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11
2006

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2-,

2009

517
()22.16
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. . ( ),
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. . ( ), . .

43

/ . . . (). .: , 2009.
. 11: . I / . . 212 .
ISBN 5-98419-030-3

. . . .
, . . . -
.
. . ,
- 19962006 .

ISBN 5-98419-030-3

c

. . . , 2009
c . ., 2009

1.
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6. .
1.7. . . . . .
1.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.9.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.10. . . . . . . . . . .

7
7
11
16
21
25
34
35
39
41
42

2.
2.1. . . . . .
2.2. , . .
2.3. . . . . . . . . .
2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5. . . . . . .
2.6. e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8. .
2.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50
50
52
54

3.
3.1. . . . . . . .
3.2.
3.3. . .
3.4. . . . . . . . .
3.5. . . .
3.6. . . . .
3.7. . . . . . .

72
72
74
78
82
83
84
86

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56
58
61
62
65
68

4.
4.1. . . . . . . .
4.2. . . . . . . . .
4.3. ,
4.4. . . .
4.5. . . . . .
4.6. . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7. . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8. . . . . . . .

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90
90
92
94
98
101
104
109
114

5.
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3. . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4. . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.

118
118
125
130
133
137

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6.
145
6.1. . . . . . . . . . . 145
6.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
6.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
6.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
6.5. . . . 170
6.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
6.7. , . . . . . . . . . 181
6.8. . . . . . . . . 188
7.
7.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2. . . . . . . . . . .
7.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

196
196
200
203

, 209


15
.
. . . , .
. . . . .
19962006 ..
- .

, .
. . , .
, .
.
, , (
All),
, ( Exist),
: , , , ,
:= .
, .
: A
B, A ,
B, B A.
, , ,
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5


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. ,
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20022004 -
, I, II, III
IV .

I .
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.

,
. . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . .
, , .
2008 .

. .

1.
1.1.
( , ) . (. . , ),
, , .
. , 1
2, , . . .
, 1.
, . O
OE, O. O
0, E 1.
E , , 2, 3, . . . , O, ,
1, 2, . . . .
, . n = 2, 3, . . . OE n
, m/n, O m
1/n. O.
,
.
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,
O 2.
,
7

. 1.

,
.

. , . ,
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,
A .
A O
. a0 a0 +1, A. ,
A, a0 .
a0 a0 + 1 10
0
9. 1/10 ,
A (, A
, )
, . , ( ,
A )
, A.
, A
. , , A :

0
a0

2
A

9
a0+1

, A ,
2, , , 1.
, : .

1.1.

, A a0 , 2,
, . . a0 , 2000 . . . .
, A a0 , 1, ,
. . a0 , 1999 . . . = a0 , 1(9).
,
, ,
, . ,
, .
O
,
a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . , a0 , a1 a2 . . . .
, ( O), , (. .
) .
.
, 0 9
. .
a0 , a1 a2 . . .
.
a0
, .
, 10
, a1 1/10, .
, ,
, 10 . .

10

. 1.

, .
.
,
.
. () a0 , a1 a2 . . . ,
: + , a0
, a1 , a2 , . . . 0 9.
a0 , a1 . . . am (9), am 6= 9,
, a0 , a1 . . . am1 d000 . . . , m- d am + 1.

a = a0 , a1 a2 . . . , +. 0 0, 000 . . . , + ,
.
a, b, c, . . .

:
a = a0 , a1 a2 . . . ;

b = b0 , b1 b2 . . . ;

c = c0 , c1 c2 . . . .

a = a0 , a1 a2 . . . a, a , . . a := a0 , a1 a2 . . . .
, a a, O.
,
.
m
n , m
, n .
, m > 0. m
n , , 0 ,
,
.
, n
1, 2, . . . , n 1. ,
m n , m

1.2.

11

. - ,
, ,
.
, .
: m
n m
n. , ,

. ,
,
- .
.
, . .
0, 1010010001 . . . ( 1
) , 2.

.
,
.

.
, ,
.

1.2.
a = a0 , a1 a2 . . . . a0 , a1 ,
a2 , . . . , ,
, a a = 0.
a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . , . , +, a
a > 0.
, a a < 0.
,
.

12

. 1.
. ( )
a = a0 , a1 a2 . . .


|a| := a0 , a1 a2 . . . .
, .
a > 0, |a| = a, a < 0, |a| = a.
, -
0, 9 .
.
. a = a0 , a1 a2 . . . b = b0 , b1 b2 . . . , ak = bk
k = 0, 1, 2, . . . .
a = b, a 6= b.

. , , .
. a b .
10 . a b , a b,
a < b, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,
ak < bk , i, k, ai = bi .
20 . , ,
.
30 . a b |b| < |a|, a < b.
a < b, , b a b > a.
a < b b > a .
, , , .
, a < b, a > b,
|a| < b b <
a < b.
,
, m/n p/q
m/n < p/q mq < np.

1.2.

13

< >
6 >. a 6 b ,
a < b a = b. ,
. , a < b a > b.
.
.
I.1. a b
: a < b, a = b a > b.
: ,
. .
I.1
.
I.2. a < b b < c, a < c. a = b b = c,
a = c.
< = .
= .
<.
a > 0, b c .
a, b, c
a = a0 , a1 a2 . . . ;

b = b0 , b1 b2 . . . ;

c = c0 , c1 c2 . . . .

, - :
0 9 .
a < b, k , ak < bk
ai = bi i = 0, 1, . . . , k 1. l
, bl < cl bj = cj j = 0, 1, . . . , l 1.
m := min{k, l}, . . m k l.
ai = bi = ci i = 0, 1, . . . , m 1
am 6 bm bm 6 cm , . am , bm cm , ,
< , , am < cm ,
, a < c.
a < 0. c > 0, a < c .
c 6 0, b < 0, a, b c |a| > |b|
|b| > |c|. , |a| > |c|, a < c.

14

. 1.

I.2.
6 : a 6 b
b 6 c, a 6 c. < =.
I.3. a n
, n > a.
. I.3 : a = a0 , a1 a2 . . . , n
a0 + 2. ,
,
1.9.

.
1.2.1. a b a < b.
, a < < b.
. a > 0, a = a0 , a1 a2 . . . ,
b = b0 , b1 b2 . . . 9
.
k , ak < bk ,
m > k , am < 9. a0 , a1 . . . am1 d, m- d
am + 1.
a b , = 0. b 6 0,
, |b| < < |a|,
:= .
.
1.2.2. a n n n ,
n 6 a 6 n + 10n .

(1.2.1)

. a > 0, n
a0 , a1 . . . an 6 a 6 a0 , a1 . . . an + 10n
n := a0 , a1 . . . an .
a a = a0 , a1 a2 . . . , a0 , a1 . . . an 6
|a| 6 a0 , a1 . . . an + 10n . a0 , a1 . . . an 10n 6 a 6

1.2.

15

a0 , a1 . . . an n := a0 , a1 . . . an 10n . ,
n + 10n 6 0.
.
. n n +10n n , (1.2.1),
n- a .
. n-
.
1.2.3. a < b n n n- a b. m
, n > m
n n > 10m .

(1.2.2)

. ,
9 .
a > 0. k , ai = bi
i = 0, 1, . . . , k 1 ak < bk , n < n n > k. ,
m > k am < 9, (1.2.2).
c , ci = ai i 6= m cm =
am + 1. c < b. n n- c,
n < n n > k. n > m n = n + 10m , ,
n > n + 10m . , (1.2.2)
a > 0 .
a < 0 b > 0, n > 0 m ,
a > 10m , n
n n > n > a > 10m .
, a < 0 b < 0, n- |a| |b| |n + 10n |
|n + 10n |. a < b , |a| > |b| > 0.
, m, |n + 10n | |n + 10n | > 10m
n > m. |n + 10n | |n + 10n | =
(n +10n )+(n +10n ) = n n (1.2.2).
.

16

. 1.

1.2.4. a p,
|a| 6 p 10n
(1.2.3)
n, a = 0.
. , a 6= 0. k ak a .
m,
10k > p 10m .
,
|a| > ak 10k > 10k > p 10m ,
.
.
, ,
(1.2.3) n.

1.3.

.
,
.
, , , .
, .

, . x A, x A, x
A, x
/ A.
.
:
N ,
Z ,
Q ,
R .

1.3.

17

, - ,
, .
. , .
. A B, A B A B B A.
, Q R, N Z Q.
, ,
A A.
. A B B A (. .
A B B A), A B A = B.
A 6= B.
, A B A = B.

.
, , .
. A , K, x 6 K
x A.
A ,
k, x > k x A.
. ,
.
: A
, K, x
A |x| 6 K. ,
|x| 6 K K 6 x 6 K.
. M
A,
1) x A x 6 M ;
2) M 0 < M x0 A ,
M 0 < x0 .

18

. 1.

2) , M ,
A.
.
, , M M
A.
M < M . M , 2) x A ,
M < x . , M
A.
. m
A,
1) x A m 6 x;
2) m0 > m x0 A ,
x0 < m0 .
( )
.

M = sup x = sup A
xA

(sup supremum )
m = inf x = inf A
xA

(inf infimum ).
,
,
.
, , ,
. , , , , .
1.3.1. A
, .
. A , 0 .
A , A

1.3.

19

A. A
.
A ,
. ,
. M0 .
A, M0 ,
. M1
.
A, M0 , M1 .
M2 .
A, M0 , M1 M2 ,
.
,
M0 , M1 M2 . . . .
M := M0 , M1 M2 . . . , M = sup A.
M > x x A. , M 0 := M00 , M10 M20 . . . , M ,
0, 1, 2, . . . k ,
Mk0 < Mk . A x0 ,
M0 , M1 . . . Mk . , M 0 < x0
M A.
A
.
x A x = x0 , x1 x2 . . . x0 .
M0 .
A,
M0 .
.
M1 . , M0 , M1 .
,
M2 . .

20

. 1.

M := M0 , M1 M2 . . .
A. , x 6 M x A . M 0 < M
x0 A , x0 > M 0 , , .
.
1.3.2. A
, .
. B,
x, x A.
A B . , 1.3.1 B . sup B = inf A ,
, A .
1.3.3. A .
x A x 6 K , sup A 6 K .
x A x > k, inf A > k.
. x 6 K x A,
1.3.1 sup A . sup A 6 K
2) .
.
.
1.3.4. a
a = sup , 6 a.
, a0 < a
, a0 < 6 a.
1.2.1.

, .
, 1, N, N. A , 0 = inf A A.
sup A A, sup A max A , .
inf A A, inf A min A.

1.4.

21


, sup A inf A.

1.4.
.
. a b
a + b := sup( + ),

, 6 a 6 b.
a b,
+ .
, a = a0 , a1 a2 . . . b = b0 , b1 b2 . . . , a 6 a0 + 1
b 6 b0 + 1. , 6 a0 + 1, 6 b0 + 1 + 6 a0 + b0 + 2.
,
, .

.
II.1. a b a + b =
b + a ( ).

.
II.2. a < b, c a + c < b + c.
: a 6 b, c a + c 6 b + c.
,
a+c=

sup ( + ).
6a, 6c

6 a 6 b + .
a+c6

sup ( + ) = b + c.
6b, 6c

22

. 1.


:
a 6 b c 6 d, a + c 6 b + d.
, a+c 6 b+c b+c 6 b+d.
, 6
a + c 6 b + d.
II.2.
1.2.1, ,
a < < < b.
, k , > 10k .
< 10k .

(1.4.1)

k k- c, . . k 6
c 6 k + 10k . a < c 6 k + 10k
,
(1.4.1)
a + c 6 + k + 10k < 10k + k + 10k = + k 6 b + c.
, II.2 .
II.2 :
a < b c < d, a + c < b + d.
,
a < b c < d , a + c < b + d.
II.3. a, b c
(a + b) + c = a + (b + c) (
).
. u := (a + b) + c, v :=
a + (b + c) , u 6= v.
u < v.
1.2.1,
, u < < < v, n,

> 3 10n .
(1.4.2)

1.4.

23

n- a, b c:
n 6 a 6 n + 10n ,

n 6 b 6 n + 10n ,

n 6 c 6 n + 10n .

, n + n 6 a + b 6 n + n +
2 10n
n + n + n 6 (a + b) + c 6 n + n + n + 3 10n .
wn := n + n + n , wn 6 u 6 wn + 3 10n .
v 6 wn + 3 10n .
,
wn < < < wn + 3 10n .
, <
3 10n , (1.4.2).
.

, .
,
, , .
II.4. a a + 0 = a.
,
a+0=

sup

( + ) =

6a, 60; ,Q

sup

= a,

6a; Q

1.3.4.
, II.4 0.
, 00 , a a + 00 = a,
00 = 00 + 0 = 0.
II.5. a a0 ,
a + a0 = 0.
, a + a0 = 0 , a0 a, . . a .
n n- a, . . n 6
a 6 n + 10n . a n 10n 6 a 6 n .

24

. 1.

, 10n 6 a +
(a) 6 10n , . . |a + (a)| 6 10n . n, 1.2.4
a + (a) = 0.
a0 , a + a0 = 0, , a.
, a . , a +
a0 = 0 a + a00 = 0,
a00 = a00 + 0 = a00 + (a + a0 ) = (a00 + a) + a0 = 0 + a0 = a0 .
, .
. a b
a + (b), a b.
a b
(a + b) b = (a + b) + (b) = a + (b + (b)) = a.
(a b) + b = a.
,
.
, (a + b) = a b. (a + b) + a + b = 0 a b
.
1.4.1. a b
|a + b| 6 |a| + |b|.
(1.4.3)
. a 6 |a| b 6 |b|, a + b 6 |a| + |b|. , (a + b) = a b 6 |a| + |b|.
|a + b| a + b (a + b),
.
(1.4.3) ,
a b , |a| |b| ,
(1.4.3) , ( )
.

1.5.

25

,
ab


|a| |b| 6 |a b|.
, |a| = |a b + b| 6 |a b| + |b|, |a| |b| 6 |a b|.
|b| |a| 6 |a b|.
, , II.3II.5 , .
.
. G ,
1) G , x y G z G,
z := x y;
2) , . . x, y, z G (x y) z =
x (y z);
3) G: x G x = x = x;
4) x G x0 G: x x0 = x0 x = .
3) 4) ,
.
x0 , ,
.
. G ,
. . x, y G x y = y x, .
, .
Q Z.

1.5.
. a b , a b
ab := sup(),

26

. 1.

, 6 a 6 b.
a b , ab := |a| |b|.
a b , , ab := (|a| |b|).

.
a b. 6 a = a0 , a1 a2 . . . 6 b = b0 , b1 b2 . . . ,
6 a0 + 1, 6 b0 + 1. , 6 (a0 + 1)(b0 + 1)
1.3.1.
, a b ,
.
,
a b , ab = 0.
,
.
III.1. a b ab = ba
( ).

.
III.2. a < b c > 0, ac < bc.
. , a b . , a b
.
a ( , b) .
:
a 6 b c > 0, ac 6 bc.
,
,
ac = sup 6 sup = bc.
6a; 6c

6b; 6c


:
a, b, c, d , a 6 b c 6 d
ac 6 bd.

1.5.

27

, a c ,
. a, b, c, d ,

,
ac 6 bc 6 bd.
III.2 (- a > 0). n- a c
n n . a 6 n + 10n
c 6 n + 10n ,
ac 6 (n + 10n )(n + 10n ).
.
,
ac 6 n n + (n + n + 10n )10n .
p := a0 + c0 + 3, a0 c0 a
c. , p n. , n
n + n + 10n 6 p.
ac 6 n n + p 10n .

(1.5.1)

n n- b.
1.2.3 a < b , m
, n > m
n n > 10m .

(1.5.2)

c > 0, k, ck > 0, , ,
n > k
n > 10k .
(1.5.3)
(1.5.2) (1.5.3), , ,
n
(n n )n > 10mk .
p 10mk n. n p 10n < 10mk , , p 10n <
(n n )n . (1.5.1),
ac < n n + (n n )n = n n .

28

. 1.

n 6 b n 6 c, n n 6 bc.
, ac < bc a > 0 III.2 .
a < 0, b > 0, c
ac < 0, bc > 0 III.2 .
, a < b < 0, |b| < |a|
|b|c < |a|c. , |bc| < |ac|, bc
ac , ac < bc.
III.2.
III.2
:
a, b, c, d , a < b, c < d
ac < bd.
, ac < bc < bd.
, (
) , a
c . -
a, b, c, d,
.
III.2 ,
c < 0, a < b ac > bc.
, III.2 a|c| < b|c|,
b|c| < a|c|. |c| = c, c < 0. , bc < ac
.
III.3. a, b c (ab)c =
a(bc) ( ).
, a, b, c . ,
, III.3 .
a, b, c ,
.
a, b, c . u :=
(ab)c, v := a(bc). a, b c n- :
n 6 a 6 n + 10n ,

n 6 b 6 n + 10n ,

n 6 c 6 n + 10n .

1.5.

29

,

n n n 6 (ab)c = u 6 (n + 10n )(n + 10n )(n + 10n ).
, n p, u 6 n n n + p 10n .
,
III.2.
, n p

n n n 6 u 6 n n n + p 10n .
(1.5.4)
,
n n n 6 v 6 n n n + p 10n .

n n n p 10n 6 v 6 n n n .

(1.5.5)

(1.5.4) (1.5.5), p
10n 6 u v 6 p 10n , . . |u v| 6 p 10n .
1.2.4 , u v = 0, . . u = v, III.3
.
,
,
.
III.4. a a 1 = a.
, a > 0 , ,
a1=

sup

= sup = a.

6a; 61

6a

a < 0, a 1 = (|a| |1|) = |a| = a.


, a
a(1) = a. , a > 0, a(1) = (|a||1|) =
|a| = a. a < 0, a (1) = |a| | 1| = |a| = a.
III.5. a 6= 0, a0 ,
a a = 1.
0

30

. 1.
a > 0.
1
1
:= sup
.
a

Q; >a

(1.5.6)

, > a > 0
, 1/ . ,
a k- , a > 10k > a
> 10k .
1/ 6 10k .
,
1
a = 1,
(1.5.7)
a
. . a0 III.5 , (1.5.6).
n n- a,
1
1
1
6 6
.
n
n + 10
a
n

(1.5.8)

(1.5.6), , . , 1/n
(1.5.6), , > a
1/n < 1/. < n n 6 a, < a
> a.
(1.5.8) n 6 a 6 n +
10n ,
n + 10n
1
n
.
6a 6
n
n + 10
a
n
,
1

10n
10n
1
6a 61+
n
n + 10
a
n

,


n
1

a 1 6 10 .

a
n
a k- , n-
a n > k 10k 6 n .

1.5.

31

,


1

a 1 6 10n+k .
a

1.2.4 (1.5.7).
a < 0
1
1
:= .
a
|a|

1
1
= |a|
= 1.
a
|a|

, III.5 .
. a
b a 1b , ab , a/b a : b. , , . . a b, b,
a:
 
1
1
(ab) = a b
= a 1 = a.
b
b

1
a
b = a b = a.
b
b

, a1 .
a.
,
.
, ,
1, .
,
, .
, . .

32

. 1.

, , , , III.4,
1 .

