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OptiX RTN 980 Radio Transmission System V100R003C03

Product Description
Issue Date 02 2012-01-30

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2012. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

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and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be within the purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information, and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees or representations of any kind, either express or implied. The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and recommendations in this document do not constitute the warranty of any kind, express or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


Address: Huawei Industrial Base Bantian, Longgang Shenzhen 518129 People's Republic of China http://www.huawei.com support@huawei.com

Website: Email:

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OptiX RTN 980 Radio Transmission System Product Description

About This Document

About This Document

Related Versions
The following table lists the product versions related to this document. Product Name OptiX RTN 980 iManager U2000 Version V100R003C03 V100R006C00

Intended Audience
This document is intended for network planning engineers. Familiarity with the basic knowledge related to digital microwave communication technology will help you apply the information in this document.

Symbol Conventions
The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Symbol Description Indicates a hazard with a high level of risk, which if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. Indicates a hazard with a medium or low level of risk, which if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury.

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OptiX RTN 980 Radio Transmission System Product Description

About This Document

Symbol

Description Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which if not avoided, could result in equipment damage, data loss, performance degradation, or unexpected results. Indicates a tip that may help you solve a problem or save time. Provides additional information to emphasize or supplement important points of the main text.

General Conventions
The general conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Convention Times New Roman Boldface Italic Courier New Description Normal paragraphs are in Times New Roman. Names of files, directories, folders, and users are in boldface. For example, log in as user root. Book titles are in italics. Examples of information displayed on the screen are in Courier New.

Update History
Updates in Issue 02 (2012-01-30) Based on Product Version V100R003C03
This document is the second issue of the V100R003C03 product version. The updated contents are as follows: Update 1.2 Components 6.1 RF Performance Description Descriptions about 28/32/42 GHz XMC-2 ODUs are added.

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OptiX RTN 980 Radio Transmission System Product Description

About This Document

Updates in Issue 01 (2011-10-30) Based on Product Version V100R003C03


This document is the first release for the V100R003C03 product version.

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OptiX RTN 980 Radio Transmission System Product Description

Contents

Contents
About This Document.....................................................................................................................ii 1 Introduction....................................................................................................................................1
1.1 Network Application..........................................................................................................................................2 1.2 Components........................................................................................................................................................4 1.3 Radio Link Types...............................................................................................................................................7

2 Functions and Features.................................................................................................................9


2.1 Microwave Types.............................................................................................................................................11 2.1.1 SDH/PDH Microwave.............................................................................................................................11 2.1.2 Hybrid/Packet Integrated IP Microwave.................................................................................................12 2.2 Modulation Strategy.........................................................................................................................................14 2.2.1 Fixed Modulation....................................................................................................................................14 2.2.2 Adaptive Modulation...............................................................................................................................14 2.3 RF Configuration Modes..................................................................................................................................16 2.4 Capacity............................................................................................................................................................16 2.4.1 Air Interface Capacity.............................................................................................................................16 2.4.2 Cross-Connect Capacity..........................................................................................................................18 2.4.3 Switching Capacity..................................................................................................................................18 2.5 Interfaces..........................................................................................................................................................18 2.5.1 Service Interfaces....................................................................................................................................18 2.5.2 Management and Auxiliary Interfaces.....................................................................................................20 2.6 Cross-Polarization Interference Cancellation...................................................................................................21 2.7 Automatic Transmit Power Control.................................................................................................................22 2.8 MPLS/PWE3 Function.....................................................................................................................................22 2.9 Ethernet Service Processing Capability............................................................................................................24 2.10 QoS.................................................................................................................................................................26 2.11 Clock Features................................................................................................................................................27 2.12 Protection Capability......................................................................................................................................27 2.13 Network Management....................................................................................................................................28 2.14 Easy Installation.............................................................................................................................................29 2.15 Easy Maintenance...........................................................................................................................................30 2.16 Energy Saving.................................................................................................................................................31 2.17 Environmental Protection...............................................................................................................................31 Issue 02 (2012-01-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. v

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3 Product Structure.........................................................................................................................33
3.1 System Architecture.........................................................................................................................................34 3.2 Hardware Structure...........................................................................................................................................35 3.2.1 IDU..........................................................................................................................................................35 3.2.2 ODU.........................................................................................................................................................38 3.3 Software Structure............................................................................................................................................40 3.3.1 NMS Software.........................................................................................................................................40 3.3.2 IDU Software...........................................................................................................................................40 3.3.3 ODU Software.........................................................................................................................................40 3.4 Service Signal Processing Flow.......................................................................................................................41 3.4.1 SDH/PDH Microwave.............................................................................................................................41 3.4.2 Hybrid Microwave...................................................................................................................................43 3.4.3 Packet Microwave...................................................................................................................................46

4 Networking and Applications..................................................................................................49


4.1 Typical Network Topologies............................................................................................................................50 4.1.1 Multi-directional Nodal Convergence.....................................................................................................50 4.1.2 Large-Capacity Microwave Convergence Ring......................................................................................51 4.1.3 Upstream Networking..............................................................................................................................52 4.2 Feature Application (MPLS Packet Service)....................................................................................................54 4.2.1 CES Services...........................................................................................................................................54 4.2.2 ATM/IMA Services.................................................................................................................................56 4.2.3 Ethernet Services.....................................................................................................................................57

5 Network Management System..................................................................................................60


5.1 Network Management Solution........................................................................................................................61 5.2 Web LCT..........................................................................................................................................................61 5.3 U2000...............................................................................................................................................................63

6 Technical Specifications.............................................................................................................65
6.1 RF Performance................................................................................................................................................66 6.1.1 Microwave Work Modes.........................................................................................................................66 6.1.1.1 Microwave Work Modes (IF1 board).............................................................................................66 6.1.1.2 Microwave Work Modes (IFU2 board)..........................................................................................66 6.1.1.3 Microwave Work Modes (IFX2 board)..........................................................................................68 6.1.1.4 Microwave Work Modes (ISU2 board)..........................................................................................69 6.1.1.5 Microwave Work Modes (ISX2 board)..........................................................................................72 6.1.2 Frequency Band.......................................................................................................................................76 6.1.3 Receiver Sensitivity.................................................................................................................................80 6.1.3.1 Receiver Sensitivity (IF1 Board)....................................................................................................80 6.1.3.2 Receiver Sensitivity (IFU2 board)..................................................................................................81 6.1.3.3 Receiver Sensitivity (IFX2 board)..................................................................................................84 6.1.3.4 Receiver Sensitivity (ISU2 board)..................................................................................................87 6.1.3.5 Receiver Sensitivity (ISX2 board)..................................................................................................93 Issue 02 (2012-01-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. vi

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6.1.4 Distortion Sensitivity.............................................................................................................................101 6.1.5 Transceiver Performance.......................................................................................................................102 6.1.6 IF Performance......................................................................................................................................109 6.1.7 Baseband Signal Processing Performance of the Modem.....................................................................109 6.2 Predicted Equipment Reliability.....................................................................................................................110 6.2.1 Predicted Component Reliability...........................................................................................................110 6.2.2 Predicted Link Reliability......................................................................................................................110 6.3 Interface Performance.....................................................................................................................................111 6.3.1 SDH Interface Performance...................................................................................................................111 6.3.2 E1 Interface Performance......................................................................................................................113 6.3.3 Ethernet Interface Performance.............................................................................................................113 6.3.4 Auxiliary Interface Performance...........................................................................................................118 6.4 Clock Timing and Synchronization Performance..........................................................................................119 6.5 Integrated System Performance......................................................................................................................120

A Compliance Standards.............................................................................................................123
A.1 ITU-R Standards............................................................................................................................................124 A.2 ETSI Standards..............................................................................................................................................125 A.3 IEC Standards................................................................................................................................................126 A.4 ITU-T Standards............................................................................................................................................127 A.5 IETF Standards..............................................................................................................................................130 A.6 IEEE Standards..............................................................................................................................................132 A.7 MEF Standards..............................................................................................................................................133 A.8 AF Standards.................................................................................................................................................133 A.9 Environmental Standards...............................................................................................................................134

B Glossary......................................................................................................................................137
B.1 0-9..................................................................................................................................................................138 B.2 A-E.................................................................................................................................................................138 B.3 F-J..................................................................................................................................................................147 B.4 K-O................................................................................................................................................................152 B.5 P-T..................................................................................................................................................................158 B.6 U-Z.................................................................................................................................................................167

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OptiX RTN 980 Radio Transmission System Product Description

1 Introduction

1
About This Chapter

Introduction

The OptiX RTN 980 is a product in the OptiX RTN 900 radio transmission system series. 1.1 Network Application The OptiX RTN 900 is a new generation TDM/Hybrid/Packet integrated microwave transmission system developed by Huawei. It provides a seamless microwave transmission solution for mobile communication network or private networks. 1.2 Components The OptiX RTN 980 adopts a split structure. The system consists of the IDU 980 and the ODU. Each ODU is connected to the IDU through an IF cable. 1.3 Radio Link Types The OptiX RTN 980 provides the radio links of various types in which different IF boards and ODUs are configured for diverse microwave application scenarios.

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1 Introduction

1.1 Network Application


The OptiX RTN 900 is a new generation TDM/Hybrid/Packet integrated microwave transmission system developed by Huawei. It provides a seamless microwave transmission solution for mobile communication network or private networks.

OptiX RTN 900 Product Family


There are three types of OptiX RTN 900 products: OptiX RTN 910, OptiX RTN 950, and OptiX RTN 980. Users can choose the product best suited for their site. l l l The IDU of the OptiX RTN 910 is 1U high and supports one or two IF boards. The IDU of the OptiX RTN 950 is 2U high and supports one to six IF boards. The IDU of the OptiX RTN 980 is 5U high and supports one to fourteen IF boards.
NOTE

All the products in the OptiX RTN 900 series use the same types of IF and service interface boards.

The OptiX RTN 900 series provide a variety of service interfaces and can be installed easily and configured flexibly. The OptiX RTN 900 series provide a solution that can integrate TDM microwave, Hybrid microwave, and Packet microwave technologies according to the networking scheme for the sites, achieving smooth upgrade from TDM microwave to Hybrid microwave, and from Hybrid microwave to Packet microwave. This solution is able to adapt to changing service scenarios brought about by evolutions in radio mobile networks. Therefore, this solution meets the transmission requirements of 2G and 3G networks while also allowing for integration with future LTE and 4G networks.

OptiX RTN 980


Figure 1-1 shows the microwave transmission solution provided by the OptiX RTN 980. The OptiX RTN 980 is large-capacity nodal microwave equipment deployed at the convergence layer. It supports the convergence of up to 14 radio links, and supports multiple protection schemes.Figure 1-1 shows the microwave transmission solution provided by the OptiX RTN 980.

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OptiX RTN 980 Radio Transmission System Product Description

1 Introduction

Figure 1-1 Microwave transmission solution provided by the OptiX RTN 980
Raido trassmission network Regional backhaul network

STM-1/4

TDM Network (SDH)

STM-1/4

STM-1/4 Packet Network (PTN) FE/GE ATM

GE

FE/GE

Ethernet Network

FE/GE

(Metro)

Radio link OptiX RTN 980

Cable/fiber OptiX RTN 910/950 RNC BSC

NOTE

l In this solution, the OptiX RTN 980 is connected to an RNC and BSC directly or through a regional backhaul network. l The OptiX RTN 980 provides a wide range of interfaces and service bearer technologies to adapt to the regional backhaul network. The regional backhaul network can be a time-division multiplexing (TDM) network or packet switching network (PSN). l The OptiX RTN 980 supports the Ethernet over SDH (EoSDH) function and Ethernet over PDH (EoPDH) function. Therefore, packet services can be backhauled through a TDM network. l The OptiX RTN 980 supports the pseudo wire emulation edge-to-edge (PWE3) technology. Therefore, TDM, ATM, and Ethernet services can be backhauled through a PSN. l The OptiX RTN 980 supports the VLAN sub-interface function. Therefore, MPLS packet services can be backhauled through a Layer 2 network.

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OptiX RTN 980 Radio Transmission System Product Description

1 Introduction

1.2 Components
The OptiX RTN 980 adopts a split structure. The system consists of the IDU 980 and the ODU. Each ODU is connected to the IDU through an IF cable.

IDU 980
The IDU 980 is the indoor unit for an OptiX RTN 980 system. It receives and multiplexes services, performs service processing and IF processing, and provides the system control and communications function. Table 1-1 lists the basic features of the IDU 980. Table 1-1 Features of the IDU 980 Item Chassis height Pluggable Number of microwave directions RF configuration mode Description 5U Supported 1 to 14 1+0 non-protection configuration N+0 non-protection configuration 1+1 protection configuration N+1 protection configuration (N 7) XPIC configuration

Figure 1-2 Appearance of the IDU 980

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1 Introduction

ODU
The ODU is the outdoor unit for the OptiX RTN 900. It converts frequencies and amplifies signals. The OptiX RTN 900 product series can use the RTN 600 ODU and RTN XMC ODU, covering the entire frequency band from 6 GHz to 42 GHz.
NOTE

Unlike the other frequency bands that use 14 MHz, 28 MHz, or 56 MHz channel spacing, the 18 GHz frequency band uses 13.75 MHz, 27.5 MHz, or 55 MHz channel spacing.

Table 1-2 RTN 600 ODUs that the OptiX RTN 980 supports Item Description Standard Power ODU ODU type Frequency band SP, SPA 7/8/11/13/15/18/23/ 26/38 GHz (SP ODU) 6/7/8/11/13/15/18/2 3 GHz (SPA ODU) Microwave modulation scheme Channel spacing QPSK/16QAM/ 32QAM/64QAM/ 128QAM/256QAM 3.5/7/14/28 MHz High-Power ODU HP, HPA 6/7/8/10/10.5/11/13/ 15/18/23/26/28/32/3 8 GHz (HP ODU) 7/8/11/13/15/18/23 GHz (HPA ODU) QPSK/16QAM/ 32QAM/64QAM/ 128QAM/256QAM 7/14/28/40/56 MHz (6/7/8/10/11/13/15/1 8/23/26/28/32/38 GHz) 7/14/28 MHz (10.5 GHz) QPSK/16QAM Low Capacity for PDH ODU LP 7/8/11/13/15/18/23 GHz (LP ODU)

3.5/7/14/28 MHz

Table 1-3 RTN XMC ODUs that the OptiX RTN 980 supports Item Description High-Power ODU ODU type Frequency band XMC-2 7/8/11/13/15/18/23/26/28/32 /38/42 GHz Low Capacity for PDH ODU XMC-1 7/8/11/13/15/18/23 GHz

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OptiX RTN 980 Radio Transmission System Product Description

1 Introduction

Item

Description High-Power ODU Low Capacity for PDH ODU QPSK/16QAM 3.5/7/14/28 MHz

Microwave modulation scheme Channel spacing

QPSK/16QAM/32QAM/ 64QAM/128QAM/256QAM 7/14/28/40/56 MHz

There are two methods for mounting the ODU and the antenna: direct mounting and separate mounting. l The direct mounting method is generally adopted when a small- or medium-diameter and single-polarized antenna is used. In this situation, if one ODU is configured for one antenna, the ODU is directly mounted at the back of the antenna. If two ODUs are configured for one antenna, an RF signal combiner/splitter (hence referred to as a hybrid coupler) must be mounted to connect the ODUs to the antenna. Figure 1-3 illustrates the direct mounting method. The direct mounting method can also be adopted when a small- or medium-diameter and dual-polarized antenna is used. Two ODUs are mounted onto an antenna using an orthogonal mode transducer (OMT). The method for installing an OMT is similar to that for installing a hybrid coupler. Figure 1-3 Direct mounting

The separate mounting method is adopted when a large- or medium-diameter and singleor dual-polarized antenna is used. Figure 1-4 shows the separate mounting method. In this situation, a hybrid coupler can be mounted (two ODUs share one feed boom).

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OptiX RTN 980 Radio Transmission System Product Description

1 Introduction

Figure 1-4 Separate mounting

NOTE

The OptiX RTN 980 provides an antenna solution that covers the entire frequency band, and supports single-polarized antennas and dual-polarized antennas with diameters of 0.3 m to 3.7 m along with the corresponding feeder system.

1.3 Radio Link Types


The OptiX RTN 980 provides the radio links of various types in which different IF boards and ODUs are configured for diverse microwave application scenarios. Table 1-4 Radio link types that the OptiX RTN 980 supports Radio Link Type System Control, Switching, and Timing Board CSHN CSHN IF Board ODU

Low-capacity PDH microwave SDH/PDH microwave High-capacity SDH microwave High-capacity SDH microwave supporting XPIC
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IF1 IF1

Low capacity for PDH ODU Standard power ODU or high power ODU Standard power ODU or high power ODU Standard power ODU or high power ODU
7

CSHN

ISU2

CSHN

ISX2

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OptiX RTN 980 Radio Transmission System Product Description

1 Introduction

Radio Link Type

System Control, Switching, and Timing Board CSHN

IF Board

ODU

Integrated IP microwave Integrated IP microwave supporting XPIC

IFU2 ISU2

Standard power ODU or high power ODU Standard power ODU or high power ODU

CSHN

IFX2 ISX2

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OptiX RTN 980 Radio Transmission System Product Description

2 Functions and Features

2
About This Chapter

Functions and Features

The OptiX RTN 980 provides a wide assortment of functions and features to ensure the quality and efficiency of service transmission. 2.1 Microwave Types The microwave type is determined by the IF board and the configured working mode. 2.2 Modulation Strategy The SDH/PDH microwave supports fixed modulation. The Hybrid/Packet microwave supports fixed modulation and adaptive modulation. 2.3 RF Configuration Modes The OptiX RTN 980 supports 1+0 non-protection configuration, N+0 non-protection configuration, 1+1 protection configuration, N+1 protection configuration, and XPIC configuration. 2.4 Capacity The OptiX RTN 980 is a high-capacity device. 2.5 Interfaces The OptiX RTN 980 provides a variety of interfaces. 2.6 Cross-Polarization Interference Cancellation Cross-polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) technology is used together with co-channel dual-polarization (CCDP). The application of the two technologies doubles the wireless link capacity over the same channel. 2.7 Automatic Transmit Power Control Automatic transmit power control (ATPC) enables the output power of the transmitter to automatically trace the level fluctuation at the receive end within the ATPC control range. This feature reduces the interference with neighboring systems and residual BER. 2.8 MPLS/PWE3 Function The OptiX RTN 980 uses an MPLS that is optimized for the telecom bearer network as the packet forwarding mechanism for packet transmission of carrier-class services. The OptiX RTN 980 uses PWE3 technology as the service bearer technology to implement MPLS network access for various types of services.
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OptiX RTN 980 Radio Transmission System Product Description

2 Functions and Features

2.9 Ethernet Service Processing Capability The OptiX RTN 980 has powerful Ethernet service processing capability. 2.10 QoS The OptiX RTN 980 provides improved quality of service (QoS) and supports the following eight types of per-hop behaviors (PHBs): BE, AF1, AF2, AF3, AF4, EF, CS6, and CS7. Therefore, network carriers can offer various QoS levels of service guarantees and build networks that carry data, voice, and video services. 2.11 Clock Features The clock features of the OptiX RTN 980 can transport the clock of the mobile communication network and provide a complete selection of clock protection mechanisms. 2.12 Protection Capability The OptiX RTN 980 provides a variety of protection schemes. 2.13 Network Management The OptiX RTN 980 supports multiple network management (NM) modes and provides comprehensive NM information exchange schemes. 2.14 Easy Installation The OptiX RTN 980 supports several installation modes. That is, the installation is flexible and convenient. 2.15 Easy Maintenance The OptiX RTN 980 provides several maintenance features that effectively reduce the costs associated with maintaining the equipment. 2.16 Energy Saving The OptiX RTN 980 uses various types of technologies to reduce the amount of energy that the device consumes. The device: 2.17 Environmental Protection The OptiX RTN 980 is designed to meet or exceed environmental protection requirements. The product complies with the RoHS directive.

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2 Functions and Features

2.1 Microwave Types


The microwave type is determined by the IF board and the configured working mode.

