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2-

2013

621.37(075)
32.81473
25
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..., ..

. .
. . 2- ., .
. .: , 2013. 268 .
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2 . , .
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.

ISBN 5-7417-0183-3

. ., 2013
-
( ), 2013


.......................................................................................................8
1. .........................9
1.1. ..........................................9
1.2. .........................................................................10
1.3. ................................................................................13
1.4. ......................................................................17
1.4.1. ............................ 18
1.4.2. ...................................19
1.5. ........................ 23
1.6. .......................................................................................................27
2. .................... 29
2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.
2.5.

..............29
..................................................................35
h- ........................... 40
........................................42
......................................................................................................43

3. .................................................44
3.1 ............................................................... 44
3.1.1. ......................... 44
3.1.2. .................... 46
3.1.3. ...................................................................48
3.1.4. ................................................................ 49
3.1.5. ...........................................50
3.1.6. = 0 .........................................50
3.2. .................................................... 51
3.2.1. ................................................51
3.2.2. ...............................................54
3.3. .................................................56
3.3.1. ...............57
3.3.2. ....................... 57
......................................................................................................58
3.4. .......................................................................................................59
4. ..................................61
4.1. .........................................61

4.1.1. ................................................................ 61
4.1.2. .................................................................. 62
4.1.3. ................................................................ 63
4.2. ............ 64
4.3.
()................................................................................................................ 68
4.4. ........................... 71
4.5. ....................................................................................................... 73
5. .................................... 75
5.1. , .......... 75
5.2. ............................................................................ 76
5.3. .......................................................... 83
5.4. ................................................................ 86
5.5. ....................................................................................................... 89
6. ............................................ 90
6.1. .......................................................... 92
6.1.1. ...................................................................... 92
6.2. () .......................... 96
6.4. .............................................. 99
6.4.1. ........................................................... 99
6.4.2. ..................................................... 100
6.5. - ................................................... 101
6.5.1. ..................................................................................... 101
6.5.2. ........................................................................... 102
6.6. ................ 103
6.6.1. ............................................. 103
6.7. R- ..................................................................................... 105
6.7.1. ............................................................................ 105
6.7.2. R- ....................................................... 109
6.8. ..................................................................................................... 112
7. .............................................. 114
7.1. ........................................................... 114
7.2. ............................. 115
7.3. .............................................. 118
7.4. . 123
7.5. ..................................................................................................... 124
8. LC- .. 126
8.1. ............................................... 126

8.2. .....128
8.2.1. .....................................135
8.3. ............................................................ 138
8.3.1. ................................................. 139
8.3.2. 140
8.4. .....................................................................................................143
9. ....................... 146
9.1. .............................................146
9.2. ...........................................................................149
9.2.1. . .......................... 149
9.2.2. ............................... 151
9.3. .............................. 153
9.3.1. ................. 153
9.3.2. .........................................155
9.3.3.
...................................................................................... 156
9.3.4. ...........159
9.4. ....................................................................................................161
10. ......................................163
10.1. . ...............163
10.1.1. ............................................................ 164
10.1.2. ..................................................................167
10.1.3. ........................................................... 168
10.1.4. ................................................. 169
10.1.5. .................................................................173
10.2. ..................................................................................................176
11.
..................................................................................................178
11.1 ...................................................... 178
11.1.1. .................................................................181
11.2. ......................................183
11.3. ...............................................187
11.4. ..................................................................................................191
12. .............................................................. 192
12.1. ........................................................... 192
12.1.1. .......................................192
12.1.2. ...............................................198
12.2. - .................... 199

12.3. .................................................................... 203


12.4. .............................................................. 204
12.5. ......................... 211
12.6. .................................................................................................. 213
13. .......................................... 216
13.1. .......................................... 216
13.2. ......... 220
13.3. ................................................................ 221
13.4. .................................................................................................. 222
14. ............................................................ 224
14.1. .......................................... 224
14.2. . .................... 226
14.2.1. .
.............................................................................................. 226
14.2.2. ....................... 228
14.3. . ................................................. 229
14.3.1. .................................................................. 229
14.3.2. ................................ 230
14.3.3. ................................................................................... 232
14.4. ................................................. 232
14.4.1. ............................................ 233
14.4.2. ................................................... 235
14.4.3. R- ........................................................... 235
14.4.4. L- ......................................................... 236
14.5. .................................................................................................. 237
15. ........... 238
15.1. ........ 238
15.2.
........................................................................................................................ 239
15.3. .. 242
15.3.1. ............................................. 243
15.3.2. .................................... 244
15.3.3. ............... 246
15.3.4.
.......................................................................... 246
15.3.5
....................................................................................................... 247
15.4. .................................................................................................. 248

16. ...................................249
16.1. ..................................................................250
16.2. ............................................................ 253
16.3. .............................................................. 255
16.4. ...................... 258
16.5. .259
16.6.
........................................................................................................................ 262
16.7. ....................... 264
16.8. ..................................................................................................266
............................................................................267



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1.
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S R K S R .

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1.2.

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n

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10

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n- U0,
U 0x, , . 1.2; -
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IK

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+

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+

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11


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I
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I
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12

h21 0.99.

( ) , . 1.4.
I,
4
3

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1
0

0.2

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u,

. 1.4.

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-,
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1.3.
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:
1) -;
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13

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14

( ),
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( , )
; ,
,

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,
.
U
+
()

()

()
+ U

()

. 1.6.

U ,
( ), U
, U .
.
( U),,
, , . , . 1.7.

15

, - .
. 1.7 1 iC(U)
(U > U ).
iC

(U , I )

iC
2

U (k+1)

U k

U=0
0

U k U (k+1)

. 1.7. () () -
n-. (1 ,
2 )

,
, - , .
( ),
, . - ( -)
( )
.
( ) .
2 . 1.7.

16

- -
(. 1.5), - - ( ); , ,
. . 1.8 -. .

. 1.8.
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) ,
)

1.4.

-
. 1.9.
i

R
U2
+

U1

. 1.9. ( )


u(t), n-
. u
u.
. -

17

. u R,
, u. , .
, ; R u, ,
u.
1.4.1.
. 1.9
( ):
.
( ), . 1.10. -, U () .

+U
R

u
()

. 1.10.

, :
u
n-,
; u ,
-

18

R, u.
(1.1) (1.2)
h
I 21 I .
(1.3)
1 h21
h21 1, I
I. , ,
, , . I I h21
I
h
(1.4)
h21 21 .
I
1 h21
1.4.2.

i fU (u ) i f I (u ) . ,
().
.
. 1.11 , -,
.
+U
R
i
u

i
u

. 1.11.
, ,

, -, ,
-.

19


i u
; U (. 1.12).
i,
U=0 U>0.5 B
40

30

I
20
10
0

0,2

0,4

0,6 U

u,

. 1.12.

- i (
) (
) u, i, (1h21)-
, u.
, - - (,
). , w
, U .
,
, . , U
U1 U2. U , , w, , .

20

u
, U ,
.. .
U
. , U
, (U > 0.5 ), i fU (u ) , , ,
i(u):
i 1 h21 i 1 h21 I0 exp u UT .

()
i u, I (. 1.13).
i

A2

A1

I1

I=0
0

U1

U2

. 1.13.

u,
i, I,
. ,
.

21

,
.
(u, i),
,
:
1 i u I;
2 i I = 0: i

I 0

I 0 .


.
U1 U2 . , .
dn/dx . i = I1 1 2 .
i , h21, I I, I i

u U

. -

, h21

u
h21 u h21 0 1 ,

h21(0) , U
, i = h21I

u
i I 0 1 ,
(1.5)

I(0) = h21(0)I. (1.5) , (, i) U .

22

h21
; , i f I u , I (.
1.14). U
.
I0 I = 0
,
.
.
i
I(0)= h21(0)I

I
I

. 1.14.

1.5.

(. 1.4) ,
. U 0.65 .
, . 1.15, R.
+U
R

. 1.15.

U I

U
I

23

( ,
.. u = 0) , :
I h21 I ,
U U I R.

, U

U ,
U
(1.6)
I h21 .
R
C , u .
, u
,
(. . 1.12); ,
.
U
(1.7)
I h21I h21 .
R

(. 1.16).
:
i f I u

(1.8)
.
u U i R

, (, i)
(1.8), U
arctg 1 R , .
(1.8)
, i. ,

u.

24

U
R

. 1.16.

I=0
U u

arctg 1 R

, . 1.15, h21.
(. 1.17) , I U R1 R2 .
, U. ( ).
+U
R

R1

i
i
i

U
R2

. 1.17.

,
(+U) (R1, R2).

25

. 1.17 ,
, . 1.18, :
R2
U U
,
R1 R2
R R1 R2

R1 R2
.
R1 R2

R1

R
U

R2

. 1.18.


U I R U I R .
, I h21 1 I ,
I

U U
.
R h21 1 R

,
I h21 I

h21 U U

R h21 1 R

(1.9)

U U I R R ,
,
I I h21 1 .
, I U,

26

h21, h21 1 R R ; I U U R .
U 0.65 , , , U = 0.25 . , ,
.
1.6.
+10

1.
R

R 2

R1 2
h21 = 100

+10

2.
R
200

h21 = 100

I R
. .
.
I
R
.
.

+10

3.
R
200

R 2

I.

h21 = 100

27

4.

+10
R
200

R 2


I.

h21 = 100
R 2.7

5.

+10
R1
20

R 2

R2
5.6

R 1


I
h21 = 50 h21 = 200.

28

2.
2.1.

, , , . , .

( u1)
, ,
i.
i u1.
, r1, u1 i.
i, , R, . u1 i i , : i = S1; S . , ,
. 2.1 ( ).
R
e

r1

. 2.1. ,

(
):
,
,

i
R

S1

r1
-

29

, i 1 h21 1 -
i, h21
:
(2.1)
h21 i i .
di i t

du u t du r di (. 2.2),
r

1
di
du i I

i
. 2.2.
i

-

tg 1 r

r . -
i I0 e

u
UT

1
u
UT

i I

UT
U
T .
i i I I

I 0
e
UT
= 300 K UT 26 ,
26[]
r []
,
I []

30

(2.2)

(2.3)


. i i,
(2.1),
U
(2.4)
r1 h21 1 r h21 1 T .
I
S
r h21 . ,
i h21 i h21

u1
h
1
21 u1 .
r1 h21 1 r

,
h21
1 1
(2.5)
,
h21 1 r r
h21 1 .
, : r1 S
n- .
, r1
S r h21 .

r1, r r1 (. 2.3).
r1
(. 2.3) . , , (),
r1, 1,
, ,
. r1
. 1 .
h21
, i
S

31

i (. . 1.13), r' (. 2.3).

u
)

r1
r1

u1

r'

Su1

r
1
u r1

r1

u1
i

r
Su1

. 2.3. :
)
;
) u i u

r' 1/tg,
,
.


.
,
/
i.
, ,
r1 (. 2.3).
r1 r1 r
i , -

32

r . 2.3 1 tg ,
.
r1 r
r1 r
. , , (x)
- .
, , .
.
. , dn/dx , ()
.
U, w (0) , (. 2.4,). U U i = I () , (x)
(. 2.4)
1
1
n 0 n 0 w w n 0 w .
2
2
w (0), :
w w n 0 n 0 .
(2.6)

,

i n 0 n 0 w w n 0 w

.
I
n 0 w

33

1 w w 1 w 1 w w ... ,
(2.6),
n 0
i
.
(2.7)
2
I
n 0

)
u(x)

u +u

u +u
u

U0
(x)
(0) +(0)
(0)

2(x)

0
i =0
1
r
1
r1

i =I
1(x)

ww w

r1
u1

Su1

. 2.4. r1 r: )
; ) U
; ) ()
; )

(0) U,
. (2.7) ,

34


,
.
,
, (2.7).
u
(. 2.4) (i = I; i = 0). (
, r1 r ), , r1,
i, r1 r1 .
u
i S u1 ,
r
r1
u .
r1
i
. , (2.7), , i
. ,
(2.4) (2.5),
r1 h21 r .
(. 2.3) - (-).
u1

2.2.
-
, ,
. , 1 1 , . 2.5.

35

r1

r1
u1 r1

1
Su1

. 2.5.


:
1 = 1 + 1 ,
1 = 1 + 1 .

,

n-. p-n
U ,
-- .

U:
c p n
C p n
,
(2.8)
U 0 U
U0 , p n
[1/2], .
(U > 0), (2.8)
,
pn 1 ,
,
(. . 1.2).
1 ;
1 , 1, , .

36


(U < 0) U U 0 .
1
C1
.
U
1 U
:

, .

,
-.
, ,
U
() . 2.6 1. U
(), 3 , , ,
( ).
, ,

, ;
. 2.6 2, dn/dx = 0

.
(),
. , -

37

,
R- . 2.7 .
1 (. . 2.5) 1
, .
()
R1
(0) +(0) 2
3
i

R2
C
(0)
)

1
w

0
()

U2

U1

(0) +(0)

(0)

I2
I1

1
)

w x

. 2.6.

u:
1 ;
2 ;
3

U
t
U /R1
t

. 2.7.
, ,

, ,
1 Q u ,
Q()
. , 1
.
, , ,

38

0, , Q() . 2.6:
1
Q
n 0 w.
2

n 0 dn 0
C1

.
u
du u U
() (0, w), n(0) = w(dn/dx), dn/dx
, , ,
I. , 1 I = U,
i

u U

I . -

1 1 I ,
1 , [/],
w.
, , 1 (. . 2.5) 1 , ,

. ,

1 Q u ,
Q() .
, , Q . 2.8.
, , ,

39


, .
()
(0)
1

w2

w1

. 2.8.

u:
1 ;
2

,
Q() Q(),
Q
Q = .
,
1
1

1 .