, , .
.
III.6. a, b c
(a + b)c = ac + bc (
).
, a, b, c ,
, .
c > 0 a + b > 0. n-
a, b, c:
n 6 a 6 n + 10n ,

n 6 b 6 n + 10n ,

n 6 c 6 n + 10n .

n + n 6 a + b 6 n + n + 2 10n

(n + n )n 6 (a + b)c 6 (n + n + 2 10n )(n + 10n ). (1.5.9)
, a b .
n n 6 ac 6 (n + 10n )(n + 10n )

(1.5.10)

n n 6 bc 6 (n + 10n )(n + 10n ).

(1.5.11)

,
n n + n n 6 ac + bc 6
6 (n + 10n )(n + 10n ) + (n + 10n )(n + 10n ).
(1.5.12)
(1.5.9) (1.5.12) (n + n )n + p 10n ,
p , n (
).
, p , n
(n + n )n 6 (a + b)c 6 (n + n )n + p 10n

(1.5.13)

1.5.

33

n n + n n 6 ac + bc 6 n n + n n + p 10n .
,
n n n n p 10n 6 ac bc 6 n n n n .
(1.5.13),
p 10n 6 (a + b)c (ac + bc) 6 p 10n ,
. .
|(a + b)c (ac + bc)| 6 p 10n ,
1.2.4 (a + b)c = ac + bc.
- c > 0 a + b > 0,
, a b .
a > 0 b < 0. (1.5.9)
(1.5.10) , (1.5.11)
.
. n
n 10n 6 b 6 n

n 6 c 6 n + 10n ,
, .
n n n 10n 6 bc 6 n n n 10n .

(1.5.14)

, (1.5.10)
(n + 10n )(n + 10n ) 6 ac 6 n n ,
(1.5.14),
(n + 10n )(n + 10n ) n n n 10n 6
6 ac bc 6 n n n n n 10n .
(1.5.9):
10n (n +2n +10n ) 6 (a+b)cacbc 6 10n (n +2n +210n ).

34

. 1.

p n
n + 2n + 2 10n 6 p (, ),
n
|(a + b)c ac bc| 6 p 10n .
1.2.4 ,
(a + b)c = ac + bc.
, c > 0 a + b > 0 III.6 .
c < 0 a + b > 0.
(a + b)|c| = a|c| + b|c|. |c| = c, , (a + b)c = ac bc.

c < 0, a + b > 0.
, , , c < 0 a + b < 0.
(a + b) = a b > 0,
(a + b)c = (a b)c = ac bc
.

1.6.


, , .
, .
, ,
,
, . ,
.
, .
( ) . 1.3.1
.

1.7.

35

IV. , .
. :
.

1.7.
.
a < b, x, a 6 x 6 b, ()
[a, b]. a b , ba
.
x, a < x <
b, ( a b)
(a, b). b a .
]a, b[ .
[a, b), a 6 x < b,
(a, b], a < x 6 b. .
, , .
.
: x, x > a, [a, +); x > a,
(a, +); x 6 a, (, a];
x < a, (, a). ,
(, +).
, ( )
.
[a, b] [c, d], , [a, b] [c, d].
.
. n A,
xn , ,
x1 , x 2 , x 3 , . . .

36

. 1.

.
{xn }
n=1
{xn }.
xn , , .
xn
n = 1. ,
.
, , ,
.
xn xm n 6= m
A. ,
.
.
, , .
. x1 , x2 , . . . ,
N = N (), ,
n > N
|xn | < .

(1.7.1)

, > 0 (1.7.1)
n, . . n.
{xn } , ,
( xn ) .
, , a {a/n} . |a|/. I.3
N , |a|/ < N . , |a|/N <
n > N
|a|
< .
n

(1.7.2)

, , , 2n > n n, a {a/2n }
.

1.7.

37

1.7.1.
{[an , bn ]}, n = 1, 2, . . . ,
. , ,
[an , bn ].
. [an , bn ]
[a1 , b1 ], {an } b1 .
c := supn an . , c [an , bn ], , .
n an 6 c.
, c 6 bn n, k bk < c, am , bk < am .
[ak , bk ] [am , bm ]
, . , n c 6 bn , ,
c [an , bn ].
. c
d, [an , bn ],
c < d. an 6 c d 6 bn bn an >
d c > 0, n = 1, 2, . . . , . . .
.
, [an , bn ]
(an , bn ). , {(0, 2n )} , 2n .
(0, 2n ).
1.7.1 .
1.1 , . , , ,

, 10 . . ,

38

. 1.

. ,
.
.
.
. , A A0 , x A x0 A0 ,
A0
A.
x x0 x x0 .
.
1.7.1 1.3.1 .
, ,
.
A . ,
L , x A x < L. x0 A [a1 , b1 ] := [x0 , L].
[a1 , b1 ] A,
A .
[a1 , b1 ]
[a2 , b2 ] , A, A .
b2 a2 = (b1 a1 )/2.
[a2 , b2 ] ,
A, A .
, [a1 , b1 ] [a2 , b2 ] . . . ,
A, A .
bn an = (b1 a1 )/2n1 , ,
. c,
.

1.8.

39

, c A.
1) , x 6 c x A. ,
x A , x > c.
[an , bn ], x c.
x c > bn an , x > bn an + c.
[an , bn ] c, an 6 c, , x > bn .
A, [an , bn ],
.
2) c0 < c , c0 A. [an , bn ],
c c0 .
c, c0 (, , ).
, [an , bn ] c0 . [an , bn ]
A, c0
A.
, , c = sup A.
, .

1.8.
A B ,
, , A B .
A
B ,
a A b B a < b. A|B.
1.8.1. A B A|B , A ,
B .
. A|B ,
A B. , A
,
. 1.8 .

40

. 1.

1.3.3
sup A 6 b b B. c := sup A.
a A b B a 6 c 6 b. c
A B, .
, 1.8.1 : c , a A
b B a 6 c 6 b.

.
D . , .
. x A, d D ,
x 6 d. x B. D A.
A|B.
, : a0
A b0 B , b0 6 a0 . a0 A,
d0 D , a0 6 d0 . b0 6 d0 ,
b0 B. , A B
A|B.
, 1.8.1 c ,
a 6 c 6 b a A b B.
, c = sup D. 1) D A a 6 c
a A, d D d 6 c. 2) c0 < c,
x,
c0 < x < c. x B,
b B c 6 b. , x A.
d D , x 6 d, c0 < d.
, c D.
, .
,
, , , . .
1.3.1 1.7.1 .

1.9. 41

1.9.

,
, , ,
IIV. IV .

, ,
, .
,
. , ,
. , ,
.
:
10 . ,
IIV;
20 .
- ( , ) , ?
, .
1.9.1. A A0 ,

, IIV . A A0 .
A A0 ,
A
A0 (. . a a0 , a A a0 A0 ),

42

. 1.

1) a < b, a0 < b0 ;
2) a + b a0 + b0 ;
3) ab a0 b0 .
20 . ,
.

1.10.
.
(. . ) ,
.
, , ,
, .
A B, A
B.

(. . ) .
.
( ),
.
A
B, , A B.
,
.
,
.
( ),
A , A. , , A.

1.10.

43

. ,
.


a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . ,

(1.10.1)

.
, A , . . A N,
A , , 1, ,
2, . .
, A (1.10.1), ak
k, A N.
, . A . A, a1 (. . 1). A , a1 , . - a2
(. . 2). , A.
,
.
.
Z. ,
0, 1, 1, 2, 2, . . . .
1.10.1. .
. , ( ).
,

44

. 1.

:
1
,
1
1
,
2
1
,
3
...

1
,
1
1
,
2
1
,
3
...

2
,
1
2
,
2
2
,
3
...

2
,
1
2
,
2
2
,
3
...

...
...
...
...

,
.
0, , , ,
. , , , .
, .
1
1

1
2

1
3

...

1
1

1
2

1
3

...

2
1

2
2

2
3

...

2
1

2
2

2
3

...

...
...
...
...

.
. , ,
, .
1.10.2.
.

. , (0, 1).
,
x1 , x2 , x3 , . . . ,
(1.10.2)

1.10.

45

(0, 1). xn = 0, xn1 xn2 . . . xn , n = 1, 2, . . . ,


.
(0, 1), (1.10.2) .
a := 0, a1 a2 . . . , ai
1, 2, . . . , 8 ,
a1 6= x11 , a2 6= x22 , . . . . a 0 9 , a
xn , an 6= xnn
n.
.
. , ,
[0, 1],
.
(0, 1), [0, 1] (0, 1).
, .
A (0, 1). A
a1 , a2 , . . . ( ) B, 0, 1, a1 , a2 , . . . .
(0, 1), A,
[0, 1]. A B

a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 , . . .
0,

1,

a1 , a2 , . . .

.

[0, 1] [a, b], [0, 1] [a, b]
t = a + (b a)x, x [0, 1], :
, .
.

46

. 1.

. A B
,
. A B A B.

B , A.
. B , A, ,
B . B
[

B .

B1 , . . . , Bn B1 , B2 , . . .
n

[
[
Bk ,
Bk .
k=1

k=1



: A B = B A


AB C =A BC .
. B , A, , B . B
\
A

B .

1.10.

47

, .
A B, B1 , . . . , Bn
B1 , B2 , . . .
A B,

n
\
k=1

Bk ,

Bk .

k=1

,


A B = B A A B C = A B C .
A B , . .
A B = , .

: A, B, C







AB C = AC B C ,
AB C = AC B C .
(
) , , ,
. ,

.
,  , x AB C. , x AB
C. x A B, x

A B. x A, x A C ,

, x A C B C .



 , x A C B C , x
A B C.
,

 [

 \

[
\


B C =
B C ;
B C =
B C .
A

. A B A, B.
A \ B.

48

. 1.

, ,

. , A B \ B = A
,
A B ,

A \ B B = A B A.
,
:



A\ B C = A\B A\C ,




A\ B C = A\B A\C .

,
[

\

\
[


A\
B =
A \ B ,
A\
B =
A \ B .
B

, .
1.10.3.
.
. , 1.10.1.
Ak , k = 1, 2, . . . , . Ak
ak1 , ak2 , ak3 , . . . .
, A1 , A2 . .

a11

a12

a13

...

a21

a22

a23

...

a31

a32

a33

...

...

...

...

...

1.10.

49

, , ,

[
Ak .
k=1

, , , , .
1.10.3 ,
Ak . Ak .
, ,
. ,
.

2.
2.1.
A, 1.7. n xn
A, ,
x1 , x2 , x3 , . . .
{xn }.
. .
. a {xn }, N = N () , n > N

|xn a| < .
(2.1.1)

a = lim xn = lim xn = lim xn
n

xn a,

n .

a = 0 1.7,
, .
(2.1.1) <
xn a < , , a < xn < a + ,
,
xn (a , a + ).
. (a , a + ), > 0,
- a.
50

2.1.

51

-, : a , , , -
a.
. , . , ,
.
a {xn }, , a. ( xn ) ,
a.
(2.1.1)
n. , , , .
2.1.1.
.

. a
b {xn } a 6= b,
a < b. := (b a)/2. .
a, N1 , n > N1
a < xn < a + .

(2.1.2)

b N2 , n > N2
b < xn < b + .

(2.1.3)

n > N := max(N1 , N2 )
(2.1.2), (2.1.3).
ba
a+b
ba
a+b
=
,
b=b
=
,
2
2
2
2
(2.1.2)
(2.1.3) , n > N
a+=a+

xn < a + =

a+b
= b < xn ,
2

52

. 2.

.
.
:

- a b ,
.
(2.1.2)
(2.1.3), n > N1 ,
n > N2 . ,
n > N = max(N1 , N2 ).
.

2.2. ,

2.2.1. ,
.
. {xn }
a. = 1, N , |xn a| < 1
n > N . n
|xn | = |xn a + a| 6 |xn a| + |a| < 1 + |a|.
, L := max(|x1 |, |x2 |, . . . , |xN |, 1 + |a|),
|xn | 6 L n, . . {xn } .
2.2.2. limn xn = a 6= 0, N
, n > N
|xn | >

1
|a|.
2

, a > 0, xn > a/2, a < 0, xn < a/2.

2.2. ,

53

. := |a|/2 N ,
n > N
1
|xn a| < |a|.
2

1
1
a |a| < xn < a + |a|.
(2.2.1)
2
2
a > 0, |a| = a
(2.2.1). a < 0, |a| = a (2.2.1).
.
, , , , .
2.2.3. {xn } {yn } xn 6 yn n,
lim xn 6 lim yn .

. a := lim xn b := lim yn .
, a 6 b.
, a > b.
:= (a b)/2. > 0, N ,
n>N
a+b
ab
xn > a = a
=
2
2

yn < b + = b +

ab
a+b
=
.
2
2

,
a+b
< xn ,
2
. .
yn <

xn 6 yn
n, n,
.
, .

54

. 2.

.
2.2.3 xn 6 yn xn < yn , lim xn 6 lim yn .
xn := 0 yn := 1/n, xn < yn lim xn = lim yn = 0.
:
,
.
2.2.4. {xn } {yn } xn 6 yn n.
{zn }, xn 6 zn 6 yn
n, .
. a := lim xn = lim yn . > 0 N , n > N
a < xn < a + a < yn < a + .
n
a < xn 6 zn 6 yn < a + ,
. . zn (a , a + ) .
2.2.5. xn a, n , |xn | |a|, n .



|xn | |a| 6 |xn a|,
, 1.4, (1.4.3).

2.3.
2.3.1. {xn } {yn } .
10 . limn (xn + yn ) = limn xn + limn yn ;
20 . limn (xn yn ) = limn xn limn yn ;
30 . limn (xn yn ) = limn xn limn yn ;

2.3.

55

40 . yn 6= 0 n limn yn 6= 0,
lim

xn
limn xn
=
.
yn
limn yn

10 40 :
-, , , .
:
; ;
; . , ,
, ,
.
. a := lim xn b := lim yn .
10 , 20 . > 0 N , n > N

|xn a| <

,
2

|yn b| <

.
2

n



(xn yn ) (a b) = (xn a) (yn b) 6

6 |xn a| + |yn b| < + = .
2 2
10 20 .
30 . :
|xn yn ab| = |(xn yn ayn ) + (ayn ab)| 6
6 |xn a| |yn | + |a| |yn b|.

(2.3.1)

{yn } ,
L , |a| < L |yn | < L
n. (2.3.1) ,
|xn yn ab| 6 L|xn a| + L|yn b|.

(2.3.2)

> 0, N , n > N
|xn a| <

,
2L

|yn b| <

.
2L

56

. 2.

, (2.3.2) ,
n>N

+L
= ,
|xn yn ab| < L
2L
2L
30 .
40 . :


xn
|xn (b yn ) + yn (xn a)|
a |xn b yn a|

=
=
6

yn
b
|yn b|
|yn b|
|xn |
1
6
|b yn | + |xn a|.
(2.3.3)
|yn | |b|
|b|
b 6= 0, , 2.2.2
N1 , |yn | > |b|/2 n > N1 . {xn } , |xn | < L
n.
n > N1 (2.3.3)


xn
a 2L
1

6 2 |b yn | + |xn a|.
(2.3.4)

yn
b
b
|b|
N >
N1 , n > N
|xn a| <

|b|
,
2

|b yn | <

b2
.
4L

(2.3.4) , n > N


xn
a

yn b < .
.

2.4.

.
, .
{an }:
an = o(1),

n .

2.4.

57

o(1) o- .
.
. {bn } , L
N = N (L), n > N |bn | > L.
lim bn = , {bn } .
n bn > 0,
lim bn = +, bn < 0, lim bn = .
.
. L
N (L), n > N bn > L, , {bn } +
lim bn = +.
L N (L),
n > N bn < L, , {bn } lim bn = .
2.1 , , .
. ,
, , . ,
, .
, ,
+, . , ,
{(1)n n}.

.
{xn } ,
xn 6= 0 n, {1/xn } . , > 0
L := 1/. L N , |xn | > L
n > N . n |1/xn | = 1/|xn | < 1/L =
.

58

. 2.

, {xn }
xn 6= 0 n, {1/xn }
.
{an } {bn } ,
{an + bn }
{an bn }. .
{an } , {bn } , {an bn }
. ,
L, |bn | < L n. |an bn | 6 L |an |, . ,
, {bn } .
{bn }
bn = O(1), n.
O(1) O- .

2.5.
. {xn } , xn 6 xn+1 n.
{xn } , xn >
xn+1 n.
,
. xn < xn+1 , , xn > xn+1 n,
.
. {xn } , .
{xn } , .
2.5.1. {xn } .
10 . {xn } B , limn xn 6 B ;

2.5.

59

20 . {xn } ,
limn xn = +.
. 10 . xn 6 B n, M := supn xn M 6 B. ,
M {xn }.
M , xn 6 M n
> 0 xp ,
xp > M . n > p M < xp 6 xn .
, n > p M <
xn 6 M . , M = limn xn .
20 . {xn }
, L q , xq > L.
,
n > q xn > xq > L, , limn xn = +.
.
.
,


.
.
1. , |q| < 1,
lim q n = 0.

(2.5.1)

0 < q < 1. {q n } . , , a.
{q n+1 } : limn q n+1 =
a
lim q n+1 = lim(q n q) = (lim q n ) q = aq.
n

, a = aq, a = 0, q 6= 1,
, limn q n = 0 q.
q , |q n | = |q|n .

60

. 2.

, (2.5.1) .
(2.5.1) .
n b, bq,
bq 2 , . . . q 6= 1
b + bq + + bq n1 =

b b qn
b
b
=

qn .
1q
1q 1q

, |q| < 1,

lim b + bq + + bq n1 =

b
.
1q

2. , a
lim
n

an
= 0,
n!

(2.5.2)

, , n! := 1 2 . . . n.

n
a |a|n
=
,
n!
n!
1, a.
a > 0 m , m + 1 > a.
n > m
1
an
=
n!
m!
1
6
m!

an
6
(m + 1) n

n
an
(m + 1)m
a

.
(m + 1)nm
m!
m+1

a/(m + 1) < 1, 1, ,
n

a
0, n ,
m+1
(2.5.2).

2.6. e

61

2.6. e
, . .
2.6.1. m > 2 , x > 1
x 6= 0,
(1 + x)m > 1 + mx.

(2.6.1)

. m = 2 :
(1 + x)2 = 1 + 2x + x2 > 1 + 2x.

.
, m (2.6.1)
, m + 1.
(1 + x)m+1 = (1 + x)m (1 + x) >
> (1 + mx)(1 + x) = 1 + (m + 1)x + mx2 >
> 1 + (m + 1)x.
.
2.6.2.

n
1
xn := 1 +
, n = 1, 2, . . . ,
n

(2.6.2)

.
.
{yn },

 
n+1
1
1
yn := xn 1 +
= 1+
.
n
n
, ,
{xn } .
{yn } 1. , yn .

62

. 2.

yn
yn+1

1 n+1
n
n+2 =
1
n+1

2 n+2

1+

1+

(n + 1)
=
n(n + 2)


n+1 n+2
n

n+2 n+2
n+1

n
=

n+1

1
1+

1
n

1
1+
n(n + 2)

n+2

n
.
n+1

(2.6.1)
yn
yn+1


>

1+

n+2
n(n + 2)

n
=
n+1



1
n
1+

= 1.
n
n+1

, yn > yn+1 n. lim yn .



{yn } {xn }.
. , (2.6.2) e. e
. e
e = 2, 718 . . .
6.5 , e .

