , -3,
. , ,
,
. , r(A)
= 3.
1
1.

1) ( AT ) T = A; 2) ( cA)T = c( A)T ; 3) ( A + B )T = AT + BT ; 4) ( AB)T = BT AT .
2.
( AB ) 1 = B 1 A1.
3.
( AT ) 1 = ( A1 ) T .
4. , ,
AB
A, AB
B.
5. , ,
.
6. , ,

, r(AB) r(A) r(AB) r(B).

18

.
C, k ,
n AB.
7. C n ,
C =

0
,
B

A k,

n k; ij = 0, i > k j k ; ij = 0, i k
, det(C) = det(A) det(B).
. , C
A

B1 =
0

0
,
B

j >k

A1 =

n k k.

8.
, C .
2.


a11 x1 + a12 x 2 + + a1n x n
a x + a x + + a x
21 1
22 2
2n n

a m1 x1 + a m 2 x 2 + + a mn x n
( i = 1,2,...,m; j = 1,2, ...,n ), bk

=
=

b1
b2
,

= bm

(3)

aij
( k = 1,2, ...,m ) -
, m
n x1 , , x n .
a ij ( i = 1,2,...,m; j = 1,2, ...,n ) ,
bk ( k = 1,2, ...,m ) - (3).
a11

a 21
=

a m1

a12
a 22

a m2

a1n

a 2n

a mn

a11

a 21
=

a m1

a12
a 22

a m2

a1n
a2n

a mn

b1

b2
,

bm

,
(

).

x1
b1


b2
x2
X = B = , (3)



xn
bm

, ,
X = B.
19

(4)

(3) b1 = b2 = = bm = 0 ,

a11 x1 + a12 x 2 + + a1n x n = 0


a x + a x + + a x = 0
21 1
22 2
2n n

a m1 x1 + a m2 x 2 + + a mn x n = 0

(5)

. 1 , 2 , ... , n
(3),
x1 , , x n
,
a11 1 + a12 2 + + a1n n = b1
a + a + + a = b
21 1
22 2
2n n
2

a m1 1 + a m2 2 + + a mn n = bm

(6)


:
1) 1 , 2 , ... , n (5), ,
1 , 2 , ... , n ;
2) 1 , 2 , ... , n 1 , 2 , ... , n
(5), 1 + 1 , 2 + 2 , ..., n + n ;
3) (5) ,
( ) x1 = x 2 = = xn = 0 ;
4) 1) , (5)
() (5) ;
5) 1 , 2 , ... , n (5), 1 , 2 ,..., n
(3), 1 + 1 , 2 + 2 , ..., n + n
(3);
6) 1 , 2 , ... , n 1 , 2 , ... , n
(3), 1 - 1 , 2 - 2 , ..., n - n
(5).
,
.
6). , 1 , 2 , ... , n
(3) (6),
1 , 2 , ... , n -- (3),

a111 +
a +
21 1

am1 1 +

a12 2 +
a22 2 +

am 2 2 +

20

+a1n n =
+a2 n n =

b1
b2

+amn n = bm

(6*)

(6) (6*) ( (6)


(6*) . . .), m
a11 (1 1 )+
a ( )+
21 1
1

am1 (1 1 )+

a12 (2 2 ) +

+a1n (n n ) =

a22 (2 2 )+ +a2 n (n n ) = 0

am 2 (2 2 )+ +amn (n n ) = 0.

(6**)

(6**) , 1 - 1
, 2 - 2 , ..., n - n (5).
n n ( m = n )
1. .

(5) ,
. A
; det A

( ), = det A.
1. (5)
( ) = 0.
. (5) 1 , 2 ,
... , n ( i ).

a 11

a 21
1 + 2


a n1

a 12

a 22
+ + n


a n 2

a 1n

a 2n


a n n

(7)

, A (5)
. , det A = = 0.
= 0.
, ,
1 , 2 , ... , n , , ,
(7). , 1 , 2 , ... , n
(5).
. (5)
0.
2. .
(3) m = n.

j ,
j - ,

21

a11
a 21

a n1

a12
a 22

an 2

a1n
a2n

an n

a11
a 21

a n1

a1 j 1
a 2 j 1

a n j 1

b1
b2

bn

, j =

a1 j +1
a 2 j +1

a n j +1

a1n
a2n

an n

b
k =1

Ak j ,

Ak j

j - .
2 ( ). (3)
0.
: x1 =

, x2 = 2 , , xn = n .