1 1

1 ,

1 1 , 1 1 .
2.3. h-

.
.

- ( 1 . 2.3),
.
, , h-. 10
20 (. 2.9)
; , .

40

i1 u2,
(2.9)
u1 h11 i1 h12 u2 ,
(2.10)
i2 h21 i1 h22 u2 .
i2

i1
1

u1

u2

. 2.9.

, h-, . 2.10.
i
i

(h22)1
h
11
h21i
u
u

h12u

. 2.10.
h-

u h11 i h12 u ,
i h21 i h22 u .

h-
:
h11 ( u = 0);

41

h12 (
) ( i = 0);
h21
( u = 0);
h22 (, ) ( i = 0).
,
. 2.3 2.10, :

h11 r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 , h21 S r1 ,
h12

r1
,
r1

h22

S r1 1
.
r1
r

(2.11)

2.4.
, , .
,
10...
100 , , . , ,
(. 2.11). ic,
: i = S, S
. r
() .

r
Su

. 2.11.

42

:
S = 0.5 20 /,
r = 20 500 ,
= 0.5 10 ,
= 0.2 2 ,
= 0.5 10 .

2.5.
1. h ,
. 2.1.
2. ,
. 2.3, h
.
3. h ,
. 2.5.
4. h , . 2.11.

43

3.
3.1
, (. 1.17, C ),
.
(. 1.10).
, .
( = 0),
.
,

.
3.1.1.

u
.
,
(. 3.1), ,
(. 1.16),
.

R, . 3.2,
1 R R ,

u i R R
u U i I R* ,

44

U U I R I i, R* R R R R R R . ,
,

* 1

(. 3.3).
+U

. 3.1.

i
u

+U
R

. 3.2.
R

U
R

U1

U2

U u

. 3.3.



R


, -

45

. 3.3 .
R + R,
R* .
,
.
U
U1, U2 (. 3.3).
= 0 .
, u u, : u u R R R
(. [2], . 107).
3.1.2.
(. 3.4):
R U / I ,
R U / I ,
U R ,
I R = 0,
Ku U U
,
Ke =U
U, , I
.

- -
, , , . , ,
-

46

,
,
.

. 3.4.

, Ke
, . 3.5.
, ,

. , Ke .
Ke
Ke0

Ke0

(log)

(log)

. 3.5. -



. R, R, Ku Ke.

47

3.1.3.
,
, h-. (. 3.6) , ( 1 0) , R,
R R.
R R.
(. 3.6), , :

R
R

h h
U
h11 12 21
.
I
h22 ( R* )1

(3.1)
i 2

h11

h21i

h12u
0

(h22)1

. 3.6.
(
R R1 R2 )

, ( , R* R ).
(3.1) , R h11 .
,
r, h11,
I.

48

R

R R:

R R h11

R h11
.
R h11

3.1.4.

R:
U , R U I .

R R.
R R R = 0. (. 3.6)
,
h h
( R )1 h22 12 21* ;
(3.2)
h11 R

R*
h22
( R )
*

h22 2 R 0,
1

R* R R , .
h12 0 h22 0, R_ .


R:
R_ R
.
R
R_ R
R , R = R.

49

3.1.5.
Ku K
U
U
U
U
Ke Ku .
U

R R ,
R
Ke
Ku .
(3.3)
R R
Ku, , . 3.6:
R*
u i R* h21 i
,
1+R* h22
i

u h12 u
,
h11

(u h12 u ) h21 R*
.
h11 (1 R* h22 )
:
h21 R*
h21 R*
U
Ku

.
U
h11 (h11 h22 h12 h21 ) R*
h11 (1 h22 R* / 2)
u

R*

(h22 )1 ,

U
R*
h21 .
U
h11
h-
, r1 r1 : Ku S R* R* r .
Ku

3.1.6. = 0
. 3.7
, ( = 0) (. . 1.17).
, h12 = 0 h22 = 0. :

50

R R h11 h21 1 R , R R1 R2 ,
h21 R
Ku
.
h11 (h21 1) R
r1 r1 , h11 h21 1 r

Ku

R
.
R r

, Ku R R r
R

1 i

i 2

h21i
h11

R .

R
R
0

. 3.7.
= 0 ( R R1 R2 )

3.2.
3.2.1.
. 3.8 , , Ku, U U , ; , . 3.8 U , , I
. U ,

(. 3.8):
R
U
.
R 1/ ( jC ) R

51

R I

h21I
h11

I
U

R
R

. 3.8.
()
()

K e U
Ke

, :

R
Ku
R 1 / ( jC ) R

R
1

Ku
1 1 / [ jC ( R R )] R R

1
Ke0 ,
1 1 / [ jC ( R R )]

Ke0 Ku R R R K
.
,
K ( j) 2 K e 0 , .
,
1
1
.

1 1 / [ jC ( R R )]
2
,
1 C R R 1 ,
(3.4)
.

arctg 1 .
,

52

RC- .
. 3.9 -
.

K .
K e j
Ke0

1
1

(log)

(log)

4
0

. 3.9. -

, 1 R + R, Ku
, Ku

C 0

R* R

h21 R* h11 ,

1
h11

h21 1

R*

(3.5)

R* h11

h21 1

, R* R R1 R2 .
,

53

, ,
(3.4) (3.5) .
= 0
, . 3.8,

R R1 R2 h11 h21 1 R .
3.2.2.
, , K ( j) 2 ,

(. 3.10).

r1

U 1 r1

1
Su1

R*

r1
r1

R U R

U 1

1
Su1

R U R

. 3.10.
: )
; ) , 1

r1 r,
, ,
1 1 R .
, . 3.10, , . 3.10.
, R R,

54

R R

R* R R . 1
1.
, , ,
1 . 3.10, ,
. 3.10,
SU 1 .
:
jC1 1 SR* U 1 jC U 1 ;

1 1 SR* .

r1

r1 ,

SR*

Ku 1 1 Ku .

. 3.10 .
.
, U 1

2 U 1 .

, :
1
R* r1 r1 ,
j(C1 )

1 1 1 C R* r1 r1 .
(3.6)


arctg .
,
, ,
.
. 3.11 -
, , .

55

K e j
Ke0

1
1

0
0

(log)

4
2
. 3.11. -

( )
( = 0) ;

, Ku
(. [2], . 128 ).
3.3.

.
h(t)
(t) (. 3.12).
, -
. ,
.

56

(t)
1

(t)

h(t)
0
h(t)

. 3.12.

t
h(t)

h(t)

3.3.1.
. 3.13 .

:
1
u idt iR1 .
C1
i u R1 , :
du 1
du
u ,
dt

dt
= R1C1.
du
t > 0 : u= U0, 0 ,
dt
u_.. U 0 et / .
. 3.13 RC-.
3.3.2.
u uC2 uR2 (. 3.14),
:
u_.. u u_.. .
, u U 0 1 et / , = R2C2.

57

RC-
. 3.14.
R2

C1

R1

C2

u
)

)
u(t)= U0(t)

U0

U0

u(t)= U0(t)
)

U0

0
u = U0h(t)

U0 e

U0
1
U
0 (1 e )
)

)
0

. 3.13.
()
(, ),

0
u = U0h(t)

. 3.14.
()
(, ),


, . 3.15. , . 3.15
(R1 + R2)C, . 3.15
R1 R2 C .
R1

R1

C
R2

u
)

R2 u

. 3.15. () ()

58

. 3.13 3.14 ,
, C , C , U U K0 R2 R1 R2 . ,
(. 3.15)
(. 3.15) K0U0, U0
.
3.4.
+10

1.
R
200

R
1.5



U .
i t I m cos t .

h21 = 100
u

+10

2.
R
200

R
1.5

R
1.5

3.

+10
R
200
R 1


U
, ,
1 jC
R R .

h21 = 100

R
1.5

10
u

i t I m cos t .


Ku, Ke, R, f.
:
r1 = 100 , h21 = 100.

R
1.5

59

4.

+10
R
300

R
1.5

R 1

+10

5.
R1
13

R
1.5

1
R
1
e

10
u
R
1.5


f.
:
r1 = 100 , h21 = 100, C = 50
( I = 1 ), = 3
( U = 5 ).


Ku, Ke, R, f.
:
r1 = 100 , h21 = 100.

R2
1.5

R
300

500

60

4.
, , , . .
.
4.1.
4.1.1.
, (. 4.1).
:
u= u1 u2 = K(u1 u2) = Ku
(4.1)

u= u1 u2=
=K(u1 u2)

+
u1 u2

u2 u1

. 4.1.

K, ,
.

: ,
, u =Ku1. .
: ,
, u =Ku2.

61

u1 u2. :
u1 K

u
2

, u2 K

u
2

(4.2)

(4.1) (4.2) ,
, u1 u2 0 ,
. .
,
u u1 u2 2 .

K
u1
u K 1u ,
2
K
u 2
u K 2u ,
2
u K u K u ,

(4.3)

K K1 K2 .
K1, K2, 1 2. ,

u1 u2 0 .

,
K K , . CMRR (Common Mode Rejection Ratio):
(4.4)
CMRR 20lg K K .
4.1.2.
, . 4.2.

R

62

u1 u 2
,
(4.5)
i
i
(u1= u2).
i1 = i2 = i .
R

R1 2R
i1
. 4.2.

u1

R2 R 4R
u2

i 2

R3 2R

R
u
R
,
(4.6)
i1 i 2

(u1 = u2 = u ).
( ) ,
,
R2 R .
4.1.3.

u1 u2 R1 R2 . . 4.3

63


, .. , u1 u2 .
(R >> R), (. 4.3). ,
,

K
S
.
R1 R2

) R
1

u
R

u2
u1

K
2

R2

K
2

R1

S
2

R2

S
2

. 4.3.

4.2.

. 4.4.
, .

, VT1
VT2 ,
(RK1 = RK2 = RK). , h12 = 0
h22 = 0.
VT1
i1 u1 u h11 ,

64

u
.
+U1
RK2= RK

RK1= RK
u

u1
VT1

u2
VT2

u1

u2
I0

R0

U2

. 4.4.

, i1,
i1 h21 i1 u1 u h21 h11 ,
VT1
u u h R
u1 i1 R 1 21 .
h11

u u h21 R .
u 2 2
h11
,
h R
u u1 u 2 21 u1 u2 K u .
h11
,

h R
K 21 SR .
(4.7)
h11
R0

65

, .
R

u u2 u
.
u1 u2 1

2
2
, , u = 0,
u
u
i i1 1
.
h11 2h11
(4.5),
u
R
2h11 .
(4.8)
i
, . 4.5, , .
+U1
RK

i1

VT1

RK

i1

i2

u1

u2

i1

R0

VT2

i2

i2

i1+ i2

u= u1= u2
U2
. 4.5.

K1,2
u
u
i R
K1,2 1 2
.
u
u
i h11 2i R0

66

i h21 1 i i h21i ,

h21 R
.
(4.9)
h11 2 R0 h21 1


K1,2
h11
1,2 20lg
20lg
,
(4.10)
K
h11 2R0 h21 1
h21 1 , R0 K1,2

, 2R0 h21 1

h11 , K1,2 -

R
,
2 R0
h11
1
1,2 20lg
20lg 2 R0 S , S .
(4.10)
2 R0 h21 1
r
K1,2 1,2 R0.
,
, K = 0 = .
R (4.6) u VT1 VT2:
u
u
R

.
i1 i2 2i
. 4.5 i
u
i
.
h11 2 R0 h21 1
, R
h
R 11 R0 h21 1 R0 h21 1 .
(4.11)
2
, h12 = 0
h22 = 0, ,
. 4.3,
: K 1,2

67

R1 R 2 R ,

(4.12)
R R1 R 2 2R ,
S
K h21 R 1
h
S
S

21 .
(4.13)
R
h11 2 R 2h11 2

,
r1 r1 , h11 r h21 1 , r 25 I .
I
1

(4.13)
S

20 I
.
2r 50

4.3.
()

, R0, U2 (. 4.6). I0
U U
, U 0.65 B.
I 0 2
R0
R0 (. (4.10)). , ,
; , U2
R0 I0
S. , . 4.6, , .
. 4.6.
VT3, R, U.
I0, ,
U 2 U U
.
I 0 I
R

68

+U1

+U1
VT1
u1
I0

VT2
u2

VT1
u1

VT2
u2

VT3
U

VT2

R0

I0

U2

R
U2

+U1

+U1
R1

R1
I3

VT1
u1

VT2
u2
I0

VT3

I3

VT2
u2

VT1
u1
I0
VT4

VT3

VT4
U2

R3

R4
U2

. 4.6.

