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( )

..

2003 .

. :
z- . ,
. MATLAB.

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L,

13
1.6
0.2
8
0.3
4
L,

0.26
1
0.16
L,

2,5
0.63
8.4
L1,

18
9.5
10

C,

2
4
5
3
6
10
C,
R1,

24
50
24
200
70
80
C1,
C2,

1
9
0.5
9.5
2
10
L2,
C,

2
22
0.5
24
1.5
5

R,

80
16
10
100
6
24
R2,

100
200
50
R,

16
12
50
R,

9
7
32

. z-.
.
.
. z-.
. z-.
. z-.

1
1
1
2
2
2

.
. z-.
. z-.

3
3
3

.
. z-.
.

4
4
4

. z-.
. z-.
. z-.

5
5
5

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27


C1,
C2,

0.002 0.01
0.006 0.02
0.002 0.01
C1,
C2,

0.003 0.003
0.004 0.004
0.005 0.005
C1,
C2,

0.002 0.002
0.007 0.007
0.004 0.004
C,

0.01
0.01
0.005

R1,

7.5
4.3
30
R1,

4.7
3.9
4.3
R1, R2,

30
51
22
R1,

5.1
2.2
3.9

2.2
1.6
3

R2,

18
12
51
R2,

39
43
62
R3,

.
.
. z-.

6
6
6

. z-.
. z-.
. z-.

7
7
7

. z-.
.
.

8
8
8

. z-.
. z-.
. z-.

9
9
9

130
150
100
R2,

75
82
62

1/(LC)

K(p) =

p2 +p/(RC) +1/(LC)

w0 =1/ LC
p2

K(p) =

2
L

p2 +p/(RC)+1/(LC)

w0 = 1/ LC

p/(R1C)

K(p) =

R1

R2

p(R1+R2) 1
+
LC
R1 R2C

p2 +

w0 =1 / LC
C1

C1

C2

K(p)=

(p2+

C1+C2

LC1
p

p+
+
R(C1+C2) L(C1+C2)
w0=1/L(C1+C2)

p +

L1
C

L2

K(p)=

p2 +

p
+
RC

L1C
L1+L2
L1L2C

w0= (L1+L2)/(L1L2C)

R1

R2

K(p) =

C2
+

C1

b0
p2 + b1p + b0

b0= 1/( R1R2C1C2)


b1= (1/C2)(1/R1+1/R2)
w0= b0



p2

R1

K(p)=

C2

C1

R2

p2 + b1p +b0

b0=1/(C1C2R1R2)

b1=(1/R2)(1/C1+1/C2)
w0= b0

C1

K(p)=

R3

p2 +b1p +b0

a1= 1/(R1C1)

C2

R1

a 1p

b1= (1/R3)(1/C1+1/C2)

b0= (1/(R3C1C2))(1/R1+1/R2)

R2

w0= b0

R1R2

+ R

+
-

R1R2C2

K(p)=
2

p2 +
2p

p+

1
+

R2C

R1R2C2

w0= 1/(C R1R2)

2 C


-
:
b0pm +b1pm-1 ++bkpm-k ++bm
K(p) =
m n,
a0pn +a1pn-1 ++akpn-k ++an ,
bk ak
, n . , zk
pk:
K(p) =

K0 (p z1)(p z2)(p zm)


(p p1)(p p2)(p pn)

()
:
K(z) =

b0 + b1z 1 + + bkz k ++ bMz M


a0 + a1z 1 ++ akz k +aNz N

a0=1, max(M,N) , bk ak
.
.
z :
2 z1
p=
T z+1,
.
.


:
rk

K(z) =
k=1

1 - epkT z 1

rk = Res K(p)
p=pk

pk, - .
:
g [n] = ga (nT).