2.7.
{xn } n1 < n2 < . {xn1 , xn2 , . . . } = {xnk } {xn }.
, xnk {xn } {xnk }
, . ,
x1 , x2 , x3 , . . . , , , {xn }.

2.7.

63

,
,
.
.
.
,
.
. ,
{(1)n }, +1 1, .
, a {xn } , - a {xn }.
2.7.1 ( ). .
. {xn } [a, b], {xn }.
[a, b] . {xn }. [a1 , b1 ] , ,
, . {xn },
[a1 , b1 ]. xn1 .
[a1 , b1 ] [a2 , b2 ]
,
{xn }. {xn }, [a2 , b2 ], ,
n2 , n1 . xn2 .
[a2 , b2 ] ,
[a3 , b3 ], {xn }, [a3 , b3 ] xn3 ,
n3 > n2 .

64

. 2.

, {[ak , bk ]}, {xn },


[ak , bk ] , ,
{xnk } .
1.7.1 , [ak , bk ]. c
,
lim xnk = c.

.
[ak , bk ] , ,
, - c,
{xnk }. , k xnk c.
.
, .
,
, .
.

. .
2.7.2. , ,
.
, {xn }
, , +. xn1 , xn1 > 1.
, ,
n2 > n1 , xn2 xn2 > 2, . . limk xnk = +.

2.8.

65

2.8.


.
2.8.1. ,

.
. a {xn }. , a {xn }.
- a {xn }. a a , - a. a {xn }, , ,
- a.
.
.
.
, , +, +.
, lim xn = .
{xn }.
, .
2.8.1
.
.

66

. 2.

{xn }
lim xn ,

lim xn ,
n

lim sup xn ,
n

lim inf xn .
n

, (
).
{xn } {yn },
lim (xn + yn ) = lim xn + lim yn .

, . , ,
, .
2.8.2. {xn } , {yn }

lim (xn + yn ) = lim xn + lim yn .

(2.8.1)

. {xn } ,
. {yn } , (2.8.1) {xn }
.
lim yn .
a := limn xn . b {yn }, . . b = limk ynk
{nk }, a + b

{xn + yn }, limk xnk + ynk = a + b.
,
{xn + yn } a, {yn }.

2.8.

67

{xn + yn }
a
{yn }, .
2.8.3. {xn } , {yn }
lim (xn yn ) = lim xn lim yn .

(2.8.2)

.
{yn } ,
.
a := lim xn . lim yn = +, . . {nk }
lim ynk = +,

nk ynk > 0 2.2.2 xnk > a/2.


x nk y nk >

a
yn ,
2 k

(2.8.2).
lim yn = , n yn < 0 xn > a/2. ,
xn yn <

a
yn .
2

lim xn yn = .
, lim yn .
b {yn }, . . b = limk ynk {nk }.


lim xnk ynk = ab,
k

. . ab {xn yn }.

68

. 2.

, c
{xn yn }, c/a {yn }.
, {xn yn } {yn }, a.
, , . . (2.8.2).
.

2.9.
.
.
{xn }, a.
{xn } .
> 0
N , n > N
|xn a| < /2. , n > N m > N ,



|xn xm | = (xn a) + (a xm ) 6 |xn a| + |a xm | < + = .
2 2
. , {xn } ( ,
), > 0
N = N (), n m, N ,
|xn xm | < .
, ,

. , .
2.9.1 ( ).

.
. , {xn }, , .
= 1 N , n, m > N
|xn xm | < 1. m = N + 1,

2.9.

69

|xn xN +1 | < 1 n > N , ,


|xn | = |xn xN +1 + xN +1 | < 1 + |xN +1 |.

, L := max |x1 |, |x2 |, . . . , |xN |, 1 + |xN +1 | , |xn | 6 L
n.
{xn }
. a , a {xn }.
{xnk } , limk xnk =
a. > 0 N1 , |xn xm | <
/2 n, m > N1 , N2 , |a xnk | < /2
nk > N2 . xn a n > N := max(N1 , N2 ).
nk > N , n > N
|xn a| 6 |xn xnk | + |xnk a| < /2 + /2 = .
, {xn } a.
.
. .
n a1 + a2 + + an :
n
X

ak .

(2.9.1)

k=1


. . (2.9.1) ak k 1 n.
, :
(2.9.1) k,
n
X

ai ,

i=1

n
X
j=1

. .
m 6 n
n
X
k=m

ak

aj

70

. 2.

am + am+1 + + an . , m = n
an . m > n, ,
n
X

ak = 0,

k=m

. . .
1.
n
X
1
,
k

n = 1, 2, . . . .

k=1

,
2n
X
1
.
k

k=n

2n
2n
X
X
1
1
n+1
1
>
=
> .
k
2n
2n
2

k=n

k=n

, N ,
n > N
2n
X
1
1
> .
k
2
k=n

, (2.9.2) . ,
n
X
1
lim
= +.
n
k
k=1

2.
n
X
1
,
k2

n = 1, 2, . . . .

(2.9.2)

k=1

n > m > 1
n
X
1
.
k2

k=m

(2.9.3)

2.9.

71


n
n
n 
X
X
X
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
<
=

=
<
.
k2
(k 1)k
k1 k
m1 n
m1

k=m

k=m

k=m

, > 0 N
, 1/N < , ,
n > m > N
n
X
1
1
1
<
6
< .
k2
m1
N

k=m

, (2.9.2) .
, , . , (2.9.2), 19, 2 /6.
, , ,
n

2 X 1

6
k2
k=1

, (2.9.3).

3.
3.1.
D ( )
.
. x D y, , D . f , y = f (x).
x , y .

, x , y
x.
f f (x). , f (x) f f , x.
D f .
y, , x
D, ( ) f . E. , f D E.
E = f (D). E D , D E.
, E. , . .
, , , . .
,
. ,
.
72

3.1.

73

, , D E
.
.
. . XVII .
XVIII
, . . . , (
, - ).
, (1755 .)
:
, , . ,
, . , x ,
, - x, . . , .
, D f , ,
f : D R.
, . , R .
, D, D, D1 ,
. . D1 D. , f : D1 R f : D R D1
f : D R D1 .
, .
, , . . f : N R.

74

. 3.


. f : D R , (x, y) = (x, f (x)).
x D ,
OY , ,
f (x). f (x).

,
. (x, y) , , x D (x, y), f (x) := y.
.
.
, ,
,
.

3.2.
x
(c, d), , . . c < x < d.
, - .
, . , .
. a f x0 ,

3.2.

75

10 . f x0 ,
, , ;
20 . > 0 = () > 0,
x 6= x0 , |x x0 | < ,

|f (x) a| < .

(3.2.1)


a = lim f (x)
xx0

f (x) a,

x x0 .

x0 x x0 .
, x0 , , .
10 20 x0 , .
, .
10 : f x0 ,
20 (3.2.1) - x0 .

- .
. a f x0 ,
10 . f x0 ,
, , ;
20 . x1 , x2 , x3 , . . . f , x0 x0 ,
f (x1 ), f (x2 ), f (x3 ), . . . a, . .
a = lim f (xn ).
n

,
.
20 .

76

. 3.

.
x0 , ,
x0 ,
.
3.2.1.
.
. a f x0
. , a .
{xn },
f , xn 6= x0
n = 1, 2, . . . xn x0 n . > 0
> 0 , x, 0 < |x x0 | < ,
|f (x) a| < .
xn x0 , N ,
, , , n > N |xn x0 | < . n |f (xn ) a| < ,
. . a = limn f (xn ). , a f .
, , a f x0
. , a . : , a
.
, 0 > 0, > 0
x0 , 0 < |x0 x0 | < |f (x0 ) a| > 0 .
1/n, n N. n xn 6= x0 , f ,
|xn x0 | < 1/n |f (xn )a| > 0 . {xn } , , |f (xn ) a| > 0 ,
, a f .
.
,
, ,
,
.
, ,
.

3.2.

77

, , , x0 ( ). , x +,
.
, ,
.
R = (, +)
.
. (, +)
+.
(. . x
< x < +),
. , x + (+), (+) + (+), (+) + ()
0 (+) . + x,
x > L, L . x < L.
,
(, +) ( ).
.
, [L, M ].
,
x +.
. a f
x +,
10 . L , f
x > L;
20 . ( ) > 0 M (), x > M
|f (x) a| < ;
20 . ( )
{xn }, xn
f xn +,
a = lim f (xn ).
n

78

. 3.


3.2.1. ,
, , ,
.
x x .
, ,
, . ,
limxx0 f (x) = , ( f ) M =
(M ) > 0, x 6= x0 , |x x0 | < ,
|f (x)| > M .
,
lim f (x) = + ( ),

xx0

, x0 -
.
, ,
, .
, .

3.3.
.
, .
3.3.1. x x0 ,
x0 .
. a := limxx0 f (x). = 1, > 0, x 6= x0 , |x x0 | < ,
|f (x) a| < 1. x
|f (x)| 6 |f (x) a| + |a| < 1 + |a|
.
3.3.2. limxx0 f (x) = a a 6= 0, x0 , x

3.3.

79


|f (x)| >

1
|a|.
2

f (x) > a/2, a > 0, f (x) < a/2, a < 0.


. := |a|/2 > 0 , x, 0 < |x x0 | < ,

|f (x) a| <

1
|a|.
2

1
1
|a| < f (x) < a + |a|.
2
2

(3.3.1)

a > 0 (3.3.1):
a

1
1
|a| = a < f (x),
2
2

a < 0 (3.3.1):
f (x) < a +

1
1
1
|a| = a a = a.
2
2
2

.
3.3.3. f g
x x0 x0 f (x) 6 g(x),
lim f (x) 6 lim g(x).

xx0

xx0

. x0 , f g, {xn },
x0 .
xn x0 , {xn }, n, x0 ,
f (x) 6 g(x). , f (xn ) 6 g(xn )

80

. 3.

n. 2.2.3
lim f (xn ) 6 lim g(xn ),
n

,
limn f (xn ) = limxx0 f (x) limn g(xn ) =
limxx0 g(x).
.
3.3.3 , limxx0 f (x) f (x) > x0 , limxx0 f (x) > .
3.3.4. x0 f (x), g(x) h(x)
f (x) 6 g(x) 6 h(x).
(3.3.2)
limxx0 f (x) limxx0 h(x) ,
limxx0 g(x)
f (x) h(x).
. x0 , (3.3.2),
x0 {xn }. f (xn ) 6
g(xn ) 6 h(xn ) {f (xn )} {h(xn )}
. , 2.2.4
lim g(xn ) = lim f (xn ).

.
3.3.5. limxx0 f (x),
limxx0 |f (x)|





lim f (x) = lim f (x) .
xx0

xx0

. limxx0 f (x) = a,
> 0 > 0, |f (x) a| < x,
0 < |x x0 | < . |f (x)| |a| 6 |f (x) a| < .
.

3.3.

81

, .
3.3.6. f g limxx0 f (x) limxx0 g(x).
:

lim f (x) g(x) = lim f (x) lim g(x);

xx0

xx0

xx0

lim f (x) g(x) = lim f (x) lim g(x);

xx0

xx0

xx0

, , limxx0 g(x) 6= 0,
lim

xx0

f (x)
limxx0 f (x)
=
.
g(x)
limxx0 g(x)

. limxx0 g(x) 6= 0 3.3.2 , x0 g(x) 6= 0. , f (x)/g(x).


x0
{xn } x0 , f g. {f (xn )} {g(xn )}
( ,
, g(xn ) 6= 0 n).
{xn }
, .
.
.
, limxx0 f (x) = +,
g(x) x0 ,


lim f (x) g(x) = +.
xx0

. , 3.3.6
, .

82

. 3.

3.4.
. f x0
, f
x0 > 0 () > 0,
x0 x00 -
x0
|f (x0 ) f (x00 )| < .

(3.4.1)

3.4.1 ( ). f ,
f .
. limxx0 f (x) a.
> 0 ,
x, 0 < |x x0 | < , |f (x) a| < /2. x0 x00
- x0 ,

|f (x0 ) f (x00 )| 6 |f (x0 ) a| + |a f (x00 )| < + = .
2 2
, .
. > 0
> 0, x0 x00 x0 (3.4.1).
{xn }
f , xn x0 n
xn 6= x0 n. N ,
, , , n > N
xn |xn x0 | < .
, n m N , |f (xn ) f (xm )| <
{f (xn )} .
, {xn } {f (xn )}.
,
{xn } {f (xn )} .
{xn }
{tn }.
limn f (xn ) = a limn f (tn ) = b.

x1 , t1 , x2 , t2 , x3 , t3 , . . . ,

(3.4.2)

3.5.

83

{xn }
{tn }. (3.4.2) f , x0
(3.4.2) x0 . , f (3.4.2) . a
b . , a = b.
.

3.5.
.
. D f E
f (x), x D. E
, x D
(f (x)).
.
,
.
,
f , (f ).
3.5.1. limxx0 f (x) = y0 x x0
f (x) 6= y0 .

(3.5.1)

, , limyy0 (y) = z0 .

lim f (x)
xx0

z0 .
. , ,
(f (x))
x0 . .
y0 z0 , > 0 () > 0 , y,
0 < |y y0 | < ,
|(y) z0 | < .

84

. 3.

> 0 , x, 0 < |x x0 | < , |f (x) y0 | < .


, , x0 (3.5.1). x
- f
- y0 . , x (f (x))

|(f (x)) z0 | < .
,
, , . . .
(3.5.1) 3.5.1.
, limyy0 (y) ,
(y) y0 , ,
.
, (3.5.1) ,
x0 x, (f (x)) ,

y0 .
, 3.5.1 ,
(3.5.1) , y = y0
limyy0 (y) = (y0 ).
, .
3.5.2. limxx0 f (x) = y0 limyy0 (y) =
(y0 ),

lim (f (x)) = lim f (x) = (y0 ).
xx0

xx0

3.6.
, , , .
(c, x0 ] x0 , [x0 , d) x0 .
. .

3.6.

85

. f
x0 , , , x0 . a f x0 ,
> 0 () > 0 , x,
x0 < x < x0 + ,
|f (x) a| < .

a=

lim

xx0 , x>x0

f (x) =

lim

xx0 +0

f (x) = f (x0 + 0).

.
. .

. f (x0 0).
0 f (+0) f (0).
f (x0 + 0) f (x0 0) f (x0 +) f (x0 ).
, limxx0 f (x) f (x0 + 0)
f (x0 0).
. f (x)
, x1 x2 x1 <
x2 f (x1 ) 6 f (x2 ).
f (x1 ) < f (x2 ), f .

.
. .
3.6.1. f (a, b). f (a, b) B , f (b 0) f (b 0) 6 B . f
(a, b) , f (b 0) = +.
.
.

86

. 3.

f (x) 6 B x (a, b),


M := supx(a,b) f (x) M 6 B. ,
> 0 x (a, b), f (x ) > M .
f x (x , b)
M < f (x ) 6 f (x) 6 M.
, f (b 0) = M .
f , L xL (a, b) , f (xL ) > L.
f (xL , b) f (x) > f (xL ) > L. , f (b 0) = +.
.
.
3.6.2. f ,
x f (x+0) f (x0). , f ,
f (x 0) 6 f (x + 0), f , f (x 0) > f (x + 0).
. f (a, b). x (a, b) f
(a, x].
f (a, x]
f (x), 3.6.1 f (x 0) f (x 0) 6 f (x). f [x, b) f (x + 0) f (x) 6 f (x + 0).
, .
.
, x + x , x .

3.7.
D f (x) (x). C, x D
|f (x)| 6 C|(x)|,

3.7.

87

, f O- D
f (x) = O((x)) D.
f (x) (x), x0 . C
x0 , x

|f (x)| 6 C|(x)|,
, f O- x x0
f (x) = O((x)),

x x0 .

(3.7.1)

(3.7.1) x x0 , .
,
x0 .
D x x0 f (x) = O((x)) (x) =
O(f (x)), , f (x) (x)
, , D x x0 .
:
f (x) (x),

(3.7.2)

, D
x x0 .
f (x) (x) (, D x0 ),
: C1 C2 ,



f (x)
6 C2
C1 6
(x)
D x0 .
f (x) (x)
x0
lim

xx0

f (x)
= 0.
(x)

, f (x) o- (x)
x x0 ,
f (x) = o((x)),

x x0 .

(3.7.3)

88

. 3.

, (x) 6= 0
x0 . o- , (x) x0 . (3.7.3)
,
f (x) = (x) (x),

lim (x) = 0.

xx0

f (x) = o(1), x x0 , f
x x0 .
, (3.7.1) (3.7.3) , , , f (x) (x)
x x0 .
, f (x) = o((x)), x x0 , f (x) = O((x)),
x x0 , .
, f (x) = O((x)), x x0 , (x) =
O((x)), x x0 , f (x) = O((x)), x x0 . ,
O- o-,
f (x) = o((x)), x x0 .
f (x) (x) ,
lim

xx0

f (x)
= 1,
(x)

, f (x) (x) x x0
.
f (x) (x),

x x0 .

(3.7.4)

f (x) (x) : f (x) (x), x x0 ,


f (x) = (x) (x),

lim (x) = 1.

xa

,
f (x) (x) x0 .

3.7.

89

,
(3.7.2) (3.7.4) ,
.
3.7.1. f (x) (x), x x0 ,
(x)
lim f (x) (x),

xx0


lim (x) (x)

xx0

.
. (x) = (x) f (x) x0 , limxx0 (x) = 1. ,
(x) (x) = (x) f (x) (x) , ,
1. .
, O, o, , ,
x0 .
, o(1) O(1) 2.4,
.

4.
4.1.
. f
x0 , f
> 0 () > 0 , x,
|x x0 | < ,
|f (x) f (x0 )| < .
,
: f x0 ,

lim f (x) = f (x0 ).


xx0

f x0 .
,
OX, y = f (x0 )+ y = f (x0 )
. , > 0,
x - x0 f (x)
.

y
f (x0)+
y =f (x)
f (x0)
f (x0)
x0

x0

x0+

. f
90

4.1.

91

x0 , f x0 {xn },
n = 1, 2, . . . , f ,
limn f (xn ) = f (x0 ). :
lim f (xn ) = f ( lim xn ).

, , f , , f
,
.
, ,
. x0 x f ,
x := x x0 . x = x0 + x , x x0 x.

f := f (x0 + x) f (x0 )
f x0 ,
x. x , .
f x0 , f 0
x 0.

.
.
f x0 f (x0 ) 6= 0,
x0 , |f (x)| > |f (x0 )|/2
x . f (x) > f (x0 )/2,
f (x0 ) > 0, f (x) < f (x0 )/2, f (x0 ) < 0.
, f x0
f (x0 ) 6= 0, f
x0 .
f (x) g(x) x0 ,
f (x) + g(x), f (x) g(x), f (x) g(x),
, , g(x0 ) 6= 0, f (x)/g(x).
.
, f (x) = C (. . ,

92

. 4.

C ) f (x) = x . , , n f (x) = xn
.
an xn + an1 xn1 + + a1 x + a0 .
, . . , , .
3.5.2 .
4.1.1. f (x) x0 ,
(y) y0 := f (x0 ),
(f (x)) x0 .

.
. f
x0 , f (x0 + 0) = f (x0 ). f x0 , f (x0 0) = f (x0 ).
.
, , , ,
.