. (3) 1
, 2 , ... , n . = 0, (5),
, 1
, 2 , ... , n . , 5) , 1
+ 1 , 2 + 2 , ..., n + n (3),
1 , 2 , ... , n .
. , = 0 ,
0.
0. ,
1 2

,
, , n (3). i

, ai1 1 + ai 2 2 + + ai n n =

n
n
1 n
1 n
1 n
a

=
a
b
A
=
b
ij j
k ai j Ak j =
ij k
k j
j =1
k =1 j =1
j =1
k =1

1 n
bk k i = bi ,
k =1
n

a
j =1

ij

, k = i
0, k i

Ak j =

1, k = i
ki =
.
0, k i

i -

k -
.
. (3)
1 , 2 , ... , n 1 , 2 , ... , n . , 6)
, 1 - 1 , 2 - 2 , ..., n - n
(5)
. ,
1, 1 - 1 = 0, 2 - 2 = 0, ..., n - n = 0, 1 = 1 ,
2 = 2 , ..., n = n .
.

22

x1 2 x 2 + x 3 = 4

3x1 + 2 x 2 + 5x 3 = 2 .
4 x 7 x 5x = 5
2
3
1

= 3
4

2
7

5
5

= -10 - 40 - 21 - 8

-30 +35 = - 74 0. ,
. 1 , 2 , 3 .
1 =

4
2

2
2

1
5

= 40 + 50 - 14 + 10 - 20 - 140 = - 74,

10 - 80 - 15 - 8 - 60 + 25 = - 148,
= 74. , x1 =

3 = 3
4

2
7

2
5

1
2 = 3
4

4
2
5

1
5
5

=-

= - 10 - 16 + 84 +32 -30 +14

1 74

148
74
=
= 1, x 2 = 2 =
= 2, x 3 = 3 =
= 1
74

74
74

.
3. .
(3) = det A 0, A
A 1 . (4) A 1 ,
A 1 AX = A 1 B ( A 1 A = E , EX = X )
X = A 1 B . , A 1
.
.

2 x1 2 x 2 + 3 x 3 = 4
3
2 2

3x1 + 2 x 2 4 x 3 = 11. . A = 3 2 4 ,

x x + 6 x = 11
1 1 6
3
1 2

det A = 24 + 8 - 9 - 6 +36 - 8 = 45. A 1 .


A11 = 8,

A21 = 9,

A31 = 2,

A12 = 22,

A22 = 9,

A13 = 5,

A23 = 0,

A32 = 17. , A 1 =
A33 = 10.

x1
8

1
1
x 2 = X = A B = 45 22


5
x3
1

0 .

2

9
9
0

17

10

8
1
22
45

9
9
0

17 ,

10

4
45

1
11 = 45 0 =

11
90

, x1 = 1, x2 = 0, x3 = 2

.

1. - .
m n (3).
.

23

. (3)
, r(A) = r( A ). ,
k = r(A) = r( A ), :
) (3) k = n (n -
);
) (3) k < n.
. (3) ,
1 , 2 , ... , n , (6)
a 11

a 21
1 +

a m 1

a 12

a 22
+

a m 2

+ n

a1n

a 2n

a m n

b1

b2
= .


bm

(8)