2.1.1 SDH/PDH Microwave


The SDH microwave refers to the microwave that transmits SDH services. The PDH microwave refers to the microwave that transmits only PDH services (mainly, the E1 services).
NOTE

The IF1 board can work in TU-12-based PDH microwave mode or STM-1-based SDH microwave mode. The ISU2/ISX2 board can work in SDH mode to support transmission of one STM-1 or two STM-1s.

SDH Microwave
Unlike conventional SDH microwave equipment, the OptiX RTN 980 has a built-in MADM. The MADM grooms services to the microwave port through cross-connections, maps the services into the STM-1-based or 2xSTM-1-based microwave frames, and then transmits the frames. With this capability, services are flexibly groomed and the optical network and the microwave network are seamlessly converged. Figure 2-1 SDH microwave
IDU SDH ODU SDH radio

OH

MADM

OH

E1

PDH Microwave
Unlike conventional PDH microwave equipment, the OptiX RTN 980 has a built-in MADM. The MADM grooms E1 services to the microwave port for further transmission. With this capability, services are flexibly groomed and the optical network and the microwave network are seamlessly converged.

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OptiX RTN 980 Radio Transmission System Product Description

2 Functions and Features

Figure 2-2 PDH microwave


IDU SDH ODU PDH radio

OH

MADM

E1

2.1.2 Hybrid/Packet Integrated IP Microwave


The Hybrid/Packet integrated IP microwave (Integrated IP radio for short) can transmit one type among or a combination of Native TDM services, Native Ethernet services, and PWE3 packet services according to software settings. Therefore, the Integrated IP radio achieves a smooth upgrade from Hybrid microwave to Packet microwave.

IP Microwave Classification
IP microwave can transmit packet services and support the AM function. The packet services transmitted can be Native Ethernet services or packet services encapsulated in PWE3. Conventional IP microwave is divided into two different types: Hybrid microwave and Packet microwave. l l Hybrid microwave: Native TDM services and Native Ethernet services can be transmitted through the air interface. Packet microwave: TDM services, ATM/IMA services, and Ethernet services after PWE3 encapsulation are transmitted through the air interface.

As IP microwave evolves, the OptiX RTN 980 supports Integrated IP radio. As a result, the equipment can support Hybrid microwave and Packet microwave at the same time, and can simultaneously transmit multiple types of services at air interfaces.
NOTE

Universal IF boards, the IFU2, IFX2, ISU2, and ISX2 boards, support Integrated IP radio.

Integrated IP radio
To achieve flexible grooming of TDM services and packet services on the Integrated IP radio, the OptiX RTN 980 is embedded with dual service planes: TDM service processing plane and packet service processing plane. TDM services and packet services can be flexibly transmitted over the Integrated IP radio, as shown in Figure 2-3. l TDM service processing plane Performs cross-connections on the incoming TDM services (E1 services or STM-1 services), and transmits the services to the microwave ports.
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OptiX RTN 980 Radio Transmission System Product Description

2 Functions and Features

Packet service processing plane Performs PWE3 emulation on the incoming services (E1 services, ATM/IMA services, and Ethernet services), encapsulates them into the MPLS packets, and transmits the Ethernet frames that bear the MPLS packets to the microwave ports. Ethernet services are directly transmitted to the microwave ports in Native mode after Layer 2 switching.

Native TDM services, MPLS packets, or Native Ethernet services need to be groomed to the microwave port, encapsulated into microwave frames, and then transmitted on microwave links. The Integrated IP radio serves as Hybrid microwave when TDM services are scheduled to the microwave port over the TDM service processing plane and Ethernet services are scheduled to the microwave port over the packet service processing plane; the Integrated IP radio serves as Packet microwave when TDM services are encapsulated into MPLS/PWE3 packets on the packet service processing plane and then scheduled to the microwave port. Figure 2-3 Hybrid/Packet integrated IP microwave

Native TDM channel (E1 or STM-1) Native Ethernet

IDU STM-1/4 E1 IMA E1 TDM cross-connect matrix ODU

Hybrid radio Native TDM channel (E1 or STM-1) Native Ethernet TDM PWE3 (CES E1) MPLS tunnel Packet switching

PWE3 Layer2 Proccess

ATM PWE3 ETH PWE3 Mixed service in evolution

FE/GE

Native Ethernet TDM PWE3 (CES E1) MPLS tunnel ATM PWE3 ETH PWE3 Pure Packet radio The Integrated IP radio supports smooth upgrade

The Hybrid/Packet integrated IP microwave has the following features: l Transmits one, or several of the TDM services, MPLS/PWE3 services, and Native Ethernet services.
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OptiX RTN 980 Radio Transmission System Product Description


NOTE

2 Functions and Features

The OptiX RTN 980 supports VLAN sub-interfaces, therefore transmitting MPLS/PWE3 Ethernet services and Native Ethernet services over one port.

Supports the AM function. E1 services and packet services can be configured with priority. When AM is switched to the reference mode, the services with higher priority are transmitted with preference.
NOTE

The Integrated IP radio provides a low air interface capacity at the 3.5 MHz channel spacing, and therefore the AM function is not provided.

2.2 Modulation Strategy


The SDH/PDH microwave supports fixed modulation. The Hybrid/Packet microwave supports fixed modulation and adaptive modulation.

2.2.1 Fixed Modulation


Fixed modulation refers to a modulation policy in which a modulation scheme is adopted invariably to provide constant air interface bandwidth for a running radio link. When the OptiX RTN 980 uses fixed modulation, the modulation scheme and the channel spacing can be set by using software. l l The SDH/PDH radio link uses fixed modulation. The Integrated IP radio link supports fixed modulation. Various combinations of modulation schemes and channel spacings can be set.

2.2.2 Adaptive Modulation


The adaptive modulation (AM) technology adjusts the modulation scheme automatically based on channel quality. When the AM technology is adopted, in the case of the same channel spacing, the microwave service bandwidth varies according to the modulation scheme; the higher the modulation efficiency, the higher the bandwidth of the transmitted services. l When the channel quality is good (such as on days when weather conditions are favorable), the equipment adopts a high-efficiency modulation scheme to transmit more user services. This improves transmission efficiency and spectrum utilization of the system. When the channel quality deteriorates (such as on days with adverse weather), the equipment adopts a low-efficiency modulation scheme to transmit only higher-priority services within the available bandwidth while discarding lower-priority services. This method improves anti-interference capabilities of the radio link, which helps ensure the link availability for higher-priority services.

In Integrated IP radio mode, the equipment supports the AM technology. With configurable priorities for E1 services and packet services, the transmission is controlled based on the service bandwidth and QoS policies corresponding to the current modulation scheme. The highestpriority services are transmitted with precedence.
NOTE

In Integrated IP radio mode, when the equipment transmits STM-1 services and packet services at the same time, STM-1 services have highest priority and their transmission is ensured.

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OptiX RTN 980 Radio Transmission System Product Description

2 Functions and Features

Priorities of E1 services The priorities of E1 services are assigned based on the number of E1 services that each modulation scheme can transmit. When modulation scheme switching occurs, only the E1 services whose number is specified in the new modulation scheme can be transmitted and the excess E1 services are discarded.

Priorities of packet services With the QoS technology, packet services are scheduled to queues with different priorities. The services in different queues are transmitted to the microwave port after running the queue scheduling algorithm. When modulation scheme switching occurs, certain queues may be congested due to insufficient capacity at the air interface. As a result, certain services or all the services in these queues are discarded.

Figure 2-4 shows the change in services brought by the AM technology. The orange part indicates E1 services. The blue part indicates packet services. The closer the service is to the outside of the cylinder in the figure, the lower the service priority. Under all channel conditions, the service capacity varies according to the modulation scheme. When the channel conditions are unfavorable (during adverse weather conditions), lower-priority services are discarded. Figure 2-4 Adaptive modulation

256QAM 128QAM 64QAM 32QAM 16QAM

QPSK Channel Capability 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM E1 Services Ethernet Services 256QAM

The AM technology used by the OptiX RTN 980 has the following characteristics: l The AM technology uses the QPSK, 16QAM, 32QAM, 64QAM, 128QAM, and 256QAM modulation schemes.

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The lowest-efficiency modulation scheme (also called reference scheme or modulation scheme of guaranteed capacity) and the highest-efficiency modulation scheme (also called nominal scheme or modulation scheme of full capacity) used by the AM can be configured. In AM, when modulation schemes are switched, the transmit frequency, receive frequency, and channel spacing remain unchanged. In AM, modulation schemes are switched step-by-step. In AM, modulation scheme switching is hitless. When the modulation scheme is downshifted, high-priority services will not be affected when low-priority services are discarded. The switching is successful even when 100 dB/s channel fast fading occurs.

l l l

2.3 RF Configuration Modes


The OptiX RTN 980 supports 1+0 non-protection configuration, N+0 non-protection configuration, 1+1 protection configuration, N+1 protection configuration, and XPIC configuration. Table 2-1 lists the supported RF link configuration modes. Table 2-1 RF configuration modes Configuration Mode 1+0 non-protection configuration 1+1 protection configuration (1+1 HSB/FD/ SD) N+0 non-protection configuration (N 14) N+1 protection configuration (N 7) XPIC configuration
NOTE l 1+0 configuration in N directions is also called Nx(1+0) configuration. l When two radio links in 1+0 non-protection configuration form a microwave ring network, the specific RF configuration (namely, east and west configuration) is formed. On a Hybrid microwave ring network, SNCP can be configured for SDH/PDH services and ERPS can be configured for Ethernet services. On a packet microwave ring network, MPLS APS or PW APS can be configured for packet services. l PDH microwave does not support N+1 protection or XPIC configuration. l Two XPIC workgroups can form the XPIC 1+1 protection configuration.

Maximum Number of Configurations 14 7 7 7 7

2.4 Capacity
The OptiX RTN 980 is a high-capacity device.

2.4.1 Air Interface Capacity


The microwave air interface capacity depends on the IF board, ODU type, and microwave working mode.
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Table 2-2 and Table 2-3 lists the microwave air interface capacities that the OptiX RTN 980 supports. Table 2-2 Air interface capacities (SDH/PDH radio) Radio Link IF Board Maximum Air Interface Capacity 53xE1 XPIC Configurat ion Not supported Not supported Not supported Supported Remarks

PDH

IF1

Supports 16xE1s when the low-capacity PDH ODU is used. The XPIC function is provided using two ISX2 boards.

SDH SDH

IF1 ISU2 ISX2

1xSTM-1 2xSTM-1 2xSTM-1

NOTE The XPIC function doubles the service capacity of the microwave channel at the same frequency bandwidth.

Table 2-3 Air interface capacities (Integrated IP radio) Radio Link IF Board Maximum Ethernet Throughpu t at Air Interfaces 360 to 420 360 to 410 XPIC Configurat ion Remarks

Integrated IP radio

IFU2 IFX2

Not supported Supported

The XPIC function is provided using two IFX2 boards. The XPIC function is provided using two ISX2 boards.

ISU2 ISX2

360 to 456 360 to 456

Not supported Supported

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Radio Link

IF Board

Maximum Ethernet Throughpu t at Air Interfaces

XPIC Configurat ion

Remarks

NOTE l ISU2 and ISX2 boards support frame header compression at air interfaces, and their equivalent throughout of Ethernet services at air interfaces can reach up to 1000 Mbit/s. For details, see 6.1.1 Microwave Work Modes. l The XPIC function doubles the service capacity of the microwave channel at the same frequency bandwidth.

2.4.2 Cross-Connect Capacity


The OptiX RTN 980 has a built-in MADM and provides 128x128 VC-4 higher order crossconnections and VC-12/VC-3 lower order cross-connections equivalent to 32x32 VC-4s.

2.4.3 Switching Capacity


The OptiX RTN 980 has a built-in packet processing platform with the switching capacity of 22 Gbit/s.

2.5 Interfaces
The OptiX RTN 980 provides a variety of interfaces.

2.5.1 Service Interfaces


The OptiX RTN 980 provides the interfaces that converge SDH services and Ethernet services on the system control, switching, and timing board, and it is able to provide a wide-assortment of service interfaces by configuring appropriate service interface boards. Table 2-4 lists the types and number of service interfaces that the system control, switching, and timing board supports for the OptiX RTN 980. Table 2-4 Types and number of service interfaces that the system control, switching, and timing board supports System Control, Switching, and Timing Board CSHN Service Interface Quantity

GE electrical interface (RJ45): 10/100/1000BASE-T(X), or GE optical interface (SFP): 1000BASE-SX, 1000BASE-LX

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System Control, Switching, and Timing Board

Service Interface

Quantity

STM-4 optical interface (SFP), or STM-1 optical interface (SFP)

Table 2-5 lists the types and number of service interfaces that each service interface board supports for the OptiX RTN 980. Table 2-5 Types and number of service interfaces that each service interface board supports Service Interface Board EM6T/EM6TA Service Interface FE electrical interface (RJ45): 10/100BASET(X) GE electrical interface (RJ45): 10/100/1000BASE-T(X) EM6F/EM6FA FE electrical interface (RJ45): 10/100BASET(X) GE electrical interface (SFP) or GE/FE optical interface (SFP): l GE electrical interface: 10/100/1000BASE-T(X) l GE optical interface: 1000BASE-SX/LX/ VX/ZX/BX/CWDM l FE optical interface: 100BASE-FX/LX/ VX/ZX/BX EFP8 EMS6 FE electrical interface (RJ45): 10/100BASET(X) FE electrical interface (RJ45): 10/100BASET(X) GE electrical interface (SFP) or GE optical interface (SFP): l GE electrical interface: 10/100/1000BASE-T(X) l GE optical interface: 1000BASE-SX/LX/ VX/ZX SP3S SP3D 75-ohm or 120-ohm E1 interface 75-ohm or 120-ohm E1 interface 16 32 8 4 2 Quantity 4 2 4 2

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Service Interface Board SL1D/SL1DA

Service Interface STM-1 electrical interface (SFP) or STM-1 optical interface (SFP): Ie-1, S-1.1, L-1.1, and L-1.2

Quantity 2

ML1

75-ohm or 120-ohm Smart E1 interface: supports CES E1, ATM/IMA E1, and Fractional E1 75-ohm or 120-ohm Smart E1 interface: supports CES E1, ATM/IMA E1, and Fractional E1

16

MD1

32

2.5.2 Management and Auxiliary Interfaces


The OptiX RTN 980 provides the management and auxiliary interfaces through the system control, switching, and timing board and the auxiliary board. Table 2-6 Types and number of management and auxiliary interfaces Interface External clock interface Management interface Description Combined 120-ohm 2,048 kbit/s or 2,048 kHz clock input and output interface 10/100BASE-T(X) NM interface NM serial interface 10/100BASE-T(X) NE cascading interface Auxiliary interface Orderwire interface RS-232 asynchronous data interface 64 kbit/s synchronous data interface Wayside E1 interface Alarm interface Alarm input interface Alarm output interface Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2

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NOTE

2 Functions and Features

l The external clock interface and the wayside E1 interface are combined into one physical interface. This interface can also transparently transmit the DCC bytes, orderwire overhead bytes, and synchronous/asynchronous data overhead bytes. However, this interface can implement only one function at a time. l The 64 kbit/s synchronous data interface can also transparently transmit an orderwire byte, but cannot transmit the synchronous data in this case. l The CSHN board provides the external clock interface and the management interface. The AUX board provides the auxiliary interface and the alarm interface. l The number of external clock interfaces or the number of management interfaces listed in the table is the number of interfaces provided by one CST/CSH board.

Auxiliary services and NM messages are transmitted by overhead bytes over a radio link. For details, see Table 2-7. Table 2-7 Auxiliary services or paths provided by each microwave interface Service/Message Type Microwave Frame Overhead Quantity of Paths Asynchronous data service Synchronous data service Orderwire phone service Wayside E1 service DCC path 1 1 1 1 1 Path Rate 19.2 kbit/s 64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s 2048 kbit/s (in the SDH radio link) l 64 kbit/s (in the PDH radio link which the capacity is lower than 16xE1) l 192 kbit/s (in the PDH radio link which the capacity is not lower than 16xE1) l 192 kbit/s, 576kbit/s, or 768kbit/s (in the SDH radio link) l 192 kbit/s (in Integrated IP radio link)

2.6 Cross-Polarization Interference Cancellation


Cross-polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) technology is used together with co-channel dual-polarization (CCDP). The application of the two technologies doubles the wireless link capacity over the same channel. CCDP transmission adopts a horizontally polarized wave and a vertically polarized wave on one channel to transmit two channels of signals. Ideally, for CCDP transmissions, there will not be any interference between the two orthogonal signals although they are on the same frequency. In actual practice, despite the orthogonality of the two signals, interference between the signals inevitably occurs due to cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) of the antenna and channel degradation. To cancel the interference, XPIC technology is used to receive signals horizontally
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and vertically. The signals in the two directions are then processed and the original signals are recovered from interfered signals. Figure 2-5 CCDP channel configuration , used when XPIC is used
Site A Modem Service Service Modem ODU 2 ODU 1 f1 H V f1 f1 ODU 2 Modem Site B Modem f1 f1 ODU 1 Service Service

Service singnal H: horizontal polarization direction V: vertical polarization direction

2.7 Automatic Transmit Power Control


Automatic transmit power control (ATPC) enables the output power of the transmitter to automatically trace the level fluctuation at the receive end within the ATPC control range. This feature reduces the interference with neighboring systems and residual BER. Figure 2-6 Relationship between the RSL and TSL
TSL/RSL

TSL

Up-fading Central value of the ATPC upper threshold and the ATPC lower threshold 2 dB RSL 2 dB Down-fading

2.8 MPLS/PWE3 Function


The OptiX RTN 980 uses an MPLS that is optimized for the telecom bearer network as the packet forwarding mechanism for packet transmission of carrier-class services. The OptiX RTN
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980 uses PWE3 technology as the service bearer technology to implement MPLS network access for various types of services. Table 2-8 MPLS/PWE3 functions Function and Feature MPLS tunnel Setup mode VLAN subinterface Protection OAM Description Static LSPs Supported 1:1 MPLS tunnel APS Supports the following OAM functions: l MPLS OAM that complies with ITU-T Y. 1710 and ITU-T Y.1711 l LSP ping and LSP traceroute functions PWE3 TDM PWE3 Encapsulatio n mode Supports the following encapsulation modes: l SAToP l CESoPSN Packet loading time Jitter compensatio n buffering time ATM PWE3 Mapping mode 125 s to 5000 s 375 s to 16000 s

l ATM N-to-one VCC cell encapsulation l ATM N-to-one VPC cell encapsulation l ATM one-to-one VCC cell encapsulation l ATM one-to-one VPC cell encapsulation

Transparentl Supported y transmitted ATM service Maximum number of concatenated cells ETH PWE3 Encapsulatio n mode Service type 31

l Raw mode l Tagged mode l E-Line l E-Aggr

Setup mode Numbers of PWs

Static PWs Supports a maximum of 1024 PWs.

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Function and Feature Protection OAM

Description 1:1 PW APS Supports the following OAM functions: l VCCV l PW OAM that complies with ITU-T Y. 1710 and ITU-T Y.1711 l PW ping and PW traceroute functions l Intelligent service fault diagnosis, that is, one-click PWE3 service fault locating

MS-PW Configurable bandwidth

Supported Supported

2.9 Ethernet Service Processing Capability


The OptiX RTN 980 has powerful Ethernet service processing capability. Table 2-9 Ethernet service processing capability Item Ethernet service type Range of maximum frame length VLAN Description l Native Ethernet services: E-Line service and E-LAN service l PW-carried Ethernet services: E-Line service and E-Aggr service 1518 bytes to 9600 bytes

l Adds, deletes, and switches VLAN tags that comply with IEEE 802.1q/p, and forwards packets based on VLAN tags. l Processes packets based on the port tag attribute (Tag/Hybrid/ Access). l The VLAN ID ranges from 1 to 4094.

MAC address

l The E-LAN service supports the MAC address self learning capability in two learning modes: SVL and IVL. l MAC addresses can be filtered; that is, MAC addresses can be blacklisted. l Static MAC address entries can be set. l The capacity of the MAC address table is 16 k (including static entities). l The MAC address aging time can be configured.