4.2.
, , .
, ,
.
x0 f
f (x0 + 0) f (x0 0), x0
.
f x0 f (x0 + 0) =
f (x0 0), f x0 , f
, f (x0 ) 6= f (x0 + 0). f (x0 ) := f (x0 +

4.2.

93

0), . . f x0 ,
. .
, f (x0 +
0) 6= f (x0 0). , f x0 .
.

f x0 , > 0, , ,
f , - x0 OY
f (x0 0) f (x0 + 0).
f x0
f , f (x0 ), x0
f .
f (x) ,
3.6.2 x0 f (x0 0) f (x0 + 0). ,

.
, . , x0 -
, f (x0 0) f (x0 + 0).

, .
, .
4.2.1.

.

94

. 4.


, .
.

1
f (x)=
x

1
f (x)=
x2

f (x)=sin
x

4.3. ,

.
[a, b], (a, b), . .
, a b.
[a, b] C[a, b] , f [a, b], f C[a, b].
, ,
. , (a, b), C(a, b). .
, ,
f C.
, f (x) g(x) [a, b], [a, b] f (x)g(x), f (x)g(x),
g(x) , f (x)/g(x).
4.3.1. ,
.

4.3. ,

95

. f
[a, b] L, |f (x)| 6 L
x [a, b].
. ,
f C[a, b], [a, b]. n N xn [a, b], |f (xn )| > n.
, limn f (xn ) = .
{xn } ,
[a, b]. , {xnk }.
:= limk xnk , [a, b].
f (
, )
{tk } [a, b]
limk f (tk ) = f ().
, limk f (xnk ) = f (). limn f (xn ) = limn f (xnk ) = .
.
, , , , 4.3.1, . 1/x, (0, 1) ,
.
4.3.2 ( ). [a, b],
[a, b].
.
. , , 4.3.1 .
f C[a, b] M := supx[a,b] f (x). n xn [a, b] , f (xn ) >
M 1/n. f (xn ) 6 M n,
lim f (xn ) = M.

(4.3.1)

{xn } {xnk }.
:= limk xnk , [a, b].

96

. 4.

f , limk f (xnk ) = f ().


(4.3.1) , limk f (xnk ) = M . , M = f ().
.
.
,
, ,
supx[a,b] f (x) maxx[a,b] f (x).
, , , 4.3.2, ,
.
4.3.3 ( ). f (x) [a, b] f (a) 6=
f (b). c, f (a) f (b),
[a, b] , c = f ().
. ,
f (a) f (b) c = 0.
[a, b] . ,
.
f ,
f . [a1 , b1 ]. ,
b1 a1 = (b a)/2.
[a1 , b1 ] . , .
, .
[a2 , b2 ], [a1 , b1 ].
.
- , {[an , bn ]}, bn an = (b a)/2n
. , 1.7.1 , .
, f () = 0. , f .
n [an , bn ]
, ,

4.3. ,

97

. [an , bn ] f , ,
.
, g(x) := f (x) c. g [a, b]
. ,
[a, b], g() = 0. , f () c = 0 f () = c.
.
4.3.4. [a, b] ,
. . , , f .
M := sup f (x),
x[a,b]

f [a, b] , M := + .
m := inf f (x)
x[a,b]

m := .
c (m, M )
[a, b] , c = f ().
.
[a, b] x , c <
f (x ) 6 M .
x , m 6 f (x ) < c.
f x
x . f ,
, c, 4.3.3
f c,
.
, f , , ,
f , .
4.3.4 [a, b] ,
4.3.1 m M , 4.3.2 f . ,
f [m, M ].

98

. 4.

, , .
.
, ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
,
.
, 4.3.1 ,
, 4.3.2 4.3.3
.

4.4.
f [a, b], x0 [a, b] , x f , |x x0 | < , |f (x) f (x0 )| < .

, , . ,
, x0 . ,
.
. f , [a, b],
,
> 0 () > 0 , x0
x00 [a, b], |x0 x00 | < ,

|f (x0 ) f (x00 )| < .


, , , ,
.
4.4.1 ( ). , .
. :
f (x) [a, b] ,

4.4.

99

. 0 > 0 , > 0
x0 x00 [a, b], |x0 x00 | < , |f (x0 ) f (x00 )| > 0 .
, 1/n, n N, n
x0n x00n [a, b] , |x0n x00n | < 1/n
|f (x0n ) f (x00n )| > 0 .
{x0n }. , , {x0nk }.
:= limk x0nk , [a, b].
|x00nk | 6 |x00nk x0nk | + |x0nk |,
limk x00nk = .
f , limk f (x0nk ) = f ()
limk f (x00nk ) = f (), |f (x0nk )
f (x00nk )| > 0 .
.
, , ,
.

.
. f
. f


(f, ) := sup f (x0 ) f (x00 ) , > 0,
x0 x00 , |x0 x00 | 6 .
(f, ) ,
x0 x00 , |x0 x00 | 6 .
(f, ) f , ,
.
:
10 . () > 0 (0) = 0;
20 . () .
, , (+0) (+0) > 0.
4.4.2. () f . 1 2
(1 + 2 ) 6 (1 ) + (2 ).
(4.4.1)

100

. 4.

, (n) 6 n () n.
. x0 x00 , f , |x0 x00 | 6
1 + 2 . x0 x00 t, |x0 t| 6 1
|t x00 | 6 2 .
|f (x0 ) f (x00 )| 6 |f (x0 ) f (t)| + |f (t) f (x00 )| 6 (1 ) + (2 ).
x0 x00 ,
, x0 x00 ,
(4.4.1).
(n) 6 n (), n N,
.
.
, (4.4.1), ().
4.4.3. ()

() 6 ( + 1) ().

(4.4.2)

. 4.4.2
() 6 ().
[] , ,
[] 6 < [] + 1. > 0

() 6 (([] + 1) ) 6 ([] + 1) () 6 ( + 1) ().
.
4.4.4. (f, +0) = 0 f .
. (f, +0) = 0, > 0
> 0 , (f, ) < . , x0 , x00 , f ,
|x0 x00 | < |f (x0 ) f (x00 )| < . f .
. f . > 0 > 0 ,

4.5.

101

x0 , x00 f ,
|x0 x00 | 6 ,
|f (x0 ) f (x00 )| < /2.
x0 x00 ,

x0 x00 , |x0 x00 | 6 . , () 6
/2 < , (f, +0) = 0.
.

4.5.
D f E D
, f , . . E
y = f (x), x D.
y E x ,
y E , , x D ,
y = f (x).
, , , .
, .
X Y . () f : X Y , , f X Y .
Y -
X. Y
f , X
Y .
.
f : X Y
Y
X, . . f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) x1 = x2 ,
, f .
, . ,
.
.

102

. 4.

f D E, E , y E x D,
y = f (x). , f , x = f 1 (y).
, 1/f (y),
f (y)1 .
f D (. . ), f : D E .
,
, f ,
, f .
4.5.1. f [a, b]
, c := f (a) d := f (b).
x = f 1 (y)
[c, d].
. . 4.3.4 f (x)
[c, d].
[c, d].
y0 (c, d)
f 1 (y) . x0 (a, b),
f (x0 ) = y0 . , - x0
(a, b). y1 := f (x0 ) y2 := f (x0 + )
(c, d).
f (x) (x0 , x0 + )
OX (y1 , y2 ) OY .
, - y0 (y1 , y2 ). - y0
x = f 1 (y) - x0 .
f 1 y0 .

f 1 (y) c d .
.
.

4.5.

103

y
d
y2

(
(

y0+
y0
y0
y1
c

y =f (x)
a

x0

x0

x0+

,
, .
4.5.2. f (a, b). c := inf x(a,b) f (x)
d := supx(a,b) f (x). (a, b) y = f (x) (c, d) x = f 1 (y)
(c, d).
. (a, b) , . f (a, b), d = +. c = , f
. , (c, d) .
d < +, y > d f (x). y > d
. d f x0 (a, b), x > x0 f
, d. (c, d). , x (a, b) f (x) (c, d).
4.3.4 y0 (c, d)
f (a, b).
, f (c, d).
y1 y2 , c < y1 < y0 < y2 < d f 1 (y) [y1 , y2 ]. 4.5.1 f 1 (y) [y1 , y2 ]. -

104

. 4.

, f 1 (y)
(c, d).
.
, 4.5.1 4.5.2
.
. y =
f (x) .
f 1 x, , y.
y = f 1 (x) y = f (x) y = x.
, y = f (x) (x, f (x)), ,
, (f (x), x).

y =f 1(x)

y =x

( f (x),x)

y =f (x)

(x, f (x))

f (x)

4.6.
ax x . ax x.
, a, a > 0 a 6= 1.
ax x.

4.6.

105

a1 := a n > 2
an := |a a {z a} .
n

x 1/n, n N.
n
u = v n , v [0, +).
, [0, +). ,

v = n u = u1/n
[0, +).
n . .
ax x 1/n. x = p/q,
p q ,
ap/q := (ap )1/q .
(a1/q )p , (ap )1/q = (a1/q )p
.
, x = 0, a0 := 1, x = p/q,
p q , ap/q := 1/ap/q .
, ax x. ( r ):
ar > 0;
ar1 +r2 = ar1 ar2 ;
(ar1 )r2 = ar1 r2 ;
r

(ab) = ar br ,

a > 0, b > 0;

a > 1, ar
, . . ar1 < ar2 , r1 < r2 , ( , ar > 1
a > 1 r > 0) limr+ ar = +, limr ar = 0;
a < 1, ar
.
, ,
n- .

106

. 4.

.
4.6.1 ( . ). a > 1 h
(0, 1] ,
0 < ah 1 6 2(a 1)h.

(4.6.1)

. a > 1, (4.6.1)
. . h = 1/n, n . a1/n = 1 + , > 0
ar . (2.6.1)
a = (1 + )n > 1 + n.
= a1/n 1, ,
ah 1 = a1/n 1 6

a1
= (a 1)h.
n

(4.6.2)

, h = 1/n (4.6.1)
2 .
h (0, 1).
n , 1/(n+1) < h 6 1/n.
(4.6.2)
ah 1 6 a1/n 1 6

n+1 a1
n+1
a1
=

<
(a1)h 6 2(a1)h.
n
n n+1
n

.
- a > 1. x
ar , r Q,
ax =

sup

ar .

(4.6.3)

r6x, rQ

(4.6.3) ax x a > 1. ax a > 1


x.
y = ax , x R, .
a > 1, ,
.

4.6.

107

10 . ax > 0. (4.6.3).
20 . ax , . . x1 < x2 ,
x1
a < ax2 .
,
x1 < < < x2 . ax
ax1 6 a < a 6 ax2
.
30 . ax + x +; ax 0 x .
ax .
40 . ax .
av
au u < v. ,
< u < v < < 2(v u).
ax (4.6.1),
0 < av au < a a = a (a 1) 6
6 a 2(a 1)( ) < 4au (a 1)(v u).

(4.6.4)

, ax x0 ,
> 0

:= x0
.
4a (a 1)
|x x0 | < (4.6.4)
|ax ax0 | < 4amin(x,x0 ) (a 1)|x x0 | <

< 4amin(x,x0 ) (a 1) x0
6 .
4a (a 1)
ax x0 .
50 . : ax+y = ax ay
x y.
{n } {n },
n x n y n . n + n x + y

an +n = an an .

108

. 4.

, n
.
a > 1, a < 1.
0 < a < 1, 1/a > 1
ax :=

1
.
(1/a)x

10 50 a > 1 0 < a < 1, ax


.
ax . a .
60 . x y
(ax )y = axy .
(a ) = a .
{n }
y. (a )n = a n n .

(a )y = a y
y .
{n },
x. (an )y = an y .
4.1.1 , n
60 .
70 . (ab)x = ax bx a b
x.

{n }, x,
(ab)n = an bn .
, ax , a > 0, x R
ax , x. , .
ax a > 1, a < 1,
a = 1.

4.7.

109

y
a>1
1

a=1
a<1
x

, e, . ex
exp x. , , x .

4.7.
. y =
ax , a > 0 a 6= 1,
, (0, +). (0, +)
, a x = loga y.
, , x, y, . . y = loga x.
ax , ,
a > 1 loga x +,
0 < a < 1 + . :

y
a>1

1
0<a<1

110

. 4.

,
aloga x = x,

x > 0;

loga ax = x,

x R.

.
10 . loga (xy) = loga x + loga y
x y.
,
aloga (xy) = x y = aloga x aloga y = aloga x+loga y .

,
, .
20 . 10 x y


x
x
loga x = loga
y = loga + loga y.
y
y
, x y
loga

x
= loga x loga y.
y

30 . x > 0, y
loga xy = y loga x.
,
y

aloga x = xy = aloga x

y

= ay loga x

, .
40 . a b 1,
loga b logb a = 1.
,
aloga b logb a = aloga b

logb a

= blogb a = a

4.7.

111

e, . e . x ln x log x.
. y = xa , x > 0 a
, .

a
xa = eln x = ea ln x .
(4.7.1)
(4.7.1) .
a xa
, 0a := 0. y = xa [0, +).
a.

a>1
a=1

0<a<1
1
a=0
a<0
O

, a , xa x. x0 1
x, x = 0. a xa
a.
a , a
xa x a
x 6= 0.

112

. 4.

. .
.
4.7.1. x 6= 0
| sin x| < |x|.

(4.7.2)

. 0 < x < /2.


1.

y
B

x
O

AOB, x.
^ AB x, sin x = BC. ^ AB
, AB, AB 4ABC
BC. (4.7.2) 0 < x < /2.
(4.7.2)
, (4.7.2) /2 < x < 0. |x| >
/2, (4.7.2) , | sin x| 6 1.
.
4.7.2. y = sin x, y = cos x, y =
tg x y = ctg x .
. y = sin x. x :


x
x
sin
.
y = sin(x + x) sin x = 2 cos x +
2
2
, (4.7.2)



x
|y| 6 2 sin
< |x|.
2

4.7.

113

y 0 x 0,
.
, cos x = sin(x + /2)
.
,
.
tg x (/2, /2)
+. 4.5.2
. , y = tg x (/2, /2) (, +).
1.10 , . , (
1.10).
.
ex ex
ex + ex
, ch x :=
,
2
2
sh x
ch x
th x :=
,
cth x :=
ch x
sh x
, , .
x, , x = 0.
. .
.
,
, , , .
sh x :=

. , , , , ,
, .

114

. 4.

4.8.

. -
.
1.
lim

x0

sin x
.
x

3.3.1 , .
,
x (0, /2).
. 1 ,
.
AOB x. AOD COB
AD
1
=
,
sin x
cos x

4.8.

115

. . AD = tg x. , AOD
1
tg x.
2
AOB x/2,
1
x
< tg x.
2
2

sin x
.
x
(4.7.2) sin x < x. ,
cos x <

sin x
< 1.
x
cos x , cos x 1 x 0.
3.3.4
cos x <

lim

x0

sin x
= 1.
x

(4.8.1)

2. ,
lim (1 + x)1/x = e.

x0

(4.8.2)

2.6 , x = 1/n, n N,
n . e.
(4.8.2) , . [x].
[x] :=

max n.

n6x; nZ

116

. 4.

, [x] , x,
. . [x] 6 x < [x] + 1. [x]

x > 0,
1/x

(1 + x)


1/x 
[1/x]+1
1
1
= 1+
< 1+
=
1/x
[1/x]

[1/x] 

1
1
= 1+
1+
.
[1/x]
[1/x]

x +0 e.
,

[1/x]
1
1/x
(1 + x)
> 1+
=
[1/x] + 1

[1/x]+1 
1
1
1
= 1+
1+
.
[1/x] + 1
[1/x] + 1
x +0 e. , 3.3.4 (4.8.2) x +0.
x < 0. , x (1, 0).
1/|x| 
1/|x|

|x|
1
1/x
1/|x|
= 1+
=
(1 + x)
= (1 |x|)
=
1 |x|
1 |x|

 1|x|


|x|
|x|
|x|
= 1+
1+
.
1 |x|
1 |x|
x 0,
|x|
0.
1 |x|

4.8.

117

x (1, 0) , x > 0 (4.8.2) x < 0.


3. a > 0 a 6= 1.
lim

x0

loga (1 + x)
.
x

(4.8.2),
loga (1 + x)
= lim loga (1 + x)1/x =
x0
x0
x

1
.
= loga lim (1 + x)1/x = loga e =
x0
ln a
lim

,
1
loga (1 + x)
=
,
x0
x
ln a
lim

(4.8.3)

,
ln(1 + x)
= 1.
x
4.
lim

x0

(4.8.4)

ax 1
,
x0
x
lim

a > 0 a 6= 1.
t := ax 1. ax = 1 + t x = loga (1 + t). ,
ax 1
t
=
.
x
loga (1 + t)
x 0 t 0. (4.8.3)
ax 1
t
= lim
= ln a.
x0
t0 loga (1 + t)
x

(4.8.5)

ex 1
= 1.
x0
x

(4.8.6)

lim

lim

5.
5.1.
, .
y = f (x) x0 . x0 x ,
x0 + x , , x:
y = f := f (x0 + x) f (x0 ).
x 0.
. , y = f (x) x0 ,
lim

x0

y
.
x

(5.1.1)

f 0 (x0 ) f x0 .
f 0 (x) f x
. . Df (x),
. .
5.1.1. f , f .
. (5.1.1) , x0

y
= f 0 (x0 ) + (x),
(5.1.2)
x
118

5.1.

119

(x) x ,
lim (x) = 0.

x0

(5.1.3)

(5.1.2)
y = f 0 (x0 )x + (x)x.
x 0 , . . y 0, f
x0 .
.
, .
.
, y := |x|
y = |x|. ,
(
1,
x > 0,
y
=
(5.1.4)
x
1, x < 0.
, |x| , .
,
(5.1.4) x 0 . .
. f x0
lim

x+0

y
,
x

(5.1.5)


0
f x0 f+
(x0 ).
f
x0
lim

x0

y
,
x

(5.1.6)

0
f x0 f
(x0 ).

120

. 5.


, ,
.
0
, f (x) = |x| f+
(0) = 1
0
f (0) = 1.
, , .

(
x sin x1 x 6= 0,
f0 (x) :=
0
x = 0.
|f0 (x)| 6 |x|, f0 ,
. f0

1
.
f0 = x sin
x

f0
1
= sin
.
x
x
, f0 .
.
u v x, ,
u v.
5.1.2. u v
x.
:
0
10 . u(x) + v(x) = u0 (x) + v 0 (x).
0
20 . u(x) v(x) = u0 (x) v 0 (x).

0
30 . u(x) v(x) = u0 (x) v(x) + u(x) v 0 (x).
40 . v(x) 6= 0,


u(x)
v(x)

0
=

u0 (x) v(x) u(x) v 0 (x)


.
v 2 (x)

. 10 .


(u + v) = u(x + x) + v(x + x) u(x) + v(x) = u + v.

5.1.

121

(u + v)
u v
=
+
.
x
x x
x 0
,
u
v
(u + v)
= lim
+ lim
= u0 (x) + v 0 (x).
x0 x
x0 x
x0
x
lim

20 .
30 .
(uv) = u(x + x)v(x + x) u(x)v(x).
u = u(x+x)u(x), u(x+x) = u(x)+u.