(8) , (n +1) -
A A
. ,
A A , r(A) = r( A ).
r(A) = r( A ) = k. ,
k ( k n )
A . , ,
( n+1 -
) k A,
,
A
( A, ,
). , 1 , 2 , ... , n ,
(8), (6). ,
(3) .
) k = n, A n
. , ,
A . 1 , 2 , ... , n 1 , 2
, ... , n (3). 1 - 1 , 2 2 , ..., n - n (5),

a11 ( 1 1 ) + a12 ( 2 2 ) +
a ( ) + a ( ) +
21 1
1
22
2
2

a m1 ( 1 1 ) + a m2 ( 2 2 ) +

24

+ a1n ( n n ) =

+ a 2 n ( n n ) =

+ a mn ( n n ) =

a 11

a 21
( 1 - 1 ) +

a m 1

( 2 - 2

a 12

a 22
) +

a m 2

+ ( n - n

a1n

a 2n
)

a m n

0
,

1 - 1 = 0, 2 - 2 = 0, ..., n - n = 0
1 = 1 , 2 = 2 , ..., n = n (
). , (3) .
) k < n k A (
A ) ,
, A,
k =

a11

a1 k

ak1

a kk

0.

, A
k k
. , (3),
k+1- , k , 1
, 2 , ... , n , k ,
. k
(3)
a11 x1 + + a1k x k = b1 a1k +1 x k +1 a1n x n

a x ++a x =b a
kk k
k
k k +1 x k +1 a k n x n .
k1 1

(9)

x1 , x 2 , , x k ,
, ,
x k +1 , x k + 2 , , x n . ,
(9)
x1 , x2 , , x k
x1 = p1 + r1 k +1 x k +1 + + r1n x n


x = p +r
k
k k +1 x k +1 + + rk n x n .
k

(10)

x k +1 , x k +2 , , x n
C1 , C2 , , Cn k x1 , x2 , , x k
(10), (3)

x1 = p1 + r1 k +1C1 + + r1 n Cn k

x k = pk + rk k +1C1 + + rk n Cn k
x k +1 = C1
x k + 2 = C2

x n = Cn k .

25

) )
.
x1 2 x 2 + x 3 x 4 = 3
2x + x +
x4 = 1

1
2
.
.
x1 7 x2 + 3x 3 4 x 4 = 10
3x1 + 4 x2 x 3 + 3x4 = 5


:
A

2
1

1 1

4 10

3 5

0
0

10

3 7
3 7

6 14

0
0

3 7
= B.
0 0

0 0

: 1)
, - 2;
; ,
- 3; 2) ;
, - 2. , B B
. , r(A) = r( A ) = 2
. 2 = k < n = 4,
.
2. .
.
.
1) A (3)
,

x1 x 2
a11 a12

a 21 a 22
A=

a m1 a m 2

xn

a1n
a2n

a mn

b1

b2
.

bm

2) A
A ( )

B . , 1), 2), 3)
A
(3):

;
, 0,
(3) ;

. , B , A
26

, ,
.
3) : ) B
, , n ,
, ,
, . r(A) r( A ) ;
) B

b11 b12

0 b22

0
0
0
0

b1k

b1n

b2 k

b2 n


bkk

bkn

d1

d2

,
dk
0

(11)

bij = 0
i> j
bii 0 , i = 1,2,..., k ,

i > k (i = 1,2,..., m; j = 1,2,..., n ) ; d i = 0 i > k . r(A) = r(B) = k

<

n;

k < n. , - ,
. , ,
B A .
k, ,
k =

b11
0

b12
b22

b1k
b2 k

bkk

bkk x k

= b11 b22 bkk 0

, x1 , x2 , , x k - . k

B,

+ bk k +1 x k +1 + + bkn x n = d k , x k
B

x k +1 , x k +2 , , x n x k = d k

bk k +1
bkk

x k +1

bkn
xn .
bkk

, (k - 1) -

x k 1 .
, , , x1 .
x k +1 = C1 , x k +2 = C2 , , x n = Cn k ,
x1 = p1 + r1 k +1C1 + + r1 n Cn k

x k = p k + rk k +1C1 + + rk n Cn k

(3) x k +1 = C1
x =C
2
k +2

x =C .
n k
n
C1 , C2 , , Cn k .