Spanning tree

Supports the MSTP protocol, and generates only the Common and Internal Spanning Tree (CIST). The functions of the MSTP protocol are equal to those of the RSTP protocol.
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Item Physical link aggregation (PLA) Link aggregation

Description Supports PLA at two integrated IP microwave ports. PLA, a kind of Layer 1 link aggregation group (L1 LAG) technology, shares load based on the bandwidth at the physical layer to achieve link aggregation. Applies to the FE/GE port and microwave port. Supports manual aggregation and static aggregation, as well as load sharing and non-load sharing. The load sharing hash algorithm is implemented based on MAC addresses, IP addresses, or MPLS labels, and supports the specified mode and automatic mode. Supports ITU-T G.8032-compliant ring network protection for Ethernet services. Disables the remote Ethernet port that is connected to the user equipment when the transmission network or local port fails. Supports QoS. For details, see 2.10 QoS. Supports the IEEE 802.3x-compliant traffic control function. l Supports IEEE 802.1ag- and IEEE 802.3ah-compliant ETH-OAM function. l Supports ITU-T Y.1731-compliant packet loss measurement, delay measurement, and delay variation measurement.

ERPS LPT QoS Traffic control function ETH-OAM

Ethernet performance monitoring

l Supports IETF RFC2819-compliant RMON performance monitoring. l Measures real-time and historical traffic and bandwidth utilization for ports. l Measures real-time and historical performance events for DS domains, flows, VLANs, VUNIs, PWs, and egress queues. l Measures packet loss due to congestion for flows. l Measures packet loss due to congestion for PWs and egress queues.

Synchronous Ethernet EoPDH EoSDH

Supports ITU-T G.8261- and ITU-T G.8262-compliant synchronous Ethernet. Supported. The EFP8 board provides the EoPDH function. Supported. The EMS6 board provides the EoSDH function.

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NOTE

2 Functions and Features

l The E-Line service is an Ethernet private line service. The OptiX RTN 980 supports a maximum of 1024 E-Line services. l For Native Ethernet services, the OptiX RTN 980 supports E-Line services based on the port, port +VLAN, and port+QinQ. l For PW-carried Ethernet services, the OptiX RTN 980 supports E-Line services based on the port, port +VLAN, and port+QinQ. l The E-Aggr service is an Ethernet aggregation service. The OptiX RTN 980 supports E-Aggr services from multiple UNIs to one PW and E-Aggr services from multiple PWs to one UNI. l The E-LAN service is an Ethernet local area network (LAN) service. The OptiX RTN 980 supports the ELAN service based on the 802.1d bridge, 802.1q bridge, and 802.1ad bridge. The bridge supports a maximum of 1024 logical ports.

2.10 QoS
The OptiX RTN 980 provides improved quality of service (QoS) and supports the following eight types of per-hop behaviors (PHBs): BE, AF1, AF2, AF3, AF4, EF, CS6, and CS7. Therefore, network carriers can offer various QoS levels of service guarantees and build networks that carry data, voice, and video services. Table 2-10 QoS features Feature DiffServ Performance l For Ethernet services, supports mapping the Ethernet service into different PHB service levels based on the C-VLAN priority, S-VLAN priority, IP DSCP value, and MPLS EXP value. l For ATM services, supports flexible mapping between the ATM service categories (CBR, UBR, UBR+, rtVBR, and nrtVBR) and PHB service levels. l For CES services, the PHB service level of each CES service can be set manually (EF by default). Traffic classification Traffic policing Queue scheduling Supports classifying traffic based on the Port, C-VLAN ID, S-VLAN ID, 802.1p priority of the C-VLAN/S-VLAN packet, or DSCP. Supports flow-based traffic policing and the setting of PIR and CIR in steps of 64 kbit/s. l Each Ethernet port or Integrated IP radio port supports eight levels of priority scheduling. l Flexibly sets the queue scheduling scheme for each Ethernet port and Integrated IP radio port. The queue scheduling modes include SP, SP +WRR, and WRR. Traffic shaping l Supports the shaping for the specified port, priority queue, or service flow. l Supports a step of 64 kbit/s for the PIR and CIR. Buffer capacity 12 Mbit

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2.11 Clock Features


The clock features of the OptiX RTN 980 can transport the clock of the mobile communication network and provide a complete selection of clock protection mechanisms. Table 2-11 lists the clock features that the OptiX RTN 980 supports. Table 2-11 Clock features Item Equipment clock Clock source Description Supports the three modes as defined in ITU-T G.813: locked, holdover, and free-run. Supports the following clock sources: l SDH line clock l PDH tributary clock l Radio link clock l Synchronous Ethernet clock l 2048 kbit/s or 2048 kHz external clock SSM protocol/Extended SSM protocol Supported. SSM information can be transmitted in the following modes: l SDH line l SDH radio link l Integrated IP radio link l Synchronization Ethernet l External clock interface (not supporting the extended SSM protocol) Tributary clock l Supports retiming for Native E1 and CES E1 services. l Supports the transparent transmission of E1 clocks. l Supports CES ACR clocks. Output of the external clock Supported (120-ohm interface complying with G.703, 2 Mbit/ s or 2 MHz mode)

2.12 Protection Capability


The OptiX RTN 980 provides a variety of protection schemes.

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Table 2-12 Protection schemes Item Equipment-level protection Power input Internal power module Control, switching, and timing board Radio links Description 1+1 hot backup 1+1 hot backup 1+1 hot backup 1+1 HSB/SD/FD protection N+1 protection Network-level protection MPLS PW Ethernet MPLS tunnel 1:1 protection PW 1:1 protection LAG protection (including FE/GE ports and radio links) ERPS protection (including FE/GE ports and radio links) MSTP protection (including FE/GE ports and radio links) PLA protection (only for radio links) ATM over E1 TDM services STM-1 STM-4 IMA protection SNCP (including radio links and SDH lines) 1+1 or 1:N linear multiplex section protection (MSP) 1+1 or 1:1 linear MSP Two-fiber bi-directional MSP ring

2.13 Network Management


The OptiX RTN 980 supports multiple network management (NM) modes and provides comprehensive NM information exchange schemes.

NM Mode
The OptiX RTN 980 supports the following functions: l l l
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Uses the iManager Web LCT to manage one local NE or one remote NE on a per-NE basis. Uses the iManager U2000 to centralizedly manage OptiX RTN NEs and other OptiX NEs at the network level. Uses the SNMP agent to query alarms and performance events.
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NM Information Exchange Schemes


The OptiX RTN 980 supports inband DCN and outband DCN. Table 2-13 DCN information exchange schemes Item DCN channel DCC byte PDH microwave Integrated IP radio SDH microwave SDH line Network management interface External clock interface Specifications One or three DCC bytes that are defined by Huawei Three DCC bytes that are defined by Huawei D1-D3, D4-D12, or D1-D12 bytes D1-D3, D4-D12, or D1-D12 bytes Supports one network management Ethernet interface or one network management Ethernet cascade interface. Supports the transparent transmission of DCC bytes through the external clock interface. The inband DCN channel is marked with the VLAN tag and its bandwidth is configurable. The inband DCN channel is marked with the VLAN tag and its bandwidth is configurable. Supported Supported Supported Supported

Inband DCN

Radio link FE/GE interface

Network management protocol

HWECC protocol IP protocols OSI protocols L2 DCN

2.14 Easy Installation


The OptiX RTN 980 supports several installation modes. That is, the installation is flexible and convenient. The IDU can be installed on the following types of cabinets and surfaces: l l l l l In a 300 mm ETSI cabinet In a 600 mm ETSI cabinet In a 450 mm 19-inch cabinet In a 600 mm 19-inch cabinet In an open cabinet

The ODU supports two installation modes: direct mounting and separate mounting.
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2.15 Easy Maintenance


The OptiX RTN 980 provides several maintenance features that effectively reduce the costs associated with maintaining the equipment.

Management and Monitoring


l The OptiX RTN 980 supports the unified management of the microwave transmission network and the optical transmission network at the network layer using the iManager U2000. The OptiX RTN 980 reports a variety of alarms and performance events. The OptiX RTN 980 reports RMON performance events. The OptiX RTN 980 supports measurement of real-time and historical traffic and bandwidth utilization for ports. The OptiX RTN 980 supports measurement of real-time and historical performance for DS domains, flows, VLANs, VUNIs, PWs, and egress queues. The OptiX RTN 980 supports measurement of packet loss due to congestion for flows. The OptiX RTN 980 supports measurement of packet loss due to congestion for PWs bandwidth and egress queues. The OptiX RTN 980 supports the monitoring and the graphic display of key radio transmission performance specifications such as the microwave transmit power, the RSSI, and signal to noise ratio (SNR). The OptiX RTN 980 supports the monitoring and graphic display of Ethernet performance specifications such as port traffic and bandwidth utilization.

l l l l l l l

Hardware Maintenance
l l l Each board of the IDU has running and alarm status indicators. All the indicators and cable interfaces of the IDU are on the front panel. The integrated control, switching, and timing board, IF board, service board, and fan board support hot swapping.

Fault Diagnosis and Testing


l l l l l l l The OptiX RTN 980 supports IEEE 802.1ag- and IEEE 802.3ah-compliant ETH-OAM function. The OptiX RTN 980 supports ITU-T Y.1731-compliant packet loss measurement, delay measurement, and delay variation measurement. The OptiX RTN 980 supports intelligent diagnoses function for faults on PWs. The OptiX RTN 980 supports the MPLS OAM function and LSP ping/traceroute. The OptiX RTN 980 supports the PW OAM function and PW ping/traceroute. The OptiX RTN 980 supports various loopback functions of service ports and IF ports. The OptiX RTN 980 has a built-in test system. Users can perform a PRBS test on an IF port even when no testing tool is available.
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Data Backup
l l l The OptiX RTN 980 supports backup and restoration of the NE database remotely using the U2000. The CF card that stores the data configuration file and the software can be replaced on site. Therefore, users can load the data or upgrade the software by replacing the CF card. The flash memory of a system control, switching, and timing board has two storage areas for storing two copies of software and data, facilitating a smooth upgrade.

Software Upgrade
l The OptiX RTN 980 supports remote loading of the NE software and data using the U2000 to provide a complete NE upgrade solution. Therefore, the entire network can be upgraded rapidly. The OptiX RTN 980 supports the NSF function. When a warm reset is performed for the NE software, SDH/PDH services and E-Line services are not interrupted. The OptiX RTN 980 supports the hot patch loading function. Users can upgrade the software without interrupting services. The OptiX RTN 980 supports software version rollback. In the event of a software upgrade failure, the original software can be recovered which will also restore the original services of the system.

l l l

2.16 Energy Saving


The OptiX RTN 980 uses various types of technologies to reduce the amount of energy that the device consumes. The device: l l l l l Uses a streamlined scheme for board design. Replaces ordinary chips with ASIC chips that consume less power. Uses high-efficiency power modules. Supports intelligent adjustment of the fan speed that dissipates heat in a timely manner, reduces power consumption, and minimizes noise. Shuts down idle FE/GE ports and SFP optical modules.

2.17 Environmental Protection


The OptiX RTN 980 is designed to meet or exceed environmental protection requirements. The product complies with the RoHS directive. l The OptiX RTN 980 undergoes a compulsory packing process that limits the size of the package containing the equipment and accessories to three times that of the equipment dimensions. The product is designed for easy unpacking. In addition, all hazardous substances contained in the packaging decompose quickly. Every plastic component that weighs over 25 g is labeled according to the standards of ISO 11469 and ISO 1043-1 to ISO 1043-4. All components and packages of the equipment are provided with standard labels for recycling.
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l l

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l l

Plugs and connectors are easy to find and the associated operations can be performed using standard tools. All the accompanying materials (such as labels) are easy to remove. Certain types of identifying information (such as silkscreens) are printed on the front panel or chassis.

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3
About This Chapter

Product Structure

This chapter describes the system architecture, hardware architecture, and software architecture of the product, in addition to how the system processes service signals. 3.1 System Architecture The OptiX RTN 980 consists of a series of functional units, including the service interface unit, timeslot cross-connect unit, packet switching unit, IF unit, control unit, clock unit, auxiliary interface unit, fan unit, power unit, and ODU. 3.2 Hardware Structure The OptiX RTN 980 adopts a split structure. The system consists of the IDU 980 and the ODU. An ODU is connected to the IDU 980 through an IF cable. The IF cable transmits IF service signals and the O&M signals of the ODU and also supplies -48 V DC power to the ODU. 3.3 Software Structure The OptiX RTN 980 software consists of the NMS software, IDU software, and ODU software. 3.4 Service Signal Processing Flow The flows for transmitting the SDH/PDH microwave signals, Hybrid microwave signals, and packet microwave signals are different.

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3.1 System Architecture


The OptiX RTN 980 consists of a series of functional units, including the service interface unit, timeslot cross-connect unit, packet switching unit, IF unit, control unit, clock unit, auxiliary interface unit, fan unit, power unit, and ODU. Figure 3-1 Block diagram
RF signal

ODU IF signal VC-4 signal FE/GE E1(TDM/ATM) STM-1/4 Service interface unit Ethernet signal
Timeslot crossconnect unit

IDU

Antenna

VC-4 signal IF unit

Packet switching unit

Ethernet signal

Control and overhead bus Orderwire External alarm Sync/Async data

Auxiliary interface unit

Clock unit

Control unit

Fan unit

Power unit

External clock interface

NM interface

-48V/-60V DC

NOTE

With the EoPDH function, Ethernet services can be transmitted over SDH/PDH microwave.

Table 3-1 Functional units Functional Unit Service interface unit Function l Accesses TDM E1 signals. l Access ATM/IMA E1 signals, and demultiplex ATM services from ATM/IMA E1 signals. l Accesses STM-1/4 signals. l Accesses FE/GE signals. l Uses the EoSDH/EoPDH function to encapsulate Ethernet services into SDH or E1 signals. l Performs E1/ATM/Ethernet service emulation based on PWE3.

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Functional Unit Timeslot crossconnect unit Packet switching unit

Function Provides the cross-connect function and grooms TDM services. l Processes Ethernet services and forwards packets. l Processes MPLS labels and forwards packets. l Processes PW labels and forwards packets.

IF unit

l Maps service signals to microwave frame signals and demaps microwave frame signals to service signals. l Performs conversion between microwave frame signals and IF analog signals. l Provides the O&M channel between the IDU and the ODU. l Supports FEC.

Control unit

l Provides the system communications and control. l Provides the system configuration and management. l Collects alarms and monitors performance. l Processes overheads.

Clock unit

l Traces the clock source signal and provides various clock signals for the system. l Supports input and output of external clock.

Auxiliary interface unit

l Provides the orderwire interface. l Provides the synchronous/asynchronous data interface. l Provides the external alarm input/output interface.

Power unit

l Accesses -48 V/-60 V DC power. l Provides DC power for the IDU. l Provides -48 V DC power for the ODU.

Fan unit

Provides air cooling for the IDU.

3.2 Hardware Structure


The OptiX RTN 980 adopts a split structure. The system consists of the IDU 980 and the ODU. An ODU is connected to the IDU 980 through an IF cable. The IF cable transmits IF service signals and the O&M signals of the ODU and also supplies -48 V DC power to the ODU.

3.2.1 IDU
The IDU 980 is the indoor unit for the OptiX RTN 980. The IDU 980 uses a card plug-in design. It implements different functions by configuring different types of boards. All service boards support hot swapping.
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Figure 3-2 IDU slot layout


Slot 26 (PIU) Slot 13 (EXT) Slot 11 (EXT) Slot 9 (EXT) Slot 28 (FAN) Slot 7 (EXT) Slot 15 (CSHN) Slot 5 (EXT) Slot 3 (EXT) Slot 1 (EXT) Slot 6 (EXT) Slot 4 (EXT) Slot 2 (EXT) Slot 20 (CSHN) Slot 8 (EXT) Slot 27 (PIU) Slot 14 (EXT) Slot 12 (EXT) Slot 10 (EXT)

NOTE

"EXT" represents an extended slot, which can house any type of IF board or interface board.

Table 3-2 List of IDU boards Board Acronym CSHN Board Name Valid Slot Hybrid control, switching, and timing board Slot 15/20 Description l Supports the TDM cross-connect function, provides 128x128 VC-4 higher-order cross-connections and VC-12/VC-3 lower-order cross-connections equivalent to 32x32 VC-4s. l Supports the 22 Gbit/s packet switching function. l Performs system communication and control. l Processes clocks and provides one clock input/ output interface. l Provides one network management interface, one network management serial port, and one NE cascading interface. l Uses the SFP module to provide two STM-4 optical interfaces or two STM-1 optical interfaces. l Provides two GE interfaces. (Each GE interface can use an RJ45 electrical interface or an SFP optical interface independently.)

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Board Acronym ISU2

Board Name Valid Slot Universal IF board Slot 1 to slot 14 Description l Provides one IF interface. l Supports integrated IP microwave and SDH microwave. The supported service modes are Native E1+Ethernet, Native STM-1+Ethernet or SDH (1xSTM-1 or 2xSTM-1). l Supports the AM function. l Supports Ethernet frame header compression. l Supports the physical link aggregation (PLA) function.

ISX2

Universal XPIC IF board

Slot 1 to slot 14

l Provides one IF interface. l Supports integrated IP microwave and SDH microwave. The supported service modes are Native E1+Ethernet, Native STM-1+Ethernet or SDH (1xSTM-1 or 2xSTM-1). l Supports the XPIC function. l Supports the AM function. l Supports Ethernet frame header compression. l Supports the physical link aggregation (PLA) function.

IF1

SDH IF board

Slot 1 to slot 14

l Provides one IF interface. l Supports the TU-based PDH microwave solution and the STM-1-based SDH microwave solution.

IFU2

Universal IF board

Slot 1 to slot 14

l Provides one IF interface. l Supports integrated IP microwave. l Supports the AM function.

IFX2

Universal XPIC IF board

Slot 1 to slot 14

l Provides one IF interface. l Supports integrated IP microwave. l Supports the XPIC function. l Supports the AM function.

SL1D SL1DA EM6T/EM6TA

2xSTM-1 interface board 2xSTM-1 interface board 6-port RJ45 Ethernet/ Gigabit Ethernet interface board

Slot 1 to slot 14 Slot 1 to slot 6 Slot 1 to slot 14

Uses the SFP module to provide two STM-1 optical/ electrical interfaces. Uses the SFP module to provide two STM-1 optical/ electrical interfaces. l Provides four FE electrical interfaces. l Provides two GE electrical interfaces that are compatible with the FE electrical interface.

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Board Acronym EM6F/EM6FA

Board Name Valid Slot 4-port RJ45 + 2port SFP Fast Ethernet/ Gigabit Ethernet interface board 8-port RJ45 FE EoPDH processing board with the switching function 4-port RJ45 and 2-port SFP FE/ GE EoSDH processing board with the switching function 16xE1 (Smart) tributary board Slot 1 to slot 14 Description l Provides four FE electrical interfaces. l Uses the SFP module to provide two GE/FE optical interfaces or GE electrical interfaces. The GE electrical interfaces are compatible with the FE electrical interfaces. Slot 1 to slot 14 l Provides eight FE electrical interfaces. l Bridges to the packet plane through one internal GE interface. l Supports the processing of EoPDH services. l Supports Ethernet transparent transmission services and Layer 2 switching services. Slot 1 to slot 6 l Provides four FE electrical interfaces. l Uses the SFP module to provide two GE optical or electrical interfaces. The GE electrical interfaces are compatible with the FE electrical interfaces. l Supports the processing of EoSDH services. l Supports Ethernet transparent transmission services and Layer 2 switching services. Slot 1 to slot 14 l Provides sixteen 75-ohm or 120-ohm Smart E1 interfaces. l Supports CES E1, ATM/IMA E1, and Fractional E1.

EFP8

EMS6

ML1

MD1

32xE1 (Smart) tributary board

Slot 1 to slot 14

l Provides thirty-two 75-ohm or 120-ohm Smart E1 interfaces. l Supports CES E1, ATM/IMA E1, and Fractional E1.

SP3S SP3D AUX

16xE1 tributary board 32xE1 tributary board Auxiliary interface board Power board Fan board

Slot 1 to slot 14 Slot 1 to slot 14 Slot 1 to slot 14

Provides sixteen 75-ohm or 120-ohm TDM E1 interfaces. Provides thirty-two 75-ohm or 120-ohm TDM E1 interfaces. Provides one orderwire interface, one asynchronous data interface, one synchronous data interface, and fourinput and two-output external alarm interfaces. Provides one -48 V/-60 V DC power input. Cools and ventilates the IDU.