(u v) = u(x) + u v(x) + v u(x) v(x) =
= u v(x) + u(x) v + u v.
,
(uv)
u
v
u
=
v(x) + u(x)
+
v.
x
x
x x
x 0 v v 0.

x 0. ,
(u v)
= u0 (x) v(x) + u(x) v 0 (x).
x0 x
lim

40 . , u(x) 1, . .
1/v(x).
v x v(x) 6= 0, v
x.
x
 
1
1
1
v(x) v(x + x)
v

=
=
.
v
v(x + x) v(x)
v(x + x) v(x)
v(x + x) v(x)

 
1
v
1
: x =

.
v
v(x + x) v(x) x

122

. 5.


x 0. ,
, ,
 0
1
v 0 (x)
= 2
.
v
v (x)
:

0 
0
u(x)
v 0 (x)
1
1
u(x) 2
=
= u(x)
= u0 (x)
v(x)
v(x)
v(x)
v (x)
u0 (x) v(x) u(x) v 0 (x)
=
.
v 2 (x)
.
,
u(x)
v(x)

u(x)

1
,
v(x)

, .
5.1.2 .
1). f , . . x
C, f = 0 , , C 0 = 0.
u, x ,
(Cu(x))0 = Cu0 (x).
, , Cu(x).
2). , . . y = xn , n . ,

(xn )0 = nxn1 ,
(5.1.7)
x n > 1 x ,
n < 0.

5.1.

123

(5.1.7) n, n.
n = 1 y = x , , x0 = 1.
(5.1.7) n n + 1.

(xn+1 )0 = (x xn )0 = xn + x nxn1 = (n + 1)xn .
, (5.1.7) n.
n . n > 0 ,
, x 6= 0

0
1
nxn1
(xn )0 =
= nxn1 ,
=
n
x
x2n
. . (5.1.7) .
x0 1, (x0 )0 = 0. (5.1.7)
n = 0, , (5.1.7)
x.
, x > 0 (5.1.7)
n.
3). y = ax ,
a > 0, a 6= 1.
y
ax+x ax
ax 1
=
= ax
,
x
x
x
(4.8.5)
ax 1
y
= ax lim
= ax ln a.
x0 x
x0
x
lim

, x
(ax )0 = ax ln a.

(5.1.8)

, a = e,
(ex )0 = ex .

(5.1.9)

124

. 5.

, C
(Cex )0 = Cex , . . y 0 = y, y = Cex . , y 0 = y
y = Cex .
4). y = loga x,
a > 0, a 6= 1.



x
y = loga (x + x) loga x = loga 1 +
,
x





1
x
1
1
x
y
=
loga 1 +
=
loga 1 +
.
x
x
x
x (x)/x
x
(4.8.3)
(loga x)0 =

1
.
x ln a

(5.1.10)

,
(ln x)0 =

1
.
x

(5.1.11)

(5.1.10) (5.1.11) x > 0.


5). .
y = sin x


x
x
cos x +
.
y = sin(x + x) sin x = 2 sin
2
2
(4.8.1) cos x


y
2
x
x
lim
= lim
sin
cos x +
= cos x.
x0 x
x0 x
2
2
,
(sin x)0 = cos x.

(5.1.12)

y = cos x:


x
x
sin x +
,
y = cos(x + x) cos x = 2 sin
2
2

5.2.

125

,




y
2
x
x
= lim
sin
sin x +
= sin x.
x0 x
x0 x
2
2
lim

,
(cos x)0 = sin x.

(5.1.13)

(5.1.12) (5.1.13) x.
, :

0
sin x
cos x cos x sin x ( sin x)
1
(tg x)0 =
=
=
;
2
cos x
cos x
cos2 x
(5.1.14)

0
cos x
sin x sin x cos x cos x
1
(ctg x)0 =
=
= 2 .
2
sin x
sin x
sin x
(5.1.15)
(5.1.14) (5.1.15) x , , .

, .
(5.1.1) .
,
+ . .
, ,
, , .

5.2.
. y = f x. f

y = f = f (x + x) f (x) = A x + o(x),

x 0, (5.2.1)

A , f x.

126

. 5.

y x = 0.
, x = 0 o(x) (5.2.1)
.
5.2.1. y = f x0
, f . f ,
y = f 0 (x0 ) x + o(x),

x 0.

(5.2.2)

. 5.1.1 , f x0
(5.1.2), (5.1.3)
(5.2.2). 5.2.1.
, (5.2.1)
x:
y
= A + o(1), x 0.
x
, f x , A, . . (5.2.1) (5.2.2).
.
, ,
.
.
. ,
, , , .

.
f
(5.2.1), A x f .
. f x,
f
f df df (x).
, df (x) := f 0 (x)x.
dy 6= y, (5.2.2) y
o(x).

5.2.

127


,
. x dx.
dy :
dy = f 0 (x) dx.

(5.2.3)

dy
.
(5.2.4)
dx
, . dy/dx .
:
f 0 (x) =

d(u v) = du dv;

(5.2.5)

d(u v) = u dv + v du

(5.2.6)

 
v du u dv
u
=
.
v
v2

(5.2.7)

, v(x) 6= 0,
d

, u
v , ,
u v, .
(5.2.5)(5.2.7) . ,
(5.2.6) (5.2.3) 5.1.2:
d(u v) = (u v)0 dx = u0 vdx + u v 0 dx = v du + u dv.
, .
f (x) x0 . f x0 x,
x0 + x .
f A(x0 , f (x0 ))
B(x0 + x, f (x0 + x)) AB.

128

. 5.

. , AB OX. , AB OX
, .
AB OX, = 0.

y =f (x)

B
y
A

x0

x0+x

y = f (x0 + x) f (x0 ),
y
= tg .
x

(5.2.8)

f x0 B
x 0 A. x.
(5.2.8) ,
f 0 (x0 ) tg x 0.
(/2, /2) , tg ,
0 . , x 0 AB , 0 . ,
, f (x) x0 .
tg 0 = f 0 (x0 )
OY , .
, .

5.2.

129

5.2.2.
y = f (x) (x0 , f (x0 )) f 0 (x0 ).
.
.
, L,
y = f (x) (x0 , f (x0 ))
y f (x0 ) = f 0 (x0 )(x x0 ).
M (x, f (x)), f , L


f (x) f (x0 ) f 0 (x0 )(x x0 )
p
(M, L) =
.
1 + f 0 (x0 )2
f 0 (x0 )
(M, L) = o(x x0 ),

x x0 .

L1 , (x0 , f (x0 )),


y = f (x0 ) + k(x x0 )
.
, M y = f (x)

(M, L1 ) = o(x x0 ),

x x0 ,

(5.2.9)

L1 . ,
(M, L1 ) =



1
f (x) f (x0 ) k(x x0 )
1 + k2

(5.2.9) ,
f (x) f (x0 ) k(x x0 ) = o(x x0 ),

x x0 .

,
f (x) f (x0 )
= k + o(1),
x x0

x x0 .

130

. 5.

f 0 (x0 ) f 0 (x0 ) = k.
,
L1 , (5.2.9).
, f x0 (x0 , f (x0 ))
f .
:
y x.
f (x + x) f (x) x x x + x.
.
y , ,
x , . y , ,
x, .
, ,
.
x. ,
, .
, ( ),

, .
, ,
. . x,
,
, x .

5.3.
y = f (x) (a, b) (A, B) (a, b) ,
f , 4.5.2 (A, B)
x = (y), f .
.

5.3.

131

, f
x0 (a, b)
y0 = f (x0 ).
f x0 , x 0
, y = f (x0 + x) f (x0 ) 0.
, y 0 x = (y0 + y)
(y0 ) 0.
, x 0 y 0 .
, f 0 (x0 ) ,
0 (y0 ), . .
lim

y0

x
?
y

, y 6= 0
x 6= 0.


x
y
.
(5.3.1)
=1:
y
x
f 0 (x0 ) 6= 0, y
0 x 0, (5.3.1)




x
y
y
1
lim
= lim 1 :
= 1 : lim
= 0
.
y0 y
x0
x0 x
x
f (x0 )
, .
5.3.1. f (x) x0 f 0 (x0 ), (y)
y0 := f (x0 )
0 (y0 ) =

1
f 0 (x

0)

(5.3.2)

f 0 (x0 ) = 0, (5.3.2) . ,
.
f , y x
.
, (5.3.1) y 0 (, ,
x 0), ,


x
y
= lim 1 :
= +.
lim
y0 y
x0
x

132

. 5.

f , y x
. ,
lim

y0

x
= .
y

, , (5.3.2) f 0 (x0 ) = 0, ,
0 (y0 ),
+ , f .
, f 0 (x0 ) 0 (y0 ), , (5.3.2).
(5.3.2) :
1
dx
=
.
dy
dy/dx
.
, , ,
.
, , (ax )0 = ax ln a
. y = loga x, x = ay .
(5.3.2)
(loga x)0 =

1
1
1
= y
=
(ay )0
a ln a
x ln a

(5.1.9).

.
10 . y = arcsin x, x [1, 1]. x = sin y, y
[/2, /2]. ,
(arcsin x)0 =

1
1
1
1
=
=p
=
.
0
2
(sin y)
cos y
1 x2
1 sin y

(5.3.3)

5.4.

133

20 . y = arccos x,
x [1, 1]. x = cos y, y [0, ],
1
1
1
1
= p
=
.
=
0
2
(cos y)
sin y
1 x2
1 cos y
(5.3.4)
(5.3.3) (5.3.4) x [1, 1].
, x = 1 .
, (5.3.4) (5.3.3),

(arccos x)0 =

arcsin x + arccos x

,
2

1 6 x 6 1.

30 . y = arctg x, x = tg y (5.3.2)
cos2 y
1
1
1
= cos2 y =
.
=
=
0
2
(tg y)
1 + x2
1 + tg2 y
cos y + sin2 y
(5.3.5)
40 . y = arcctg x

(arctg x)0 =

(arcctg x)0 =

1
1
1
= sin2 y =
=
. (5.3.6)
2
0
(ctg y)
1 + x2
1 + ctg y

(5.3.5) (5.3.6) x.

arctg x + arcctg x

.
2

5.4.
5.4.1. y = f (x) x0 , f (x0 ) = y0 z = (y) y0 . z = (x) := (f (x))
x0
0 (x0 ) = 0 (y0 ) f 0 (x0 ).

(5.4.1)

. 4.1.1
f (x) x0 (y) y0 (x) x0 .

134

. 5.

f x0 y0 , ,
y = f 0 (x0 )x + x (x)

(5.4.2)

z = 0 (y0 )y + y 1 (y),

(5.4.3)

(x) 0 x 0 1 (y) 0 y 0.
z x, (5.4.3) y
(5.4.2). y (5.4.2) , 5.2, 1 (0) = 0.


z = 0 (y0 ) f 0 (x0 )x + x (x) + y 1 (y) =
= 0 (y0 ) f 0 (x0 ) x + 0 (y0 ) x (x) + y 1 (y).
x:
z
y
= 0 (y0 ) f 0 (x0 ) + 0 (y0 ) (x) +
1 (y).
x
x

(5.4.4)

x 0 y 0, , 1 (y) 0
(5.4.4) 0 (y0 )f 0 (x0 ).
,
z
= 0 (y0 ) f 0 (x0 ).
x0 x

0 (x0 ) = lim
.

, 4.5.1
.
,
(5.4.1) :
dz
dz dy
=

.
dx
dy dx
y = f (x) x0
yx0 (x0 ).

zx0 (x0 ) = zy0 (y0 ) yx0 (x0 ).

(5.4.5)

5.4.

135

.
10 . y = xa , x > 0,
a . 5.1
, a .
a > 0 x , a < 0
.
a
a

y = xa = eln x = ea ln x .
u = a ln x. y = eu (5.4.5)
yx0 = yu0 u0x = eu

a
a
a
= ea ln x = xa = axa1 .
x
x
x

(5.4.6)

x > 0 a.
a > 0, x = 0 .
, 0 < a < 1 y = xa
+.
(5.4.6)
(xa )0 a x.
20 . y = loga |x|, x 6= 0.
, u = |x|. y = loga u.

+1, x > 0,
sign x := 0,
x = 0,

1, x < 0,
x ( signum ).
, u = |x| = x
sign x. , x 6= 0, |x|0 = sign x. , x 6= 0
(5.4.5)
yx0 = yu0 u0x =

sign x 1
1
1
sign x =

=
.
u ln a
|x|
ln a
x ln a

,
loga |x|

0

1
,
x ln a

x 6= 0,

(5.4.7)

136

. 5.

,
(ln |x|)0 =

1
,
x

x 6= 0.

(5.4.8)

, (loga |x|)0 , .
30 . , ,
.



cos x = sin x +
,
2

(cos x) =

0




= cos x +
= sin x.
sin x +
2
2

40 . :
(sh x)0 =
0

(ch x) =




ex ex
2

0

ex + ex
2

0

(ex )0 (ex )0
ex + ex
=
= ch x; (5.4.9)
2
2

ex ex
= sh x.
2

(5.4.10)

0
sh x
ch x ch x sh x sh x
=
=
ch x
ch2 x
(ch x + sh x)(ch x sh x)
ex ex
1
=
=
= 2 ;
2
ch x
ch2 x
ch x

0
sh x sh x ch x ch x
1
ch x
=
= 2 .
(cth x)0 =
sh x
sh2 x
sh x
(th x)0 =

(5.4.11)
(5.4.12)

,
.
,
.
0
ln f (x) f (x).
, ,
f (x) = u(x)

v(x)

5.5.

137

u(x) > 0. u v x,


v(x) 0
0
u0 (x)
ln u(x)
.
= v(x) ln u(x) = v 0 (x) ln u(x) + v(x)
u(x)
,
ln u(x)v(x)

0

= u(x)v(x)

0


: u(x)v(x) ,

,
u(x)v(x)

0



u0 (x)
= u(x)v(x) v 0 (x) ln u(x) + v(x)
.
u(x)

5.5.

f 0 (x) x0 ,
x0 f 0 (x).
f 0 (x) x0 ,
f (x) x0 f 00 (x0 ).
f 000 (x)
f 00 (x) . .
. n, n = 2, 3, . . . ,
f (x) n 1.
n x0 f (n) (x0 ).
,
0
f (n) (x) := f (n1) (x) .
,
. , y = x|x|,
y 0 = 2|x|. , x|x|
.
, n > 1,
n + 1.

138

. 5.


. ,
(ax )(n) = ax (ln a)n ;


n
(n)
(cos x) = cos x +
;
2
(xa )(n) = a(a 1) . . . (a n + 1)xan .
, a , xa [a] ,
[a] + 1.
, . , ,
.
, . .
, ,

. ,
.
u(x) v(x) n,
n
(n)
u(x) v(x)
= u(n) (x) v (n) (x).
, n u(x) v(x).
.

Cnk :=

n!
,
k! (n k)!

0 6 k 6 n,

0! := 1,

(5.5.1)

,
,

5.5.

139

. Cnk

 
n
.
k
Cnk n k,
, k n . .
5.5.1 ( ). u(x)
v(x) x0 n, n = 1, 2, . . . ,
n
u(x) v(x)
n
(n) X
u(x0 ) v(x0 )
=
Cnk u(k) (x0 ) v (nk) (x0 ),

(5.5.2)

k=0


.
. .
. n = 1
(5.5.2)

(u v)0 =

1
X

C1k u(k) v (1k) = u v 0 + u0 v,

k=0

. .
.
, (5.5.2) n = m, m = 1, 2, . . . ,
n = m + 1.

140

. 5.

(m+1)

(u v)

= (u v)


(m) 0

X
m

k (k)
Cm
u

(mk)

0
=

k=0

=
=

m
X
k=0
m
X

k
Cm
u(k) v (mk)

0


k
Cm
u(k+1) v (mk) + u(k) v (mk+1) =

k=0

m+1
X

i1 (i) (m(i1))
Cm
u v
+

i=1

m
X

i (i) (m+1i)
Cm
u v
=

i=0

m
X

i1
i
Cm
+ Cm
u(i) v (m+1i) +

i=1
m (m+1) (0)
0 (0) (m+1)
+ Cm
u
v + Cm
u v
.

i = 1, . . . , m
m!
m!
+
=
(i 1)! (m (i 1))! i! (m i)!
m!
=
(i + m i + 1) =
i! (m i + 1)!
(m + 1)!
i
=
= Cm+1
.
i!(m i + 1)!

i1
i
Cm
+ Cm
=


m+1
m
Cm
= 1 = Cm+1
,

0
0
Cm
= 1 = Cm+1
.

0
(u v)(m+1) = Cm+1
u(0) v (m+1) +
m
X
m+1 (m+1) (0)
i
+
Cm+1
u(i) v (m+1i) + Cm+1
u
v =
i=1

m+1
X

i
Cm+1
u(i) v (m+1i)

i=0

(5.5.2) n = m + 1.
.

5.5.

141

.
x y = f (x) , dy = f 0 (x) dx. , dy
x dx.
, dy
x ?
, x dx
dy:

f 0 (x + dx) dx f 0 (x) dx = f 0 (x + dx) f 0 (x) dx.
f 00 (x),
f 0 (x + dx) f 0 (x) = f 00 (x) dx + o(dx),

dx 0.

,
f 0 (x) dx, x dx, f 00 (x) dx dx =
f 00 (x) (dx)2 .
(dx)2 dx2 , . . dx ,
.
, d2 y := d(dy),
d2 y = f 00 (x) dx2 .

(5.5.3)

, d2 y f 00 (x).
dx x
, d(dx) = d2 x = 0.
, n > 2
dn y := d (dn1 y)
,
dn y = f (n) (x) dxn ,

(5.5.4)

dxn n- dx.
,
f (n) (x) =

dn y
(x),
dxn

n = 1, 2, . . . ,

(5.5.5)

142

. 5.

. . n n n-
.
, (5.5.3)(5.5.5) ,
x .
.
.
y = (x) = (f (x)), y = (u) u = f (x)
. dy = 0 (x) dx,
(5.4.1) 0 (x) = 0 (u)f 0 (x).

dy = 0 (u)f 0 (x) dx.


, f 0 (x) dx = du, , dy = 0 (u) du.
, dy
dy = 0 (x) dx

(5.5.6)

dy = 0 (u) du.

(5.5.7)

,
, dx (5.5.6)
, du (5.5.7)
.

.
.
- y = (u), u = f (x), x
, (x) := (f (x)).
(5.5.7) (5.2.6)

d2 y = d 0 (u) du = d(0 (u)) du + 0 (u) d(du) =
= 00 (u) du du + 0 (u) d2 u = 00 (u) du2 + 0 (u) d2 u.
,
d2 y = 00 (u) du2 + 0 (u) d2 u.
d2 u = f 00 (x) dx2 .

(5.5.8)

5.5.

143

(5.5.8) (5.5.3) ,
,

.
.

d3 y = d(d2 y) = d 00 (u) du2 + 0 (u) d2 u =
= 000 (u) du du2 + 00 (u) d(du2 )+
+ 00 (u) du d2 u + 0 (u) d(d2 u) =
= 000 (u) du3 + 00 (u) 2 du d2 u + 00 (u) du d2 u + 0 (u) d3 u =
= 000 (u) du3 + 300 (u) d2 u du + 0 (u) d3 u.