(11), k = n,

27

b11

0
0

b12

b1n

b22

b2 n

bnn

d1

d2

dn
0

,
: n -

bn n x n = d n

xn =

dn
bn n

; (n - 1)-

bn 1 n 1 x n 1 +bn 1 n x n = d n 1

x n 1 , ,
x1 b11 x1 + b12 x 2 + + b1n x n = d1 .
. ,
( m = n ), B ,

b11

B =
0
0

b12
b22

b1n
b2 n

0
0


bn 1n
bnn

d1

d2
.

d n =1
dn

( bii 0 )

. n : i
n ,

bi n
bn n

, i =1,2, , n 1.

(n-1)- , i (n1) ,

bi n 1
bn 1 n 1

b11

0
, D =
0

0
b22

0
0

, i =1,2, , n 2.

0
0

0
bnn

2
. i

n 1

cn

bii 0 ,
, ,
1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 0
0 0 1

p1

p2
,

pn 1
pn

x1 = p1 , x2 = p2 , , xn = pn .

.
28

x2 2 x3 + x4 = 2
2 x x + x x = 1
1 2
3
4
.

3 x1 + 2 x 2 3 x 3 + x 4 = 5
x1 x 2 x 3 + 3x 4 = 3

.
A

0
0

2
3

1
1

15

1 1

1 5

3 3
1

3
1

7 7
0

0
27 31

8 9
0
3

2
3

15

1 1

1 5

1 2
3

3
1

7 7
0

0
8 9

27 31
0
3

0
0

7 7

8 4

1 2
3

7 7
.
8 9

3 4
3

,
,
x4 =

.
5x 3 + 8 x 4 = 9
1
;
3
4
x2 = ;
3
x3 =

4
3

( 3x 4 = 4 ),

5x 3 = 9 8 x 4 = 9 8

4
5
= ,
3
3

x 2 + 3x3 7 x4 = 7

x 3 3x 4 = 3 +

4 1
4 2
+ 3 = .
3 3
3 3

x1 =

x1 = 3 + x 2 +

2
4
1
4
, x2 = , x3 = , x4 =
3
3
3
3

.
,
:
4
1 4 42+4 6
2 4 1 4 4 4 + 1 4 3
2
4
2 + =
= = 2, 2 + =
=
= 1, 3 + 2
3
3 3
3
3
3 3 3 3
3
3
3
3

1 4 6 + 8 3 + 4 15
2 4 1
4 2 4 1 + 12 9
3 + =
=
= 5,
+ 3 =
= = 3.
3 3
3
3
3 3 3
3
3
3

0
0

0
0

3
3

0
0

0
0

0
0

3
0

0
3

1 1

0 3

0 0

0 0

2
3 0 0

4
0 3 0

1
0 0 3

4
0 0 0

7 7
8 9

3 4
3

1
9

1
1

7
0

15 0 5
0

0
3 4
0
0 2
1 0 0 0

0 4
0 1 0 0

0 1
0 0 1 0

3 4
0 0 0 1
0
0

1
3
0
0

1 0
9 0
3
0

3
.
1 3

4 3

2
4

0
3


: 1) ; 2)
29

, 3, , 7;
3) , 3, ,
8.
5. : 1) ,
3, ; 2)
, 3.
, 3.

x1 =

2
4
1
4
, x2 = , x3 = , x4 = .
3
3
3
3

.
x 4 = 2
x1 2 x 2 + 3 x 3
2 x + x
x3 + 2 x4 = 3
1
2

x1 7 x 2 + 10 x 3 5x 4 = 9

x1 + 6 x 2 8 x 3 + 6 x 4 = 10

:
=

0
0

2
1

11

10

12

0
0

10

0
0

0
2

7
= B.
4

11

12

r(A) = r( A ) =

3 < 4, .