U
I0 R. R0 VT3,
, R
.
h-, ,
h h
1
h22 21 12 .
(4.14)
R0
h11 R

. ,
h R R
R0 11

.
(4.15)
h21 h12 h12

69

h12 104
103 , R= 1 , R0 = 110 .
. 4.6 ,
. VT3 VT4
, I0 I3, VT3
VT4 . ,
U U 2 U
I 0 I 3 2 I 1
2I .
(4.16)
R1
R0 VT4, , , h11 VT3. , :
h12 h21
h h
1
h22
h22 12 21 .
(4.17)
R0
h11 1 1 h21
h11

2
R0
2r .
(4.18)
h22
r r U I . , ,
R0 1 .
I0 . , . 4.6, R0 R1,
( ) , I0 .
VT3. n
VT4. I0 = I1/n. R1 n pa.
, , . 4.6 . 4.6. -

70

. 4.6. , VT3 VT4 ,


U I I 0eU UT ,
I R UT ln I1 I 0
I 0 1 3
,
(4.19)
R4

U 1 U 2 U
.
(4.20)
R1 R3
R3 R4 I0 R1. , , I0 40 U2= 5 , U1 = 5 . R3 = 0, R4 = 2.4 .
(4.19) I1 = 1.86 , (4.20) ,
R1 = 2.6 . (. 4.6)
R1, 235 . R0 , . 4.6,
R4 = R. R0 R4 h12 5 106 .
I1

4.4.
, (4.8)

U
R 2h11 2 r1 h21 1 T ,
I

, .
K SR I R UT .
R. (, )
,
.
, S

71

(~ 0.510 /)
RC.
.
4.3,
.
,
U I U I 0 .

. 4.7. , VT1, VT2,
( VT3, VT4).
u R. , . . 4.7
.
+U1

u1

VT1

VT2

u2

R2

i1 i2 i u
R4

i4
i2 = i1
VT4 R
VT3
)

R
i4= i1

U2

. 4.7.
: ) ; )

VT4 VT1,
:
u
h
i4 i1 21
,
h11 2
u = u1 u2 ; h21
h11 VT1 VT2.

72

VT1
VT2
u
h
i2 i1 21
.
h11 2
(. 4.7),

u i2 i4 R R 2i1 R R
(4.21)
h
21 u R R ,
h11
R R2 R4
. R2 VT2
. 1h22 2h22. R4 (4.17)
(4.18).
(4.21) , (R =)
h
u
K 21 R ,
(4.22)
u h11

K h21 1
S

.
(4.23)
R h11 r
,
(c. (4.13), (4.13)).
(
), .
4.5.
1. U , K = 150, K = 2,
: u1 = 5103 sin(t) , u2 = 15103 sin(t) .

73

+10

2.
RK
5

RK
5
u1

u2


K
K 1 = K 2.
h21 = 100.

R0
10
10
+10

3.

RK
5

RK
5
RK 5

u1

u2


R K
.
h21 = 100.

R0
10
10

4. ,
. 4.6, , I3 = 1 , I0
0.1 . U1 = 5 , U2 = 5 .

74

5.
5.1. ,

,
,
. , , ,
. . 5.1
, .

u = u

Ku u

u Ku u u

Ku

. 5.1. ,

Ku u u ,
u u , , , .

, ,
u u
u ,
u u

u Ku u Ku u
u .
u

75

, , ,
u
u u
Ku Ku Ku ,
Ku u

Ku
.
(5.1)
Ku
1 K u
, , ,
. Ku
.
Ku , Ku . Ku , Ku
Ku, .
| Ku |>>1, , . , Ku < 0, , Ku Ku,
Ku
Ku
.
1 Ku
Ku
, Ku Ku , .
Ku = 1 (5.1) , , . ,
, ,
u
. . .
5.2.
, ,
. , K
.
-

76

,
.
,
,
.
, , ,
.
(. 5.2) U, V Ku =U + jV.
V
K
u

. 5.2. (Nyquist)

.
-, , , -
,
.
.
Ku. Ku.
Ku 0 ,
.
Ku
. .
, -

77

,

.

Ku j j U jV ,
U Ku cos V Ku sin .
(5.1)
Ku j
1

,
Ku j 1 U jV

2
1
Ku j Ku j
.
1 U 2 V 2

(5.2)

, , Ku j Ku j .
(5.2) :

1 U

V 2 1.
U V ,
Ku, (1, 0), . 5.2.
,
, , Ku j Ku j ,
2

.
,
(1, 0).
,
Ku 0
K u j
,
(5.3)
1 j
.

78

,
j ( > 0),
1 .

Ku j j Ku 0 1 j .
. 5.3
Ku0 = 5.
, , , , . ,
.
V

=1
=

=2

=0

1
Ku0 = 5

. 5.3.

. 5.4 Ku j
Ku0 =100 , .
. 5.4,
1 20lg(1+Ku0) ,
1 Ku 0 .

1 - .
.
, (5.3) j
(5.1).
K u j
Ku 0
Ku j

,
1 Ku j 1 j

79

Ku 0
1 Ku 0
;



1 Ku 0
.
Ku 0

Ku ,
40

=0

20lg(1+Ku0) 30
20/
20

= 0,09

10
0
0.1

10

100

. 5.4.


1
1 Ku 0 ,
(5.4)

1 -

. , 1 Ku 0 ,
. , , ,
.
(, RC-), ,

80

K u j

Ku 0
,
1 1 j

j 0 ,
,
1 Ku 0 :

,
(5.5)
1 Ku 0
1
.

, (5.4) (5.5), .
.
. 5.5 , .

V
B1

Ku

C1

A
0

C2
B2
. 5.5.

A .
180.
B1 B2
,
45,

81

90. 1 2
, .
, -
,
. , , - ,
,
. . 5.6 .

Ku

40

Ku

30

20

=0.05

30

=0.05

=0.09

20

=0.09

10
0
0.1 0.2

=0

40

=0
2

10
0.5

10

, (lg)

0
0.1 0.2

0.5 1

10

, (lg)

. 5.6. -
( )

,

, .
Ku 0 . , , , (5.4) (5.5). ,

, . -

82

Ku j j (5.1)
.

.
5.3.
. 5.7
. , u, . 5.7a
.
. 5.7a .
R
e

R
Ku0u

)
R
u

u=Kuu

u=u

i
u

R
Ku0u

i
R
R

u=Kuu

)
u=iR
. 5.7.
() ()

. 5.7 ,
.
.

83

R = 0 ( )
,
. ,
.
u
i
. (. 5.7) R
R ,
u u
u ,
u u
R 1 Ku .
R
, Ku < 0,
R 1 Ku ,
R
1 Ku ,
. , , ,

u u R R i
i .
,
u,
0 u i ,
u
. ( R

R
u i , , R
.) 0
(. 5.7) u
u Ku 0u u Ku 0u
i

,
R
R

u
R

R
,
i 1 Ku 0
Ku0 (R), c Ku -

84

R
Ku 0 .
R R
, Ku < 0,

R

R
,
1 Ku 0
Ku

. . 1 Ku , .
,

.
0
(. 5.7) u
u Ku 0u u Ku 0i R
i

R R
R R
, ,
u i R R 1 Ku 0 .
R
, Ku0 < 0,

R R 1 Ku 0 ,
R

R 1 Ku 0 . Ku 0 , .
+U

+U

)
R

u
u

. 5.8. : )
, )

85

. 5.8
.
, . 5.8,
. = 1,
Ku
1
Ku 1 Ku

1.
1 Ku
5.4.
. 5.9 5.10 ,
.
.
i

R
e

R
u i

Ku0u

u=Kuu

. 5.9.

. 5.9 .
, Ku Ku 0 R R R , R R R , .
u
R Roc
R R
(5.6)
u
e
.
R R Roc
Roc R R
(5.6) ,

86

R R

R R R
R R

R R R

(5.7)

, u Ku ,

(5.6)
Ku
u
Ke'
.
(5.8)
e 1 Ku
(5.8) (5.1).

Ku
Ke
1 Ku
Ku

1 ,

.
(5.9)

R R R R
Ke R R .
:
R
R
R
,
1 Ku
K e

R
.
1 Ku 0
. 5.10 .
:
R R2

,
R R R2

R

1 2 , 1

R1
,
R

87

R R

Roc2 R R

,
:
Ku
u
Ke
.
e
1 Ku
i

R2

R
e

R
R1

Ku0u

u=Ku

i
. 5.10.

:
R2
R
R
,
1 1 Ku
R Roc1 1 Ku 0 .
R
. 5.11
.

+U
R

u
)

+U
R2

u
)

R2

R1

. 5.11.
() ()

88

5.5.
Ku = 50,
R = 2 , R = 2 , f = 1 , f = 100
= 1.
.

1.

2.
R
200

10

+10
R
1

,
.

u
u

3.

+10

:
r1 = 100 , h21 = 100, = 3 ,
= 30 ( I = 1 ).
,
.

R
150

R
1.5

+10

4.

R1
560

R
270

R2
270

100

u
1

:
r1 = 100 , h21 = 100.

, .

R
510

89

6.
( ) (. 6.1),

:
u K u2 u1 ,
K . , , , . (. 6.1) ;
, ,

. , ,
+U1 U2.
+U1

u1
u

u2
)

U2
u (u2 u1)
K

)
1
0

.6.1. : ) ,
)

"" :

,
, -

90

. . .

. , .
. , ,
; , ,
.
, , .
,
.

. ,
( )

, , , .
(, )
.
, .
,
, ,
, , .
(), , .

. ,
, ,
,
.

91

6.1.
: ,
.
.


. . ,
.

4,
, .
6.1.1.
,
, , . , , , , , .
,
, , , . ,
.
, 3, , ... ,
, , 25%.

92

(. 6.2),
, , , R, .
+U1
R
VT1
VT3

VT2

U2

. 6.2.
npn pnp-

. 6.2 VT3 R ,
. VT1 VT2 :
, R , , VT1 VT2
.

V3
, i3,
(. 6.3). VT1 n- R i. VT2 -
,
u1.
, V3 .
VT1 R ,
VT1 , 1, R .

93

+U1

+U1

u1
VT3

VT1
i

u
VT3

VT2

u2

U2
u

VT1
i

VT2

U2

u
t

i = i1

t
i = i2

.6.3. :
) V3;
) V3


V3 V1 (. 6.3).
VT2 V2
R .
,
V3
. ,

u V1 VT2 ( ), , R, u.
R . , , ,
R, .

94

4 100% .

.
n-p-n
.

, , . 6.4.
V1 VT2 , .
u
t
. 6.4.

. 6.5 ,
.
+U1
R
VT1
0

D1
D2

VT3

VT2

U2

. 6.5.

D1 D2. VT3, VT1 VT2 ,


,
VT3 / R

95

, 0 .
, , ...
,
.
6.2. ()
1. .
2.
u
u
K
(K = 103106).
u 2 u1 u.
3.

u u u
K u 2 1
2

u.
, ,
K
20lg
.
K
4. (f = 0).
5. (R 106 ).
6. (R 200 ).
7. U (. 6.5).
u
+U1

= arctg K

+U
u.
U
U2

. 6.5. U

96


, ,
,
. U , ,
.
6.2.1.
, :
K = ,
R = ,
R = 0.

, , U U
(. 6.5) u 0 (. 6.6).
i1 = i2 = 0.
,
.
+U1
i1= 0
u= 0

U < u < U

i2= 0
U2
. 6.6.

6.3.
( 3-). (
, ), . -

97

- .
.
, . 6.7.
20logK


120

80


40

10

100

1K

10K

100K

1M

f1

f,

1M

f1

f,

10M

40

80

120

10

100

1K

10K

100K

10M

.6.7. -

f1 (, 1) .
120.
0 1.

98

. 1
. 2 , .
6.4.
6.4.1.
,
. 6.8),
.
R1

R2

i=0
u
u=0

. 6.8.

,
i u R1 ,

uR2 i R2 u R2 R1 , ,
u uR2 u R2 R1 ,

K R2 R1 .

, R2 R1

K .

K ,
R2 R1 K , K = K. . 6.9, R
2 .
R1
,

180 .
.

99

R1.
.

K
K
,
1 K
R2

R1 R2 ,

20logK

90

R2/R1 = 10000
R2/R1 = 1000

60

R1 R1 R2 . K
K R2 R1 .

R2/R1 = 100
30

R2/R1 = 10
R2/R1 = 1

0
30

10

100

1K

10K

100K

1M

10M

f,

180

R2/R1 = 10000

240

R2/R1 = 1


300

360
1

10

100

10K

1K

100K

1M

f,

10M

. 6.9. ,
R2/R1:
) -, )

6.4.2.
,
, ,
. 6.10:
K 1 R2 R1 .

100

R1

R2
i

. 6.10.

u
u

,
K
K
.
1 K
K
K 1 R1 R2 R1 1 R2 R1 .
.
6.5. -
, , . - .
6.5.1.
, . 6.11, . ,
u = 0. , R
iR i u R .
R

i=0
u=0

. 6.11.

101

, i ,
: iR iC i u R ,
q 1
1 u
1
uC iC dt dt
u dt .
C C
C R
RC
, u uC ,
1
u
u dt .
RC
, 6.4.1 . R2
, ZC 1 jC .
K j 1 jRC .

6.5.2.
. 6.12.

i=0
u=0

. 6.12.

u ,
, u = 0. ,
iC C du dt i .
, , iR iC i , R
uR i R RC du dt .

u uR RC du dt .
-

102

K j R ZC jRC . , . 6.12, , -
, . ,
. ,

, . -
,
. 6.13.
|K|,

. 6.13. :
1 ;
2 ;
3

60
40

20
0

lg f

6.6.

.
() , 105 .
6.6.1.

,
. 6 . 1 4 . ,
-

103


,
.
R1

i=0
u
u=0

. 6.14.