(5.5.9)

(5.5.8) (5.5.9) , , .
, .


x = at + b,

y = ct + d,

(5.5.10)

t (, +). a 6= 0, t = (x b)/a ,
t (5.5.10),
y=

c
(x b) + d.
a

, (5.5.10) t,
y x.

x = a cos t,

y = b sin t,

(5.5.11)

a, b > 0, t (, +). (5.5.11) t,


 2  2
x
y
+
= 1.
a
b

y=

bp 2
a x2 .
a

(5.5.12)

144

. 5.

x
, (5.5.12) y x.
[a, a], .
, ,
t
x = x(t),

y = y(t),

(5.5.13)

(5.5.13) t y
x .
, (5.5.13) yx0 x(t) y(t).
t0 x(t) , 4.5, x0 := x(t0 ) t = t(x), x(t), (5.5.13)
y(x) := y(t(x)).
, t0 x0t , yt0
, , x0t (t0 ) 6= 0.
(5.4.1) (5.3.2)
yx0 = yt0 t0x =

yt0
.
x0t

(5.5.14)

yx0 t, x(t) yx0 (t)


yx0 .
yt0 /x0t t (
, x00t t (t)
00
:
yt00t (t)), yxx
 0 0
yt
1
y 00 x0 y 0 x00
(y 0 )0
00
yxx
= x0 t =
0 = tt t 0 3 t tt .
(5.5.15)
0
xt
xt t xt
(xt )
y(x)
.
(5.5.15) . . ,
00
(5.5.14) , yxx
(t)
,
(5.5.15).

6.
6.1.

.
. f (x)
x0 , x0 , x
, x0 , f (x) 6 f (x0 ), x x0 f (x) > f (x0 ).
6 > < >, f
x0 .
.
.
6.1.1. y = f (x) x0
. f 0 (x0 ) > 0, f x0 , f 0 (x0 ) < 0, f x0 .
. f 0 (x0 ) > 0.
f 0 (x0 ) = lim

x0

f (x0 + x) f (x0 )
y
= lim
,
x0
x
x

x
y
> 0.
x
, x > 0, y > 0, x < 0, y < 0.
f x0 .
f 0 (x0 ) < 0 .
.
6.1.1

.
145

146

. 6.

. , f (x) x0
, x x0 f (x) 6 f (x0 ).
x x0 f (x) < f (x0 ), , f (x) x0
.
, f (x) x0 , x x0 f (x) > f (x0 ). x x0
f (x) > f (x0 ), , f (x) x0 .

,
.
, f (x0 )
x0 ,
.
6.1.2 ( ). f (x)
x0 , x0
f , f 0 (x0 ) = 0.
. f 0 (x0 ) > 0, f x0 , f 0 (x0 ) < 0 f
x0 . ,
f 0 (x0 ) = 0. .
, f 0 (x0 ) = 0 , . ,
y = x3 ,
y 0 = 3x2 x = 0.
, f 0 (x) ,
f .

.
4.3.3 .

6.1.

147

6.1.3 ( ). f (x) [a, b], f (a) 6= f (b)


f (x) x [a, b]
F (x). c,
f (a) f (b), (a, b) , f () = c.
. ,
f (a) f (b) c .
, , f (a) > 0 f (b) < 0.
F (x) [a, b] , F (x)
[a, b] , , 4.3.2
[a, b] [a, b] .
F 0 (a) = f (a) > 0, a
F (x), a.
b,
F 0 (b) = f (b) < 0 , F (x) b.
, [a, b].
F 0 () = 0. F 0 () = f (), , f () = 0.
f (a) < 0 f (b) > 0, ,
F (x) [a, b] ,
, f () = 0.
, .
4.3.3 . (x) := f (x) c. c
f (a) f (b), (x) a b
. (x) := F (x) cx,
0 (x) = (F (x) cx)0 = (x). , (a, b), () = 0. f () c = 0
f () = c.
.
.
, f .
f (x) [a, b], F (x) , F 0 (x) = f (x)
x [a, b].
9 ,
[a, b] f F , F 0 (x) =

148

. 6.

f (x) x [a, b]. ,


.
, ,
, . ,
(
x2 sin(1/x) x 6= 0,
F (x) :=
0
x = 0,

(
2x sin(1/x) cos(1/x) x 6= 0,
F 0 (x) =
0
x = 0
F 0 (x) 0.
6.1.3 :
6.1.4. F (x) [a, b] F 0 (a) 6= F 0 (b), c,
F 0 (a) F 0 (b), (a, b) ,
F 0 () = c.
.
6.1.5. ,
, .

6.2.
, [a, b]
(a, b), . .
.
6.2.1 ( ). f (x) [a, b] (a, b).
f (a) = f (b), (a, b),
f 0 () = 0.
. f
[a, b] 4.3.2 , f
M m .
M = m, f [a, b]
f 0 (x) .

6.2.

149

M 6= m, f
[a, b].
f 0 .
,
(a, b) f OX.
6.2.2 ( ). f (x) [a, b] (a, b), (a, b) ,
f (b) f (a) = f 0 ()(b a).

(6.2.1)

. , (x) := f (x) x (a) = (b).


f (a) a = f (b) b, ,
=

f (b) f (a)
.
ba

(x) [a, b]
(a, b).
(a, b),
0 () = 0.
, f 0 () = 0
f 0 () =

f (b) f (a)
.
ba

(6.2.2)

(6.2.1) .
(6.2.1)
. .
(6.2.2), .
(6.2.2)
f (x) ,
, (a, f (a)) (b, f (b)) . , ,
(a, b),
, (a, f (a)) (b, f (b)).

150

. 6.


:

f (b) f (a) = f 0 a + (b a) (b a),
(6.2.3)
, 0 < < 1.
(6.2.3) a < b,
a > b.
6.2.3 ( ).
f (x) g(x) [a, b], g(a) 6= g(b). f g (a, b)
f 0 (x) g 0 (x) (a, b) ,
(a, b) ,
f 0 ()
f (b) f (a)
= 0 .
g(b) g(a)
g ()

(6.2.4)

. g(x) = x 6.2.3
6.2.2. 6.2.3
.
(x) := f (x) g(x).
[a, b] (a, b). (x)
, f (a) g(a) =
f (b) g(b), ,
=

f (b) f (a)
.
g(b) g(a)

(a) = (b), ,
(a, b), 0 () = 0. ,
f 0 ()

f (b) f (a) 0
g () = 0.
g(b) g(a)

(6.2.5)

6.2.

151

g 0 () 6= 0, (6.2.5) f 0 () = 0,
f g
. , (6.2.5)
g 0 (), (6.2.4).
.
.
6.2.4. f (x)
[a, b] f 0 (x) = 0 (a, b), f
[a, b].
. x x [a, b]
x
x ,
f (x ) f (x ) = f 0 ()(x x ).
(a, b), f 0 () = 0 , ,
f (x ) = f (x ). , x x [a, b].
, .
6.2.5. f (x)
[a, b] f 0 (x) = 0 (a, b)
,
. f [a, b].
. a = x0 < x1 < < xn = b
[a, b], f 0 (x) = 0
.
6.2.4 [xk1 , xk ], k = 1, . . . , n,
, f (x) .
x1 , x2 , . . . , xn1 , (a, b)
f (x).
, f [a, b].

, , .
.
.

152

. 6.

6.2.6. x1 , x2 , . . . [a, b] , b.
f (x) [a, b] (a, b), x1 , x2 , . . . , ,
, f (x) [a, b].
. 6.2.5 f (x) [a, xn ]. , f (x) = C x [a, b), C .
f b f (xn ) = C xn b, n , f (b) = C, . . f (x) = C [a, b].
.
6.2.7. f (x)
[a, b] ,
, ,

|f 0 (x)| 6 M.
x , x , [a, b],
|f (x ) f (x )| 6 M |x x |.
(6.2.6)
. a = x0 < x1 < < xn = b
[a, b], .
x , x - [xk1 , xk ], k = 1, . . . , n,
, , , x x ,
|f (x ) f (x )| = |f 0 ()| |x x | 6 M |x x |.
x [xi1 , xi ] x [xj1 , xj ], i < j,


f (x ) f (x ) =


j1
X






= f (x ) f (xi ) +
f (xk1 ) f (xk ) + f (xj1 ) f (x ) 6
k=i+1

j1
X





f (xk1 ) f (xk ) + f (xj1 ) f (x ) .
6 f (x ) f (xi ) +
k=i+1

6.2.

153


|f (x ) f (x )| 6
6 M |x xi | + M

j1
X

|xk1 xk | + M |xj1 x | =

k=i+1

= M |x x |.
.
, (6.2.6), .
.
. f
> 0, M , x , x





f (x ) f (x ) 6 M x x .
(6.2.7)
(6.2.7) :
(f, ) 6 M .
(6.2.7) > 1 ,
. ,
1 > 0


f (x ) f (x ) M |x x |
6

= M |x x |1

x x
|x x |
x x f 0 (x ) = 0. , 6.2.4
f .
0 <
6 1.
< 1 , .
,
.
6.2.8. f (x) [a, b] (a, b), f [a, b] : f 0 (x) > 0
(a, b).

154

. 6.

. y = f (x)
[a, b] x (a, b). x > 0
y = f (x + x) f (x) > 0, x < 0 y 6 0.
,
y
> 0.
x
,
y
lim
,
x0 x
, .
, f 0 (x) > 0 (a, b),
x1 x2 , x1 < x2 , [a, b],
(x1 , x2 )
f (x2 ) f (x1 ) = f 0 ()(x2 x1 ) > 0.
, f (x2 ) > f (x1 ) .
.
. A [a, b]
, [a, b], A, A [a, b].
6.2.9. f [a, b] (a, b).
f [a, b], : f 0 (x) > 0 (a, b) ,
f 0 (x) > 0, (a, b).
, f , f 0 (x) > 0 (a, b).
. 6.2.8 f 0 (x) > 0
f [a, b]. [a, b] f
, f [, ] (a, b), . .
[, ] f 0 (x) = 0.
, f 0 (x) > 0, , f 0 (x) = 0
[, ] (a, b) .

6.2.

155

, 6.2.8 6.2.9 [a, b]


, .
, , 6.2.8
6.2.9, .
6.2.10. f (x) [a, b] (a, b).
f 0 (x) 6= 0 x (a, b), f [a, b].
. 6.1.3 , f 0 (x) (a, b) , (a, b), .
, (a, b) f 0 (x) > 0, f 0 (x) < 0.
6.2.9 f (x) [a, b] , .
.
6.2.11. f (x) [x0 , x0 +], > 0, (x0 , x0 +).
f 0 (x0 + 0),
f x0 , ,
0
f+
(x0 ) = f 0 (x0 + 0).

.
h
f (x0 + h) f (x0 )
= f 0 (x0 + h),
(6.2.8)
h
, 0 1.
(6.2.8)
h +0 f 0 (x0 + 0). ,
.
.
, f
[x0 , x0 ], > 0, (x0 , x0 )
f 0 (x0 0),
f x0 ,
.
6.2.11 .

156

. 6.

6.2.12. f (x) x0 , x0
limxx0 f 0 (x), f x0
f 0 (x0 ) = lim f 0 (x),
xx0

. . f (x) x0 .

6.3.

lim

xa

f (x)
,
g(x)

(6.3.1)

limxa g(x) = 0. , 4.8


lim

x0

sin x
.
x

.
limxa f (x) 6= 0, (6.3.1) .
, limxa f (x) = 0.
x a f (x) g(x)
, (6.3.1) 0/0,

.
.
, 0/0, .
6.3.1. a f (x) g(x) , g 0 (a) 6= 0.
(6.3.1)
f 0 (a)
f (x)
= 0
.
xa g(x)
g (a)
lim

(6.3.2)

. g 0 (a) 6= 0 6.1.1 , g a ,

6.3.

157

g(x) = 0, g(x) a. a f (x)/g(x)


.
x 6= a
f (x)
f (x) f (a)
f (x) f (a) g(x) g(a)
=
=
:
.
g(x)
g(x) g(a)
xa
xa

(6.3.3)

x a,
, g 0 (a), .
(6.3.3)
x a .
(6.3.2).
.
f g
(6.3.2).
6.3.2 6.3.3 .
6.3.2 ( 0/0). a , f (x) g(x) a, g 0 (x)
, limxa f (x) = 0
limxa g(x) = 0.

f 0 (x)
,
(6.3.4)
lim 0
xa g (x)

lim

xa

f (x)
,
g(x)

(6.3.5)

,
f (x)
f 0 (x)
= lim 0
.
xa g(x)
xa g (x)
lim

. a,
g 0 (x) , 6.2.10 g(x)
,

158

. 6.

x a . x, a, (6.3.5)
.
a . f (a) := 0,
g(a) := 0, . . ( ) f (x)
g(x) a.
a.

f (x)
f (x) f (a)
=
.
g(x)
g(x) g(a)
x, a, 6.2.3 . ,
(0, 1)

f 0 a + (x a)
f (x)
.
= 0
(6.3.6)
g(x)
g a + (x a)
(6.3.6) x a . (6.3.6)
a.
a , a =
+. (t) := f (1/t) (t) := g(1/t).
t (t) (t)





1
1
0 (t) = g 0 (1/t) 2 6= 0.
0 (t) = f 0 (1/t) 2 ,
t
t


0 (t)
= f 0 (1/t) g 0 (1/t)
0
(t)


0 (t)
f 0 (x)
=
lim
.
x+ g 0 (x)
t+0 0 (t)
lim

(t) 0, (t) 0 t +0,

(t)
0 (t)
lim
= lim 0 .
t+0 (t)
t+0 (t)
,
(t)
f (x)
lim
= lim
.
x+ g(x)
t+0 (t)

6.3.

159

, (6.3.4) (6.3.5),
. , f (x) = x2 sin 1/x g(x) = x,
lim

x0

f (x)
1
= lim x sin = 0.
g(x) x0
x

,


f 0 (x)
1
1
1
1
1
2
=
2x
sin
+
x
cos

= 2x sin cos
g 0 (x)
x
x
x2
x
x
x 0 .
6.3.3 ( /). a , a f (x) g(x) , g 0 (x) limxa f (x) = , limxa g(x) = .
f 0 (x)
,
xa g 0 (x)
lim

(6.3.7)


lim

xa

. .

f (x)
,
g(x)

f (x)
f 0 (x)
= lim 0
.
xa g(x)
xa g (x)
lim

(6.3.8)

. a
x a + 0. , a ,
.
, f (x), g(x)
g 0 (x) f 0 (x) .

f 0 (x)
= K.
xa+0 g 0 (x)
lim

, K .

160

. 6.

x0 > a
, x (a, x0 )
0

f (x)


< .
(6.3.9)

K
g 0 (x)

x, a, |f (x0 )| < |f (x)|
|g(x0 )| < |g(x)|, f (x) g(x) . x

 

g(x0 )
f (x0 )
h(x) := 1
: 1
,
g(x)
f (x)

f (x) f (x0 ) g(x) g(x0 ) f (x) f (x0 )


f (x)
=

:
=
g(x)
g(x) g(x0 )
g(x)
f (x)
f (x) f (x0 )
=
h(x).
(6.3.10)
g(x) g(x0 )
x
(a, x0 ) x (x, x0 ),
f (x) f (x0 )
f 0 (x )
= 0
.
g(x) g(x0 )
g (x )

(6.3.11)

(6.3.9)(6.3.11) , x, a,

0

f (x )

f (x)




g(x) K = g 0 (x ) h(x) K =

 0

f (x )


K h(x) + K h(x) 1 6
= 0
g (x )
6 |h(x)| + |K| |h(x) 1|.
limxa+0 h(x) = 1,
f (x)
=K
xa+0 g(x)
lim

, K , .
K , K + .
, 6.2.10 g(x) , . ,

6.3.

161

g 0 (x) . (6.3.7) , f 0 (x) a. ,


K + .
f 0 (x) a ,

g 0 (x)
.
xa+0 f 0 (x)
lim

(6.3.12)

, (6.3.12) a
, .
K
lim

xa+0

g(x)
= 0.
f (x)

(6.3.10) (6.3.11)
g(x)/f (x) , g 0 (x)/f 0 (x).
, (6.3.8) K.
.
, 6.3.2, 6.3.3,
(6.3.4) ,
.
,
,

0 ,

+ (+),

(+0)0 ,

(+)0 ,

lim f (x) = 0 lim g(x) = ,


lim f (x)g(x)

lim

f (x)
,
1/g(x)

0/0.

1 .

162

. 6.

lim f (x) = + lim g(x) = +,





1
1
f (x)g(x)
f (x) g(x) =

g(x) f (x)
0 .
(+0)0 , (+)0 , 1 ,
g(x)

f (x)g(x) = eln f (x)

= eg(x) ln f (x)

( f (x) > 0).


0 0.

(. . ) ,
,
.
,
(
2
e1/x x 6= 0,
(x) :=
0
x = 0.
x 6= 0,
2 1/x2
e
,
x3
(x) 2
e1/x
1/xk , k N.
k
0 (x) =

e1/x
= 0.
x0
xk
lim

(6.3.13)

1/x2 = t,
2

tk/2
e1/x
=
lim
.
lim
t+ et
x0
xk
: , , .

6.4.

163


tk/2
= 0.
t+ et
lim

(6.3.14)

,
(6.3.14) ,
.
(6.3.14).
(6.3.13) 6.2.11
(m) (0) = 0 m = 1, 2, . . . . , (x)
.

6.4.
. Q(x)
m x. x a
Q(x) =

m
X

k (x a)k

k=0

, k Q(x) a.
Q(x) k k = 0, 1, . . . , m

Q(k) (x) = k!k + (k + 1)k . . . 2 k+1 (x a) +


+ (k + 2)(k + 1) . . . 3 k+2 (x a)2 + ,

Q(k) (a) = k!k


,
Q(x) =

m
X
Q(k) (a)
k=0

k!

(x a)k .

f (x), a m ,
P (x) =

m
X
f (k) (a)
k=0

k!

(x a)k .

(6.4.1)

164

. 6.

, a f (x) P (x)
m .
P (x), (6.4.1), m f a.
f (x), a n 1 ,
n 1:
Rn (x) := f (x)

n1
X
k=0

f (k) (a)
(x a)k .
k!

.
f (x) =

n1
X
k=0

f (k) (a)
(x a)k + Rn (x)
k!

(6.4.2)

n 1 f a.
Rn (x) .
.

. , (6.4.1), .
(6.4.2) .
a = 0 . , .
, (6.4.1)
f (x).

6.2.3 .
6.4.1. , (t) (t) a x,
m,
m
. , , a ( x) m 1 (a) =
0 (a) = = (m1) (a) = 0 (a) = 0 (a) = = (m1) (a) = 0.

6.4.

165

, a x, ,

(x)
(m) ()
= (m) .
(6.4.3)
(x)
()
. (a) = 0 (a) = 0,
(x) (a)
(x)
=
.
(x)
(x) (a)
x1 , a x,
(x)
0 (x1 )
= 0
.
(x)
(x1 )
, 0 (a) = 0 0 (a) = 0,
(x)
0 (x1 ) 0 (a)
= 0
(x)
(x1 ) 0 (a)
, , x2
a x1 , , a x, ,
(x)
00 (x2 )
= 00
.
(x)
(x2 )
, xm a x,
(m) (xm )
(x)
= (m)
.
(x)
(xm )
= xm (6.4.3).
.
6.4.2 (
). f (t) a x,
n > 1 (
x) n 1 a.
, 0 < < 1,
f (x) =

n1
X
k=0

f (n) (a + (x a))
f (k) (a)
(x a)k +
(x a)n , (6.4.4)
k!
n!