, B
x 3 = 4 3x 4 . 5x 2 = 7 +
7 x 3 4 x 4 = 7 + 7 (4 3x 4 ) 4 x 4 = 35 25x 4 x 2 = 7 5x 4 .
x1 = 2 + 2 x2 3x3 + x4 = 2 + 2 (7 5 x4 ) 3 (4 3x4 ) + x4 = 0 .
x1 = 0
x = 7 5C

x 4 = C, 2
, C x3 = 4 3C
x4 = C

.
.
x2 +
x4 =
0
x1
2 x + x 2 x x = 2
1
2
3
4

x1 + 2 x 2 + 3x 3 + 5x 4 = 7

x 3 + 6 x 4 = 3.
3 x1 + x 2 +

30

2
1

0
0

0
0

11

21

3
0

7
.
23

0
0

0
1

0
0

11

21

11

21

3
0

23

25

0 = -2, . ,
.
3. .
A n detA 0.
A A1 = E , n

A pi = ei ,
(12)
i =1,2, , n , pi i A1 , ei i
E . , pi
A1 (12)
( | ei ). (12)
, detA 0.

( | pi ). ,
, (12),
ei (12)
pi A1 . p1 , p2 , , pn
, ( |
ei ) ( | pi ) A i.
( | e1 e2 en ) = ( | E)


(E | p1 , p2 , , pn ) = ( E | A1 ).
.
2

A = 1
3

1
3
2

4 .
0

( | E)

31

1
3

1
3

0
4

1
0

0
1

0
1

0
0

2
3

2 1

0 7
0 0

0
0

11 / 4

1/ 4

0
0

0
1

1
12
4
11

0
0
1

8 .
7

0
0

1
7

0
8

1
1

0
2

11 12

21

11

2 .
7 / 4

0
2

0 0
0
1

0
14

0 14 0
0
1 7

1
7

0
8

1
1

0
2

11

28

21

11

= 3
11 4

0
7

14

0 14
1 7

0
0
14

2 =
7 4

, 3,
, 2, .
, 7,
, 11.
, 2.
, 7,
. 14,
7, 4.
. ,
(3) m = n
= 0. : ) (3)
= 0, 1 , 2 , , n
; ) (3)
= 0, 1 , 2 , , n .
3.
x1

x2
x = n

xn

.
n.
. ,
x (
xi 0, i = 1,2, , n ) ,
Ax = x ,
(13)
x 0 A,
.

32


. ,
(13) : Ax x = 0 Ax E x = 0 ( E x =
x )
( A E) x = 0,
(14)
n. (14)

a12 x 2 +
+
a1n x n = 0
(a11 ) x1 +
a x +
(a 22 ) x 2 + +
a 2n x n = 0
21 1

a n1 x1 +
an2 x2 +
+ (a n n ) xn = 0
a11 a12 a1n
1 0

0 1
a 21 a 22 a 2 n
A E =

0 0
a n1 a n 2 a nn
a12

a1n
a11

a 22
a2n
a 21
. ,

a n2
an n
a n1

(15)
0

0
=

(15) , ,
. , A
,
det (A - E) = 0.
(16)
(16), n,
.
,
, (16),
x - ,
, , x
(15) .
.
=

1
4
1

0 .

1
0
3 4
0
2
1
2

det (A - E) =
= (2 )[ ( 4 ) + 3 ] = ( 2 )( 2 4 + 3 ) = 0.

, 1 = 2, 2 = 3, 3 = 1
.

. 1) 1 = 2 (15)

33

2 x1 + x 2 = 0

3x1 + 2 x 2 = 0
2 x + x = 0
1
2

( = 2).

2
1

0
0

1
0

0
0

0 .

: ; ,
2, , 3.
x 2 = 0, x1 = 0 , x 3
. x 3 = t ,
, 1 = 2,
0
0


x = 0 = t 0 ,


t
1

t - . 2) 2 = 3

3 x1 + x2 = 0

(15) 3 x1 + x2 = 0
.
2 x + x x = 0
1
2
3

1
1
1

0
0
1

1
1
1

0
1
0

1
1
0

0
3
0

0 .

x 2 = 3x 3 , ,
3x1 = x 2 = 3x 3 x 2 = 3x 3 , x1 = x 3 . , ,
,

t
1


x = 3t = t 3 ,


t
1

t = x 3 - . 3) 3 = 1 (14)
x1 + x 2 = 0

3x1 + 3x2 = 0 ,
2 x + x + x = 0
1
2
3

1
0

0
0

1
1
0

0
1

0 .