:
i I 0 exp u UT 1 ,

i , ,
I0 ,
u ,
UT kT q .
,
i u R1 I 0 exp u UT 1 ,

u UT ln u R1I 0 1.
, u R1 I 0 .
u UT ln u

R1I 0 .

r1
u UT ln u R1I 0 u r1 R1 .


,
u

u U .
I .

R1
U T ln
I0

104

U . .

- . -,
(
, I0 ). -,
, ..
. , 3 ,
. , 7 .
6.7. R-
6.7.1.


RC-, RC-.
LC- -
, .
,
- . .
6.14 RC-, . 6.15
.

K j Ke jK

U K jU

RC-

. 6.14. RC.

, -

105

,
K j j 1 ,

(6.14)

(6.15)
arg K j arg j 2n.
,
. , ,
(, ),
. ,
, ,
.
C

)
R

0 1

log

log

C
R

0 6 RC

)
R

6 RC

129

129

0
0 1 RC

log
4

)
. 6.15. RC

, . 6.15, , =

0 1

6 RC ,

, , ,
. ( + K) 2.

0 1

6 RC

0 = 1 29, ,

106

. ,
K 1 0 29 .
,
. 6.15, 0 6 RC K > 29.
,
.
.

,
. , . , ,
,
,
0.
.
, . R -
, . 6.15.
. 6.16.

R 1 jT

, T RC .
R 1 jT 1 jT jC
,
1

.
(6.16)
3 j T 1 T

1

,
(6.17)
2
9 T 1 T

107

R
C
C

U1 U 2

K()
K0

U 2 KU1
0=1R
C

. 6.16. RC- c

1
1
arctg T
(6.18)
.
T
3
(6.17) (6.18) .
6.15.
(6.19)
0 1 T
0 = 13,
( = 0). ,
0 , K0 > 3. ,
LC- (. 8) 0 1/C , 1 C .
.
RC- , R- (6.18) c
(6.19)
1
2 3,
1

LC-
Q = 13. ,

108

RC- c LC-.
6.7.2. R-
R-, (. 6.17).


: , R1 R2 R1 , (6.16).
,
, . ,
. 6.17, RC- . 0 = 1 RC 1/3, K0 1 ,
,
1 1


.
(6.20)
3 K0
(6.20) , . - , 1
1
K0 1
.
3 K0

, 0 . (

)
:
T 1 T
.
arctg
2
9 K 1 3 1 K T 1 T
, 2K0 9 .

109

R2

C
C

K()
K0

U 2 U1

U 2 KU1
0

R1

U 2

0=1R
C

. 6.17. RC-

,
K0, ,
, LC-
Q = K0/9 (. . 9).
,


, .

, ,
, ,
.

R1, (, ),
R2, .

110

. 6.18 , , .
R
R

R2

R1

R6
R3

C1

R4

VT

R5
C2

C3
VD

R7

. 6.18. RC-

1 3 j RC 1 RC ,
() = (R1 + rds)/(R1 + rds + R2),
rds - .
, ,
.
f0 = 1/(2RC),
(+) = 1/3. , :
K0((+) ()) > 1,
, () < (+) 1/K0 () < 1/3 1/K0.
f0
, :
() < 1/3 R1 + rds0 < R2/2,

111

rds0 .
, , ,
. 6.18 . () VD VT, rds ,
.

, n-
, . rds.
,
K0 ( + ) = 1 R1 + rds = R2/2.
, ,
.

6.8.
1.
, ...
4 100% .
.
2.

R1

R1

u
C

112

( )
.
.

3.

10
u


(-
) , .
: A0 = 104, f1 = 10

R2 1M

4.

R1 10k

u1
u2

u
R3 10k
R1 10k
R2 1M

R4 1k

, .

R3 10k

R2 160

5.

1 1

R1 16

R3 160

6.

1
1

113

-
, .
: A0 = 104, f1 = 10 .
-
,
, .
.

7.
7.1.
,
,
,
. .
,
, ; , , , , . (

);
,
.
. 7.1 ,
npn-. . VT1
VT2
.
(. 7.2)
. . 7.2 R ,
. . ,
. 7.2 .

114

L
VT1

c
b

VT2

R1 R2
R

+ U

+ U


. 7.1.
.

)
S

L
c
b

)
S

R
R=R

R R

. 7.2.
: ) ;
)

7.2.

:
. R, , ,
(7.1)
R0 R R R R ,

(7.2)
R0 R R0 R R0 .
Q,
Q.

115

Q Q

(7.3)
Q Q 1 K ,
K (), ().

Q Q 1 K R0 R ,
(7.2),
1 K R0 R R0 ,

(7.4)
K R R R0

1 K
R0 R
.
(7.5)
K
(7.4)
R R0,
(7.5) R K R0 R0 R .
. 7.2 ,
,
. , , R , . R = ,
R R . , R

R , , ,
(7.6)
R R .
, ,
(7.7)
R R n2 ,
n wb wc : wb wc , b c ,

116

.
, . .
,
n pb pc ,

pb M b Lb L; pc M c Lc L b .
(7.6) (7.7)
:
(7.8)
n R R .
,
,
(7.9)
R0 R 2 ,
.
R ,
,
, R R. R
:
.
(7.10)
R R

(7.11)
R R ,
(7.10) (7.6).
(7.11)
R0 R 2 , (7.4) .
.
, , (7.11).
R,
. , ,
, , R

117

R .
, , (7.6) R R
R/2.
K, R ,
R R = .

. 7.2
R R R0 R
R
K 0

.
R0
R0 R
(7.4),
:
K = K .
(7.12)
, , . .
, , K = 0,25, 25%

.
7.3.

,
1. , , .
. . 7.3
. .
R1, . ,
R2. . .

118


L
c
b

R1

R2

SU R2

L
c
b

. 7.3. ,


K SZ K ,

(7.13)
Z K
,
0 ( Z K , ).

Zb

1 jC ,

Z b
b .
-
, Zb, .
(7.14)
jC Zb .

K jC SZb Z K .

(7.15)

,

R0.
b pb2 R ,

119

a p2 R , b .

1
.
Zb pb2 R
j C 1 L


Zb pb2 R 1 j C 1 L R ,

Zb pb2 R 1 jtg ,

tg R 1 L .


ZK pc2 R 1 jtg .
Z b Z K (7.15),
K

2
jCnp Spb2 pc2 R

1 tg 2 j 2tg

K , = 45,

2
C Spb2 pc2 R
2.

(7.16)

K 1 .
< 0, Z b Z K = 45.
, . 7.4,
, .

U , , ,
. Z K , 45. I C 90.
, Z b ,
U , 45. -

120

U , . ,
.
U U

45

I C

90

. 7.4.

45
UK
I K SU

,
(7.16) , ,
2
(7.17)
C Spb2 pc2 R
2.
0 ( < 0), (7.17) :
2
0C Spb2 pc2 R
2,
(7.18)
.
, 0, , S R, pb ,
, , .

(7.19)
k 1 K .
K ,
, .
, , K = 0, ky = l,
, K = 1, ky = 0.

121

K = 0,
, .
K = 0 .
k 0,8 0,9. ,
ky = 0,9 10%, .
,
10%,
ky = 0,9. , , 10%
K 10%,
ky = 0,9
10%. ,
ky = 0,1, 10% .
(7.16) (7.19),
:
2
0C Spb2 pc2 R
2 1 ky ,
(7.20)

.
. . . , ,
,

2
0C Spb2 pc2 R
2ky 1 ky .
(7.21)

(7.21) S,
0C K02 2ky 1 ky S ,

K0max 2ky 1 ky S 0C .

(7.22)

122

7.4.

, , . 7.5. ,
VT2 . .
.
,
.
+U1

VT1 VT2

u
R0

I0
U2

. 7.5.

(4.7), , K = SR. Z LC
(VT2), K K 2 SZ LC 2 , K = SR 2,
R
. VT2,
, , R, . , (4.8),
R = 2h11 = 2(r1 + r1).

123


. U UT ,
I0. I0
VT1,
VT2. VT2 I1 2I 0 , , U1,
2I
2I
U 0 R 0 Q.

7.5.
1. , ,
.
+U1

VT1

VT2

u
R

U2

L= 100
= 200
= 0.4
Q0 = 100
= 100
R = 1.5
R = 10
h21 = 100
r1 = 100
U1 = U2 = 10

2.
1, .
3. . .

124

4. , ,
.

VT1 Lc
b
R

L = 100 , = 100
= 0.8, b = 0.3
Q0 = 100
= = 1
R = R = 1.5
R = 10
h21 = 100
r1 = 100
r = 100
U = 10

+ U

5. ,
= 5 ,
L = 100 , = 100 , Q = 50 0.7.

125

8. LC-

8.1.
, , ,
. ,
. . ,
. 8.1.
I
M

U
R

+U
. 8.1. -

. 8.2
,
.

U
SU
.

. 8.2.


, -

126

, . S r .
, ,
( ) , L R, .
( )
R Q0 ,
Q0 , a L C .

1
U
1
1

(8.1)
K j S
j C

L
U

r R
j M L,
( L) ( L) .

K j j

1
1
1

j C

,
L

r R

SM
L

(8.2)

0 1 LC, ( ) ,

(8.3)
arg K j0 arg j0 2n,
n .
j0 K j0 1 :
1
M
1
S

L
r R

1.

(8.4)


K0 1,
M L ,

127

(8.5)

1
SR
1
K0 S

1 R r
r R

(8.6)

.
.
8.2.


0, , L,
, .

L. . , ,
, , , . 8.2.
. , . .

, . , ,
.
.

,
.
,
.

Q > 1 , ,

128

. , , , , . ,
. , . 8.3, .
.
M

U L

+U
L

E
. 8.3. ,

U
U .

,
U
(8.7)
K U U
U .
(. 8.4).
U . (. 8.4)
.
, (. 8.4 ). .

129

u(t)
U

i(t)

I0

. 8.4.
: ) ; , )

, , , , LC- ,
, . ,
.
,
(. (8.7)).
(8.8)
K1 U U ,
,
K1 U . , ,
. K1 c U .
, ,
= 0 . 8.5 ( 1).
S dic du (. 8.5), ( 2).

130

K1

K1(0)

)
K1max

12

11

1
2

4 3
U3 U3 U2 U1
U 2 U 1

4 3 2 1=0

. 8.5. ) ;
)


,
,
, ,
( 3).
( 4),
. . , . 8.5, , .
, . 8.1,
(8.9)
U U ,
(8.10)
U K1U ,

U U .

(8.11)

K1
,
(. 8.5). , .

131

U , ,
:
(8.12)
1 K1U 0 .
, ,
U 0 , (8.12)

K1 1 .
(8.13)

:
arg K1 arg 2n, n ,
(8.14)
K1 1 .

(8.15)

(8.14) ,
(8.15) .
:
U . ,
. , ,
, ,
, .
.
. ,

( , ) .
, ,
, .
U ,
(8.15),
. 8.5.

132

, K1

K1 1 , .

c , K1 U , ,
. ,
1, U1. , = 2, ( 2), U = U2. U c U .
, 1 2
K1 1
U K1 1 . , ,
.
. . 8.6a
.
U

U 1

U 2
0

= 1K1(0)

a)

. 8.6. ) )

K1 0 1 ,
K1 . , ,
, U = 0. ,
1 K1 0 , ,
.
.
(

133

3 . 8.5), . 2 1 K1max , , ,
, , . 2 1, . U 3
,
U, U 3
. , U = 0.
1 , U 1 .
.
1 , , . ,
.
2 .
, .

(. 8.6): 1
U 1 . -

2 U 2 .
2 1 , , . .
U 3
. 8.5),
( U 3

134

.
U 3
, - U 3
, .
U 3

8.2.1.
, . 8.7a.

:
, R D.

U L

U
L

C C

U
R

U=U ost

+
C

D
t

UC
)

. 8.7. )
; ) ; ) ,

U,
,

S .

SR
M
1.
1 R r L

. ,

135


. ,
, . 8.7,
, ,
i, ,
C r R r R C r , - r R.
,
R R. C R 1 ,
(. 8.7).
. ( 11),
C R 1 R r ,
:
(8.16)
E U .


. . 8.8
.
i
K1

= 0

3 2

u,

U()

U,

U()

. 8.8. ) ;
)

136

(8.16) : U
, E = U.
.
.
. 8.8 ,
.
. . . , K1 1.
. 8.8 ,
.
. . . , K1 1.
, .
,
, , .
R ,
, ,
E .
.
.
TLC 2L r Q f ,
Q , f ,

137

. ,
. E . , , ,

. E
R,. C R TLC , E
, , , .
, , . , .
. 8.9.
t
U(t)
t
E(t)

. 8.9.

8.3.

, . ,
.
.

138

8.3.1.
. 8.10
.
Z3

Z3
Z1

Z1

Z2

Z2

. 8.10.


Z1, Z2 Z3.
U , , ,
Z2. ,
Z1, Z2, Z3, . ,
. , .
K1 U U , , , . ,
arg K1 .
, r1, r2, r3 Z1,
Z2, Z3 1,
2, 3 ,
1 +2 + 3 = 0.
(8.17)

U
Z2
X2
X
(8.18)

2 .
U Z 2 Z3 X 2 X 3
X1
,

139

(8.19)
arg arg X 2 X1 arg X 2 X1 .

(8.20)
arg K1 arg 2 arg X 2 X1 2n .
X 2 X1 , (8.20) , 1 2 .
(8.17) , 3 , 1 2.
, , . 8.10, :
(8.21)
1) X1 0, X 2 0, X 3 0 ,
1 2 , 3 ;
(8.22)
2) X1 0, X 2 0, X 3 0 ,
1 2 , 3 .
8.3.2.