166

. 6.

n 1 a
.
. Rn
(6.4.2) f . (t) := Rn (t) (t) :=
(t a)n 6.4.1 m = n. a x , ,
(n)

Rn (x)
Rn ()
.
=
n
(x a)
n!
n
(n)
n 1 , Rn () = f (n) (). ,
a + (x a), 0 < < 1,
 1
Rn (x) = f (n) a + (x a)
(x a)n
n!
(6.4.2) (6.4.4).
.
, (6.4.4) n x .
n = 1 (6.4.4)

f (x) = f (a) + f 0 a + (x a) (x a),
.
6.4.2 ,
f (n) (x) 0, n , f (x)
n 1.
n = 1 6.2.4.
6.4.3 (
). f (x) a n > 1. x a
f (x) =

n
X
f (k) (a)
k=0

k!

(x a)k + o((x a)n ),

(6.4.5)

n a
.

6.4.

167

. f (n) (a)
, n 1 Rn (x) (6.4.2) a ,
(n)
n Rn (a) = f (n) (a).
(n1)
, f
(x)
a.
(t) := Rn (x) (t) := (ta)n 6.4.1 m = n 1. , a
x ,
(n1)

(n1)

Rn (x)
()
1 Rn
Rn
=
=
(x a)n
n!( a)
n!

(n1)

() Rn
a

(a)

(n1)

Rn
a . , a x a,
(n)
Rn (a)
Rn (x)
1
1
= Rn(n) (a) + o(1) = f (n) (a) + o(1),
n
(x a)
n!
n!

x a.

(xa)n , (6.4.5).
.
6.4.3 . (6.4.5) x
a.
n = 1 (6.4.5)
f (x) = f (a) + f 0 (a)(x a) + o(x a),

x a,

.
, f (n) (x) a,

. ,
f (n) (x) a x a
f (n) (a + (x a)) = f (n) (a) + o(1).
(6.4.4) (6.4.5).
, f (n) (x)
[A, B], g(t) ,

168

. 6.

limt0 g(t) = 0 a [A, B]


(6.4.5) g((x a)n ).
, f (n) (x)
[A, B]. , > 0
> 0, |x a| < , (0, 1)
(n)

f (a + (x a)) f (n) (a) < .
(6.4.4).
(6.4.5)
a [A, B].
9
.
n x a.
, x ,
n , n x a 0.

f (x) =

n
X


k (x a)k + o (x a)n ,

x a,

(6.4.6)

k=0

k .
, (6.4.6), k
.
, (6.4.6)
f (x) =

n
X


k (x a)k + o (x a)n ,

x a,

k=0

n
X


(k k ) (x a)k = o (x a)n ,

x a.

(6.4.7)

k=0

(xa)0 1,
(6.4.7) x a, 0 = 0 .
(6.4.7) ,
k = 0:
n
X

(k k ) (x a)k = o (x a)n , x a.
k=1

6.4.

169

n > 1, x a,
n
X

(k k ) (x a)k1 = o (x a)n1 , x a.
k=1

x a 1 = 1 .
, , k = k k 6 n.
, (6.4.6),
k .
, ,
(6.4.6) n > 1.
(6.4.6) x a, 0 = f (a).
, (6.4.6) ,
f (x) = f (a) +

n
X


k (x a)k + o (x a)n ,

x a.

k=1


f (x) f (a) X
=
k (x a)k1 + o (x a)n1 ,
xa

x a.

k=1

x a , f 0 (a) = 1 . ,
f (x) = f (a) + f 0 (a)(x a) +

n
X


k (x a)k + o (x a)n ,

x a.

k=2

, f
(6.4.6) n > 1, f a .
n > 2 f a
. ,
(
x3 , x ,
f0 (x) :=
0,
x ,
f0 (x) = o(x2 ), x 0. ,
f00 x = 0 f0
.

170

. 6.
(6.4.6)
f (x) =

n
X
k
k=0

k!


(x a)k + o (x a)k ,

x a.

(6.4.8)

f (6.4.8), k
f k a .

6.5.



n x.

.
10 . f (x) = ex . f (k) (x) =
e , f (k) (0) = 1 k. ,
x

ex =

n
X
1 k
ex
x +
xn+1 ,
k!
(n + 1)!

0 < < 1.

(6.5.1)

k=0

x ex 6 e|x| . (6.5.1)


ex

|x|n+1 |x|
n+1

x
(n + 1)!
6 (n + 1)! e ,
(2.5.1) , x
n . , x
ex = lim

n
X
xk
k=0

k!

x = 1 (6.5.1)
n
X
e
1
e=
+
,
k! (n + 1)!
k=0

0 < < 1.

(6.5.2)

6.5.

171

, n = 2
e=

2
X
1
e
5 e
+
< + .
k!
3!
2 6

k=0

, e < 3.
, (6.5.2) n
0<e

n
X
1
3
<
.
k!
(n + 1)!

(6.5.3)

k=0

(6.5.3) n
. (6.5.2), e,
e.
, 8! = 40320, (6.5.2) n = 7
e 0,0001. ,
n
.
(6.5.3) e.
. , e
m
e= ,
n
n > 2, e .
(6.5.3) n!,
0 < n! e

n
X
n!
k=0

k!

<

3
6 1.
n+1

,
n! e

n
X
n!
k=0

k!

= (n 1)! m

n
X
n!
k=0

k!

(0, 1). , . e.

ax + b = 0 .
an xn + an1 xn1 + + a0 = 0, n > 1,

172

. 6.

.
, . , .
(
), e , . .
20 . sin x.


k
sin(k) x = sin x +
.
2
,
sin(k) 0 = sin

k
2

k k ,
k +1 1.
2n + 2, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,
sin x
sin x =

n
X

(1)k

k=0

x2k+1
+ R2n+3 (x),
(2k + 1)!

(6.5.4)


R2n+3 (x) =

sin(2n+3) x 2n+3
x
,
(2n + 3)!

0 < < 1.


2n+3


R2n+3 (x) 6 |x|
,
(2n + 3)!

, x n
sin x = lim

n
X

(1)k

k=0

x2k+1
.
(2k + 1)!

6.5.

173

30 . cos x. .



k
cos(k) x = cos x +
,
2

k
cos(k) 0 = cos
.
2

cos x =

n
X

(1)k

k=0

x2k
+ R2n+2 (x)
(2k)!

(6.5.5)


|R2n+2 (x)| 6

x2n+2
.
(2n + 2)!

, x n

n
X
x2k
cos x = lim
(1)k
.
n
(2k)!
k=0

4 . sh x ch x. sh(k) x = sh x k sh(k) x = ch x k, sh(k) 0 = 0 k


sh(k) 0 = 1 k.
0

sh x =

n
X
x2k+1
+ R2n+3 (x),
(2k + 1)!

(6.5.6)

k=0

, | sh(k) (x)| 6 e|x| , R2n+3 (x)


2n+3


R2n+3 (x) 6 e|x| |x|
.
(2n + 3)!

,
ch x =

n
X
x2k
+ R2n+2 (x),
(2k)!

k=0

2n+2


R2n+2 (x) 6 e|x| x
.
(2n + 2)!

(6.5.7)

174

. 6.

x
n .
sh x ch x x
n
X
x2k+1
,
n
(2k + 1)!

n
X
x2k
.
n
(2k)!

sh x = lim

ch x = lim

k=0

k=0

, (6.5.6) (6.5.7)
(6.5.1).
50 . ln(1 + x).
x,
x > 1.
f (x) = ln(1 + x).
f 0 (x) =

1
= (1 + x)1
1+x

k > 2
f (k) (x) =

(1) (2) . . . ((k 1))


(1)k1 (k 1)!
=
.
(1 + x)k
(1 + x)k


ln(1 + x) =

n
X

(1)k1

k=1

xk
+ Rn+1 (x),
k

(6.5.8)

Rn+1 (x) = (1)n

xn+1
,
(n + 1)(1 + x)n+1

0 < < 1.

(6.5.9)

(6.5.9). x [0, 1],




Rn+1 (x) <

1
.
n+1

(6.5.10)

, Rn+1 (x) x n

n
X
xk
ln(1 + x) = lim
(1)k1 .
(6.5.11)
n
k
k=1

6.5.

175

(6.5.11) x (1, 0), x (6.5.9)


, x [1/2, 0). ,




n+1

x n+1
xn+1
|x|

=

<
61
(1 + x)n+1 1 + x
1 |x|
, , (6.5.10).
16 , Rn+1 (x) (6.5.8) n x (1, 1], x
.
60 . f (x) = (1 + x)m . m .
k 6 m,
f (k) (x) = m(m 1) . . . (m k + 1)(1 + x)mk
, ,
f (k) (0) = m(m 1) . . . (m k + 1) =

m!
.
(m k)!

k > m, f (k) (x) 0.


n > m

m
X
m!
xk

.
(1 + x)m =
(m k)! k!
k=0

, x
(1 + x)m =

m
X
k=0

X
m!
k k
xk =
Cm
x ,
(m k)!k!

m N,

(6.5.12)

k=0

k
Cm

.
(6.5.12)

(a + b)

m
X
k=0

k k mk
Cm
a b
,

m N,

(6.5.13)

176

. 6.

a b. , b 6= 0,

m
m
m
k
X
X
a
k a
k k mk
(a + b)m = bm 1 +
= bm
Cm
=
Cm
a b
.
b
bk
k=0

k=0

k
Cm

(6.5.13), .
m , k

f (k) (0) = m(m 1) . . . (m k + 1)


n
m
m(m 1) 2
x+
x +
1!
2!
m(m 1) . . . (m n + 1) n
+
x + Rn+1 (x),
n!
(6.5.14)

(1 + x)m = 1 +

Rn+1 (x) =

m(m 1) . . . (m n + 1)(m n) n+1


x
(1 + x)mn1 ,
(n + 1)!

0 < < 1.
16 , n
(6.5.14) |x| < 1 ,
|x| > 1 , x, +1 1,
m.

arctg x, 16 .
.
, .
,
sin x x
lim
x0
x3
.
sin x = x

x3
+ o(x4 ),
3!

x 0.

6.6.



sin x x
1
1
1
x3
4
=
+
o(x
)

x
= + o(x) ,
x

x3
x3
3!
6
6

177

x 0.

6.6.

6.2
. .

.
6.6.1. f (x) x0 n > 1,
.
10 . n , f x0 : , f (n) (x0 ) < 0, ,
f (n) (x0 ) > 0;
20 . n , f x0 :
, f (n) (x0 ) > 0, ,
f (n) (x0 ) < 0.
.
f (x) f (x0 ) =

f (n) (x0 )
(x x0 )n + o((x x0 )n ),
n!

x x0 . (6.6.1)

f (n) (x0 ) 6= 0,
x0
(6.6.1) .
x, x0 , o((x x0 )n ) .
n , (x x0 )n > 0 x 6= x0 . ,
(n)
f (x0 ) > 0, f (x) f (x0 ) > 0 x
x0 , . . f x0
. f (n) (x0 ) < 0, f (x) f (x0 ) < 0
x x0 f
x0 .

178

. 6.

n , (x x0 )n > 0 x > x0 (x x0 )n < 0


x < x0 . f (n) (x0 ) > 0 x x0 f (x) > f (x0 ),
x > x0 , f (x) < f (x0 ), x < x0 . , f
x0 . ,
f (n) (x0 ) < 0.
.
n = 1 6.6.1 6.1.1.
n > 2.
6.6.1,
- ,

. ,
, . . ,
, , .
6.6.1 . , ,
6.1.2.
6.6.2. f (x) x0 n > 1, , . . f 0 (x0 ) = f 00 (x0 ) = =
f (n1) (x0 ) = 0.
10 . n , f x0 , f (n) (x0 ) 6 0, f
, f (n) (x0 ) > 0;
20 . n , f x0
, f (n) (x0 ) = 0.
. n f (n) (x0 ) > 0, 6.6.1 f x0 . ,
f (n) (x0 ) 6 0. .

6.6.

179

n f (n) (x0 ) 6= 0, 6.6.1 f x0 . , f x0 , f (n) (x0 ) = 0.


.
, . 5.2 , f (x) x0 f (x0 , f (x0 )).
x0 .
, .
. f x0 . , f x0 , x
x0
x0 , (. .
).
x x0
, x0 .
. f x0 . , f x0 , x
x0
x0 , (. .
).
x x0
, x0 .
. f x0 . , x0 f , x x0
x < x0 x0 , x > x0
.
, + , .
,
,
.

180

. 6.

6.6.3. x0 f n > 2 , n > 2,


f 00 (x0 ) = = f (n1) (x0 ) = 0.
10 . n f x0 ,
(n)
f (x0 ) > 0, , f (n) (x0 ) < 0;
20 . n , x0 f .
. x0 u(x) = f (x0 )+f 0 (x0 )(xx0 ).

(x) := f (x) u(x) = f (x) f (x0 ) f 0 (x0 )(x x0 ).


(x)
(x0 ) = 0 (x0 ) = 00 (x0 ) = = (n1) (x0 ) = 0.
x0 n (x) f (x) .
n 6.6.1 (x) x0 , f (n) (x0 ) > 0,
, f (n) (x0 ) < 0.
f (x) = (x) + f (x0 ) + f 0 (x0 )(x x0 ),
f (x) x0 , f (n) (x0 ) > 0,
, f (n) (x0 ) < 0.
n , (x) x0 ,
x0 f (x).
.
, ,
,
, .
, , .
, , , .

n > 2.

6.7. ,

181

6.7. ,
. f (x) [a, b], [x1 , x2 ], [a, b], f , x [x1 , x2 ],
(x1 , f (x1 )) (x2 , f (x2 )),
.
f (x)
[a, b], [x1 , x2 ], [a, b],
f , x (x1 , x2 ),
(x1 , f (x1 )) (x2 , f (x2 )).
, , a b
[a, b].
. f (x) [a, b], [x1 , x2 ], [a, b], f , x [x1 , x2 ],
(x1 , f (x1 )) (x2 , f (x2 )),
.
f (x)
[a, b], [x1 , x2 ], [a, b],
f , x (x1 , x2 ),
(x1 , f (x1 )) (x2 , f (x2 )).

y
f

x1

x2

x1

x2

,
, .

, .

182

. 6.

, .
f (x)
f (x).
.
, , , . , |x|.
6.7.1. f
[a, b], : x1 , x, x2 [a, b]
, x1 < x < x2
10 .
f (x) f (x1 )
f (x2 ) f (x)
;
6
x x1
x2 x

(6.7.1)

20 .
f (x) f (x1 )
f (x2 ) f (x1 )
6
;
x x1
x2 x1

(6.7.2)

30 .
f (x2 ) f (x1 )
f (x2 ) f (x)
6
.
x2 x1
x2 x

(6.7.3)

(6.7.1)(6.7.3) 6 <,
f [a, b].
.
(x1 , f (x1 )) (x2 , f (x2 )) f ,
y(t) =

x2 t
t x1
f (x1 ) +
f (x2 ),
x2 x1
x2 x1

x 1 6 t 6 x2 ,

f [a, b] , x1 , x, x2
[a, b], x1 < x < x2 ,

f (x) 6

x2 x
x x1
f (x1 ) +
f (x2 ),
x2 x1
x2 x1

6.7. ,

183

. .
(x2 x1 )f (x) 6 (x2 x)f (x1 ) + (x x1 )f (x2 ).

(6.7.4)

x2 x1 (x2 x) + (x x1 )
:


(x2 x) f (x) f (x1 ) 6 (x x1 ) f (x2 ) f (x) .
(6.7.1).
, (6.7.2), (6.7.4) x2 x = (x2 x1 )(xx1 )



(x2 x1 ) f (x) f (x1 ) 6 (x x1 ) f (x2 ) f (x1 ) ,
(6.7.2).
, xx1 = (x2 x1 )(x2 x)
(6.7.4)


(x2 x) f (x2 ) f (x1 ) 6 (x2 x1 ) f (x2 ) f (x) .
(6.7.3).
,
.
C f ,
x1 < x < x2 (6.7.4),
6 <. , .
.

f (t) f (x)
, x < t,
(6.7.5)
tx

(x, f (x)) (t, f (t)) . ,
(6.7.1)(6.7.3) ,

(6.7.2) , t (6.7.5)
, (6.7.3) x. .

184

. 6.

6.7.2. f
[a, b], (a, b) x0
0
0
0
(x0 ) 6
(x0 ), f
(x0 ) f+
f
0
f+ (x0 ).
0
0
(x2 ),
(x1 ) 6 f
, a < x1 < x2 < b, f+
0
0
f+ (x1 ) < f (x2 ).
. x0 (a, b) h x0 h x0 +h
(a, b).
(6.7.1) h
f (x0 ) f (x0 h)
f (x0 + h) f (x0 )
6
.
h
h

(6.7.6)

h +0
(6.7.6) , .
,
h +0. ,
0
0
f
(x0 ) 6 f+
(x0 ).
(a, b) f
(a, b). ,
.
a < x1 < x2 < b. x
(x1 , x2 ) (6.7.2) .
0
, f+
(x1 ) . (6.7.2) x x1 + 0,
0
f+
(x1 ) 6

f (x2 ) f (x1 )
.
x2 x1

(6.7.7)

6.7. ,

185

x x2 0
(6.7.3),
f (x2 ) f (x1 )
0
6 f
(x2 ).
x2 x1

(6.7.8)

0
0
, f+
(x1 ) 6 f
(x2 ).
, f , (6.7.2) . x
(6.7.2) , (6.7.7)
0
f+
(x1 ) <

f (x2 ) f (x1 )
.
x2 x1

0
0
(x2 ).
(x1 ) < f
(6.7.8) f+
.

6.7.3. ,
, .
. 6.7.2 , 0
f
(x),
f (x), 0
. , 4.2.1 f
(x)

.
0
, f
(x)
f . , 0
0
0
6.7.2, x0 < x , f
(x0 ) 6 f+
(x0 ) 6 f
(x ),
0
0
0
0
0 6 f+
(x0 ) f
(x0 ) 6 f
(x ) f
(x0 ).
0
0
0
f
(x) x0 , f
(x ) f
(x0 )

, x
0
0
x0 , f+
(x0 ) = f
(x0 ).
.


.
6.7.4. f (x) (a, b), f (x) (a, b)

186

. 6.

f 0 (x), f (x)
f 0 (x).
. 6.7.2.
, . .
f 0 (x) f (x).
x1 , x, x2 , , a <
x1 < x < x2 < b.
, 1 (x1 , x) 2 (x, x2 ),
f (x) f (x1 )
= f 0 (1 ),
x x1

f (x2 ) f (x)
= f 0 (2 ).
x2 x

f 0 (1 ) 6 f 0 (2 ) ,
f (x) f (x1 )
f (x2 ) f (x)
6
,
x x1
x2 x
f 0 (1 ) < f 0 (2 ),
f (x) f (x1 )
f (x2 ) f (x)
.
<
x x1
x2 x
6.7.1 , , f (x) (a, b).
.
, 6.7.4,
6.2.8 6.2.9, .
6.7.5. f (x) (a, b),
10 . f (a, b) f 00 (x) > 0;
20 . f (a, b) : f 00 (x) > 0 (a, b) , f 00 (x) > 0,
(a, b). , f (a, b),
f 00 (x) > 0.
. f (a, b) x0 (a, b).