1
3

0
0

x 2 = x 3 , x1 = x 2 .

t
1


x = t = t 1 ,


t
1

t -

.
1. , ,
A, . ,
x, y , ,
x y.

34

2. ,
. , detA 0 -
A 0.
3. , - 1/ A1 (detA 0).
4. , A
AT c.
5. , ,
, .
6. A ,
x 0 xT A x > 0 .
,
.

1. :
) ,
; )
.
1

1)

2
0

1
0

2
1

1
1

2)

5)

3
2

0
2

1
1

1
1

9)

, 8)
5

5
2

4
7

2
1

1
17

13

, 10)

3)

6)

4
2

2
1

1
1

1
4

4)

7)

1
3

0
6

3
1

2
1

2. A : )
; )
( ).
2
1
1

1) = 0 1 1 ,
2
1
2

2 2
3

1
3 ,
1
1 2 1

2)

= 1
0

1
2
3

1 ,
4

35

3)

= 0
4

0
1
0

1 ,
2

4) =

3
2 1

5) = 1 0 2 , 6)
0
3
1

4 3 1

1 1 2 ,
0 1 2

2 5 1

9) = 2 3 1 , 10)
1 0 2

= 4
2

0 ,
2

2
1
1

= 1
3

1
1
1

7)

= 1
2

3
1
1

1 ,
2

8) =

1 .
2

3. .
1
1
2
1

1 ; 2) XA E = B, A = 0
2
1 ,
1) X 3AX = E,
3
3 1
0
1

2
2
0
4 1 0
27 12

B = 3 1 1; 3) AX = B, A = 1 2 1 , B = 1 6 ; 4) AX
2
3
20
0
3
0
2
6

1
0
1 0
5

2X = B, A = 2 1 2 , B = 2 3 ; 5) 2X + XA = B, A =
3
8
1
4
10

0
3
2
1
4
0

1
7
11
2 , B =
1 1
19 7 5
; 6) XA = B, A = 1 3 2 , B =

0
4 1
2 1
3

1 0 1

4 1 2
1 3 6

1 , B =
11 4 5 ; 7) XA + 2X = B, A = 2 3
4 11 6
; 8) 3X

0 1

0
3
2 1
5
2AX = B, A = 3 1 , B = 3 11 7 ; 9) 3XA + X = B, A =

A = 2
0

3
2

0
1
1

0
10

1 ,
1

B=

23

27

2
5

0
1

5
;
15

10) XA + X = B, A =

2
,
3

B=

14

10 .
2

4. .
1) A =

6
5

1 1
3

0
0
2
, 2)
1 2
3

4
3 3

1 3

2
0
, 5) A =
1
2

3
1

3
4
1 2

1
1 2
0
A = 3 1 12 4 , 3)

1
2
0
5

1
2

3
2
2

, 6) A =
1
0
1
3

2
1
2
4

36

0
A = 1

2
4

0
3
1
1

0
2

2
1
3
0
2
2
1
3

1
,
2

2
,
3

4) A

7) A

0
3

10) A =

2
, 8) A
1 12
4

2
0
5

2 3
1
0

2
2 1 2
.
3
2
4
2

5
3
3
1

2
1

3
1

3
4

2
1

1
2

3
2

3
1

5
,
8

9) A =

3
2

2
0

2
0

3
1

3
1

2
,
1

5. ()
.
5
3
1
2
5
2

2
1
4
0
1
0
1) a 1 = 3 , a 2 = 4 , a 3 = 2 , a 4 = 7 , a 5 = 16 ; 2) a 1 = 1 , a

4
2
1
3
2
3

3
0
3
6
6
2

4
7
4
1
2
3
, a 3 = 1 , a 4 = 2 , a 5 = 4 ; 3) a 1 = 3 , a 2 = 1 , a 3 =
2 =
2

2
1
2
4
1
4

1
3
1
2
5
3
1


4
5
0
2
3
0
4
2 , a 4 = 1 , a 5 = 4 ; 4) a 1 = 3 , a 2 = 2 , a 3 = 2 , a 4 = 3


2
2
4
1
1
1
6


5
3
2
5

4
3

17
19
24

, a 5 = 2 ; 5) a 1 = 4 , a 2 = 4 , a 3 = 2 , a 4 = 7 , a 5 = 14 ; 6)