.
Z1
Z2 , Z3 , (8.21).
( ).
. 8.11.
. 8.11
-, L1 L2 . (8.18)
X
L
2 2 .
(8.23)
X1
L1
, L1
L2 , ,
.

140

VT

VD

L2

L1
+

L1
L2

+U

M
u

)
. 8.11.
. 8.11
. ( ). ,
.
R
K
,
r R
R = R ,
r .
R

r 1 h21 2
,
R R0
2

R0
,
u u .
,
.
, L L1 L2 2M , ,

141

L L2 2M
L
1
.
(8.24)
L2 M
L2 M
, , , k M L1L2 1 .

L1 L2 2 L1 L2

L1 L2

.
L2 L1 L2
L2 L1 L2

Li wi2 , .

w w2
1

w1 w2
.
(8.25)
w2
w w1w2
, , K < 1.
, . 8.11, .
, (8.17),
2
2

1
LC

(8.26)

. 8.11 L = L1 + L2.

.
. , LC- R0.
. 8.11, ,
, :
p 2 R ,
(8.27)
R
.
L1
p
.
(8.28)
L1 L2

142



Sp 2 R
1 .
(8.29)
1 p 2 R r
, (8.22), Z1 Z2 , a
Z3 - (. 8.12),
( ).
, (8.18),
X
C
2 1 ,
(8.30)
X1
C2
, (8.17),
, (8.26), C C1C2 C1 C2 .
C1
L
+U

C2

. 8.12.

(8.29),

(8.31)
p C C1 C2 C1 C2 .

, ,
.
8.4.
1. 3-
LC - n-p-n , .

143

2. 3-
LC - n-p-n , .
3.
L

L = 100
1 = 100
2 = 1000
= 0.1
Q = 50
R = 1
S0 = 5 /
I0 = 5 , U = 2

+U

u
R

K R =. R, .
4.

+U1

VT1

VT2
R

L= 100 , = 200 ,
Q0 = 100
= 0.4
= 100
R = 1.5
R = 10
h21 = 100
U1 = U2 = 10

R
U2

, ,
.

144

5.

+U1

VT1

L1

L1= 100
= 100

L2
u

VT2
R
R

w2
= 0.2
w1

Q0 = 40
R = 10
h21 = 100
U1 = U2 = 10

U2

K R =.
R, .

145

9.
9.1.

.
,
, .
:
(9.1)
arg K 2n , n ,

LC- . , , LC-

1
LC

, ,
( L L0 L C C0 C ),

1 L C
(9.2)

2 L0 C0
, ( 1)

() (). L C
104103. , ,
. ,
LC-.
LC-,
LC- .

146


, (9.1), . arg K , ,
LC ( f ).
( f ) .
RC-.

LC- , LC + = 0, . 9.1. , ,
.

LC

. 9.1. LC-

,
LC-
.

arg K 0 . , ,
LC-,


LC () arg( Z ) arctg 2Q

. 9.2 Q (Q2 > Q1). , ,

147

( ) LC ( ) 0, () arctg , -

, .


arctg arctg 2Q

f

.

f
1 2Q
1 f Q

Q2

LC

Q1

f1

f2
f

f, M

. 9.2. LC-


.
/
, ,


,
. /

/ 2Q / ,

148

,
(9.3)
2Q.
, ,
. Q 100200, , ,
104103, .

.
9.2.
9.2.1. .
( SiO2),
,
, (. 9.3).
Z ( ),
X, , Z , Y ,
.
Y

X
Y

X
Y

. 9.3.


.
.
. .

149

,
X,
. . , , ...
Q 104 .
,
, . .

.
X- Y-. X- () X,
Y- Y. , X- Y-
,
: .
,
X- Y- Z. . , , , (,
). .
50 +100C 10 5. , -

150

. 10 11.

+35
Z, h 1,66 , D 14
d 8 ;
. f () 1,66 h() 1 .
9.2.2.

, . 9.4.

L
C0

r
C

X=Im
R=Re
R
X

f0

.9.4: ) ;
)

L, C, r , :

151

.
2 LC
C0 (510 ) , . 9.4,
1
f0
f 1 C C0 .
2 L 0 C0
f = 1
:
L 4,6 , C 5,5 103 , r 300 .
,
L C 3 107 ,

Q 105 .
r
C
( C C0 ), f 0 :
f0 f 1 C C0 f 1 C 2C0 .
f 0 f
(104103) f , .
1 C
f 0 f f .
2 C0 C
. 9.4
.
,
2Q , (
3 ), LC-.
, .

152

9.3.
9.3.1.
, . 9.5
. 9.5,
. LC- .
, , L2, . L1 L2.
, . 9.5. . 9.5
( C
), ( )
K SR ,

S 1/ r I / UT ,
R Q LC- ,
R r r.
+U
R2

L1

+U1

L2
VT1

R1

R3

R1

L1

VT2

L2

R2
U2

. 9.5.
: ) , )

( R3 r )

153

r
w2
,
w1 r r
w1 w2 L1 L2,
k L1 L2 L1 L2.
1 K :
w
1 r
(9.4)
k 2
1 .
w1 S R
r
k 1 ( )

w2
1 r
(9.4)

1 .
w1 S R
r
. 9.5 VT1 VT2,
.

(R1 = R2 = R)
U U
I 1 I 2 I 2
.
R
, S I / UT , ( VT1 VT2):
r
K
SR .
2r r
k (w2 w1 ), . 9.5
w
r
1
(9.5)
k 2
2 .
w1 SR
r
(9.5) (9.6) r = 0 (
)
. ( ) ,
, ,
.
k

154

, . 9.5
r, . . 9.5 r r R2
L2,
2

w
R2 R k 2 .
w1

, k (w2 w1 ) 1, R ( ) ,
R2 r r r . . 9.5 r 2r .

r
r r .
9.3.2.
, . 9.6,
(. 9.6) (. 9.6) .
+U
R2

L1

R2

R1

R3

+U

R1

R3

. 9.6.
: ) , )

, .
LC-

. ,

155

(9.1) ,
, , .
.
. 9.6 (
)
K SR ,

r
w
1 , (k 1),
w r r
w w1 L L1.
( 1 K )
w1
1 r
(9.6)

1 .
w SR
r
. 9.6
, . 9.6,
r
1

.
1 2 r r

C1
1 r

1 .
C1 C2 SR
r
. 9.5, r r , .

9.3.3.

. 9.7 , .
f,
, ,
.
, L, , 0, 1, 2,:

156

1
C C
2 L
C C

f 1

C
C
f 1 ,
C
2C

C C1 C2 (C1 C2 ) C0 . C
f.

(9.7)

C, -

L
0

. 9.7.

. 9.7

(9.8)
C2 C1 .
,
( ),
:
K S Q p 2 ,

S , p (C C2 ) , C CC (C C ) . C C, C C p C C2 .
,
2

C
K S Q .
(9.9)
C2
1 K .
. 9.8
.

157

.
+U

+U

R1

R2

R1

3
1

R2

. 9.8. ,
: ) ,
)

. 9.8 ,
. R2
:
U U
I
.
R1 R2 (h21 1)
, (9.9) , S I UT .
. 9.8 . 9.8, pn-. S , .
, ,
1 K , K
(9.8) (9.9) .
. 9.8
C3. . (9.7):
f
C C
2 .
f
2C
C (1 C1 1 C2 1 C3 )1 , C C 2 C3 C32

158

f
C C
2 3 .
(9.10)
f
2C3
, C3 1000 C3 500 , f 1 C 6 103 f f 1,5 106. f 1,5 .

C1 C2.
C1 C2 ,

C2 C1 , .
9.3.4.
, . 9.9,

, C1, C2, C3
:
C
C
f f 1 f 1 ,
(9.11)
C
2C
C (1 C1 1 C2 1 C3 )1 C0 .
VT1. C2 C1 , ( ,
R2 )
2

C
1
K S Q .
(9.12)
2
C2
VT1 VT2 S I 0 (2UT ), I0
U U
I 0 I 1 I 2 2
.
R2

159

+U1

R2

3
1

VT1

R1

u
VT2

R3

U2

. 9.9.

VT2, , , VT1; VT2 .



U I1 R ,
I1 VT2,
R Q LC-.
, VT1 U 1 UT ,
I 0 . 2
I 0 , ,

U U 1 ,
2
U I 0Q.

VT2 , ,
LC- 3f 5f,
. ,
2
U 3
I 0Q.
3

I1

160

9.4.
1.
:
L = 0.5 , r =200 , = 5103 , 0 = 15 .
f, f0, Q f f0.
2.
L1 = 100
= 100

+U1
L1

VT1

L2
u

VT2
R

R1

R2
U2

. 9.1

w2
= 0.1
w1

Q0 = 50
R1 = R2 = 10
h21 = 100
f = 1.6
Q = 105
r =300
U1 = U2 = 10

. 9.1
K R =.
R, .
3.
3-
LC n-p-n ,
.

161

4.
2

+U

L
1
u

L = 100 , 1 = 110 , 2 = 1000


f = 1.6 , Q = 105, r = 300
R = 500
S0 = 5 /
I0 = 5 , U = 2

R
R

. 9.2

. 9.2 K R =. , R, .
5.
, . 9.2, 2Q , 2r?

162

10.
( , ).
,
. .
, . ,
, () ,
(, ) () .
.

, .

,
, , .
,
u(t) u(t)
u(t) = f(u(t)).
10.1. .
,
u t U cos 0t ,
: U, 0 . t 0t .
,

163

, () .
uM(t),

.
-
u t U 0 uM t cos 0t
(10.1)
= U 0 1 uM t U 0 cos 0t .

() (). ,
uM(t), , t 0t auM t .
u t U 0 cos 0t auM t .
uM(t):
t d dt 0 buM t .

t

t 0t b uM d .
0

u t U 0 cos 0t b uM d .
0

10.1.1.
,
uM t U cos t . 0 .
- ,
= 0. (10.1) AM-

164

u t U 0 U cos t cos 0t
U 0 1 m cos t cos 0t .
m U U 0 .
m 1, , . 10.1,, .
U max U 0 1 m , U min U 0 1 m .
u(t)

mU0

Umax

U0

Umin
t

m<1

m=1

m>1

. 10.1. -

,
> 1, (. 10.1).
, .
AM

165

m
m
U 0 cos 0 t U 0 cos 0 t ,
2
2
.
0 U0,
m
U 0 0 0 ,
2
.
. 10.2
.
u t U 0 cos 0t

U m

mU 0
2

U m0

mU 0
2

0 0 0+

0 min

max

0max
0min

U m0

0+max
0+min

. 10.2. -
()

,
(minmax), 0 , . 2max , (. 10.2).

,
(. 10.3). 0, 0 0 . 0 +
( ) AB1, , 0 ( )
0 2,

166

. AM 0,
.

A
U0

0
0

B1

B2

mU 0
2

. 10.3. AM

10.1.2.
- - , .

u t U 0 m cos t cos 0t
m
m
U 0 cos 0 t U 0 cos 0 t.
2
2
-
. 10.4.

u(t)

. 10.4. -

167

.
. 10.5 -
() ().
U

U m

mU 0
2

mU 0
2

0 0+

0 min

max

0max

0min

0+max
0+min

. 10.5. - ()

.
10.1.3.
- -

. , .
().
- .

m
u t U 0 cos 0t U 0 cos 0 t.
2

Um
m

u t U 0 1 cos t cos 0t 0 sin t sin 0t.


2
2

168

1
U t U 0 1 m cos t m2 ,
4
- U(t) = U0(1+mcost).
. 10.6
m = 1 - m = 1.
-
-

. 10.6. - -

10.1.4.
Umsint.
(10.2)
t 0t m sin t .
m .

. (m = aU) .
Umcost

t 0 m cos t .
m ,
. ( m bU ), .

m
(10.3)
t 0t
sin t .


m m , (10.2) (10.3) -

169

,
,
.
,
. ,

.
.
u t U 0 cos 0t m sin t .

m.
m 1 , .
,
cos m sin t 1,
sin m sin t m sin t ,

m
U 0 cos 0 t
2

m U 0 cos 0 t .
2
, ,

m = m. 0 U0
0 + 0 mU 0 2 .
,
2
.
m . ,
m 1 . , :
u t U 0 cos 0t

cos m sin t J 0 m 2 J 2 n m cos 2nt ,


n 1

170

sin m sin t 2 J 2 n 1 m sin 2n 1 t ,


n0

Jn(m) n.

u t U 0 cos 0t m sin t

U 0{J 0 m cos 0t J k m cos 0 k t


k 1

1 J k m cos 0 k t }.
k

k 1

. 10.7 . ,
,

.

, , ,
(. 10.8). ,

.
J
0.8

J0
J

0.6

J8

J1

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.1
1

0.2

2
0.1

10

12 14

0.4

. 10.7.

. 10.8.

, , 0

171

J0(m), 0 k ,
. , , , J0(m) m, , m = 2.4, 5.52, 8.65, 11.79 .
. ,
Jk(m) k > m ,
m . , , Jk(m) < 0,01, , 1%
. , ,
, 2n , f 2nF ,
F .

. . [6]:

2F 1 m m .

,
. , 2F.
( m 1 ), f 2m F .
. 10.9 .
m = 2

4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 (0)

m= 5

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7(0)

.10.9.
m

m m f F , f 2f m .
,

172


.
m F, F.
10.1.5.
, . ,
() ,
n0, n1, n2, , . , ,
T, , , : fT = 1/T.
, ni 0 1.