PIU FAN

Slot 26 or slot 27 Slot 28

3.2.2 ODU
The ODU is an integrated system that is available in several models. The architectures and working principles of the various ODU models are similar.

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Block Diagram
Figure 3-3 Block diagram of the ODU
Multiplexer Tx IF O&M uplink Cable port Up-conversion AMP Tx RF Duplexer

CTRL Antenna port Synthesizers

O&M downlink DC

PWR Rx RF

Rx IF

Down-conversion

LNA

Signal Processing in the Transmit Direction


The multiplexer splits the signal from the IF cable into a 350 MHz IF signal, a 5.5 MHz O&M uplink signal, and a -48 V DC power signal. In the transmit direction, the IF signal is processed as follows: 1. 2. 3. After the up-conversion, filtering, and amplification are completed, the IF signal is converted into the RF signal and then is sent to the AMP amplifier unit. The AMP amplifies the RF signal (the output power of the signal can be controlled by the IDU software). After the amplification, the RF signal is sent to the antenna through the duplexer.

The O&M uplink signal is a 5.5 MHz ASK-modulated signal and is demodulated in the CTRL control unit. The -48 V DC power signal is sent to the PWR power unit where the secondary power supply that uses a different voltage is generated and provided to the modules of the ODU.

Signal Processing in the Receive Direction


The duplexer separates the RF signal from the antenna signal. The RF signal is amplified in the low noise amplifier (LNA). After the down-conversion, filtering, and amplification are completed, the RF signal is converted into the 140 MHz IF signal and then is sent to the multiplexer. The O&M downlink signal is modulated under the ASK scheme in the CTRL unit. The 10 MHz signal is generated through the modulation and is sent to the multiplexer. The CTRL unit also detects the received signal power through the RSSI detection circuit and provides the RSSI interface. The IF signal and the O&M downlink signal are combined in the multiplexer and then are sent to the IDU through the IF cable.
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3.3 Software Structure


The OptiX RTN 980 software consists of the NMS software, IDU software, and ODU software. Figure 3-4 shows the software structure. The NMS software communicates with the NE software through the Qx interface. The Qx interfaces are management protocol interfaces designed for Huawei's OptiX equipment. The protocol stack and messages used by Qx interfaces are developed based on ITU-T G.773, ITU-T Q.811, and ITU-T Q.812. Figure 3-4 Software structure
NMS software Qx interface IDU software ODU software

3.3.1 NMS Software


Huawei offers a transmission network management solution that meets the requirements of the telecommunication management network (TMN) for managing all the OptiX RTN products and other OptiX series transmission products on a network. For detail, see 5.1 Network Management Solution.

3.3.2 IDU Software


The IDU software consists of NE software and board software. The NE software manages, monitors, and controls the running status of the IDU. Through the NE software, the NMS communicates with boards, and controls and manages the NE. The NE software communicates with the ODU software to manage and control the running of the ODU. The board software manages and controls the running status of other boards of the IDU except the system control, switching, and timing board. The board software of the Ethernet interface board or Ethernet processing board is stand-alone and runs board CPU. Software of other boards is integrated as software modules with the NE software and runs in the CPU of the system control, switching, and timing board.

3.3.3 ODU Software


The ODU software manages and controls the running status of the ODU. The ODU software controls the running of the ODU based on the parameters transmitted by the IDU software. The ODU running status is reported to the IDU software.

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3.4 Service Signal Processing Flow


The flows for transmitting the SDH/PDH microwave signals, Hybrid microwave signals, and packet microwave signals are different.

3.4.1 SDH/PDH Microwave


This section describes how an IF1 board transmits the E1 services the processing flow for SDH/ PDH microwave service signals. Figure 3-5 Service signal processing flow of the SDH/PDH microwave
IDU E1 SP3S/ SP3D VC-4 signal VC-4 signal IF signal RF signal

CSHN

IF1

ODU

Antenna

Table 3-3 Service signal processing flow of the SDH/PDH microwave in the transmit direction NO. 1 Component SP3S/SP3D Signal Processing Description l Receives E1 signals. l Performs HDB3 decoding. l Maps E1 service signals into VC-12 signals. l Multiplexes the VC-12 signals into VC-4 signals. l Transmits the VC-4 signals to the timeslot cross-connect unit of the CSHN. 2 CSHN The timeslot cross-connect unit grooms VC-12 signals to the VC-4 signals of the IF1 board.

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NO. 3

Component IF1

Signal Processing Description l Demultiplexes the VC-12 signals to be transmitted from VC-4 signals. l Maps the VC-12 signals into the TU-12-based or STM-1based microwave frame payload to add microwave frame overheads and pointers and form complete microwave frames. l Performs FEC coding. l Performs digital modulation. l Performs D/A conversion. l Performs analog modulation. l Combines the analog IF signals and ODU O&M signals. l Transmits the combined signals and -48 V power to the ODU through the IF cable.

ODU

l Splits the analog IF signals, ODU O&M signals, and -48 V power. l Converts the analog IF signals into RF signals through up conversions and amplification. l Transmits the RF signals to the antenna through the waveguide.

Table 3-4 Service signal processing flow of the SDH/PDH microwave in the receive direction NO. 1 Component ODU Signal Processing Description l Isolates and filters RF signals. l Converts the RF signals into analog IF signals through down conversions and amplification. l Combines the IF signals and the ODU O&M signals. l Transmits the combined signals to the IF board through the IF cable.

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NO. 2

Component IF1

Signal Processing Description l Splits the received analog IF signals and ODU O&M signals. l Performs A/D conversion for the IF signals. l Performs digital demodulation. l Performs time domain adaptive equalization. l Performs FEC decoding. l Synchronizes and descrambles the frames. l Extracts overheads from microwave frames. l Extracts VC-12 signals from the microwave frames and multiplexes the VC-12 signals into VC-4 signals. l Transmits the VC-4 signals to the timeslot cross-connect unit of the CSHN.

3 4

CSHN SP3S/SP3D

The timeslot cross-connect unit grooms VC-12 signals to the VC-4 signals of the SP3S/SP3D. l Demultiplexes VC-12 signals from VC-4 signals. l Demaps E1 service signals from the VC-12 signals. l Performs HDB3 coding. l Outputs E1 signals.

3.4.2 Hybrid Microwave


This section describes how an IFU2 board transmits the E1 services and the FE services the processing flow for Hybrid microwave service signals. Figure 3-6 Service signal processing flow of the Hybrid microwave
IDU E1 SP3S/ SP3D VC-4 signal CSHN EM6T/ EM6F Ethernet signal VC-4 signal IFU2

IF signal

ODU

RF signal

FE

Antenna

Ethernet signal

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Table 3-5 Service signal processing flow of the Hybrid microwave in the transmit direction NO. 1 Component SP3S/SP3D Signal Processing Description l Receives E1 signals. l Performs HDB3 decoding. l Maps E1 service signals into VC-12 signals. l Multiplexes the VC-12 signals into VC-4 signals. l Transmits the VC-4 signals to the timeslot cross-connect unit of the CSHN. EM6T/EM6F l Receives FE signals. l Performs decoding. l Aligns frames, strips the preamble code, and processes the CRC check code. l Forwards Ethernet frames to the packet switching unit of the CSHN. 2 CSHN l Based on the service configuration, the timeslot crossconnect unit grooms VC-12 signals to the VC-4 signals of the IFU2 board. l The packet switching unit processes Ethernet frames based on the configuration and the Layer 2 protocol, and then forwards the processed Ethernet frames to the IFU2 through the microwave port. 3 IFU2 l Selects the proper modulation scheme based on the current channel quality. l Demultiplexes the VC-12 signals to be transmitted from VC-4 signals. l Demaps E1 service signals from the VC-12 signals. l Maps the E1 service signals and Ethernet frames into the microwave frame payload, and adds microwave frame overheads to form complete microwave frames. l Performs FEC coding. l Performs digital modulation. l Performs D/A conversion. l Performs analog modulation l Combines the analog IF signals and ODU O&M signals. l Transmits the combined signals and -48 V power to the ODU through the IF cable. 4 ODU l Splits the analog IF signals, ODU O&M signals, and -48 V power. l Converts the analog IF signals into RF signals through up conversions and amplification. l Transmits the RF signals to the antenna through the waveguide.

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Table 3-6 Service signal processing flow of the Hybrid microwave in the receive direction NO. 1 Component ODU Signal Processing Description l Isolates and filters RF signals. l Converts the RF signals into analog IF signals through down conversions and amplification. l Combines the IF signals and the ODU O&M signals. l Transmits the combined signals to the IF board through the IF cable. 2 IFU2 l Splits the received analog IF signals and ODU O&M signals. l Performs A/D conversion. l Performs digital demodulation. l Performs time domain adaptive equalization. l Performs FEC decoding. l Synchronizes and descrambles the frames. l Extracts overheads from microwave frames. l Extracts E1 service signals from the microwave frames and maps the E1 service signals into VC-12 signals. l Multiplexes the VC-12 signals into VC-4 signals and transmits the VC-4 signals to the timeslot cross-connect unit of the CSHN board. l Extracts Ethernet frames from the microwave frames, and then transmits the Ethernet frames to the packet switching unit of the CSHN board. 3 CSHN l Based on the service configuration, the timeslot crossconnect unit grooms VC-12 signals to the VC-4 signals of the SP3S or SP3D. l The packet switching unit processes Ethernet frames based on the configuration and the Layer 2 protocol, and then forwards the processed Ethernet frames to the related EM6T/EM6F board. 4 SP3S/SP3D l Demultiplexes VC-12 signals from VC-4 signals. l Demaps E1 service signals from the VC-12 signals. l Performs HDB3 coding. l Outputs E1 signals. EM6T/EM6F l Aligns frames, adds the preamble code, and processes the CRC check code. l Performs coding. l Outputs FE signals.

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3.4.3 Packet Microwave


This section describes how an ISU2 board transmits the TDM E1 services and ATM/IMA E1 services that the ML1/MD1 board receives and the FE services that the EM6T/EM6F board receives. It serves as an example to illustrate the processing flow for Packet microwave service signals. Figure 3-7 Flow of service signal processing
IDU E1 ML1/ MD1 Service bus CSHN FE EM6T/ EM6F Service bus

Service bus ISU2

IF signal ODU

RF signal

Antenna

Table 3-7 Service signal processing in the transmit direction NO. 1 Component ML1/MD1 Signal Processing Description l Receives TDM E1 signals and ATM/IMA E1 signals. l Extracts service payloads from TDM E1 signals and performs the PWE3 encapsulation to form the Ethernet frames that carry PW packets. l Demultiplexes ATM cells from ATM/IMA E1 signals and performs the PWE3 encapsulation to form the Ethernet frames that carry PW packets. l Forwards Ethernet frames to the CSHN board. 2 EM6T/EM6F l Receives FE signals. l Extracts Ethernet frames from FE signals, and then forwards the Ethernet frames to the CSHN board. 3 CSHN l Perform Layer 2 processing for the Ethernet signals that are transmitted from the EM6T or EM6F board based on the configuration and the Layer 2 protocol, and then performs the PWE3 encapsulation to form the Ethernet frames that carry PW packets. l Processes the Ethernet frames that carry and isolate PW packets based on the service configuration and the Layer 3 protocol, and then forwards the processed Ethernet frames to ISU2.

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NO. 4

Component ISU2

Signal Processing Description l Selects the proper modulation scheme based on the quality of the channel. l Receives the Ethernet signals transmitted from the CSHN. l Forms Ethernet service signals and microwave frame overheads into microwave frames. l Performs FEC coding. l Performs digital modulation. l Performs D/A conversion. l Performs analog modulation l Combines the analog IF signals and ODU O&M signals. l Transmits the combined signals and -48 V power to the ODU through the IF cable.

ODU

l Splits the analog IF signals, ODU O&M signals, and -48 V power. l Converts the analog IF signals into RF signals through up conversions and amplification. l Transmits the RF signals to the antenna through the waveguide.

Table 3-8 Service signal processing flow in the receive direction NO. 1 Component ODU Signal Processing Description l Isolates and filters RF signals. l Converts the RF signals into analog IF signals through down conversions and amplification. l Combines the IF signals and the ODU O&M signals. l Transmits the combined signals to the IF boards. 2 ISU2 l Splits the received analog IF signals and ODU O&M signals. l Performs A/D conversion. l Performs digital demodulation. l Performs time domain adaptive equalization. l Performs FEC decoding. l Synchronizes and descrambles the frames. l Extracts overheads from microwave frames. l Extracts Ethernet frames from microwave frames, and then transmits the Ethernet frames to the CSHN.

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NO. 3

Component CSHN

Signal Processing Description l Processes the Ethernet frames that carry PW packets based on the service configuration and the Layer 3 protocol, and then forwards the processed Ethernet frames. l Forwards Ethernet frames to the ML1 or ML1A board directly. In the case of the Ethernet frames that need to be forwarded to the EF8T/EF8F board, extracts Ethernet frames from PW packets, performs layer 2 processing based on the configuration and the Layer 2 protocol, and then forwards the Ethernet frames to the EM6T or EM6F board.

ML1/MD1

l Extracts ATM cells, and TDM E1 service payloads from PW packets. l Multiplexes the ATM cells into the ATM/IMA E1 signals inversely. l Outputs TDM E1 service payloads through the E1 interface.

EM6T/EM6F

Outputs Ethernet frames through the FE interface.

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4
About This Chapter

Networking and Applications

The OptiX RTN 980 provides complete microwave transmission solutions and supports various types of networking solutions to meet the diverse customer requirements. 4.1 Typical Network Topologies The OptiX RTN 980 supports various network topologies. 4.2 Feature Application (MPLS Packet Service) With the MPLS/PWE3 technology, the OptiX RTN 980 can transmit three types of packet services: CES services, ATM services, and Ethernet services.

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4.1 Typical Network Topologies


The OptiX RTN 980 supports various network topologies.

4.1.1 Multi-directional Nodal Convergence


The OptiX RTN 980 supports the nodal convergence of radio links in a maximum of 14 directions, and supports various transmission modes in the upstream direction.

Network Diagram
As nodal microwave equipment, the OptiX RTN 980 supports the convergence of large-capacity radio links in multi-directions. Figure 4-1 provides an example. Figure 4-1 Multi-directional Nodal Convergence

Regional network

Packet radio link OptiX RTN 980

Hybrid radio link OptiX RTN 910/950

TDM radio link Cable/fiber

Convergence of Radio Links


l l l Supports the convergence of radio links in a maximum of 14 directions. Supports the convergence of TDM radio links, Hybrid radio links, and Packet radio links at the same time. Supports the convergence of microwave chain subnets and the microwave ring subnets.

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Upstream Transmission
l Supports the convergence of the TDM microwave services and Hybrid microwave services, and then transmission of them to the TDM network and the metropolitan Ethernet network in upstream direction in Native mode. Supports the convergence of the Packet microwave services, and then direct transmission of them to the PSN in the upstream direction by swapping MPLS labels. Supports the convergence of the TDM microwave services and Hybrid microwave services, encapsulation of them by the MPLS/PWE3 protocol, and then transmission of them to the PSN as gateway equipment.

l l

4.1.2 Large-Capacity Microwave Convergence Ring


The OptiX RTN 980 can form a large-capacity convergence ring and support various protection schemes for a ring network.

Network Diagram
OptiX RTN 980 can form a large-capacity convergence ring. Figure 4-2 provides an example. Figure 4-2 Large-capacity convergence ring

MPLS tunnel 1:1/ERPS/SNCP

OptiX RTN 980

Radio chains and/or radio sub-rings

Radio link

Types of Radio Links


l l The OptiX RTN 980 on the convergence ring can converge the services on the microwave sub-ring or microwave sub-link. The radio links on the convergence ring can use XPIC, N+1, and other RF configuration modes to achieve large-capacity transmission.
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l l

When using Hybrid radio links, the convergence ring can converge the Hybrid microwave services or TDM microwave services directly. When using Packet radio links, the convergence ring can do as follows: Converge the Packet microwave services at the access layer and transmit them to the PSN directly for service backhaul. Converge the Hybrid microwave services or TDM microwave services, encapsulate them into packet signals through the MPLS/PWE3 technology on the OptiX RTN 980, and transmit them to the PSN directly for service backhaul.

Protection Schemes
l l On the Hybrid microwave convergence ring, the TDM services can be configured with SNCP, and the Ethernet services can be configured with ERPS. On the Packet microwave convergence ring, the services can be configured with the MPLS tunnel 1:1 protection or PW 1:1 protection.

4.1.3 Upstream Networking


The OptiX RTN 980 can form a ring network with the upstream equipment, or can be connected to the upstream equipment through a protection link, to achieve reliable service backhaul.

Upstream Networking of TDM Services


The OptiX RTN 980 can form a two-fiber bidirectional MS shared protection ring with SDH equipment through the STM-4 ports, or can be connected to MSTP equipment through the STM-1/STM-4 ports configured with the 1+1/1:1 linear MSP. Figure 4-3 provides an example of the upstream networking of TDM services. Figure 4-3 Upstream ring network of TDM services
TDM Network

Linear MSP or ring MSP

STM-16

OptiX RTN 980

NG-SDH

Radio transmission sub-network

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Upstream Networking of Ethernet Services


The OptiX RTN 980 can form an ERPS ring with the metropolitan area network (MAN) equipment through the GE ports, or can be connected to the MAN equipment through the FE/ GE ports configured with the LAG protection. Figure 4-4 provides an example of the upstream networking for Ethernet services. Figure 4-4 Upstream ring network for Ethernet services
Metro Network

ERPS

OptiX RTN 980

MSTP/Metro

Radio transmission sub-network

Upstream Networking of MPLS Services


The OptiX RTN 980 can form a ring network or a mesh network with MPLS packet switching equipment through the GE ports. MPLS tunnel 1:1 protection is adopted. Figure 4-4 provides an example of the upstream networking of MPLS services. Figure 4-5 Upstream ring network of MPLS services
Packet Network

MPLS tunnel 1:1

OptiX RTN 980

PTN

Radio transmission sub-network

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4.2 Feature Application (MPLS Packet Service)


With the MPLS/PWE3 technology, the OptiX RTN 980 can transmit three types of packet services: CES services, ATM services, and Ethernet services.

4.2.1 CES Services


On the OptiX RTN 980, CES services are constructed using the TDM PWE3 technology. That is, TDM E1 services are encapsulated into PW packets, and the PW packets are transmitted through a PW on the PSN.

Application Example
Circuit emulation service (CES) is mainly used to transmit mobile backhauled services and enterprise private line services. As shown in Figure 4-6, a 2G base station or an enterprise private line connects to the OptiX RTN 980 through a TDM line. The OptiX RTN 980 encapsulates the TDM signals into packets, and then transmits the packets to the opposite end through a PW on the PSN. Figure 4-6 Example of CES services
Backebone layer IP/MPLS Backebone Network

Convergence BSC layer

BSC

Access layer

BTS

BTS

Corporation

BTS

BTS

Corporation

CES services

OptiX RTN 900

OptiX packet transmission product

Emulation Modes
The OptiX RTN 980 supports CES services in structured emulation mode and non-structured emulation mode.
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l l

The structured emulation mode is the CESoPSN mode. The equipment is aware of the frame structure, framing mode, and timeslot information in the TDM circuit. The non-structured emulation mode is the SAToP mode. The equipment is not aware of the frame structure. Instead, the equipment considers the TDM signals as consecutive bit streams, and then emulates and transparently transmits the TDM signals.

As shown in Figure 4-7, the OptiX RTN 980 in CESoPSN mode supports the compression of idle 64 kbit/s timeslots in TDM E1 signals to save transmission bandwidth. Figure 4-7 Compression of idle 64 kbit/s timeslots in TDM E1 signals
0 1 2 3 ... 2 9 30 31

BTS

PW 1 2 29

0 1 2 3 ... 29 30 31 0 1 2 3 ... 29 30 31

BTS

29 30 3 ... 2 0 1

31
PW 1 3 30 31

0 1 2 3 ... 29 30 31

BSC PW 1 2 3

0 1 2 3 ... 29 30 31 BTS 0 1 2 3 ... 29 30 31

Timeslots in the E1 frame

Service Clocks
Clock information is an important feature of TDM services. The OptiX RTN 980 supports the retiming clocks and CES ACR clocks of CES services. In retiming synchronization mode, the system clocks of all PEs on the network are synchronized. The system clock of a PE is considered as the service transmit clock (retiming). As shown in Figure 4-8, the system clock of BTS synchronizes itself with the service clock of PE. In this manner, all PEs and CEs are synchronous, and the transmit clocks of TDM services on all CEs and PEs are synchronous.