1. ,
-, , K(p)
w0.
2 . . :
w02 ,
p w0. .
3 . . MATLAB. Command Window
. ,
2p + 1
K(p) =

p +3p+2.5
:
>> b=[2 1];
>> a=[1 3 2.5];
>> [k,w]=freqs(b,a);
>> plot (w, abs(k)/ max(abs(k))), grid
>> figure
>> zplane(b,a)

, ,
>>. Enter.
,
freqs, plot,
zplane.
, :
>> plot (w, 20*log10(abs(k)/ max(abs(k)))), grid
Figure No.1, Figure No.2. - , ,
Windows. , w/w0, w /.
:
>> [r,p,kk]=residue(b,a);
>> t=0:0.1:10;
>> g=r(1)*exp(p(1)*t)+r(2)*exp(p(2)*t);
>> figure
>> plot(t,g), grid
Figure No. 3 . , , t=0:0.1:100. ,
1/w0 .
, .
4.
Fs. , [0,
Fs/2] (Fs/2 ). , f > Fs/2
. (Fs/w0).
w0/. Fs w0 >> MATLAB.
5.
.
MATLAB :
>> [bz, az]= bilinear(b,a,Fs/w0)
- z ,
>> [bz, az]= impinvar(b,a,Fs/w0)
- .
6

.
6.
>> fdatool
fdatool, , . Import Filter Filter. Design
Filter fdatool Import Filter.
Numerator Denominator, bz
az, MATLAB . Sampling Frequency Fs, Units. ,
. ,
0.2 0.42z 1 +0.05z 2
K(z) =

1+ 0.18z 1 0.24z 2 + 0.081z 3

Numerator [0.2 0.42 0.05], Denominator


[1 0.18 0.24 0.081].
Import Filter. .
.
, .

- (, magnitude response),
(, phase response),
,
x (group delay),
(impulse response),
(step response),
(pole/zero plot),
(filter coefficients).
zoom in
. , , ,
. , .

7

, zoom out .
, ,
, .
0.707 (3 ) ( ; 0.1 20 , 0.03 30 , 0.01 40 , 0.003 50 ). . :
>> [kz,wz]=freqz(bz,az,whole);
>> w=wz*Fs/w0;
>> k=freqs(b,a,w);
>> plot(w, abs(k)/max(abs(k)),r), grid
>> hold on
>> plot(w, abs(kz)/max(abs(kz)),b)
>> hold off
- ,
.
7.
( ) ( .doc, 6).
8. , .6, ,
, .5. fdatool.
MATLAB:
>> fdatool
<Enter>.
fdatool.

, , (Current Filter Information);
( ) (Filter Specifications), Design
Filter , , , ,
, . ,
(Set Quantization Parameters).
Design Filter
Filter Type : Lowpass (), Highpass
(), Bandpass () Bandstop (). Design Method. , -
(IIR Infinite Impulse Response),
(Batterworth (), Chebyshev Type I (), Chebyshev Type II ( ), Elliptic ()).
8

z-.
(-, FIR Finite Impulse
Response) : Equiripple ( , ), Least-Squares (
), Window (
) .
Filter Order Minimum order (
).
Filter Specifications Magnitude Specifications.
.
(Filter Specifications). Fs,
(Fpass Fstop),
(Apass Astop).
Design Filter, . , .
9. , .5, fdatool (. .6). (Filter Structure), .
. Turn quantization on Quantization, . Set quantization parameters ( ). ,
Convert structure, Current Filter Information,
.
: Direct form I (), Direct form II (), Direct form I
transposed ( ), Direct form II transposed
( ), Second-order sections (). Set Quantization Parameters , .
Format Coefficient (Convert coefficient to) ( , ). . , [16 15] , 16,
15 ( ,
). ,
( ). ,
[b a] , , ,
(
),
. , (
9

). ( )
. ,
, . , Apply. Apply. , .
: (Reference)
(Quantized).
( Zoom In
Zoom Out), , . ,
. ,
, 1 . , , .
(, , , ).

, , , . [16 15] [8 7].
, [4 3],
, [12 11] , ..,
.

, -
( , , , ). Current Filter Information fdatool (Stable: Yes Stable: No).
, ,

.
10. .

10

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