.
. T,
. {nk} sn(t) - :
sn(t) = F(nk), kT t < (k + 1)T,
F .
sn(t) . ,
, . , , (),
() ().

. :
ui t U 0 cos 0t i t ,
U0 , 0 -

173

, i(t) , .
,
. = 2, -2 (BPSK, Binary
Phase Shift Keying), = 4 -4 (QPSK, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying 2
), = 16 -16 (16-PSK 4 1 ) . . , n,
, ,
,
n- .
ui(t) , ,
. . 10.10 n. I
, Q .
Q
01
1

Q
00

I
11

10

.10.10. n:
) n = 2 -2, ) n = 4 -4, ) n = 16 -16

-2 (BPSK) ,
0, 0(t) = 0, , 1,
1(t) = . . 10.11 -2.
-2

. , , . " ".

174

t
t

. 10.11. -2

,
-2: "1"
"0",
"0" "1".
"
" . .
( ) .. 1957 ()
(, DBPSK).
: i- , 1,
180
(i 1) , , 0,
. . 10.12 .

i1

i+1

i+2

i+3

t
t

. 10.12. .


i (i 1) .
,
, , , -

175

" ". ,

,
.
.10.13 -4 (QPSK), , . 10.10. .
0

t
t

-4

t
45

135

315

225

45

135 315

. 10.13. -4.


, .
-16 (16PSK), .10.10.
, . 16- ,
V.32 9600 /.
128 V.32bis
14 400 /, , 640 ,
,
V.34 28 800 /.
10.2.
1. -
F(t) = sint + sin3t m = 0.5. ,
.

176

2. ,
, 0 , 0, 0 + 5 .
3. -
u(t) = Ucost, U 3 ?
4. -
u(t) = Ucost, 3 ?
5. -2 -4
11000110.
6. 11000110.

177

11.

11.1

U 0 cos 0t 1 uM t ,
uM(t) . , ,
: ic i0 au bu2 .
: u uM t U 0 cos 0t ,

bU m2 0
ic ic0 auM t
aU 0 cos 0t 2buM t U 0 cos 0t
2

bU 02

cos 20t.
2
, 0,
:
u t ic t R aU 0 cos 0t 2buM t U 0 cos 0t R

2b

aU 0 1 uM t cos 0t R
a

AM . , uM t U cos t ,
m 2bU a .
2max, max
,
Q 0 2max .
- .
K = K0uM. u t K0 uM t U 0 cos 0t . U

178

UM (. 11.1).
U
u(t)

U0

t
0

uM
Ucost

t
. 11.1.

, . 11.1. 0 ( . 11.1).
, ,
. 11.1,
uM t E0 U cos t .
,
u t K 0 E0 U cos t U 0 cos 0t
,
U

K 0 E0 U 0 1 cos t cos 0t
E0


m U E0 .
, , , 0.
4.7
I R
K SR ,
UT
R = Q . -

179

, , , .
.11.2.

+U1

i1 i2

L
U0cos0t

VT1

VT2

I0

U R3

i0
C1

VT3

Ucost
R1

R2

2 0

R3
U2

.11.2.

( VT1 V2),
V3, i0 .
V3 (. 1.16).
I0 , U2 R1, R2, R3, (1.9). U , V3 . i0
U
i0 I 0
cos t .
(11.1)
R3 r
, i0
, R3 r, ,

180

U
cos t.
R3

, ,
,
:
i0 VT1, V2 .
VT1 , i0
VT2.
, U0 4UT 100 , UT kT q ,
.
,
, I0 , . LC-
0, ,
(11.2)
u I 1R cos 0t ,
I1 ,

(11.1),

U
4
(11.3)
u I 0 R 1 cos t cos 0t .

I 0 R3

AM
m U I 0 R3 .
i0 I 0

11.1.1.
- ,
u t U 0 m cos t cos 0t , , . 11.3.

.
.

181

U
U(t)

U0=Const
A

Ucost
t
. 11.3.

. 11.4 , , , VT3,
i0.

.11.4.

+U1

L
VT1

VT2

Ucost

i1 i2

i0
C1

VT3

U0cos0t
R1

R2

R3

U2

2 0

(Ucost = 0)
VT3,
i0 S3U 0 cos 0t ,
1
S3
VT3
r3 R3
R3, -

182

VT1 VT2.
i1 i 2 , , .
,
VT1 VT2, i0 , .
,
.
11.2.
.
, . AM , .

,
n- . : C C0 1 U UT

12

0 -

U = 0,
UT .
:
KC Q.
Cmax
Cmin. (KC=Cmax/Cmin). KC 2...6, ( ),
15...20.


183

. , , . . 11.5 ,
.
. 11.6 ,
, .

104
U = 25 B

14
12

10

103 U = 3 B

8
6

r
R

U= 8 B

12 16

U, B

f ,

U= 1 B
102 10
100

1000

. 11.5. ) ;
) ;
)

U
. 11.6.

.
11.7. R1, R2
( ).
. ,
, , . Ucost, -

184

. L,
,

RS R1, R2.
2

R1

+U1

L
L

RS
R2
Ucost

R
U2

. 11.7.

, ,
.
.
.
,
. . 1933 . 2 .
(. 11.8).
, . 0, ( 01, 0, 02 1, , 2 0).

. 11.8. . 11.8 - u t U 0U cos t sin 0t ( B)
u(t) = U0cos0t ( 0).

D , . -

185

/2, M B1B2, 0.
U0sin0t
2

B2

Ucost

()

0B2

B1

0 0B1

. 11.8. )
; ) ;
) ,

( 0B1 0B2) . ,
(t) = 0(t) + (t)

tg t U 0U cos t U 0 U cos t .
Ucost
(t), D
0. , , . , . ,
.
. 11.8,
. ,
-

186

RC-
RC 1 . , .
11.3.
-2 .
0
u t U 0 sin 0t , 1
u t U 0 sin 0t U 0 sin 0t .
-2 , . 11.9.

b(t)

u (t)

U0sin(0t)
. 11.9. -2


, b(t)
1. b(t), -2 .
, -2
,
b(t). . 11.10 -2.

+1
b(t)
1

u (t)

. 11.10. -2

187

-2 -2
, , . 11.11. 2 (. 11.11), b x y
. 11.11. , z1,
, . . 11.12
.

b(t)

x
0
0
1
1

y
1

y
0
1
0
1

b
0
1
1
0

. 11.11.

, x,
,
0111001010. ( 0), . 11.12, ,
2
. 1,
,
.
x

. 11.12.

0, .
x (0111001010)
b (0101110011).

188

-4.
, , ,
. 10.9.
:
, I(t) ,
Q(t) .
I(t) Q(t) .
. 11.13 1100101101100001.
1

b(t)

I(t)

Q(t)
(t)

t
225

45

315

225

135

315

45

135

. 11.13. () I(t)
() Q(t) -4

b(t)
, -4, . 10.9. I(t), . I(t) = 1 1,
I(t) = +1 0 (.. b(t) = +1). Q(t), .
I(t) Q(t) .
-4 . 11.14.
u-4 t I t sin 0t Q t cos 0t .


t arctg Q I .

189

. 11.15 -4 ,
. 11.13.
I(t)
sin(0t)
u-4(t)

b(t)
Q(t)

. 11.14. -4

(t)
7
4
5
4
3
4
1
4

t
11

00

10

11

01

10

00

01


. 11.15.

-4

U0 -4 -

U 0 t I 2 t Q2 t .
, -4 ,
, . . .

190

11.4.
1. .

L2
VT1

0 1

+10
n w2 w1 0.5
VT2
Um0 = 0.6 B
Um = 0.6 B
R1 = 8.2 k
R2 = 1.8 k
R3 = 1.2 k

L1 C
1

U0cos0t
C2 0.1

Ucost

R1

VT
3
R2

L1C1

R = 5

R3
10 B

2. .

L2
VT1

0 1

+10
n w2 w1 1
VT2
Um0 = 0.6 B
Um = 10 B
R1 = 8.2 k
R2 = 1.8 k
R3 = 1.2 k

L1 C
1

Umcost
C2 0.1

Um0cos0t

R1

VT
3
R2

L1C1

R = 5

R3
10 B

3. (.11.8) = 2 1 ,
U = 0.78 .
4.
-4 1110100101.
5.
1110100101.

191

12.

,
.
12.1.
12.1.1.
-
, . . ,
.
. . 12.1 .
u = Ucost. , ,

Su u 0

i
,

0 u 0
S . . 12.1 .
r 1 S , ,
.

( U UT , UT kT q ) , = rC . , R
= RC. ,
, , R . , -

192

,
.
i
D
C

U0

t
u

U0

. 12.1. ) ;
) ; )

U0,
,
.

(. 12.1).
S U cos t U 0 u 0

i
.
u 0

0
,
,
K cos U 0 U .
(12.1)
K ,
U 0 U cos , .
R r SR , K
, rC
R,

193

U0.
(12.1)
K U 0 U I 0 R U
SR. I0:

1
S
I 0 i t d t U cos t U 0 d t
0
0

SU
S
U sin U 0 sin cos .

(12.1), , SR:
1 tg

.
(12.2)
SR


K cos SR . 12.2.

0
0.9 26

cos

. 12.2.



SR

0.8 36
0.7 45
0.6 53

1
tg

SR

0.5 60

1
3

SR 3

0.4 66
0.3 72
0.2 78
0.1 84
0
10 2 3 4 5

100

2 3 45

101

2 3 4 5 102

2 3 4 5 SR

1,
, , tg ,
1
3

,
(12.3)
SR 3
(12.3) . 12.2.
--
,
(. 12.3).
. 12.3 ,

194

(
. 209). ,

. 12.3. ,
.
U

UC(t)

)
t

. 12.3. AM :
) ;
) RC;
)


.
(12.2) SR.

2
sin cos
I 1 i t cos t d t SU
,
0

R U I 1 S sin cos .
(12.4)
. 2 , R 2 S , -

195

. 0 ( SR )
1 3
(12.4)
R 3
S 2
, (12.3),
(12.4)
R R 2 .
. , R r ,
, , , R. U 2 2R U 02 R ,
R U 0 U , (12.4).
. .
( R p 2 R ,
),
.
, .

, , U 0 U cos .
RC 1 .
R . C 1 R.
, .
RC 10 . RC ,

196



. , . 12.3. , dU dt dU dt .
,
RC. , dU dt dU dt , .

dU dt m sin t

dU dt 1 m cos t RC , cos t m ,
:

RC 1 m2 m .
(12.5)
m = 1
, , m 0.70.8. m = 0.7
1
RC 1 .
(12.5)

.
,
, , C (. 12.1).

, , ,
C C C .
,

197

:
RC 10, RC 1, C

C .

12.1.2.
(. 12.4)
R .
, C, , .
, ,
. D Cr C S ,
R RC.
K cos ,
, . 12.2.
+U

u(t)
R

u(t)
)

. 12.4. ) ;
)

. , , , . . 12.4

.
RC-, . 12.4,
LCR-.

198

, . ,

R
R ,
3
( SR 1 ).
12.2. -
-
, .

U
. ,
U S f f0 ,
S , /, . U S f f 0
.

AM 0 . ,
. . = 0
, . 12.5.
U

2
1
t

199

. 12.5.


.
,
, . , , .

. , .
. 12.6. , . . 1 = 0 max 2 = 0 + max. AM, . AM
. u1 u2 R1 R2. 1 2 (.
12.7). R1 R2
(. , ),
u, u2 1.
2

R2

R1

C
C

u2
u
u1

1
. 12.6.

2
2

. 12.7.
,

1
2 1
0

200

, . . , ,
. 12.7.
.

, . 12.8,
.
, , . U1 U2,
, U1, 0, U 2 2 U 2 2
. 90. L , . L.

. 12.8.
0
D1

U2
2 U1
2
L

L1
U1

L2 U
2

U2
2

D2

U2
2

U1

U2

U1

U2

. 12.8. ) ;
) ( 0 )

U1 U2 = 90, U1 U2 , -

201

, U U 1 U 2 cos , 0. 0,
, U 2 ,

(. 12.8), ,
Q k M L1L2 . U1 U2. U U 1 U 2 cos
.
0
, , ,
U1 U2 .
U x 2Q 0
1 x h 2 1 x h 2
2

U x kU 0

1 p

2 2

4x

(12.6)

k , U0 1- p = 0, p = kQ
, k M L1L2 ,
h p L2 L1 .
, ,
( ). . 12.9 . , ( = 1), , S dU dx x 0 , ,

S max kU 0 . , ,
= 23.

202

p=1 2

5 4 3 2 1
1 2 3 4 5

. 12.9.

12.3.

. , :
d t
.
U S t S
dt
.

(, ). . , , . ,
U1 U2, (. 12.10).
, ,

. , U U1 :
U U cos t , U1 U1 cos t .
(D1, R, C D2, R, C)
U 1 U 2 U12 2U U1 cos ,

203

U 2 U 2 U12 2U U1 cos .
U1

D1
U1

U 1

R C

U 2

U1 U

R C

U1

U1

U 1

D2

U 2

U1 U

. 12.10. ) ;
)

U k U 1 U 2 .

U1 = U = U ,
U 2U

1 cos 1 cos

(12.7)

2U cos sin .
2
2

U() 0 < < (. 12.10) . U1 U ,


. 12.10 U U1 .
12.4.
1934 ..
. .
.