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Figure 4-8 Retiming synchronization mode of CES service clocks


Transmits E1 signals according to the system clock. Synchronizes with the radio link clock. Synchronizes with the E1 signal clock.

E1 BTS PE CES Clock synchronization PE

E1 BSC

In ACR mode, the clock is extracted from the TDM interface on the PE on the ingress side. On the PE on the egress side, the clock of the emulated TDM service is recovered based on the clock information in the CES service. Figure 4-9 shows the retiming synchronization mode of CES service clocks. Figure 4-9 Adaptive synchronization mode of CES service clocks
Recovers the E1 signal clock from the CES service. Extracts the clock from the E1 signal and add the clock information to the CES service.

E1 BTS PE CES PE

E1 BSC

Clock synchronization

4.2.2 ATM/IMA Services


The OptiX RTN 980 supports ATM PWE3 services. The ATM/IMA E1 technology is used to transmit ATM services to the OptiX RTN equipment, and then the ATM cells are encapsulated into PW packets. The packets are then transmitted in the MPLS tunnel on the PSN.

Application Example
ATM/IMA services are mainly backhauled services of base stations. With the ATM/IMA E1 technology, the ATM services from NodeB are transmitted to the OptiX RTN 980. On the OptiX RTN 980, PWE3 emulation is performed for the ATM services. Then, the services are transmitted over PWs in MPLS tunnels across the PSN towards the RNC. Before being sent to
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the RNC, the services are decapsulated on the OptiX PTN/RTN equipment. Figure 4-10 shows the application example. Figure 4-10 Example of ATM/IMA services
IMA E1 IMA E1/ c-STM-1 RTN

NodeB

PSN

PTN

RNC

MPLS tunnel

PW (ATM PWE3)

ATM/IMA Services on the UNI Side


On the UNI side, the OptiX RTN 980 supports the following ATM/IMA functions: l l Supports the IMA E1 technology in which an IMA group is comprised of E1 links. Supports the Fractional IMA technology in which an IMA group is comprised of Fractional E1 links.

ATM PWE3 Services on the NNI Side


On the NNI side, the OptiX RTN 980 supports the following ATM PWE3 functions: l l l l l l One-to-one VCC mapping scheme: One VCC is mapped into one PW. N-to-one VCC mapping scheme: N (N32) VCCs are mapped into one PW. One-to-one VPC mapping scheme: One VPC is mapped into one PW. N-to-one VPC mapping scheme: N (N32) VPCs are mapped into one PW. On one PW, a maximum of 31 ATM cells can be concatenated. ATM transparent service.

4.2.3 Ethernet Services


The OptiX RTN 980 supports Ethernet PWE3 services. Therefore, PWs can be used to transmit E-Line services and E-Aggr services.

E-Line Services
The E-Line technology is used to transmit isolated Ethernet private line services. Figure 4-11 illustrates an example of how E-Line services are applied on the OptiX RTN 980. Company A has branches in City 1 and City 3; Company B has branches in City 2 and City 3; Company C has branches in City 1 and City 2. The branches of Company A, Company B, and Company C each have specific data communication requirements. In this application scenario, the OptiX RTN 980 can provide E-Line services for Company A, Company B, and Company C that can meet each of their respective needs while ensuring that the service data of each company is separated.
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Figure 4-11 Example of E-Line services

Company A

Nationwide/Global carrier Ethernet

Company A

Company C City 1

Company B City 3

E-Line1 E-Line2 E-Line3

Company B

OptiX RTN 900 Company C OptiX packet transmission product City 2

E-Aggr Services
The E-Aggr technology is used to transmit multipoint-to-point bidirectional aggregation services. An E-Aggr service has multiple aggregation sources and one aggregation sink. The aggregation sources and the aggregation sink can communicate with each other bidirectionally, but are isolated from each other. E-Aggr services are distinguished based on VLAN tag switching. E-ARRG services simplify service configuration, and QoS processing can be performed at aggregation points. Figure 4-11 shows the application of E-Aggr services on a mobile bearer network. On the base station side, services from different base stations are aggregated to a PW; on the RNC side, services on multiple PWs are aggregated at an interface and then transmitted to the RNC.

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Figure 4-12 Example of E-Aggr services


FE NodeB1 FE NodeB 2 RTN NNIs-UNI aggregation UNIs-NNI aggregation

LSP

1/PW

1
RTN

GE

GE

FE NodeB 3 FE RTN NodeB 4 UNIs-NNI aggregation

2/ LSP

2 PW

RNC

MPLS network

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5 Network Management System

5
About This Chapter

Network Management System

This chapter describes the network management solution and the NMS software that constitutes this solution. 5.1 Network Management Solution Huawei offers a complete transmission network management solution compliant with TMN for different function domains and customer groups on telecommunication networks. 5.2 Web LCT The Web LCT is a local maintenance terminal. The Web LCT provides the following management functions at the NE layer: NE management, alarm management, performance management, configuration management, communication management, and security management. 5.3 U2000 The U2000 is a network-level network management system. A user can access the U2000 server through a U2000 client to manage Huawei transport subnets in a unified manner. The U2000 can provide NE-level and network-level management functions.

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5.1 Network Management Solution


Huawei offers a complete transmission network management solution compliant with TMN for different function domains and customer groups on telecommunication networks. The NM solutions consist of the following: l iManager U2000 Web LCT local maintenance terminal The Web LCT, a Web-based local maintenance terminal, is used to manage local and remote NEs on a per-site or hop basis. l iManager U2000 unified network management system The iManager U2000, a network-level management system, is used to manage Huawei transmission equipment such as the OptiX RTN, PTN, MSTP, and WDM equipment. Figure 5-1 Network management solution for transmission networks
iManager U2000

WAN/LAN

Backbone layer

Aggregation layer

Access layer

Web LCT

Web LCT

5.2 Web LCT


The Web LCT is a local maintenance terminal. The Web LCT provides the following management functions at the NE layer: NE management, alarm management, performance
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management, configuration management, communication management, and security management.

NE Management
l l l l Search of NEs Addition/Deletion of NEs Login or logout of NEs NE time management

Alarm Management
l l l Setting of alarm monitoring strategies Viewing of alarms Deletion of alarms

Performance Management
l l l Setting of performance monitoring strategies Viewing of performance events Resetting of performance registers

Configuration Management
l l l l l l Basic NE information configuration Radio link configuration Protection configuration Interface configuration Service configuration Clock configuration

Communication Management
l l l l l l Communication parameter management DCC management HWECC protocol management IP protocol management OSI protocol management Inband DCN management

Security Management
l l l l l
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NE user management NE user group management LCT access control Online user management NE security parameters
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l l l

NE security log NMS user management NMS log management

HOP Management
l l Parameters on both ends of a hop can be set on the same interface. After the parameters on one end of a hop are set, the parameters on the other end are assigned values accordingly.

5.3 U2000
The U2000 is a network-level network management system. A user can access the U2000 server through a U2000 client to manage Huawei transport subnets in a unified manner. The U2000 can provide NE-level and network-level management functions.

NE Level Management
l l l l l l NE object management NE-level alarm management NE-level performance management NE-level configuration management NE-level communication management NE-level security management

Network Level Management


l l l l l l Topology management Network-level alarm management Network-level performance management Network-level configuration management Network level communication management Network-level security management
NOTE

Network-level security management functions include: l Management of authorities and logs l SSLv3 encrypted communication between U2000 server and U2000 clients, and between U2000 server and gateway NEs l RADIUS security authentication

Network-wide clock management

Other Functions
l l l
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Inventory management Log management Database management


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l l l

NE software management Report function Northbound SNMP, CORBA and XML interface

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6 Technical Specifications

6
About This Chapter

Technical Specifications

This chapter describes the technical specifications of the OptiX RTN 980. 6.1 RF Performance This chapter describes the radio frequency (RF) performance and various technical specifications related to microwaves. 6.2 Predicted Equipment Reliability Predicted equipment reliability includes predicted component reliability and predicted link reliability. Equipment reliability is measured by mean time between failures (MTBF), and predicated equipment reliability complies with the Bellcore TR-332 standard. 6.3 Interface Performance This section describes the technical specifications of services and auxiliary interfaces. 6.4 Clock Timing and Synchronization Performance The clock timing performance and synchronization performance of the product meet relevant ITU-T recommendations. 6.5 Integrated System Performance Integrated system performance includes the dimensions, weight, power consumption, power supply, EMC, surge protection, safety, and environment.

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6.1 RF Performance
This chapter describes the radio frequency (RF) performance and various technical specifications related to microwaves.

6.1.1 Microwave Work Modes


This section lists the microwave work modes that the OptiX RTN 980 supports base on IF boards.

6.1.1.1 Microwave Work Modes (IF1 board)


The IF1 board supports SDH/PDH microwave work modes.
NOTE

The channel spacings supported by the OptiX RTN 980 comply with ETSI standards. Channel spacings 3.5/7/14/28/40/56 MHz apply to most frequency bands; but channel spacings 3.5/7/13.75/27.5/40/55 MHz apply to the 18 GHz frequency band.

Table 6-1 SDH/PDH microwave work modes (IF1 board) Service Capacity 4xE1 4xE1 8xE1 8xE1 16xE1 16xE1 22xE1 26xE1 35xE1 44xE1 53xE1 STM-1 Modulation Scheme QPSK 16QAM QPSK 16QAM QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM Channel Spacing (MHz) 7 3.5 14 (13.75) 7 28 (27.5) 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5)

6.1.1.2 Microwave Work Modes (IFU2 board)


The IFU2 board supports Integrated IP microwave work modes.

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NOTE

6 Technical Specifications

The channel spacings supported by the OptiX RTN 980 comply with ETSI standards. Channel spacings 3.5/7/14/28/40/56 MHz apply to most frequency bands; but channel spacings 3.5/7/13.75/27.5/40/55 MHz apply to the 18 GHz frequency band.

Table 6-2 Integrated IP microwave work modes (IFU2 board) Channel Spacing (MHz) Modulation Scheme Maximum Number of E1s in Hybrid Microwave 5 10 12 15 18 21 10 20 24 31 37 43 20 40 52 64 75 75 40 75 75 75 75 75 Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s) 9 to 12 20 to 24 24 to 29 31 to 37 37 to 44 43 to 51 20 to 23 41 to 48 50 to 59 65 to 76 77 to 90 90 to 104 41 to 48 82 to 97 108 to 125 130 to 150 160 to 180 180 to 210 82 to 97 165 to 190 208 to 240 260 to 310 310 to 360 360 to 420

7 7 7 7 7 7 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 56 (55) 56 (55) 56 (55) 56 (55) 56 (55) 56 (55)

QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

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NOTE

6 Technical Specifications

For the integrated IP microwave work mode that the IFU2/IFX2 board supports: l The throughput specifications listed in the tables are based on untagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from 64 bytes to 1518 bytes l E1 services need to occupy the corresponding bandwidth of the air interface capacity. The bandwidth remaining after the E1 service capacity is subtracted from the air interface capacity can be provided for Ethernet services.

6.1.1.3 Microwave Work Modes (IFX2 board)


The IFX2 board supports Integrated IP microwave work modes.
NOTE

The channel spacings supported by the OptiX RTN 980 comply with ETSI standards. Channel spacings 3.5/7/14/28/40/56 MHz apply to most frequency bands; but channel spacings 3.5/7/13.75/27.5/40/55 MHz apply to the 18 GHz frequency band.

Table 6-3 Integrated IP microwave work modes (IFX2 board) Channel Spacing (MHz) Modulation Scheme Maximum Number of E1s in Hybrid Microwave 4 9 11 14 9 19 24 30 36 19 40 49 63 75 75 39 75 Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s) 9 to 11 19 to 23 24 to 29 31 to 36 20 to 23 40 to 47 50 to 59 63 to 73 75 to 88 41 to 48 84 to 97 103 to 120 130 to 150 160 to 180 180 to 210 83 to 97 165 to 190
68

7 7 7 7 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 56 (55) 56 (55)
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QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAMa QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAMa QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM QPSK 16QAM

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Channel Spacing (MHz)

Modulation Scheme

Maximum Number of E1s in Hybrid Microwave 75 75 75 75

Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s) 210 to 245 260 to 305 310 to 360 360 to 410

56 (55) 56 (55) 56 (55) 56 (55)

32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

NOTE For the IFX2 board, the microwave work modes are the same regardless of whether the XPIC function is enabled or disabled. When the channel spacing is 7 MHz or 14 MHz and the XPIC function is enabled, the IFX2 board only supports the XMC-2 ODU. a: When the XPIC function is enabled and the frequency band is 26 GHz to 42 GHz, the 7MHz/64QAM and 14MHz/128QAM work modes are not supported.

NOTE

For the integrated IP microwave work mode that the IFU2/IFX2 board supports: l The throughput specifications listed in the tables are based on untagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from 64 bytes to 1518 bytes l E1 services need to occupy the corresponding bandwidth of the air interface capacity. The bandwidth remaining after the E1 service capacity is subtracted from the air interface capacity can be provided for Ethernet services.

6.1.1.4 Microwave Work Modes (ISU2 board)


The ISU2 board supports SDH microwave work modes and Integrated IP microwave work modes.
NOTE

The channel spacings supported by the OptiX RTN 980 comply with ETSI standards. Channel spacings 3.5/7/14/28/40/56 MHz apply to most frequency bands; but channel spacings 3.5/7/13.75/27.5/40/55 MHz apply to the 18 GHz frequency band.

SDH Microwave Work Modes


Table 6-4 SDH microwave work modes (ISU2 board) Service Capacity STM-1 2xSTM-1 Modulation Scheme 128QAM 128QAM Channel Spacing (MHz) 28 (27.5) 56 (55)

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Integrated IP Microwave Work Modes


Table 6-5 Integrated IP microwave work modes (ISU2 board, Native E1 + Ethernet service) Channel Spacing (MHz) Modulation Scheme Maximum Number of E1s in Hybrid Microwave Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s) Without Compressio n With L2 Frame Header Compressio n 4 to 6 9 to 13 10 to 15 20 to 30 25 to 36 31 to 47 37 to 56 41 to 62 20 to 31 41 to 61 51 to 77 65 to 96 76 to 113 87 to 131 41 to 62 82 to 124 107 to 161 131 to 198 155 to 233 181 to 272 56 to 84 114 to 172 147 to 221 181 to 272 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressio n (IPv4) 4 to 6 9 to 13 10 to 22 20 to 44 25 to 54 31 to 67 37 to 80 41 to 90 20 to 44 41 to 89 51 to 110 65 to 140 76 to 165 87 to 189 41 to 89 82 to 178 107 to 230 131 to 283 155 to 333 181 to 388 56 to 122 114 to 247 147 to 318 181 to 388 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressio n (IPv6) 4 to 10 9 to 20 10 to 33 20 to 66 25 to 80 31 to 100 37 to 119 42 to 134 20 to 66 41 to 132 51 to 164 65 to 209 76 to 245 88 to 281 41 to 132 83 to 265 107 to 343 132 to 424 156 to 495 182 to 577 57 to 182 114 to 366 148 to 474 182 to 583

3.5 3.5 7 7 7 7 7 7 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 40 40 40 40

QPSK 16QAM QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM

2 4 5 10 12 15 18 20 10 20 24 31 37 42 20 40 52 64 75 75 27 55 71 75

4 to 5 9 to 11 10 to 13 20 to 26 25 to 32 31 to 40 37 to 47 41 to 53 20 to 26 41 to 52 51 to 65 65 to 83 76 to 97 87 to 111 41 to 52 82 to 105 107 to 136 131 to 168 155 to 198 181 to 230 56 to 72 114 to 145 147 to 187 181 to 230

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Channel Spacing (MHz)

Modulation Scheme

Maximum Number of E1s in Hybrid Microwave

Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s) Without Compressio n With L2 Frame Header Compressio n 215 to 323 249 to 375 82 to 124 166 to 250 206 to 308 262 to 388 309 to 466 360 to 538 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressio n (IPv4) 215 to 456 249 to 538 82 to 178 165 to 356 206 to 437 262 to 567 309 to 656 360 to 777 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressio n (IPv6) 216 to 691 251 to 800 83 to 265 167 to 533 207 to 659 264 to 836 311 to 983 362 to 1000

40 40 56 (55) 56 (55) 56 (55) 56 (55) 56 (55) 56 (55)

128QAM 256QAM QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

75 75 40 75 75 75 75 75

215 to 272 249 to 318 82 to 105 166 to 212 206 to 262 262 to 333 309 to 396 360 to 456

Table 6-6 Integrated IP microwave work modes (ISU2 board, Native STM-1 + Ethernet service) Channel Spacing (MHz) Modulation Scheme Number of STM-1 Services in Hybrid Microwave Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s) Without Compressio n With L2 Frame Header Compressio n 155 to 233 181 to 272 181 to 272 215 to 323 249 to 375 166 to 250 206 to 308 262 to 388 309 to 466 360 to 538 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressio n (IPv4) 155 to 333 181 to 388 181 to 388 215 to 456 249 to 538 165 to 356 206 to 437 262 to 567 309 to 656 360 to 777 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressio n (IPv6) 156 to 495 182 to 577 182 to 583 216 to 691 251 to 800 167 to 533 207 to 659 264 to 836 311 to 983 362 to 1000

28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 40 40 40 56 (55) 56 (55) 56 (55) 56 (55) 56 (55)

128QAM 256QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

155 to 198 181 to 230 181 to 230 215 to 272 249 to 318 166 to 212 206 to 262 262 to 333 309 to 396 360 to 456

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NOTE

6 Technical Specifications

For the integrated IP microwave work mode that the ISU2/ISX2 board supports: l The throughput specifications listed in the tables are based on the following conditions. l Without compression: untagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from 64 bytes to 9600 bytes l With L2 frame header compression: untagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from 64 bytes to 9600 bytes l With L2+L3 frame header compression (IPv4): untagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from 64 bytes to 9600 bytes l With L2+L3 frame header compression (IPv6): S-tagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from 92 bytes to 9600 bytes l E1/STM-1 services need to occupy the corresponding bandwidth of the air interface capacity. The bandwidth remaining after the E1/STM-1 service capacity is subtracted from the air interface capacity can be provided for Ethernet services.

6.1.1.5 Microwave Work Modes (ISX2 board)


The ISX2 board supports SDH microwave work modes and Integrated IP microwave work modes.
NOTE

The channel spacings supported by the OptiX RTN 980 comply with ETSI standards. Channel spacings 3.5/7/14/28/40/56 MHz apply to most frequency bands; but channel spacings 3.5/7/13.75/27.5/40/55 MHz apply to the 18 GHz frequency band.

SDH Microwave Work Modes


Table 6-7 SDH microwave work modes (ISX2 board) Service Capacity STM-1 2xSTM-1 Modulation Scheme 128QAM 128QAM Channel Spacing (MHz) 28 (27.5) 56 (55)

NOTE For the ISX2 board in SDH service mode, the microwave work modes are the same regardless of whether the XPIC function is enabled or disabled.