3
0
16
14
15
6

1
3
2
2
5
1

2
2
4
1
1
3
a 1 = 5 , a 2 = 4 , a 3 = 5 , a 4 = 4 , a 5 = 1 ; 7) a 1 = 2 , a 2 =

1
0
1
1
3
4

2
1
2
1
5
3

1
4
0
3
2
1
4 , a 3 = 3 , a 4 = 5 , a 5 = 1 ; 8) a 1 = 1 , a 2 = 2 , a 3 =

1
2
3
5
4
2

3
4
5
6
2
1

0
3
4
2
3
4
2 , a 4 = 3 , a 5 = 3 ; 9) a 1 = 3 , a 2 = 4 , a 3 = 4 , a 4 =

1
2
2
5
3
1

37

5
2 ,

a5=

2
1 ;

10) a 1 =

2
0 ,

a2 =

3

1
5 ,

3

a3=

1

4
2 ,

1

a4 =

6
4 ,

a5=

4
1 ;

6. : )
; )
.
5 x1 + 2 x2 + x3 = 4 7 x1 + x2 x3 = 3

= 3 2)
2 x2 3 x3 = 6
1) x1 + x2
x + 3x + x = 2, 2 x + x + x = 2,
2
3
3
1
1 2

3)

x1 3 x2 + x3 = 1

2 x1 + x2 2 x3 = 3
3 x x x = 0,
2
3
1

4)

x1 2 x2 x3 = 3
x1 + 2 x2 x3 = 2 2 x1 2 x2 x3 = 3
x1 + 2 x2 x3 = 1

3x1 + x2 + 2 x3 = 9 5) 3 x1 + 4 x3 = 3 6) x1 + 3x2 + 2 x3 = 9 7) x1 + x2 2 x3 = 2 8)
x x + x = 2,
2 x + x 2 x = 0, 4 x x + 3x = 2, x 2 x + x = 2,
2
3
3
3
2
3
1
1 2
1 2
1
3 x1 x2 x3 = 3
x1 x2 + 2 x3 = 1
x1 2 x2 x3 = 3

x1 + 4 x2 + 2 x3 = 0 9) x1 + 3 x2 + 4 x3 = 2 10) 3x1 + x2 + 2 x3 = 9

2 x x x = 4,
x x + x = 2,
2 x1 x2 = 2,
1
2
3
2
3

7. .
4 x1 2 x2 + x3 + 12 x4 = 5 3 x1 + x2 x3 + 2 x4 = 10
3x1 + 2 x2 4 x3 x4 = 14
2 x + 3x x + 5 x = 6
2 x 3x + x + 9 x = 0
x +x +x
=2

1
1 2
1
2
3
4
2
3
4
3
1)
2)
3)
x1 + 5 x3 13 x4 = 15
x1 + 4 x2 2 x3 9 x4 = 6 5 x1 6 x2 2 x3 + x4 = 4
5 x1 2 x2 4 x3 + 25 x4 = 10 4 x1 + 5 x2 3 x3 5 x4 = 20 2 x1 3x2 + 5 x3 = 12
x1 + 2 x2 x3 = 0
x1 x2 + 2 x3 = 2
6 x1 + 4 x2 x3 3 x4 = 4
4 x x + 3 x = 2
3x + x 3x = 1
2 x + 3x + 4 x + 7 x = 0
1 2
1 2

3
3
1
2
3
4
4)
5)
6)