204

,
, , .


u t U t cos 0t

u t U cos 0t (. 12.11).


u(t)

u(t)

u(t)=au(t)u(t)

. 12.11.


u t au t u t aU t U cos 2 0t

aU
aU
U t
U t cos 20t.
2
2
,
, 20.
.
RC-.

Fmax f 1 2RC
f0 ,
Fmax ,
f ,
f0 .
aU

U t .
2
,

205

- , > 1,
.
- U t U 0 1 mU M t U 0 (UM(t) )
.
(,
1 2Fmin , Fmin
).
,
0. ,
U cos t .

aU
aU
U cos 0 t
U cos 0 t .
2
2
, RC-, 0 1 1 0 R 2C 2 , ,
2


aU1
U

.
2
2
1 R 2C 2


LC-.
, Q, 0

1 2Q 0 0 .
,
, ,
,

2

U0

206

0 RC
(12.8)
f 0 RC .
2

(12.9)
f f0 Q 1 RC .
,
RC-, ,
, . : 1 RC Fmax .
, 0.

.

iK1 I K eu1 UT , iK 2 I K eu2 UT , iK1 iK 2 i0 , u1 u2 u , Q


iK1 iK 2 i0 th u 2UT .

, U UT , th u 2UT 1 , ,
i0 ,

.
,

u U cos 0t
4
1
1

(12.10)
cos 0t cos30t cos50t ... .

3
5

. 12.12. (. 11.2). ,
, RC-.
uon Uon cos 0t , U > 4UT, . iK1 iK 2 i0

207

.
(12. 11)
u U 0 1 m cos t cos 0t
V3, ,
,

.
+U1
R

iK1 iK2

I0

u
C

VT1
Ucos0t

VT2
I0
i0

2 0

C1
VT3
U0
R3

u
R1

R2

R3
U2

mU 0
R3

. 12.12.

V3
(12.12)
i3 i0 I 0 u R3 .
i0 (12.12) (12.10), ,
:
I0 (. 12.12) , (. 12.12).
R-,
, .
(12.11) (12.12)

208

2 U0
(12.13)
1 m cos t R .
R3

,
2 R
(12.14)
u
mU 0 cos t .
R3
,
U
2 R
(12.15)
K ,
mU 0 R3
R R3
.
.
, , . 12.12

(12.16)
uon Uon sin 0t
U UT ,
u(t):
u U cos 0t auM t .
(12.17)
uK

U cos 0t auM t
u
.
(12.18)
I0
R3
R3

u U sin 0t ,
i0 I 0

:
2 R
(12.19)
uK
U sin auM t .
R3

(auM (t) < 30), :
2 R
uK
auM t U .
(12.19)
R3
, .

209

,
[u(t) = 0]
90. 0.

. ( 1 max ,
max ).
, u(t):
t

(12.20)
u U cos 0t a uM d .
0

(12.19)
t

2 R
uK
a uM d U .
R3 0

, uK :
d uK

2 R
(12.21)
auM t U .
dt
R3
, ,
90.
, , , .
, 0 , 30, 50 ..,
i0 , (. (12.10)).
, , , i0, ,
30, 50
..,
.
u

210


, 0.
12.5.

-2 . ,
,
, , ,
1. , , .
.
. . 1932 . -2 .
" ": -2
, ,
, ,
, -2 .
" ",
,
. , .

" " . . -2 , .
( 10.1.5), , ,
, .

, (.11.11). . 12.13 .

211

b(t)

20

z1

. 12.13.

.
,
. , . 12.14,
.
0

. 12.14.

,
0101110010 0111001011.
, 0101110010
1010001101. . 12.15 .
,
,
( , ).
,
. .

212

, .
1

. 12.15.

. , , 0111001011. , 0101110010. ,
, 0101010010.
(. 12.16).
0

. 12.16.

12.6.
1.
F, , m 0.7 ,
u t 5 1 m sin 2 Ft sin 2 ft .

r = 100 ,
= 1 , R = 20 .

D
C

213

2. u(t)

u t 5 1 0.5sin 2104 t sin 2106 t .


0.1

R 100

u(t)
u(t)

r = 200

0.1

R
10

3. , u(t)

u t 5 102 1 0.5sin 2104 t sin 2106 t ,.

f = 1 ,
R = 10 ,
Q0 = 200,
p 1 2 ,
h21 = 100.

R
1

+10
0.1

u(t)
10

R 100
u(t)
R
10

0.1

4.
U , u1 A cos t , u2 B cos t .
A

u1

B, B

D C

A, A B .

u2

U
C

u1

214

5. .
+U1
R

u
U0cos0t

VT1

VT
3
R1

R2

u 0.3 cos 2103 t cos 0t

i0

C
1
u

VT2

R = 2
R1 = 9.1
R2 = 1.8
R3 = 0.5
= 10
U0 = 0.5
U1 = U2 = 10

R3
U2

215

13.

. , . . .
13.1.
. 13.1 ,
. :
u U cos 0t , , , , u U cos t .
, () = |0 |. , , .
.
u

u = Ucos0t
u = Ucos(t)

= 0
+U

U0

. 13.1.


, ,
. ,

216

,
.
iK f u , , ,

iK f u u U 0 .
i u:
1
2
(13.1)
iK f U 0 u f U 0 u u f U 0 u u
...
2

, :
f U 0 u I K t I K0 I K1 cos t I K2 cos 2t ... ,

f U 0 u S t S0 S1 cos t S2 cos 2t ... .


u. (13.1):
iK I K t S0 S1 cos t S2 cos 2t ...U cos 0t .
0, , 2,
3, , 0 n.
= 0
1
i I K t S1U cos t .
2
, S1U 2 ,
. S1 2 , S, :
1
(13.2)
S S1 .
2

(
U0). .
u

217

uU

i h21 i h21 I 0 e T 1 .

h21
di
UT
S

I 0 e
du UT
:

U 0 u t

u t

h
S t 21 I 0 e UT S0 e UT ,
UT
S0 ( ).
cos t

2
U
1
S1 S0e UT
cos t d t 2S0 J1 ,
(13.3)
0
UT
J1(x) 1- .
,
1
(13.4)
S S1 S0 J1 U UT .
2

U UT 1

J1 U UT U 2UT ,
1 U
.
(13.5)
S0
2
UT
, U
, ,
U UT 1 .

J1 U UT exp U UT

S0 exp U UT
2U UT

U
UT

Smax
2U U T

Smax .

218

(13.6)


, . ,
R
R
R
,
1 h21 1 h21
R , R . :
Smax
.
(13.7)
S
2 1 Smax R U UT
.
, (13.1),
u, , .
|0 |, |0 |.
0
,
. ,
f0 = 751 f = 500 f = f0 f = 251 .
()
f = 2f0 4 f = 1502 1004 = 498 .

f = 500 4 , ,
, 500
498 , 2 .

, ,

219

.
, .
,
01 = 02 = + .
, . (. 13.2).

. 13.2.

, , , 01 . 02,
,
, , .
,
.
, . , ,
S . ,
() .
13.2.


u t U t cos 0t t
,

220

u t U cos t .

u t ku t u t kU t U cos 0t cos t

1
= kU t U cos 0 t
2
1
kU t U cos 0 t .
2

(0) (0+). ,
, , , .
= 0 . ( U(t) (t))
.
13.3.
. , . 1914 , , ;

. ,
()
,
. ,

, . ( ) ,
, . . , , ,

. -,
, , -

221

.

(). ,

, , . . 13.3. ,
().

. 13.3.

,
.
, ,
0 .
( = 0). .
13.4.
1.
: 10, f =
500 , f = 600 , .

222

2.
, ?
3. .

L2
VT1

+10
VT2

L1
C1

U0cos0t
C2 0.1
VT3
Ucos t

R1

R2

R3
10 B

223

1 L1C1 0
R = 5
w1 w2 1
R1 = 8.2 k
R2 = 1.8 k
R3 = 1.2 k
U0 = 10 B
U = 0.6 B

14.
14.1.
,
. ,
.
,
. (, ) , .

, , . , ( 1/f).


.
R :
en2 4kTRf ,
k = 1,381023 /K ,
,
f .
4kT, 1.621020 2/(), , ..
1 1 .
, , 10 , = 293 K
1.3 , 10 .

224


, , , , .
:
in2 2qI f ,
q = 1.61019 , I .
, I = 10 f = 10 , ,
5.7 .

-
-
,
, .. 1/f. 1/f 103 .
, .
, 1 1 2 .
, 20 1 2 , 1 1 2 .

, ,
/ , / . , ,
,
. , , 10 20
2 5 .

225

14.2. .

(t),
. x (, +).
, . . , .
14.2.1. .

() p(x)d ,
(x, x + dx). . 14.1 ()
, :
U2
1
p1 U
exp 2 ,
(14.1)
2
2

U2
U
p2 U 2 exp 2 ,
(14.2)
2

U , .
F(x), ,
z :

F x p z x

p z dz .

F(x) , .
F(x) ()

226

p x

dF x
dx

p()
0.6
1
2
0.4
1
1

0.2
1
0

0 1

. 14.1. (1) (2)


= 1

,
(1, 2) :
p x1 x x2

x2

p x dx F x2 F x1 .

x1

(13.1)
z

2
exp z 2 dz ,
2
. , ,
(, )
0.683, (2, 2) 0.954 (3, 3)
0.997.

- , t1, t2, ... t. , (1, 2) (1, 2)d1 d2

227

, t1 (1, x1+dx1), t2 (2, x2+dx2).


14.2.2.

x
.
, ,
x xp x dx ,
() ,
.
, (14.1):

U2
1
U
U
exp
2 dU 0 ,

2
2
(14.2):

U2
1

U 2 U 2 exp 2 dU
.

2

2
, , .

x . 2x
2x x x x x p x dx ,
2

, 2x x 2 x .
, .. , , :
2

x x2 x .
2

228

U
2

U2
2
2
U
exp
2 dU .

2
2
1

U 0, U2 U 2 U 2 2 U .

U2
3
2
U
exp
2 dU 2 ,
2
0
2

, U2 2 2 U 2 0.655 .
2
2


() ,
, , 0,655
.
U
2

14.3. .
14.3.1.
x x x
. x1 x t x x2 x t x ,
, . x(t) = x x(t+) = x,
()

x x x x .
x x ,
x x x .
:
.
2

= 0 :

0 x2 x 2x
2

229

(14.4)

: . . , .
R() :
R

xx x

.
(14.5)
2
x2 x
, x 0 .
0

xx , R xx x2 .

t t + . = 0, = , R(0) = 1. , xx x x 0 , R() = 0. , R() = 0, ,
. ,
,
. c,
> c . c

c R d .

(14.6)

,
.
14.3.2.
S()
:

230

exp j d .

(14.7)

1
S exp j d .
2

(14.8)

= 0, (0) = 2 , ,

1
S d .
2

(14.9)

2 ,
()
1 . S d 2 , +d. S() , . 2/.
() , . ,
S(), (), .
,
(14.7) (14.8) :

S 2 cos d ,

(14.10)

1
S cos d .
0

(14.11)

, (14.7)(14.11) S() , S() = S(). S+(), : S+() = 2S().


(14.10) (14.11)

231

S 4 cos d ,

(14.12)

1
S cos d .
2 0

(14.13)

, , (14.12) (14.13).
14.3.3.
, S+() = N0 0 . (14.8) S N0 2 ,
:

N0 1
N

exp jt d 0 t .

2 2
2

(14.14)

(14.14) ,

.
14.4.
, , . , ,
, , ,
:

. .
K(j),
.
, N0,

232

S N0 K j .
2

S () 0 :

N
1
S d 0

2 0
2

K j

d ,

()
(14.13).
2 K(j) ( ) ,
. |K(j)| (. 14.2 ).
, .

n y 2 d ,

(14.15)

y K j K j

max

. , ,

f n y 2 f df
0

n
.
2

(14.15)

. 14.2
,
.
14.4.1.

(. 14.2) 0 fc.
(14.13),
fc
sin 2f
N0 cos 2f df N 0 f c
.
(14.16)
2f
0

233

()

y(f)
1
)
0

fc

1
2 fc

1
2 fc

1
f n

()

y(f)
2

1
)
0

f1

f0

f2

f n

1
f n

y2(f)

()

2 e
0

2
1
2RC 2RC
1
f n
4 RC y2(f)

c=RC

()

2 e

f0
2Q

f0
2Q

0
f n

ff0

0
c

f0
2Q

Q
f0

. 14.2. ,
: )
, ) , ) RC-,
)

234


2 0 N 0 f c .
(14.17)
(14.17) , N0
1 , f N0 f
f .
14.4.2.

(. 14.2) f1 f2.
f2

N 0 cos 2f df
f1

f n f 2 f1

(14.18)

cos 2f 0 ,
f n
,

N 0 f n

sin f n

f 0 f1 f 2 2 .

2 0 N0 f n N0 f 2 f1 .
14.4.3. R-
R- (. 14.2)

1
,
K j
1 2T 2
= R .
(14.15)

df
1
f n

.
(14.19)
2
4T
0 1 2fT
fn f0.7 1 2T , K j 0,707:
f n

f 0.7 1.57 f 0.7 .