Integrated IP Microwave Work Modes


Table 6-8 Integrated IP microwave work modes (ISX2 board, Native E1 + Ethernet service, XPIC disabled) Channel Spacing (MHz) Modulation Scheme Maximum Number of E1s in Hybrid Microwave Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s) Without Compressio n With L2 Frame Header Compressio n 10 to 15 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressio n (IPv4) 10 to 22 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressio n (IPv6) 10 to 33
72

QPSK

10 to 13

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Channel Spacing (MHz)

Modulation Scheme

Maximum Number of E1s in Hybrid Microwave

Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s) Without Compressio n With L2 Frame Header Compressio n 20 to 30 25 to 36 31 to 47 37 to 56 41 to 62 20 to 31 41 to 61 51 to 77 65 to 96 76 to 113 87 to 131 41 to 62 82 to 124 107 to 161 131 to 198 155 to 233 181 to 272 56 to 84 114 to 172 147 to 221 181 to 272 215 to 323 249 to 375 82 to 124 166 to 250 206 to 308 262 to 388 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressio n (IPv4) 20 to 44 25 to 54 31 to 67 37 to 80 41 to 90 20 to 44 41 to 89 51 to 110 65 to 140 76 to 165 87 to 189 41 to 89 82 to 178 107 to 230 131 to 283 155 to 333 181 to 388 56 to 122 114 to 247 147 to 318 181 to 388 215 to 456 249 to 538 82 to 178 165 to 356 206 to 437 262 to 567 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressio n (IPv6) 20 to 66 25 to 80 31 to 100 37 to 119 42 to 134 20 to 66 41 to 132 51 to 164 65 to 209 76 to 245 88 to 281 41 to 132 83 to 265 107 to 343 132 to 424 156 to 495 182 to 577 57 to 182 114 to 366 148 to 474 182 to 583 216 to 691 251 to 800 83 to 265 167 to 533 207 to 659 264 to 836
73

7 7 7 7 7 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 40 40 40 40 40 40 56 (55) 56 (55) 56 (55) 56 (55)

16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM

10 12 15 18 20 10 20 24 31 37 42 20 40 52 64 75 75 27 55 71 75 75 75 40 75 75 75

20 to 26 25 to 32 31 to 40 37 to 47 41 to 53 20 to 26 41 to 52 51 to 65 65 to 83 76 to 97 87 to 111 41 to 52 82 to 105 107 to 136 131 to 168 155 to 198 181 to 230 56 to 72 114 to 145 147 to 187 181 to 230 215 to 272 249 to 318 82 to 105 166 to 212 206 to 262 262 to 333

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Channel Spacing (MHz)

Modulation Scheme

Maximum Number of E1s in Hybrid Microwave

Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s) Without Compressio n With L2 Frame Header Compressio n 309 to 466 360 to 538 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressio n (IPv4) 309 to 656 360 to 777 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressio n (IPv6) 311 to 983 362 to 1000

56 (55) 56 (55)

128QAM 256QAM

75 75

309 to 396 360 to 456

Table 6-9 Integrated IP microwave work modes (ISX2 board, Native E1 + Ethernet service, XPIC enabled) Channel Spacing (MHz) Modulation Scheme Maximum Number of E1s in Hybrid Microwave Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s) Without Compressio n With L2 Frame Header Compressio n 10 to 15 20 to 30 25 to 36 31 to 47 20 to 31 41 to 61 51 to 77 65 to 96 76 to 113 41 to 62 82 to 124 107 to 161 131 to 198 155 to 233 181 to 272 56 to 84 114 to 172 147 to 221 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressio n (IPv4) 10 to 22 20 to 44 25 to 54 31 to 67 20 to 44 41 to 89 51 to 110 65 to 140 76 to 165 41 to 89 82 to 178 107 to 230 131 to 283 155 to 333 181 to 388 56 to 122 114 to 247 147 to 318 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressio n (IPv6) 10 to 33 20 to 66 25 to 80 31 to 100 20 to 66 41 to 132 51 to 164 65 to 209 76 to 245 41 to 132 83 to 265 107 to 343 132 to 424 156 to 495 182 to 577 57 to 182 114 to 366 148 to 474
74

7 7 7 7 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 14 (13.75) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 40 40 40

QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAMa QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAMa QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM QPSK 16QAM 32QAM

4 9 11 14 9 19 24 30 36 20 40 52 64 75 75 27 55 71

10 to 13 20 to 26 25 to 32 31 to 40 20 to 26 41 to 52 51 to 65 65 to 83 76 to 97 41 to 52 82 to 105 107 to 136 131 to 168 155 to 198 181 to 230 56 to 72 114 to 145 147 to 187

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Channel Spacing (MHz)

Modulation Scheme

Maximum Number of E1s in Hybrid Microwave

Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s) Without Compressio n With L2 Frame Header Compressio n 181 to 272 215 to 323 249 to 375 82 to 124 166 to 250 206 to 308 262 to 388 309 to 466 360 to 538 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressio n (IPv4) 181 to 388 215 to 456 249 to 538 82 to 178 165 to 356 206 to 437 262 to 567 309 to 656 360 to 777 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressio n (IPv6) 182 to 583 216 to 691 251 to 800 83 to 265 167 to 533 207 to 659 264 to 836 311 to 983 362 to 1000

40 40 40 56 (55) 56 (55) 56 (55) 56 (55) 56 (55) 56 (55)

64QAM 128QAM 256QAM QPSK 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

75 75 75 40 75 75 75 75 75

181 to 230 215 to 272 249 to 318 82 to 105 166 to 212 206 to 262 262 to 333 309 to 396 360 to 456

NOTE When the channel spacing is 7 MHz or 14 MHz and the XPIC function is enabled, the ISX2 board only supports the XMC-2 ODU. a: When the XPIC function is enabled and the frequency band is 26 GHz to 42 GHz, the 7MHz/64QAM and 14MHz/128QAM work modes are not supported.

Table 6-10 Integrated IP microwave work modes (ISX2 board, Native STM-1 + Ethernet service) Channel Spacing (MHz) Modulation Scheme Number of STM-1 Services in Hybrid Microwave Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s) Without Compressio n With L2 Frame Header Compressio n 155 to 233 181 to 272 181 to 272 215 to 323 249 to 375 166 to 250 206 to 308 262 to 388 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressio n (IPv4) 155 to 333 181 to 388 181 to 388 215 to 456 249 to 538 165 to 356 206 to 437 262 to 567 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressio n (IPv6) 156 to 495 182 to 577 182 to 583 216 to 691 251 to 800 167 to 533 207 to 659 264 to 836

28 (27.5) 28 (27.5) 40 40 40 56 (55) 56 (55) 56 (55)

128QAM 256QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

155 to 198 181 to 230 181 to 230 215 to 272 249 to 318 166 to 212 206 to 262 262 to 333

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Channel Spacing (MHz)

Modulation Scheme

Number of STM-1 Services in Hybrid Microwave

Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s) Without Compressio n With L2 Frame Header Compressio n 309 to 466 360 to 538 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressio n (IPv4) 309 to 656 360 to 777 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressio n (IPv6) 311 to 983 362 to 1000

56 (55) 56 (55)

128QAM 256QAM

1 1

309 to 396 360 to 456

NOTE For the ISX2 board in STM-1 + Ethernet service mode, the microwave work modes are the same regardless of whether the XPIC function is enabled or disabled.

NOTE

For the integrated IP microwave work mode that the ISU2/ISX2 board supports: l The throughput specifications listed in the tables are based on the following conditions. l Without compression: untagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from 64 bytes to 9600 bytes l With L2 frame header compression: untagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from 64 bytes to 9600 bytes l With L2+L3 frame header compression (IPv4): untagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from 64 bytes to 9600 bytes l With L2+L3 frame header compression (IPv6): S-tagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from 92 bytes to 9600 bytes l E1/STM-1 services need to occupy the corresponding bandwidth of the air interface capacity. The bandwidth remaining after the E1/STM-1 service capacity is subtracted from the air interface capacity can be provided for Ethernet services.

6.1.2 Frequency Band


The ODUs of different series and different types support a variety of operating frequency bands.

Frequency Bands (Standard Power ODU)


Table 6-11 Frequency Band (SP ODU) Frequency Band 7 GHz 8 GHz 11 GHz 13 GHz 15 GHz 18 GHz
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Frequency Range (GHz) 7.093-7.897 7.731-8.496 10.675-11.745 12.751-13.248 14.400-15.353 17.685-19.710

T/R Spacing (MHz) 154, 161, 168, 196, 245 119, 126, 266, 311.32 490, 500, 530 266 315, 322, 420, 490, 644, 728 1008, 1010, 1560
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Frequency Band 23 GHz 26 GHz 38 GHz

Frequency Range (GHz) 21.200-23.618 24.549-26.453 37.044-40,105

T/R Spacing (MHz) 1008, 1200, 1232 1008 700, 1260

Table 6-12 Frequency band (SPA ODU) Frequency Band 6 GHz Frequency Range (GHz) 5.915-6.425 (L6) 6.425-7.125 (U6) 7 GHz 8 GHz 11 GHz 13 GHz 15 GHz 18 GHz 23 GHz 7.093-7.897 7.731-8.496 10.675-11.745 12.751-13.248 14.403-15.348 17.685-19.710 21.200-23.618 T/R Spacing (MHz) 252.04 (L6) 340 (U6) 154, 161, 168, 196, 245 119, 126, 266, 311.32 490, 500, 530 266 420, 490 1008, 1010 1008, 1232

Frequency Bands (High Power ODU)


Table 6-13 Frequency band (HP ODU) Frequency Band 6 GHz Frequency Range (GHz) 5.925-6.425 (L6) 6.430-7.120 (U6) 7 GHz 8 GHz 10 GHz 10.5 GHz 11 GHz 13 GHz 7.093-7.897 7.731-8.497 10.150-10.650 10.500-10.678 10.675-11.745 12.751-13.248 T/R Spacing (MHz) 252.04 (L6) 340 (U6) 154, 161, 168, 196, 245 119, 126, 151.614, 208, 266, 311.32 350 91 490, 500, 530 266

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Frequency Band 15 GHz 18 GHz 23 GHz 26 GHz 28 GHz 32 GHz 38 GHz

Frequency Range (GHz) 14.400-15.353 17.685-19.710 21.200-23.618 24.549-26.453 27.520-29.481 31.815-33.383 37.044-40.105

T/R Spacing (MHz) 315, 322, 420, 490, 644, 728 1008, 1010, 1560 1008, 1200, 1232 1008 1008 812 700, 1260

Table 6-14 Frequency Band (HPA ODU) Frequency Band 7 GHz 8 GHz 11 GHz 13 GHz 15 GHz 18 GHz 23 GHz Frequency Range (GHz) 7.093-7.897 7.731-8.496 10.675-11.745 12.751-13.248 14.400-15.353 17.685-19.710 21.200-23.618 T/R Spacing (MHz) 154, 161, 168, 196, 245 119, 126, 266, 311.32 490, 500, 530 266 420, 490, 644, 728 1008, 1010, 1560 1008, 1200, 1232

Table 6-15 Frequency band (XMC-2 ODU) Frequency Band 7 GHz 8 GHz 11 GHz 13 GHz 15 GHz 18 GHz 23 GHz Frequency Range (GHz) 7.093-7.897 7.731-8.497 10.675-11.745 12.751-13.248 14.400-15.358 17.685-19.710 21.200-23.618 T/R Spacing (MHz) 154, 161, 168, 196, 245 119/126, 151.614, 208, 266, 311.32 500/490, 530/520 266 315/322, 420, 490, 644, 728 1010/1008, 1092.5, 1560 1008, 1200, 1232

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Frequency Band 26 GHz 28GHz 32GHz 38 GHz 42GHz

Frequency Range (GHz) 24.250-26.453 27.520-29.481 31.815-33.383 37.044-40.105 40.522-43.464

T/R Spacing (MHz) 1008 1008 812 1260 1500

Frequency Bands (Low Capacity for PDH ODU)


Table 6-16 Frequency band (LP ODU) Frequency Band 7 GHz 8 GHz 11 GHz 13 GHz 15 GHz 18 GHz 23 GHz Frequency Range (GHz) 7.093-7.897 7.718-8.496 10.675-11.745 12.751-13.248 14.403-15.348 17.685-19.710 21.200-23.618 T/R Spacing (MHz) 154, 161, 168, 196, 245 119, 126, 266, 311.32 490, 500, 530 266 420, 490 1008, 1010 1008, 1232

Table 6-17 Frequency band (XMC-1 ODU) Frequency Band 7 GHz 8 GHz 11 GHz 13 GHz 15 GHz 18 GHz 23 GHz Frequency Range (GHz) 7.093-7.897 7.731-8.497 10.675-11.745 12.751-13.248 14.400-15.358 17.685-19.710 21.200-23.618 T/R Spacing (MHz) 154, 161, 168, 196, 245 119/126, 151.614, 208, 266, 311.32 500/490, 530/520 266 315/322, 420, 490, 644, 728 1010/1008, 1560 1008, 1200, 1232

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6.1.3 Receiver Sensitivity


The receiver sensitivity reflects the anti-fading capability of the microwave equipment.
NOTE

For a guaranteed value, remove 3 dB from the typical value.

6.1.3.1 Receiver Sensitivity (IF1 Board)


The IF1 board supports SDH/PDH microwave work modes.
NOTE

For an XMC-1 ODU or XMC-2 ODU at the 18 GHz frequency band, remove 2 dB from the sensitivity values specified in the table.

Table 6-18 Typical receiver sensitivity of the SDH/PDH microwave (i, IF1 board) Item Performance 4xE1 QPSK RSL@ BER = 10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz -91.5 -91.5 -91.5 -91.0 -91.0 -91.0 -91.0 -90.5 -90.0 -89.0 -88.5 -87.5 -87.5 -87.5 -87.0 -87.0 -87.0 -87.0 -86.5 -86.0 -85.0 -84.5 -88.5 -88.5 -88.5 -88.0 -88.0 -88.0 -88.0 -87.5 -87.0 -86.0 -85.5 -84.5 -84.5 -84.5 -84.0 -84.0 -84.0 -84.0 -83.5 -83.0 -82.0 -81.5 -85.5 -85.5 -85.5 -85.0 -85.0 -85.0 -85.0 -84.5 -84.0 -83.0 -82.5 -81.5 -81.5 -81.5 -81.0 -81.0 -81.0 -81.0 -80.5 -80.0 -79.0 -78.5 16QAM 8xE1 QPSK 16QAM 16xE1 QPSK 16QAM

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Table 6-19 Typical receiver sensitivity of the SDH/PDH microwave (ii, IF1 board) Item Performance 22xE1 32QAM RSL@ BER = 10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHza @23 GHz @26 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz -80.5 -80.5 -80.5 -80.0 -80.0 -80.0 -80.0 -79.5 -79.0 -78.0 -77.5 -76.5 -76.5 -76.5 -76.0 -76.0 -76.0 -76.0 -75.5 -75.0 -74.0 -73.5 -79.0 -79.0 -79.0 -78.5 -78.5 -78.5 -78.5 -78.0 -77.5 -76.5 -76.0 -77.5 -77.5 -77.5 -77.0 -77.0 -77.0 -77.0 -76.5 -76.0 -75.0 -74.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73.0 -73.0 -73.0 -73.0 -72.5 -72.0 -71.0 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70.0 -70.0 -70.0 -70.0 -69.5 -69.0 -68.0 -67.5 26xE1 64QAM 35xE1 16QAM 44xE1 32QAM 53xE1 64QAM STM-1 128QAM

6.1.3.2 Receiver Sensitivity (IFU2 board)


The IFU2 board supports Integrated IP microwave work modes.
NOTE

l For an XMC-2 ODU at the 18 GHz frequency band, remove 2 dB from the sensitivity values specified in the table. l The 10.5 GHz HP ODU with the T/R spacing of 91 MHz does not support the channel spacing of 56 MHz. The receiver sensitivity is not available (NA).

Table 6-20 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (i, IFU2 board) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 7 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6(dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @10 GHz
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16QAM

32QAM

64QAM

128QAM

256QAM

-92.5 -92.5 -92.5 -92

-86.5 -86.5 -86.5 -86

-82.5 -82.5 -82.5 -82

-79.5 -79.5 -79.5 -79

-76.5 -76.5 -76.5 -76

-73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73


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Item

Performance (Channel Spacing: 7 MHz) QPSK 16QAM -84 -86 -86 -86 -86 -85.5 -85 -84.5 -84 -83.5 -82 32QAM -80 -82 -82 -82 -82 -81.5 -81 -80.5 -80 -79.5 -78 64QAM -77 -79 -79 -79 -79 -78.5 -78 -77.5 -77 -76.5 -75 128QAM -74 -76 -76 -76 -76 -75.5 -75 -74.5 -74 -73.5 -72 256QAM -71 -73 -73 -73 -73 -72.5 -72 -71.5 -71 -70.5 -69

@10.5 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz

-90 -92 -92 -92 -92 -91.5 -91 -90.5 -90 -89.5 -88

Table 6-21 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (ii, IFU2 board) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 14 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @10 GHz @10.5 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz -90.5 -90.5 -90.5 -90 -88 -90 -90 -90 -90 -89.5 -89 -83.5 -83.5 -83.5 -83 -81 -83 -83 -83 -83 -82.5 -82 -79.5 -79.5 -79.5 -79 -77 -79 -79 -79 -79 -78.5 -78 -76.5 -76.5 -76.5 -76 -74 -76 -76 -76 -76 -75.5 -75 -73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73 -71 -73 -73 -73 -73 -72.5 -72 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70 -68 -70 -70 -70 -70 -69.5 -69 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

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Item

Performance (Channel Spacing: 14 MHz) QPSK 16QAM -81.5 -81 -80.5 -79 32QAM -77.5 -77 -76.5 -75 64QAM -74.5 -74 -73.5 -72 128QAM -71.5 -71 -70.5 -69 256QAM -68.5 -68 -67.5 -66

@28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz

-88.5 -88 -87.5 -86

Table 6-22 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (iii, IFU2 board) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 28 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @10 GHz @10.5 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz -87.5 -87.5 -87.5 -87 -85 -87 -87 -87 -87 -86.5 -86 -85.5 -85 -84.5 -83 -80.5 -80.5 -80.5 -80 -78 -80 -80 -80 -80 -79.5 -79 -78.5 -78 -77.5 -76 -76.5 -76.5 -76.5 -76 -74 -76 -76 -76 -76 -75.5 -75 -74.5 -74 -73.5 -72 -73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73 -71 -73 -73 -73 -73 -72.5 -72 -71.5 -71 -70.5 -69 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70 -68 -70 -70 -70 -70 -69.5 -69 -68.5 -68 -67.5 -66 -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67 -65 -67 -67 -67 -67 -66.5 -66 -65.5 -65 -64.5 -63 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

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Table 6-23 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (iv, IFU2 board) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 56 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @10 GHz @10.5 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz -84.5 -84.5 -84.5 -84 NA -84 -84 -84 -84 -83.5 -83 -82.5 -82 -81.5 -80 -77.5 -77.5 -77.5 -77 NA -77 -77 -77 -77 -76.5 -76 -75.5 -75 -74.5 -73 -73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73 NA -73 -73 -73 -73 -72.5 -72 -71.5 -71 -70.5 -69 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70 NA -70 -70 -70 -70 -69.5 -69 -68.5 -68 -67.5 -66 -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67 NA -67 -67 -67 -67 -66.5 -66 -65.5 -65 -64.5 -63 -64.5 -64.5 -64.5 -64 NA -64 -64 -64 -64 -63.5 -63 -62.5 -62 -61.5 -60 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

6.1.3.3 Receiver Sensitivity (IFX2 board)


The IFX2 board supports Integrated IP microwave work modes.
NOTE

l For an XMC-2 ODU at the 18 GHz frequency band, remove 2 dB from the sensitivity values specified in the table. l The IFX2 board does not support the 7MHz/128QAM, 7MHz/256QAM, and 14MHz/256QAM working modes at frequency bands from 6 GHz to 23 GHz. The receiver sensitivity is not available (NA). l The IFX2 board does not support the 7MHz/64QAM, 7MHz/128QAM, 7MHz/256QAM, 14MHz/ 128QAM, and 14MHz/256QAM working modes at frequency bands from 26 GHz to 42 GHz. The receiver sensitivity is not available (NA).