3
x
+
x
+
x
=
1

x
+
2
x

x
=
0

3
x

4
x
+
5
x
+
x
1
2
3
2
3
1
2
3
4 =1

4 x1 3x2 + x3 = 2
5 x1 + 20 x2 + 10 x3 + 24 x4 = 5
x1 + 4 x2 x3 = 0
x1 + 2 x2 x3 + x4 = 0
x1 x2 + 2 x3 x4 = 0
x1 x2 + x3 + 2 x4 = 2
2 x + x + x 3x = 0
3x + x
x + 2 x 3x = 3
+ 4 x4 = 3
1 2 3
1 2

4
1
2
4
7)
8)
9)
x1 + 3 x3 + 2 x4 = 0
x1 + x2 + x3 x4 = 4
2 x1 + 4 x2 x3 + x4 = 1
3 x1 + 5 x2 + 2 x3 + x4 = 0
x1 + 3x2 x3
3x1 + 4 x2 + x3 + 2 x4 = 2
=3
3 x1 + x2 3 x3 + 8 x4 = 5
2 x 3 x 2 x + 9 x = 7
1
2
3
4
10)
x1 4 x2 + x3 + x4 = 2
4 x1 + 5 x2 4 x3 + 7 x4 = 3

8. n ,
m . aij - i
38

j ; b j
- j ; xi - i
a11

a 21
, . A =

a m1

, b =

x =

x1

x2


x
n

b1

b2


b
m

a12
a 22

a m2

a1n

a 2n

a mn

,
. , x m
n
a11 x1 + a12 x 2 + + a1n x n = b1
a x + a x + + a x = b
21 1
22 2
2n n
2

a m1 x1 + a m2 x 2 + + a mn x n = bm

Ax = b.
, A
x.
1) A =

b=

25

31
30 ;

21

6) A =
,

2
4

3
2

2
,b
1 3

1 4

4
4) A = 5
1
2

4
5

2
1
3
1

4
,
3

25

30
= 21 ; 2) A

18

3 2 2

1 5 1
6 1 3 , b

2 4 4
4 3 2

b=

22

17
19 ;

13

7) A =

4 3

1 1
5 2

2 1

26

33
39
;
23
24

0

3
5

3
0

39

5
,
3

5) A =

1
4
1

2
3
1

2
4

2
1

17
3

14
5
= 17 ; 3) A = 0

13
3

3 2 4 1

2 3 3 2
5 1 1 3

, b =
4
5
5
2

1 6 7 5

0
3,

0
1

b=

9

20
13
;
13
12

8) A =

2
,
4 7

1 4

27

29
32
;
45
55

4
3

2
4

3
5
2
1

1
5

b=

22

25
23 ;

7

9) A =

0
3

0
4
1
5

6
,
3

b=

17

22
22 ;

42

10) A =

4
2

2
3
3
4

1
,
2

b=

25

20
16 ;

17

9.
.
7
6 6
1
7
0 1
1
2

1
0

1
2
1

4
5 , 4) A
, 2) A =
, 3) A =
1) A =
1
2 4 7
5
1
2
1
0

1
1
5
6

8
1
1

1
5

1
4
3
4
3
2
3

, 5) A =
, 6) A =
, 7) A
1

6 6 2
7 2 3

1
3

1 2
1

2
4 ,
6
6
1
7

1
1
1
1
2
0 1 0
0

8) A = 0 1 1 , 9) A = 0 0 1 , 10) A = 1 0 1 , 11) A
5
0 0 3
7
5
3
1 2

0
3 3
1
0
0 1
1
3

1 , 12) A = 2 6 13 , 13) A = 4 1
0 .
0 0
1 1 1
1 4 8
4
8 2

=
=

1. . . , , , 1975.
2. . . , , , 1971.
3. . . , , ., ,
1970.
4. . . , ,
, 1971.
5. . . ,
, , 1976.

1. 3
, ..3 5
, ..5 8
.9- 10
40

10
,
..10 13
..13 -16
16 -17

17 18
1 18 -19
2. .19
19 -20
n n . .21-24
. -
..24-32

32
2..33
3. . ... .33
336
.36
.. 43

41

020815 20.09.93

60841/16 .-. . 2,75
300 .
-
. . 173003,
, . . -, 41.

42

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