2

235

N cos 2f
0
df N0 f n exp T .
2
0 1 2f
2 0 N0 f n .
(14.6)

c exp T d T RC ,
0

.. ,
.
14.4.4. L-
LC- Q 1 (. 14.2)
1
,
y f
2

f f0
1 2Q

f0

Q .
(14.15)

f
(14.20)
f n y 2 f df 0 .
2 Q
0
f0/Q
0.707, (14.20) :

(14.20)
f n f 0.7 .
2
R-, 1,57
0.707 (. 14.2).

N 0 cos 2f

df N 0 f n exp cos 2f 0 , (14.21)
2

f f0
0
1 2Q

f0

f0 Q .

236

2 N0 f n .
, , c 1 Q f0 , .
14.5.
1. ,

N N0 exp a2 .

2. ?
?
3.
RC-
N0, R1.
4. /
RC- = 1.6105,

2 , u = 2sin(2104t)

N0 104 2 .
5.
R1

+ 10
R1 = 500
R2
R2 = 1
u
C = 50
h21 = 200
C

237


, .

15.
15.1.

, , .
, (
),
.
, . ,

[10]:
U
1

p U 2 exp 2 U 2 U S2 I 0 U SU 2 .
(15.1)

U ,
US ,
,
I0(x) .
,
US = 0, ,
(14.2),

U2
1

U 2 U 2 exp 2 dU
.
0
2
2
, ,

q2
q2 q2
q2

U SN
exp I 0 q 2 I 0 I1 ,
2
2 2
2
2
I1(x) ,
q US
2 /.

238

, /
,
2 , US (
). , /
,

, /
.

, ,
, . , q, ..
/ , .
,

. q , , kUS, .
15.2.


.
/
.

u t U 0 1 m cos t cos 0t .
( 1 )
PS U 02 2 .

, ,

239

PS PS m2 ,
m .
m = 1
PS PS .

, f,
N0,
Pn N0 f n .


Pn Pn N0 f n .
,

(15.2)
PS Pn PS Pn .

, / .

f t f 0 f m cos t .
1 :

PS m Fmax 2 ,
2

m f m Fmax
. df
dPn N0 df .

df ( 1 )
U n N0 df ,
df

U n m 2 N0 df .

240

, , (. 15.1)
,
n m U n m U 0 2 N0 df U 0 .
dn , ,
.
2
N f f 0 df
2 F 2
2 N 0 dfF
,
dPn n m
0
2
2
2U 0
U 02
F .
2

(15.3)

Un m

. 15.1.
,
df

U0
mn

,
fn.
,
Fmax. f0 Fmax f0+ Fmax:
f0 Fmax
3
N0
2 N0 Fmax
2
Pn
f

f
df

.
(15.4)

0
U 02
3U 02
f0 Fmax
,

PS
P

PS
2
3 m2 S .
(15.5)

3 m
2 N0 2 Fmax
P
Pn AM

241

/

/
(15.6)
B 3 2m .

/
B 3 m .
(15.7)
,
m = 1. , . . , / , . , m = 1,
m .
(15.6) (15.7) /
/ ,
, . (S /n) < 2 / .
15.3.

- ,
, . , ,
.
.

,
.

. , ,

242

.
, , , ,
.

,
.
15.3.1.
, , h(t).
x(t)
u t

u h t d .

(15.8)

hu(t) , t0 u t0 . , ,
, .
u t0

t0

u h t

d -

.
12

h
t

hu2 t0 d .
(15.9)


u 0

,
:
hu t0 ku ,
(15.10)
k .
t = t0 ,
hu (t ) ku t0 t .
(15.11)
,
, [

243

t (15.11)]. , (t) t0. . 15.2 hu (t) u(t) u,


t = 0.
(t)

(t)

(t)
hu (t)

t0

. 15.2.

. 15.2,
: .
t < 0, . .
- .
:
.
15.3.2.
v t , u(t), .
u t

v h

t d

k v u t0 t d

244

k v u t t0 d .

(15.12)

uv t t0 (t) v t , ..
(15.13)
u t k uv t t0 .
t0

:

u t0 k v u d .

(15.14)

, v t = (t), . .
, . (15.13) ,
u t k u t t0 ,
(15.15)
u t t0 (t), . .

, t0.
. 15.3
t0 = .
kU 02 u

u
U 02 u

U0

t
2

. 15.3. ,
: ) ; )
; ) ,

245

15.3.3.
, (15.11)

K j k u t0 t exp jt dt .

(15.16)

= t0 t,

K j k exp jt0 u exp j d

=k exp jt0 u exp j d .

(15.17)

:
*
K j kS
(15.18)
exp jt0 .
,
,
. k (15.18) , . t0 .
(jt0)
t0.
15.3.4.

, ,
, ,
.
, . .
, . (, ),
,
.

246


.
. ,
[. (15.15)]

2
k
(15.19)
u max kE
S d

2
( ) t0,

.
,

.
15.3.5

, ,
(t),
n(t), N0/2.
, ,
.

u 2 t
(15.20)
q 2 0 ,
n
. (15.19).

2
N
2n 0 K j d
(15.21)
4
(15.18)
N0/2 E:

247

kN0
*
(15.22)
S S d ,
4
(15.19) (15.22) ,
/
2
.
(15.23)
q
N0
(15.20)
, , /
.
,
/ .
2n

15.4.
1 ,

t 0,
0

s t exp t 0<t <T , .


0
t T

t0?
2 1
, = 300 K.
,
/ 10?
3 , /, .

248

16.
(
Phase-Locked Loop, PLL) ,
,
,
, . .
, , :

,

,
() -, -, -, - (, , , )
.

, .

.

, .
.

.

.

249

16.1.
.16.1.

u(t)= u(t)
(t)
(t)

,
u1(t) u (t)
2
u(t)= u(t)

()
()
()

. 16.1.

.
,
. , ,
( ). . u(t) u(t) .
,
.
, (. 16.2), .
, ,
/2. ()
, . , : u1 = UU sin. , . 16.2.
()
- .
( ),
( ).

250

()
.
:

. ,
f = F(u2) ,
f f
.
u1

u(t)

u1

/2

u(t)

/2

/2

u(t)
)

. 16.2. )
) (= (t) (t))

,
.
f f 103 104 .
, .
. 16.3 , : ,
.
3 :
u(t) u(t) (. 16.3 ),
u(t) u(t) (. 16.3 ),
u(t) u(t) (. 16.3 ).
(. 16.3) u
,
u1 .
.

251

u(t) u(t)

u1(t)

)
t
u(t)

u(t)

u1(t)

)
t
u(t)

u(t)

u1(t)

)
t

. 16.3. ,


(. 16.3 ), u(t) u(t)
,
, . ,
, .

.

, ,
. ,
(
),
.
. ,
.

252

16.2.
,
, .

. ,
, .
. 16.4.
K(p) U(p)
U(p)
K p

U p
U p

(16.1)

.
R1

R0
U(p)

R1

U(p) U(p)

U(p) U(p)
R2

C0

U(p)

C2

R2

C1
C2

. 16.4. ,

, , (. 16.4 )
Z2 p
1 pC0 1 ,
K1 p

(16.2)
Z1 p Z 2 p R0 1 pC0 1 0 p
Z1 p R0 , Z 2 1 pC0 , 0 = R0C0.
- , . 16.4 , Z1 p R1 , Z 2 R2 1 pC2
K1 p

Z2 p

R2 1 pC2

1 2 p
,
1 3 p

(16.3)
Z1 p Z 2 p R1 R2 1 pC2
2 = R2C2, 3 = (R1+ R2)C2.
-
(. 16.4)

253

Z1(p) = R1, Z 2

1 pC R
1

1 pC2

1 pC1 R2 1 pC2

1 1 p
(16.4)
,
1 2 p 3 p2
1=R2C2, 2=R2C2 +R1(C1 + C2), 3=R1R2C1C2.

p
(16.5)
K p
.
U2 p
,
u2(t) (t).
,
u2(t)

(. 16.5):
(t) = Su2(t),
(16.6)
S .

K2 p

u2
. 16.5.

(16.6)
(t) u2(t), (16.5)
(t) .

d t
(16.7)
t
.
dt
(t) (16.6) (16.7) ,
d t
Su2 t .
(16.8)
dt

254

(16.8)
(16.9)
p p SU 2 p .
(16.9) .
p S
(16.10)
K p
.
U2 p p

(16.10) , , , , ,
.
16.3.
, , . . . .

, ( = 1) :
0
(1, j0),
( 1 . 16.6); ,
( 2
. 16.6).
(. 16.7)
K p K p K p K p ,

K( p)= Uc UK ,
K( p) ,
K( p) .

255

jV()
=
1

=0

U()
1
2

. 16.6.

.
( p)
( p)

K( p)

K( p)

K( p)

( p)
. 16.7.

-

1
1 2 p S
K p U c U

.
(16.11)
1 0 p 1 3 p p
(16.11), p j,
.
1
1 j2 S
S
K j U c U

K j. (16.12)
1 j0 1 j3 j j
(16.12)
S
S
K ( j) =
K j
U () jV () .
(16.13)
j
j
U() V()

256


1 0 32 2 0 3 2

U U c U
,
2 2
2 2

0
3
0
3

1 0 32 2 0 3

.

c

2 2
2 2
1

03 0 3

(16.14)


U() V() = 0 = .
= 0, U(0) = Uc U, V(0) = 0.
= , U() = 0, V() = 0.
K'(j) , . 16.8 .

K(j)
1

jV()
=
Uc U
0
U()
K'(j)

=0

. 16.8.

K'(j), . 16.8, -
K(j).
(16.13),
S
S
K j
K j j K j .
(16.15)
j

K(j)
, - K'(j), S

257

2 .

- K(j), . 16.8 ,

,
1, j0. , , . , ,
S. S
- 1, j0, ,
.
16.4.

,
(. 16.7).
:
p p p ,
(16.16)

p p K p ,

(16.17)

K p K p K p K p .
(16.16), (16.17)
p p , :
( p)

p p

K p

1 K p

(16.18)

( p)

1
.
(16.19)
1 K p
(16.18) (16.19)
(t) (t)
(t).
p p

258

" " " "


(. 16.9).
p 1 p ,
(t) ,
d t
(16.20)
t
.
dt
(t)

(t)

(t)

. 16.9.

, t const ,
(16.20)

(16.21)
p p .
p
(16.21)

(16.22)
p 2 .
p
16.5.

- . (16.18) p 1 p
K p K p K p K p U c U

259

1
1 2 p S

,
1 0 p 1 3 p p

1
1 2 p S

1
1 0 p 1 3 p p
p

p 1 U U 1 1 2 p S
c

1 0 p 1 3 p p
U c U

(16.23)

U c U S 1 0 p
1

.
p S 1 2 p U c U p 1 0 p 1 3 p
(16.23) .
(16.23)
1 A p
p
,
(16.24)
p B p
, ,
A 0 n A pi
t

e pi t .
(16.25)

B 0 i 1 pi B pi

(16.25)
, , , . , , t .
A 0
limt t
1.
B 0
,

.

,
(16.25), pi (16.23).

B(p) = 0,
S 1 2 p U c U p 1 0 p 1 3 p 0 .
(16.26)
,
, , -
.

(t).

260

, (16.19).
(t) .
(16.19) p 1 p K( p).

p p

1
1
1

1 K p p 1 U U 1 1 2 p S
c

(16.27)
1 0 p 1 3 p p

C p
1 0 p 1 3 p

.
U c U S 1 2 p p 1 0 p 1 3 p D p

C p

,
D p


n
C pi pi t
(16.28)
t
e .
i 1 D pi
(16.28) ,
( t )
(, ), , , limt t 0 .
, (t) = 1(t)
. , ,
.

t ( ) t
. 16.10.
, , () , . . K3 p S p .
.

261

(t)

0.5

t
(t)
1
0.5

0.5

. 16.10. )
, )

16.6.


(t) " ".
,
(16.22); ,

p 2 , (16.19),
p

262

p p

1
2

1 W p p 1 U U 1 1 2 p S
c

1 0 p 1 3 p p

(16.29)

1 0 p 1 3 p

A p

.
p U c U S 1 2 p p 1 0 p 1 3 p
p B p


A 0 n A pi

e pi t .
B 0 i 1 pi B pi

, t

A 0

.
(16.30)
limt t

B 0 U c U S
, S .
(t) " " t const ( ) . 16.11. , t k t ("
") ,
(16.30).

u2(t) , .
, ,
, (16.30). S , ,
. ,


.

263

(t) (t)

()
(t)

(t)

(t)

()
t
. 16.11. )
, )

16.7.
, ,
,

.
,

. ,
, .
, , .

264

, ,
( ).
0
.
. 16.12. ,
45,
= 0 ,
.
.

. 16.12.



,
, 45, 0 = , ( ). ( = 0), 0 = + . ( ),
.
0 >

265

0 = + , , 0 =
.
= .
, (16.30)

.
limt t
U c U S
() . ,
(16.31)
U c U S
()

.

. "" .
"" ()
"" , .
16.8.
1. , . ?
2. , . ?
3.
?
4
1 , 1 1 , : U = 2 , S = 10 .

266


1. .. .
. 4-. .: , 2005.
2. .., .. : . .: , 1994.
3. .., .. . : . .:
, 1978.
4. .., .., .. . / . .. .
.: , 1982.
5. .., .. :
. .: , 1980.
6. .. . .:
, 2006.
7. .. . .: ,
2012.
8. .. . .:
, 2005.
9. ., . . 2 . .: , 2008.
10. ., . . 3- .
.: , 1993.
11. .., ..
. .: . 1989.

267

268