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Table 6-24 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (i, IFX2 board) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 7 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz -92.5 -92.5 -92.5 -92 -92 -92 -92 -91.5 -91 -90.5 -90 -89.5 -88 -86.5 -86.5 -86.5 -86 -86 -86 -86 -85.5 -85 -84.5 -84 -83.5 -82 -82.5 -82.5 -82.5 -82 -82 -82 -82 -81.5 -81 -80.5 -80 -79.5 -78 -79.5 -79.5 -79.5 -79 -79 -79 -79 -78.5 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

Table 6-25 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (ii, IFX2 board) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 14 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz
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16QAM

32QAM

64QAM

128QAM

256QAM

-90.5 -90.5 -90.5 -90 -90 -90 -90 -89.5 -89

-83.5 -83.5 -83.5 -83 -83 -83 -83 -82.5 -82

-79.5 -79.5 -79.5 -79 -79 -79 -79 -78.5 -78

-76.5 -76.5 -76.5 -76 -76 -76 -76 -75.5 -75

-73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73 -73 -73 -73 -72.5 NA

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
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Item

Performance (Channel Spacing: 14 MHz) QPSK 16QAM -81.5 -81 -80.5 -79 32QAM -77.5 -77 -76.5 -75 64QAM -74.5 -74 -73.5 -72 128QAM NA NA NA NA 256QAM NA NA NA NA

@28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz

-88.5 -88 -87.5 -86

Table 6-26 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (iii, IFX2 board) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 28 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz -87.5 -87.5 -87.5 -87 -87 -87 -87 -86.5 -86 -85.5 -85 -84.5 -83 -80.5 -80.5 -80.5 -80 -80 -80 -80 -79.5 -79 -78.5 -78 -77.5 -76 -76.5 -76.5 -76.5 -76 -76 -76 -76 -75.5 -75 -74.5 -74 -73.5 -72 -73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73 -73 -73 -73 -72.5 -72 -71.5 -71 -70.5 -69 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70 -70 -70 -70 -69.5 -69 -68.5 -68 -67.5 -66 -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67 -67 -67 -67 -66.5 -66 -65.5 -65 -64.5 -63 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

Table 6-27 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (iv, IFX2 board) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 56 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz -84.5 -77.5 -73.5 -70.5 -67.5 -64.5 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

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Item

Performance (Channel Spacing: 56 MHz) QPSK 16QAM -77.5 -77.5 -77 -77 -77 -77 -76.5 -76 -75.5 -75 -74.5 -73 32QAM -73.5 -73.5 -73 -73 -73 -73 -72.5 -72 -71.5 -71 -70.5 -69 64QAM -70.5 -70.5 -70 -70 -70 -70 -69.5 -69 -68.5 -68 -67.5 -66 128QAM -67.5 -67.5 -67 -67 -67 -67 -66.5 -66 -65.5 -65 -64.5 -63 256QAM -64.5 -64.5 -64 -64 -64 -64 -63.5 -63 -62.5 -62 -61.5 -60

@7 GHz @8 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz

-84.5 -84.5 -84 -84 -84 -84 -83.5 -83 -82.5 -82 -81.5 -80

6.1.3.4 Receiver Sensitivity (ISU2 board)


The ISU2 board supports SDH microwave work modes and Integrated IP microwave work modes.
NOTE

l For an XMC-2 ODU at the 18 GHz frequency band, remove 2 dB from the values specified in the table to obtain the values of receiver sensitivity. l The 10.5 GHz HP ODU with the T/R spacing of 91 MHz does not support the channel spacing of 40/56 MHz. The receiver sensitivity is not available (NA). l The 42 GHz XMC-2 ODU does not support the channel spacing of 3.5 MHz. The receiver sensitivity is not available (NA).

SDH Microwave (ISU2 Board)


Table 6-28 Typical receiver sensitivity of the SDH microwave (ISU2 board) Item Performance 1xSTM-1 128QAM/28 MHz RSL@ BER = 10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz
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2xSTM-1 128QAM/56 MHz

-71

-68
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Item

Performance 1xSTM-1 128QAM/28 MHz 2xSTM-1 128QAM/56 MHz -68 -68 -67.5 NA -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67 -66.5 -66 -65.5 -65 -63.5

@7 GHz @8 GHz @10 GHz @10.5 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz

-71 -71 -70.5 -68.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70 -69.5 -69 -68.5 -68 -66.5

Integrated IP Microwave (ISU2 Board)


Table 6-29 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (i, ISU2 board) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 7 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @10 GHz @10.5 GHz @11 GHz -92.5 -92.5 -92.5 -92 -90 -92 -86.5 -86.5 -86.5 -86 -84 -86 -82.5 -82.5 -82.5 -82 -80 -82 -80 -80 -80 -79.5 -77.5 -79.5 -77 -77 -77 -76.5 -74.5 -76.5 -74 -74 -74 -73.5 -71.5 -73.5 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

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Item

Performance (Channel Spacing: 7 MHz) QPSK 16QAM -86 -86 -86 -85.5 -85 -84.5 -84 -83.5 -82 32QAM -82 -82 -82 -81.5 -81 -80.5 -80 -79.5 -78 64QAM -79.5 -79.5 -79.5 -79 -78.5 -78 -77.5 -77 -75.5 128QAM -76.5 -76.5 -76.5 -76 -75.5 -75 -74.5 -74 -72.5 256QAM -73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73 -72.5 -72 -71.5 -71 -69.5

@13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz

-92 -92 -92 -91.5 -91 -90.5 -90 -89.5 -88

Table 6-30 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (ii, ISU2 board) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 14 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @10 GHz @10.5 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz -90.5 -90.5 -90.5 -90 -88 -90 -90 -90 -90 -89.5 -89 -88.5 -88 -87.5 -83.5 -83.5 -83.5 -83 -81 -83 -83 -83 -83 -82.5 -82 -81.5 -81 -80.5 -79.5 -79.5 -79.5 -79 -77 -79 -79 -79 -79 -78.5 -78 -77.5 -77 -76.5 -77 -77 -77 -76.5 -74.5 -76.5 -76.5 -76.5 -76.5 -76 -75.5 -75 -74.5 -74 -74 -74 -74 -73.5 -71.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73 -72.5 -72 -71.5 -71 -71 -71 -71 -70.5 -68.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70 -69.5 -69 -68.5 -68 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

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Item

Performance (Channel Spacing: 14 MHz) QPSK 16QAM -79 32QAM -75 64QAM -72.5 128QAM -69.5 256QAM -66.5

@42 GHz

-86

Table 6-31 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (iii, ISU2) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 28 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @10 GHz @10.5 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz -87.5 -87.5 -87.5 -87 -85 -87 -87 -87 -87 -86.5 -86 -85.5 -85 -84.5 -83 -80.5 -80.5 -80.5 -80 -78 -80 -80 -80 -80 -79.5 -79 -78.5 -78 -77.5 -76 -76.5 -76.5 -76.5 -76 -74 -76 -76 -76 -76 -75.5 -75 -74.5 -74 -73.5 -72 -74 -74 -74 -73.5 -71.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73 -72.5 -72 -71.5 -71 -69.5 -71 -71 -71 -70.5 -68.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70 -69.5 -69 -68.5 -68 -66.5 -68 -68 -68 -67.5 -65.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67 -66.5 -66 -65.5 -65 -63.5 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

Table 6-32 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (iv, ISU2) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 56 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz -84.5 -77.5 -73.5 -71 -68 -65 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

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Item

Performance (Channel Spacing: 56 MHz) QPSK 16QAM -77.5 -77.5 -77 NA -77 -77 -77 -77 -76.5 -76 -75.5 -75 -74.5 -73 32QAM -73.5 -73.5 -73 NA -73 -73 -73 -73 -72.5 -72 -71.5 -71 -70.5 -69 64QAM -71 -71 -70.5 NA -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70 -69.5 -69 -68.5 -68 -66.5 128QAM -68 -68 -67.5 NA -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67 -66.5 -66 -65.5 -65 -63.5 256QAM -65 -65 -64.5 NA -64.5 -64.5 -64.5 -64.5 -64 -63.5 -63 -62.5 -62 -60.5

@7 GHz @8 GHz @10 GHz @10.5 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz

-84.5 -84.5 -84 NA -84 -84 -84 -84 -83.5 -83 -82.5 -82 -81.5 -80

Table 6-33 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (v, ISU2) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 40 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @10 GHz @10.5 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz -86 -86 -86 -85.5 NA -85.5 -85.5 -85.5 -79 -79 -79 -78.5 NA -78.5 -78.5 -78.5 -75 -75 -75 -74.5 NA -74.5 -74.5 -74.5 -72.5 -72.5 -72.5 -72 NA -72 -72 -72 -69.5 -69.5 -69.5 -69 NA -69 -69 -69 -66.5 -66.5 -66.5 -66 NA -66 -66 -66 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

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Item

Performance (Channel Spacing: 40 MHz) QPSK 16QAM -78.5 -78 -77.5 -77 -76.5 -76 -74.5 32QAM -74.5 -74 -73.5 -73 -72.5 -72 -70.5 64QAM -72 -71.5 -71 -70.5 -70 -69.5 -68 128QAM -69 -68.5 -68 -67.5 -67 -66.5 -65 256QAM -66 -65.5 -65 -64.5 -64 -63.5 -62

@18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz

-85.5 -85 -84.5 -84 -83.5 -83 -81.5

Table 6-34 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (vi, ISU2 board) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 3.5 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @10 GHz @10.5 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz -95.5 -95.5 -95.5 -95 -93 -95 -95 -95 -95 -94.5 -94 -93.5 -91.5 -91 NA -89.5 -89.5 -89.5 -89 -87 -89 -89 -89 -89 -88.5 -88 -87.5 -86 -85.5 NA 16QAM

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6.1.3.5 Receiver Sensitivity (ISX2 board)


The ISX2 board supports SDH microwave work modes and Integrated IP microwave work modes.
NOTE

l For an XMC-2 ODU at the 18 GHz frequency band, remove 2 dB from the sensitivity values specified in the table. l The 10.5 GHz HP ODU with the T/R spacing of 91 MHz does not support the channel spacing of 40/56 MHz. The receiver sensitivity is not available (NA). l When the XPIC function is enabled, the ISX2 board does not support the 7MHz/128QAM, 7MHz/ 256QAM, and 14MHz/256QAM working modes at frequency bands from 7 GHz to 23 GHz. The receiver sensitivity is not available (NA). l When the XPIC function is enabled, the ISX2 board does not support the 7MHz/64QAM, 7MHz/ 128QAM, 7MHz/256QAM, 14MHz/128QAM, and 14MHz/256QAM working modes at frequency bands from 26 GHz to 42 GHz. The receiver sensitivity is not available (NA). l For an XMC-2 ODU at the 38 GHz frequency band, when the XPIC function is enabled, remove 2 dB from the sensitivity value specified in the table when the ISX2 board is at 28MHz/256QAM working mode.

SDH Microwave (ISX2 Board)


Table 6-35 Typical receiver sensitivity of the SDH microwave (ISX2 board, XPIC disabled) Item Performance 1xSTM-1 128QAM/28 MHz RSL@ BER = 10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @10 GHz @10.5 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz
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2xSTM-1 128QAM/56 MHz

-71 -71 -71 -70.5 -68.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70 -69.5 -69 -68.5

-68 -68 -68 -67.5 NA -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67 -66.5 -66 -65.5
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Item

Performance 1xSTM-1 128QAM/28 MHz 2xSTM-1 128QAM/56 MHz -65 -63.5

@38 GHz @42 GHz

-68 -66.5

Table 6-36 Typical receiver sensitivity of the SDH microwave (ISX2 board, XPIC enabled) Item Performance 1xSTM-1 128QAM/28 MHz RSL@ BER = 10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz -71 -71 -71 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70 -69.5 -69 -68.5 -68 -66.5 -68 -68 -68 -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67 -66.5 -66 -65.5 -65 -63.5 2xSTM-1 128QAM/56 MHz

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Integrated IP Microwave (ISX2 Board)


Table 6-37 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (i, ISX2 board, XPIC disabled) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 7 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @10 GHz @10.5 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz -92.5 -92.5 -92.5 -92 -90 -92 -92 -92 -92 -91.5 -91 -90.5 -90 -89.5 -88 -86.5 -86.5 -86.5 -86 -84 -86 -86 -86 -86 -85.5 -85 -84.5 -84 -83.5 -82 -82.5 -82.5 -82.5 -82 -80 -82 -82 -82 -82 -81.5 -81 -80.5 -80 -79.5 -78 -80 -80 -80 -79.5 -77.5 -79.5 -79.5 -79.5 -79.5 -79 -78.5 -78 -77.5 -77 -75.5 -77 -77 -77 -76.5 -74.5 -76.5 -76.5 -76.5 -76.5 -76 -75.5 -75 -74.5 -74 -72.5 -74 -74 -74 -73.5 -71.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73 -72.5 -72 -71.5 -71 -69.5 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

Table 6-38 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (ii, ISX2 board, XPIC disabled) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 14 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz -90.5 -90.5 -90.5 -83.5 -83.5 -83.5 -79.5 -79.5 -79.5 -77 -77 -77 -74 -74 -74 -71 -71 -71 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

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Item

Performance (Channel Spacing: 14 MHz) QPSK 16QAM -83 -81 -83 -83 -83 -83 -82.5 -82 -81.5 -81 -80.5 -79 32QAM -79 -77 -79 -79 -79 -79 -78.5 -78 -77.5 -77 -76.5 -75 64QAM -76.5 -74.5 -76.5 -76.5 -76.5 -76.5 -76 -75.5 -75 -74.5 -74 -72.5 128QAM -73.5 -71.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73 -72.5 -72 -71.5 -71 -69.5 256QAM -70.5 -68.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70 -69.5 -69 -68.5 -68 -66.5

@10 GHz @10.5 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz

-90 -88 -90 -90 -90 -90 -89.5 -89 -88.5 -88 -87.5 -86

Table 6-39 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (iii, ISX2 board, XPIC disabled) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 28 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @10 GHz @10.5 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz
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16QAM

32QAM

64QAM

128QAM

256QAM

-87.5 -87.5 -87.5 -87 -85 -87 -87 -87 -87 -86.5

-80.5 -80.5 -80.5 -80 -78 -80 -80 -80 -80 -79.5

-76.5 -76.5 -76.5 -76 -74 -76 -76 -76 -76 -75.5

-74 -74 -74 -73.5 -71.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73

-71 -71 -71 -70.5 -68.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70

-68 -68 -68 -67.5 -65.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67
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Item

Performance (Channel Spacing: 28 MHz) QPSK 16QAM -79 -78.5 -78 -77.5 -76 32QAM -75 -74.5 -74 -73.5 -72 64QAM -72.5 -72 -71.5 -71 -69.5 128QAM -69.5 -69 -68.5 -68 -66.5 256QAM -66.5 -66 -65.5 -65 -63.5

@26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz

-86 -85.5 -85 -84.5 -83

Table 6-40 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (iv, ISX2 board, XPIC disabled) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 56 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @10 GHz @10.5 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz -84.5 -84.5 -84.5 -84 NA -84 -84 -84 -84 -83.5 -83 -82.5 -82 -81.5 -80 -77.5 -77.5 -77.5 -77 NA -77 -77 -77 -77 -76.5 -76 -75.5 -75 -74.5 -73 -73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73 NA -73 -73 -73 -73 -72.5 -72 -71.5 -71 -70.5 -69 -71 -71 -71 -70.5 NA -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70 -69.5 -69 -68.5 -68 -66.5 -68 -68 -68 -67.5 NA -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67 -66.5 -66 -65.5 -65 -63.5 -65 -65 -65 -64.5 NA -64.5 -64.5 -64.5 -64.5 -64 -63.5 -63 -62.5 -62 -60.5 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

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Table 6-41 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (v, ISX2 board, XPIC disabled) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 40 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @10 GHz @10.5 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz -86 -86 -86 -85.5 NA -85.5 -85.5 -85.5 -85.5 -85 -84.5 -84 -83.5 -83 -81.5 -79 -79 -79 -78.5 NA -78.5 -78.5 -78.5 -78.5 -78 -77.5 -77 -76.5 -76 -74.5 -75 -75 -75 -74.5 NA -74.5 -74.5 -74.5 -74.5 -74 -73.5 -73 -72.5 -72 -70.5 -72.5 -72.5 -72.5 -72 NA -72 -72 -72 -72 -71.5 -71 -70.5 -70 -69.5 -68 -69.5 -69.5 -69.5 -69 NA -69 -69 -69 -69 -68.5 -68 -67.5 -67 -66.5 -65 -66.5 -66.5 -66.5 -66 NA -66 -66 -66 -66 -65.5 -65 -64.5 -64 -63.5 -62 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

Table 6-42 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (i, ISX2 board, XPIC enabled) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 7 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @7 GHz @8 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz -92.5 -92.5 -92 -92 -92 -86.5 -86.5 -86 -86 -86 -82.5 -82.5 -82 -82 -82 -79.5 -79.5 -79.0 -79.0 -79.0 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

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Item

Performance (Channel Spacing: 7 MHz) QPSK 16QAM -86 -85.5 -85 -84.5 -84 -83.5 -82 32QAM -82 -81.5 -81 -80.5 -80 -79.5 -78 64QAM -79.0 -78.5 NA NA NA NA NA 128QAM NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 256QAM NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

@18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz

-92 -91.5 -91 -90.5 -90 -89.5 -88

Table 6-43 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (ii, ISX2 board, XPIC enabled) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 14 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @7 GHz @8 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz -90.5 -90.5 -90 -90 -90 -90 -89.5 -89 -88.5 -88 -87.5 -86 -83.5 -83.5 -83 -83 -83 -83 -82.5 -82 -81.5 -81 -80.5 -79 -79.5 -79.5 -79 -79 -79 -79 -78.5 -78 -77.5 -77 -76.5 -75 -76.5 -76.5 -76 -76 -76 -76 -75.5 -75 -74.5 -74 -73.5 -72 -73.5 -73.5 -73 -73 -73 -73 -72.5 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

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Table 6-44 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (iii, ISX2 board, XPIC enabled) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 28 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz -87.5 -87.5 -87.5 -87 -87 -87 -87 -86.5 -86 -85.5 -85 -84.5 -83 -80.5 -80.5 -80.5 -80 -80 -80 -80 -79.5 -79 -78.5 -78 -77.5 -76 -76.5 -76.5 -76.5 -76 -76 -76 -76 -75.5 -75 -74.5 -74 -73.5 -72 -74 -74 -74 -73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73 -72.5 -72 -71.5 -71 -69.5 -71 -71 -71 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70 -69.5 -69 -68.5 -68 -66.5 -68 -68 -68 -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67 -66.5 -66 -65.5 -65 -63.5 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

Table 6-45 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (iv, ISX2 board, XPIC enabled) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 56 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz -84.5 -84.5 -84.5 -84 -84 -84 -84 -77.5 -77.5 -77.5 -77 -77 -77 -77 -73.5 -73.5 -73.5 -73 -73 -73 -73 -71 -71 -71 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -70.5 -68 -68 -68 -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -67.5 -65 -65 -65 -64.5 -64.5 -64.5 -64.5 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

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Item

Performance (Channel Spacing: 56 MHz) QPSK 16QAM -76.5 -76 -75.5 -75 -74.5 -73 32QAM -72.5 -72 -71.5 -71 -70.5 -69 64QAM -70 -69.5 -69 -68.5 -68 -66.5 128QAM -67 -66.5 -66 -65.5 -65 -63.5 256QAM -64 -63.5 -63 -62.5 -62 -60.5

@23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz

-83.5 -83 -82.5 -82 -81.5 -80

Table 6-46 Typical receiver sensitivity of the Integrated IP microwave (v, ISX2 board, XPIC enabled) Item Performance (Channel Spacing: 40 MHz) QPSK RSL@ BER=10-6 (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz -86 -86 -86 -85.5 -85.5 -85.5 -85.5 -85 -84.5 -84 -83.5 -83 -81.5 -79 -79 -79 -78.5 -78.5 -78.5 -78.5 -78 -77.5 -77 -76.5 -76 -74.5 -75 -75 -75 -74.5 -74.5 -74.5 -74.5 -74 -73.5 -73 -72.5 -72 -70.5 -72.5 -72.5 -72.5 -72 -72 -72 -72 -71.5 -71 -70.5 -70 -69.5 -68 -69.5 -69.5 -69.5 -69 -69 -69 -69 -68.5 -68 -67.5 -67 -66.5 -65 -66.5 -66.5 -66.5 -66 -66 -66 -66 -65.5 -65 -64.5 -64 -63.5 -62 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

6.1.4 Distortion Sensitivity


The distortion sensitivity reflects the anti-multipath fading capability of the OptiX RTN 980.