6.7. ,

187

0
(x0 , f (x0 )) f y(x) = f+
(x0 ) (x x0 ) +
f (x0 )


f (x) f (x0 )
0
f (x) y(x) = (x x0 )
f+ (x0 ) .
x x0

x x0 + 0
f (x) f (x0 )
x x0
0
(x0 ). f (x) y(x) > 0
f+
x > x0 .
0
(x0 ) (x x0 ) + f (x0 ), x < x0
, z(x) = f
f (x) z(x) > 0.
0
0
(x0 )] x
(x0 ), f+
, [f
(a, b)

f (x) > (x x0 ) + f (x0 ).

(6.7.9)

, y = (x x0 ) + f (x0 )
f (x). , ,
f x0 . ,
. ,
, .

,
(6.7.9) x 6= x0 .
,
.
, f 0 (x) > 0 f 0 (x) < 0. ,
. , . ,
.
, .

188

. 6.

f (x)
(a, +). y = kx + b (
k 6= 0 k = 0) f x +,


lim f (x) (kx + b) = 0.
x+

, ,

f (x)
lim
.
x+ x
k,

lim (f (x) kx)

x+

, b, y = kx + b
.
x .
:
a limxa+0 f (x)
limxa0 f (x), x = a .
, x = /2 + k, k Z, y = tg x.

6.8.
6.8.1 ( ). p > 1 q p , . .
1 1
+ = 1.
p q

(6.8.1)

x y
1
1
(6.8.2)
x y 6 xp + y q ,
p
q
.
. x y.

6.8.

189


(x) :=

1 p 1 q
x + y xy,
p
q

x > 0,

y , , .
.

d(x)
= xp1 y
dx
, (x) x 6 y 1/(p1) ,
x > y 1/(p1) . ,
(x) x = y 1/(p1) .
q = p/(p 1), x > 0
 1
1
(x) > y 1/(p1) = y p/(p1) + y q y 1/(p1)+1 = 0.
p
q
.
x = y 1/(p1) , . . xp = y q . (6.8.2)
, xp = y q .
, , p, p0 .
6.8.2 ( ). p > 1 q
p . n a1 , . . . , an b1 , . . . , bn
X
1/p  X
1/q
n
n
n
X
ak bk 6
apk
bqk
,
(6.8.3)
k=1

k=1

k=1

.
. ,
ak bk , .
k = 1, . . . , n
xk := ak

 X
n
m=1

apm

1/p
;

yk := bk

 X
n
m=1

bqm

1/q

190

. 6.

(6.8.2):
 n
 n
1 p X p
1 q X q
xk yk 6 ak
am + bk
bm .
p
q
m=1
m=1
k 1 n:
n
X

xk yk 6

k=1

1 1
+ = 1.
p q

xk yk (6.8.3).
.
, p = 2, q = 2.
6.8.3 ( ). 2n a1 , . . . , an , b1 , . . . , bn
X
X
1/2
1/2  X
n
n
n

2
2


bk
,
(6.8.4)
ak
ak bk 6

k=1

k=1

k=1

.
ak , bk . , (6.8.3), ak |ak |
bk |bk |.
(6.8.4) . ,
. . ( 9.8).
(6.8.4),
.
6.8.4 ( ). p > 1
a1 , . . . , an b1 , . . . , bn .

X
n

(ak + bk )p

k=1

1/p
6

X
n

apk

1/p
+

k=1

X
n
k=1

bpk

1/p
,

(6.8.5)

6.8.

191

. ,
(6.8.5) .
n
X

(ak + bk )p =

k=1

n
X

ak (ak + bk )p1 +

k=1

n
X

bk (ak + bk )p1

k=1


:
n
X

(ak + bk )p 6

X
n

apk

1/p  X
n

X
n

bpk

1/p  X
n

k=1

1/p0
+

k=1

k=1

k=1

(ak + bk )(p1)p

 X
n

apk

1/p
+

(p1)p0

(ak + bk )

k=1
X
n

bpk

1/p  X
n

(ak + bk )

1/p0
.

k=1

k=1

k=1

1/p0


X
n

(ak + bk )

1/p0
,

k=1

(6.8.5).
.
(6.8.5), p = 2:
X
n

(ak + bk )2

k=1

1/2
6

X
n
k=1

a2k

1/2
+

X
n

b2k

1/2
.

(6.8.6)

k=1

n = 3 (a1 , a2 , a3 ) (b1 , b2 , b3 )
, .
(6.8.6) . (6.8.6), (6.8.5), .
6.8.5 ( ). f (x)
[a, b]. n x1 ,

192

. 6.

x2 , . . . , xn , n > 2, [a,
1 ,
Pb]
n
2 , . . . , n , k=1 k = 1,
X
 X
n
n
k xk 6
f
k f (xk ),
(6.8.7)
k=1

k=1

.
.
s :=

n
X

k xk .

k=1

s (a, b).
y = L(x s) + f (s)
f (x) s. x [a, b]

f (x) > L(x s) + f (s).


(6.8.8)
, k = 1, . . . , n
f (xk ) > L(xk s) + f (s).
k
k 1 n:
n
X

k f (xk ) > L

k=1

=L

n
X
k=1
n
X

k (xk s) +

n
X

k f (s) =

k=1

k xk Ls

k=1

n
X

k + f (s)

k=1

n
X

k = f (s).

k=1

(6.8.7).
.
f , (6.8.8)
x 6= s . ,
(6.8.7).
f (x) [a, b],
xk k

X

n
n
X
k f (xk ) 6 f
k xk .
(6.8.9)
k=1

k=1

6.8.

193

. ln x, :
(ln x)00 = 1/x2 < 0.
x1 , x2 , . . . , xn .
1
(x1 + x2 + + xn ),
n
, ,

n
x1 x2 . . . xn = (x1 x2 . . . xn )1/n .





1
ln x1 + + ln xn .
x1 . . . xn = exp ln(x1 . . . xn )1/n = exp
n

(6.8.9)


1
1
(ln x1 + + ln xn ) 6 ln
(x1 + + xn ) .
n
n
ex
 


1
1
n
x1 . . . xn 6 exp ln
(x1 + + xn )
= (x1 + + xn ).
n
n
, .
6.8.6. x1 , . . . , xn

x1 . . . xn 6

1
(x1 + x2 + + xn ),
n

(6.8.10)

. . .
(6.8.10) n = 2

x1 x2 6

1
(x1 + x2 ),
2

x1 , x2 > 0,

(6.8.11)

194

. 6.

.
AB x1 + x2 , O.
OC AB, OC (x1 + x2 )/2.
DP AB, M ADP

M DBP , DP x1 x2 .
, (6.8.11) , , AB, OC.
6.8.7 ( ). a1 , . . .
. . . , an b1 , . . . , bn
a1 6 a2 6 6 an ;

b1 6 b2 6 6 bn ,

(6.8.12)


n
X

ak

n
X

bm 6 n

m=1

k=1

n
X

ak bk ,

(6.8.13)

k=1

.
.
n

n
X

ak bk

k=1

n
X

ak

n
X

m=1
k=1
n X
n
X

bm =

n X
n
X

ak bk

k=1 m=1

n X
n
X

ak bm =

k=1 m=1

n X
n
 X
ak bk ak bm =
ak (bk bm ).

k=1 m=1

k=1 m=1

6.8.

195

k m,
. ,
n

n
X

ak bk

k=1

=
=

1
2
1
2

n
X

ak

k=1
n X
n
X

n
X

bm =

m=1

k=1 m=1
n X
n
X


ak (bk bm ) + am (bm bk ) =

(ak am )(bk bm ).

(6.8.14)

k=1 m=1

(6.8.12) k m (ak am )
(bk bm ) > 0. (6.8.13) (6.8.14).
, a1 , . . . ,
an b1 , . . . , bn , , (6.8.13)
6 >.
bk , ak
(6.8.13) . , , n (6.8.13)
.
. .

7.
7.1.
,
, ( ) . , ,
, , , 6.3.2 6.3.3 (
).
,
( )
.

, . . , , .
-.
,
, , , , .
E3 .
r
(x, y, z) . r(t)
x(t), y(t), z(t) t.
- , , .
r(t1 ) r(t2 ) - r(t1 ) r(t2 ), . .
r(t1 ) r(t2 ).
.
196

7.1.

197

. r0
r(t) t0 , r(t) t0 = () > 0 , t
- t0
|r(t) r0 | < .
:
r0 = lim r(t).
tt0

r(t) = (x(t), y(t), z(t)) r0 = (x0 , y0 , z0 ),


p
|r(t) r0 | = (x(t) x0 )2 + (y(t) y0 )2 + (z(t) z0 )2 .
lim r(t) = r0 lim x(t) = x0 , lim y(t) = y0 , lim z(t) = z0 .

.
, r(t) t0 ,
t0 r(t) ,
r(t).
,
-. r1 (t), r2 (t), r(t)
f (t) t t0 .
t t0
:
lim(r1 (t) r2 (t)) = lim r1 (t) lim r2 (t);
lim f (t) r(t) = lim f (t) lim r(t);


lim r1 (t), r2 (t) = lim r1 (t), lim r2 (t) ;

 

lim r1 (t), r2 (t) = lim r1 (t), lim r2 (t) .

, .
.
, ,
. r1 := limtt0 r1 (t) r2 :=
limtt0 r2 (t).




r1 (t), r2 (t) r1 , r2 = r1 (t), r2 (t) r2 + r1 (t) r1 , r2 .

198

. 7.







r1 (t), r2 (t) r1 , r2 6 r1 (t) r2 (t) r2 + r1 (t) r1 r2 .
r1 (t)
t0 .
. r(t) t0 ,
lim r(t) = r(t0 ).
tt0

. ,
, ,
-, .
r(t)
r(t + t) r(t)
,
r0 (t) := lim
t0
t
.
r0 (t)

x0 (t), y 0 (t) z 0 (t). r0 (t) = x0 (t),

0
0
y (t), z (t) .
,
.
r(t) t0 ,
r(t) t0 t 0

r := r(t0 + t) r(t0 ) = At + (t) t,


A limt0 (t) = 0.
, r(t) t0 r0 (t0 ) A = r0 (t0 ).
r(t) , , .
, .

7.1.

199

.
[, ] t = ( ), [a, b], [a, b]
r(t). R( ) := r(( )) [, ]
0

R = r0t 0 .
,
.
. , .
, :
0
r1 (t) r2 (t) = r01 (t) r02 (t);
0
f (t) r(t) = f 0 (t) r(t) + f (t) r0 (t);
0


r1 (t), r2 (t) = r01 (t), r2 (t) + r1 (t), r02 (t) ;

0 
 

r1 (t), r2 (t) = r01 (t), r2 (t) + r1 (t), r02 (t) .
, , , ,
.
, , ,
.
, r(t) := (cos t, sin t), .
r(2) r(0) = 0. r0 (t) = ( sin t, cos t), ,
0
|r (t)| = 1. ,
r(2) r(0) = r0 ()(2 0).
.
,
.

200

. 7.

7.1.1. r(t)
[a, b] (a, b). (a, b),



r(b) r(a) 6 r0 () (b a).
. , r(b) r(a) 6= 0,
r(b) = r(a) .

r(b) r(a)
e :=
.
|r(b) r(a)|
|e| = 1





r(b) r(a) = r(b) r(a), e = r(b), e r(a), e .


f (t) := r(t), e .
[a, b]
(a, b). ,
(a, b) ,
f (b) f (a) = f 0 ()(b a).



|f 0 ()| = (r0 (), e) 6 |r0 ()|.



r(b) r(a) = f (b) f (a) 6 |r0 ()| (b a)
.

7.2. .
[a, b] r(t),

E3 . , E3 r(t) = (x(t), y(t), z(t)).
M (t) := (x(t), y(t), z(t)), t [a, b], r(t), .

:= {r(t), t [a, b]}.


(7.2.1)

7.2. .

201

(
) E3 .
t M (t)
. t [a, b], a b,
M (t) t . ,
.
t b a , ( ).
(7.2.1), - r(t),
.
, t
(a, b), , ( ) .

.
(7.2.1)
( ), M (a) = M (b), t M (t) .
, . .
,
.
.
. , t = ( ),
( ) , [, ] [a, b],
(7.2.1),
= {r(( )), [, ]}.

. ( ) ,
.
, .
E3 M0 , M1 , . . . , Mn . M0 M1 , M1 M2 , . . . , Mk1
Mk . ., ,

202

. 7.

. Mk1 Mk , k = 1, 2, . . . , n.
r(t) [a, b]
:= {r(t), t [a, b]}. T [a, b]
tk :
a 6 t0 < t1 < < tn 6 b.
Mk := M (r(tk )),
Mk1 Mk , k = 1, . . . , n. .
T .
. S (7.2.1),
, :
S := sup T ,
(7.2.2)
T

sup T
[a, b], , sup +, T .
r(t),
,
, .
, 0 6 S 6 +. S < +, . S = +,
.
7.2.1. := {r(t), t [a, b]}
c (a, b).
1 := {r(t), t [a, c]},

2 := {r(t), t [c, b]}.

S = S1 + S2 .

(7.2.3)

. , , +, , +.
T [a, b]
T , T c,
. ,
, . . T 6 T .

7.3.

203

T1 T2 [a, c] [c, b], T . T , T1 T2 ,


, 1 2 , T = T1 + T2 .
T 6 T1 + T2 .

,
T 6 S1 + S2 .

S = sup T 6 S1 + S2 .

(7.2.4)

S .
T1 T2 [a, c] [c, b] T [a, b].
T1 + T2 = T
,
T1 + T2 6 S .
T1
T2 ,
T1 T2 :
S1 + S2 6 S .
(7.2.5)
(7.2.4) (7.2.5) (7.2.3).
.
, (7.2.3), .

7.3.
, ,

r(t), ,
. , .

204

. 7.

. ,
.
,
r(t) .
. ,
:= {r(t), t [a, b]}

(7.3.1)

[a, b] r(t).
r(t)
, (7.3.1) .
7.3.1. (7.3.1)

q
q
m2x + m2y + m2z (b a) 6 S 6 Mx2 + My2 + Mz2 (b a), (7.3.2)

r(t) = x(t), y(t), z(t)
mx := min |x0 (t)|,
t[a,b]

Mx := max |x0 (t)|,


t[a,b]

my , My , mz , Mz .
. T [a, b]
a = t0 < t1 < < tn = b

T =
=

n
X


r(tk ) r(tk1 ) =
k=1
n
X

[x(tk ) x(tk1 )]2 + [y(tk ) y(tk1 )]2

k=1

1/2
+ [z(tk ) z(tk1 )]2
=
n
X
 0
=
[x (k ) (tk tk1 )]2 + [y 0 (k ) (tk tk1 )]2
k=1

+ [z 0 (k ) (tk tk1 )]2

1/2

7.3.

205

k , k , k
(tk1 , tk ). ,
T =

n
X

p
(tk tk1 ) [x0 (k )]2 + [y 0 (k )]2 + [z 0 (k )]2 .

k=1

[a, b]
,
q
q
m2x + m2y + m2z (b a) 6 T 6 Mx2 + My2 + Mz2 (b a).
(7.3.2).
.
7.3.1 . , (7.2.2)
T , , r(t) .
.
:= {r( ), [a, b]}

(7.3.3)


(t) := {r( ), [a, t]}
, a
t, t 6 b.
s(t) := S(t) ,

t [a, b],

.
7.3.2. (7.3.3) , s(t) ,



dr(t)
ds p 0 2
0
2
0
2

.
= [x (t)] + [y (t)] + [z (t)] =
(7.3.4)
dt
dt
. ,
s(t)
.

206

. 7.

s(t) s/t. s(t) t


s
> 0.
t

(7.3.5)

t0 [a, b]
t , t t0 t0 + t, t > 0, t0 + t t0 , t < 0.
7.3.1 s(t), t,
q
q
m2x + m2y + m2z |t| 6 |s| 6 Mx2 + My2 + Mz2 |t|, (7.3.6)
mx , Mx r0 (t)
t.
(7.3.6), (7.3.5),
q

m2x + m2y + m2z 6

s q 2
6 Mx + My2 + Mz2 .
t

(7.3.7)

t 0 x0 (t) Mx
|x0 (t0 )| mx |x0 (t0 )| My , my , Mz
mz . (7.3.7) t 0 (7.3.4).
.
.
:= {r(t), t [a, b]}
, r(t) r0 (t) 6= 0 t [a, b].
,
.
: E3
,
r(t) , {r(t), t [a, b]}.
= {r(t), t [a, b]} t0 [a, b]
x0 (t0 ),

7.3.

207

y 0 (t0 ), z 0 (t0 ). , , x0 (t0 ) 6= 0, t0 x0 (t) , , x(t) .


, x(t) t = t(x). ,

y = y(t(x)), z = z(t(x)), . .
y = g(x), z = h(x).
.
z 0
y = g(x)
g(x).
, .
, . ,
r(t) = (t3 , t2 ), t [1, 1],
y = |x|2/3 ,

:= {r(t), t [a, b]}.


r(t)
r(t0 + t) r(t0 )
=
t
t
, , t, t0 + t t0 . t
t.

r(t)
,
t0 t
lim

208

. 7.

r0 (t0 ) , . , - r(t0 ), r0 (t0 ), r(t0 ).


, ,
, 5.2.
:= {r(t), t [a, b]} ,
|r0 (t)| > 0 7.3.2 s(t)
s0 (t) > 0. s(t)
.
, , r(t(s)). ,
:= {r(s), s [0, S ]},



dr(s)


ds = 1.
s 0


r


s 1,
. . ,
, , .

(Abel Niels Henrik, 18021829) .


(. 287212 ..)
.

(Bernulli Johann, 16671748)


, . .

(Bernulli Jacob, 16541705) .

(Bolzano Bernhard, 17811848)


.

(18041889) , .
(Weierstrass Karl, 18151897)
.
(Heine Heinrich Eduard (18211881)
.
(Holder Otto, 18591937) .

(Darboux Gaston, 18421917) .


(Dedekind Richard, 18311916)
.

(Descartes Rene, 15961650) .

( 335270 ..) .
(Jensen Johann Ludwig, 18591925)
.

(Cantor Georg, 18451918) .

(Cauchy Augustin Louis, 17891857)


.

(Lagrange Joseph Louis, 17361813)


.
209

(Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm


von, 16461716) (,
, , , , ), .

(Lipschitz Rudolf Otto, 1832 1903)


.

(LHopital Antoine de, 16611704) .

(Maclaurin Colin, 16981746)


.

(Minkowski Hermann, 18641909) .

(Newton Isaac, 16431727)


.

(Peano Giuseppe, 18581932)


.
(Rolle Michel, 16521719) .
(Taylor Brook, 16851731) .

(Fermat Pierre de, 16011665)


.
(Fourier Jojeph, 17681830) .
(
) (1821
1894) ,
.

(Euler Leonhard, 17071783) , 17271741 17661783 , .


( ) (Young William Henry,
18631946) .

210


11

20.12.2008. 12.03.2009.
6090/16. . . . 13,25. 200 .
. . .
, 119991, . , 8.
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e-mail: pavlov@mi.ras.ru