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The notch depth of the OptiX RTN 980 meets the requirements described in ETSI EN 302217-2-1. Table 6-47 describes the anti-multipath fading capability of the OptiX RTN 980 in STM-1/128QAM microwave working modes. Table 6-47 Anti-multipath fading capability Item STM-1/128QAM W-curve STM-1/128QAM dispersion fading margin Performance See Figure 6-1 51 dB

Figure 6-1 W-curve

6.1.5 Transceiver Performance


The performance of the transceiver includes the nominal maximum/minimum transmit power, nominal maximum receive power, and frequency stability.

Transceiver Performance (Standard Power ODU)


Table 6-48 Transceiver Performance (SP ODU) Item Performance QPSK 16QAM/ 32QAM 64QAM/ 128QAM 256QAM

Nominal maximum transmit power (dBm) @7 GHz @8 GHz


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27 27

22.5 22.5

18.5 18.5

16.5 16.5
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Item

Performance QPSK 16QAM/ 32QAM 21.5 21.5 21.5 21.5 20.5 19.5 17.5 64QAM/ 128QAM 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 16.5 15.5 13.5 256QAM 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 14.5 13.5 11.5

@11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @38 GHz Nominal minimum transmit power (dBm) Nominal maximum receive power (dBm) Frequency stability (ppm)

26 26 26 25.5 24 23.5 22 -6

-20

-25

Table 6-49 Transceiver performance (SPA ODU) Item Performance QPSK 16QAM/ 32QAM 64QAM/ 128QAM 256QAM

Nominal maximum transmit power (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz 26.5 25.5 25.5 24.5 24.5 24.5 22.5 22.5 24 21.5 21.5 20.5 20 20 19 19 23 20 20 18 18 18 17 16 21 18 18 16 16 16 15 14

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Item

Performance QPSK 16QAM/ 32QAM 64QAM/ 128QAM 256QAM

Nominal minimum transmit power (dBm) Nominal maximum receive power (dBm) Frequency stability (ppm)

-20

-25

Transceiver Performance (High Power ODU)


Table 6-50 Transceiver performance (HP ODU) Item Performance QPSK 16QAM/ 32QAM 64QAM/ 128QAM 256QAM

Nominal maximum transmit power (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @10 GHz @10.5 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz
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30 30 30 26.5 24 28 26 26 25.5 25 25 25 23 23

26 28 28 22.5 20.5 26 24 24 23 23 22 22 21 20

24 25 25 20.5 18 22 20 20 19 19 19 17 17 17

22 23 23 18.5 16 20 18 18 17 17 17 15 15 15
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Item

Performance QPSK 16QAM/ 32QAM 64QAM/ 128QAM 256QAM

Nominal minimum transmit power (dBm) @6 GHz @7 GHz @8 GHz @10 GHz @10.5 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz Nominal maximum receive power (dBm) Frequency stability (ppm) 9 9 9 2 0 6 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 -20 -25

Table 6-51 Transceiver Performance (HPA ODU) Item Performance QPSK 16QAM/ 32QAM 64QAM/ 128QAM 256QAM

Nominal maximum transmit power (dBm) @7 GHz @8 GHz @11 GHz 30 30 28 28 28 26 25 25 22 23 23 20

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Item

Performance QPSK 16QAM/ 32QAM 24 24 23 23 64QAM/ 128QAM 20 20 19 19 256QAM 18 18 17 17

@13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz

26 26 25 25

Nominal minimum transmit power (dBm) @7 GHz @8 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz Nominal maximum receive power (dBm) Frequency stability (ppm) 9 9 6 3 3 2 2 -20 -25

Table 6-52 Transceiver performance (XMC-2 ODU) Item Performance QPSK 16QAM/ 32QAM 64QAM/ 128QAM 256QAM

Nominal maximum transmit power (dBm)


NOTE When the working frequency is 7 GHz or 8 GHz and the channel spacing is 56 MHz, the value of this counter in each modulation format reduces by 3 dBm.

@7 GHz @8 GHz @11GHz @13 GHz

26.5 26.5 26 25

25.5 25.5 24 22

25 25 22 20.5

23 23 20 17.5

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Item

Performance QPSK 16QAM/ 32QAM 22 21 21 20 22/21.5 21/19.5 17 12 64QAM/ 128QAM 20.5 19.5 19.5 18 19 17 16 11 256QAM 18.5 16.5 17.5 16 17 15 14 9

@15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz

25 24 24 22 25 23 20 16

Nominal minimum transmit power (dBm) @7 GHz @8 GHz @11GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz @26 GHz @28 GHz @32 GHz @38 GHz @42 GHz Nominal maximum receive power (dBm) Frequency stability (ppm) 6.5 6.5 0 5 5 4 4 0 -3 -3 0 -5 -20 -20 (7 GHz to 38 GHz) -23 (42 GHz) 5 -20 (7 GHz to 38 GHz) -25 (42 GHz)

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Transceiver Performance (Low Capacity for PDH ODU)


Table 6-53 Transceiver performance (LP ODU) Item Performance QPSK Nominal maximum transmit power (dBm) @7 GHz @8 GHz @11 GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz Nominal minimum transmit power (dBm) Nominal maximum receive power (dBm) Frequency stability (ppm) 27 27 25 25 23.5 23 23 0 -20 5 21 21 19 19 17.5 17 17 16QAM

Table 6-54 Transceiver performance (XMC-1 ODU) Item Performance QPSK Nominal maximum transmit power (dBm) @7 GHz @8 GHz @11GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz 26.5 26.5 25 25 23.5 23 23 21 21 19 19 17.5 17 17 16QAM

Nominal minimum transmit power (dBm) @7 GHz 6.5

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Item

Performance QPSK 16QAM

@8 GHz @11GHz @13 GHz @15 GHz @18 GHz @23 GHz Nominal maximum receive power (dBm) Frequency stability (ppm)

6.5 0 5 5 4 4 -20 5

6.1.6 IF Performance
The IF performance includes the performance of the IF signal and the performance of the ODU O&M signal. Table 6-55 IF performance Item IF signal Transmit frequency of the IF board (MHz) Receive frequency of the IF board (MHz) ODU O&M signal Modulation scheme Transmit frequency of the IF board (MHz) Receive frequency of the IF board (MHz) Interface impedance (ohm) Performance 350 140 ASK 5.5 10 50

6.1.7 Baseband Signal Processing Performance of the Modem


The baseband signal processing performance of the modem indicates the FEC coding scheme and the performance of the baseband time domain adaptive equalizer.

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Table 6-56 Baseband signal processing performance of the modem Item Encoding mode Performance l IF1 Reed-Solomon (RS) encoding for PDH signals Trellis-coded modulation (TCM) and RS two-level encoding for SDH signals l IFU2/IFX2/ISU2/ISX2 Low-density parity check code (LDPC) encoding. Adaptive timedomain equalizer for baseband signals Supported.

6.2 Predicted Equipment Reliability


Predicted equipment reliability includes predicted component reliability and predicted link reliability. Equipment reliability is measured by mean time between failures (MTBF), and predicated equipment reliability complies with the Bellcore TR-332 standard.

6.2.1 Predicted Component Reliability


The component reliability reflects the reliability of a single component. Table 6-57 provides the predicted component reliability for the Integrated IP radio equipment. Table 6-57 Predicted component reliability Item Performance IDU 8+0 Non-Protection Configuration MTBF (hour) MTBF (year) MTTR (hour) Availability 11.38x104 12.99 1 99.99912% 4x(1+1) Protection Configuration 58.01x104 66.23 1 99.99983% 48.18x104 55 1 99.99979% ODU

6.2.2 Predicted Link Reliability


The link reliability reflects the equipment reliability of a microwave hop and reflects the reliability of all the involved components. Table 6-58 provides the predicted equipment reliability for a single Integrated IP radio hop.
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Table 6-58 Predicted equipment reliability for a single hop of link Item Performance 8+0 Non-Protection Configuration MTBF (hour) MTBF (year) MTTR (hour) Availability 1.97x104 2.25 1 99.99492% 4x(1+1) Protection Configuration 19.58x104 22.35 1 99.99949%

6.3 Interface Performance


This section describes the technical specifications of services and auxiliary interfaces.

6.3.1 SDH Interface Performance


The performance of the SDH optical interface is compliant with ITU-T G.957/G.825, and the performance of the electrical interface is compliant with ITU-T G.703.

STM-4 Optical Interface Performance


The performance of the STM-4 optical interface is compliant with ITU-T G.957. The following table provides the typical performance of the interface. Table 6-59 STM-4 optical interface performance Item Nominal bit rate (kbit/s) Classification code Fiber type Transmission distance (km) Operating wavelength (nm) Mean launched power (dBm) Minimum receiver sensitivity (dBm) Minimum overload (dBm) Minimum extinction ratio (dB) Performance 622080 S-4.1 Single-mode fiber 15 1274 to 1356 -15 to -8 -28 -8 8.2 L-4.1 Single-mode fiber 40 1280 to 1335 -3 to +2 -28 -8 10 L-4.2 Single-mode fiber 80 1480 to 1580 -3 to +2 -28 -8 10

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NOTE

6 Technical Specifications

SDH optical interface boards use SFP modules for providing optical interfaces. You can use different types of SFP modules to provide optical interfaces with different classification codes and transmission distances.

STM-1 Optical Interface Performance


The performance of the STM-1 optical interface is compliant with ITU-T G.957/G.825. The following table provides the typical performance of the interface. Table 6-60 STM-1 optical interface performance Item Nominal bit rate (kbit/s) Classification code Fiber type Transmission distance (km) Operating wavelength (nm) Mean launched power (dBm) Receiver minimum sensitivity (dBm) Minimum overload (dBm) Minimum extinction ratio (dB) Performance 155520 Ie-1 Multi-mode fiber 2 1270 to 1380 -19 to -14 -30 -14 10 S-1.1 Single-mode fiber 15 1261 to 1360 -15 to -8 -28 -8 8.2 L-1.1 Single-mode fiber 40 1263 to 1360 -5 to 0 -34 -10 10 L-1.2 Single-mode fiber 80 1480 to 1580 -5 to 0 -34 -10 10

NOTE

The OptiX RTN 980 uses SFP optical modules for providing optical interfaces. You can use different types of SFP optical modules to provide optical interfaces with different classification codes and transmission distances.

STM-1 Electrical Interface Performance


The performance of the STM-1 electrical interface is compliant with ITU-T G.703. The following table provides the typical performance of the interface. Table 6-61 STM-1 electrical interface performance Item Nominal bit rate (kbit/s) Code type
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Performance 155520 CMI


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Item Wire pair in each transmission direction Impedance (ohm)

Performance One coaxial wire pair 75

NOTE

The OptiX RTN 980 uses SFP electrical modules to provide electrical interfaces.

6.3.2 E1 Interface Performance


The performance of the E1 interface is compliant with ITU-T G.703/G.823.

E1 Interface Performance
Table 6-62 E1 interface performance Item Nominal bit rate (kbit/s) Code pattern Impedance (ohm) Wire pair in each transmission direction Performance 2048 HDB3 75 One coaxial wire pair 120 One symmetrical wire pair

6.3.3 Ethernet Interface Performance


Ethernet interface performance complies with IEEE 802.3.

GE Optical Interface Performance


The characteristics of GE optical interfaces comply with IEEE 802.3. Table 6-63 to Table 6-66 provide GE optical interface performance. Table 6-63 GE optical interface performance (two-fiber bidirectional, short-distance transmission) Item Classification code Nominal wavelength (nm) Nominal bit rate (Mbit/s) Fiber type
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Performance 1000BASE-SX (0.5 km) 850 1000 Multi-mode


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1000BASE-LX (10 km) 1310

Single-mode
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Item Classification code Transmission distance (km) Operating wavelength (nm) Mean launched power (dBm) Receiver minimum sensitivity (dBm) Minimum overload (dBm) Minimum extinction ratio (dB)

Performance 1000BASE-SX (0.5 km) 0.5 770 to 860 -9 to -3 -17 0 9.5 1000BASE-LX (10 km) 10 1270 to 1355 -9 to -3 -20 -3 9.5

Table 6-64 GE optical interface performance (two-fiber bidirectional, long-haul transmission) Item Classification code Nominal wavelength (nm) Nominal bit rate (Mbit/s) Fiber type Transmission distance (km) Operating wavelength (nm) Mean launched power (dBm) Receiver minimum sensitivity (dBm) Minimum overload (dBm) Minimum extinction ratio (dB) Performance 1000BASE-VX (40 km) 1310 1000 Single-mode 40 1270 to 1350 -5 to 0 -23 -3 9 1000BASE-VX (40 km) 1550 1000 Single-mode 40 1480 to 1580 -5 to 0 -22 -3 9 1000BASE-ZX (80 km) 1550 1000 Single-mode 80 1500 to 1580 -2 to +5 -22 -3 9

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Table 6-65 GE optical interface performance (two-fiber bidirectional, CWDM) Item Classification code Nominal wavelength (nm) Performance 1000BASE-CWDM (40 km) l Channel 1: 1471 l Channel 2: 1491 l Channel 3: 1511 l Channel 4: 1531 l Channel 5: 1551 l Channel 6: 1571 l Channel 7: 1591 l Channel 8: 1611 Nominal bit rate (Mbit/s) Fiber type Transmission distance (km) Operating wavelength (nm) Mean launched power (dBm) Receiver minimum sensitivity (dBm) Minimum overload (dBm) Minimum extinction ratio (dB) 1000 Single-mode 40 Nominal wavelength 6.5 0 to +5 -19 0 8.2 1000BASE-CWDM (80 km) l Channel 1: 1471 l Channel 2: 1491 l Channel 3: 1511 l Channel 4: 1531 l Channel 5: 1551 l Channel 6: 1571 l Channel 7: 1591 l Channel 8: 1611 1000 Single-mode 80 Nominal wavelength 6.5 0 to +5 -28 -9 8.2

Table 6-66 GE optical interface performance (single-fiber bidirectional) Item Performance 1000BASEBX-D (10 km) Nominal wavelength (nm) Tx: 1490 Rx: 1310 Nominal bit rate (Mbit/s) Fiber type Transmission distance (km) 1000 Multi-mode 10 1000BASEBX-U (10km) Tx: 1310 Rx: 1490 1000 Multi-mode 10 1000BASEBX-D (40 km) Tx: 1490 Rx: 1310 1000 Single-mode 40 1000BASEBX-U (40km) Tx: 1310 Rx: 1490 1000 Single-mode 40

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Item

Performance 1000BASEBX-D (10 km) 1000BASEBX-U (10km) Tx: 1260 to 1360 Rx: 1480 to 1500 -9 to -3 -19.5 -3 6 1000BASEBX-D (40 km) Tx: 1260 to 1360 Rx: 1480 to 1500 -3 to +3 -23 -3 6 1000BASEBX-U (40km) Tx: 1480 to 1500 Rx: 1260 to 1360 -3 to +3 -23 -3 6

Operating wavelength (nm)

Tx: 1480 to 1500 Rx: 1260 to 1360

Mean launched power (dBm) Receiver minimum sensitivity (dBm) Minimum overload (dBm) Minimum extinction ratio (dB)

-9 to -3 -19.5 -3 6

NOTE

The OptiX RTN 980 uses SFP modules to provide GE optical interfaces. Users can use different types of SFP modules to provide GE optical interfaces with different classification codes and transmission distances.

GE Electrical Interface Performance


The characteristics of GE electrical interfaces comply with IEEE 802.3. The following table provides GE electrical interface performance. Table 6-67 GE electrical interface performance Item Nominal bit rate (Mbit/s) Performance 10 (10BASE-T) 100 (100BASE-TX) 1000 (1000BASE-T) Code pattern Manchester encoding signal (10BASE-T) MLT-3 encoding signal (100BASE-TX) 4D-PAM5 encoding signal (1000BASE-T) Interface type RJ45

FE Optical Interface Performance


The characteristics of FE optical interfaces comply with IEEE 802.3. Table 6-68 to Table 6-69 provide FE optical interface performance.
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Table 6-68 FE optical interface performance (two-fiber bidirectional) Item Performance 100BASEFX (2 km) Nominal wavelength (nm) Nominal bit rate (Mbit/s) Fiber type Transmission distance (km) Operating wavelength (nm) Mean launched power (dBm) Receiver minimum sensitivity (dBm) Minimum overload (dBm) Minimum extinction ratio (dB) 1310 100 Single-mode 2 1270 to 1380 -19 to -14 -30 -14 10 100BASELX (15 km) 1310 100 Single-mode 15 1261 to 1360 -15 to -8 -28 -8 8.2 100BASEVX (40 km) 1310 100 Single-mode 40 1263 to 1360 -5 to 0 -34 -10 10 100BASEZX (80 km) 1550 100 Single-mode 80 1480 to 1580 -5 to 0 -34 -10 10.5

Table 6-69 FE optical interface performance (single-fiber bidirectional) Item Classification code Nominal wavelength (nm) Performance 100BASE-BX-D (15 km) Tx: 1550 Rx: 1310 Nominal bit rate (Mbit/s) Fiber type Transmission distance (km) Operating wavelength (nm) 100 Single-mode 15 Tx: 1480 to 1580 Rx: 1260 to 1360 Mean launched power (dBm) Receiver minimum sensitivity (dBm) Minimum overload (dBm) Minimum extinction ratio (dB) -15 to -8 -32 -8 8.5 100BASE-BX-U (15 km) Tx: 1310 Rx: 1550 100 Single-mode 15 Tx: 1260 to 1360 Rx: 1480 to 1580 -15 to -8 -32 -8 8.5

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NOTE

6 Technical Specifications

The OptiX RTN 980 uses SFP modules to provide FE optical interfaces. Users can use different types of SFP modules to provide FE optical interfaces with different classification codes and transmission distances.

FE Electrical Interface Performance


The characteristics of FE interfaces comply with IEEE 802.3. The following table provides FE electrical interface performance. Table 6-70 FE electrical interface performance Item Nominal bit rate (Mbit/s) Performance 10 (10BASE-T) 100 (100BASE-TX) Code pattern Manchester encoding signal (10BASE-T) MLT-3 encoding signal (100BASE-TX) Interface type RJ45

6.3.4 Auxiliary Interface Performance


The auxiliary interface performance includes the performance of the orderwire interface, synchronous data interface, asynchronous data interface, and wayside service interface.

Orderwire Interface Performance


Table 6-71 Orderwire interface performance Item Transmission path Orderwire type Wire pair in each transmission direction Impedance (ohm) Performance Uses the E1 and E2 bytes in the SDH overhead or the Huaweidefined byte in the overhead of the microwave frame. Addressing call One symmetrical wire pair 600

NOTE

The OptiX RTN equipment also supports the orderwire group call function. For example, when OptiX RTN equipment calls 888, the orderwire group call number, all the OptiX RTN equipment orderwire phones in the orderwire subnet ring until a phone is answered. Then, a point-to-point orderwire phone call is established.

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Synchronous Data Interface Performance


Table 6-72 Synchronous data interface performance Item Transmission path Nominal bit rate (kbit/s) Interface type Interface characteristics Performance Uses the F1 byte in the SDH overhead or the Huawei-defined byte in the overhead of the microwave frame. 64 Codirectional Meets the ITU-T G.703 standard.

Asynchronous Data Interface


Table 6-73 Asynchronous data interface performance Item Transmission path Nominal bit rate (kbit/s) Interface characteristics Performance Uses the user-defined byte of the SDH overhead or the Huawei-defined byte in the overhead of the microwave frame. 19.2 Meets the RS-232 standard.

Wayside Service Interface Performance


Table 6-74 Wayside service interface performance Item Transmission path Nominal bit rate (kbit/s) Impedance (ohm) Interface characteristics Performance Uses the Huawei-defined bytes in the overhead of the microwave frame. 2048 120 Meets the ITU-T G.703 standard.

6.4 Clock Timing and Synchronization Performance


The clock timing performance and synchronization performance of the product meet relevant ITU-T recommendations.

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Table 6-75 Clock timing and synchronization performance Item External synchronization source Frequency accuracy Pull-in and pull-out ranges Noise generation Noise tolerance Noise transfer Transient response and holdover performance Performance 2048 kbit/s (compliant with ITU-T G.703 9), or 2048 kHz (compliant with ITU-T G.703 13) Compliant with ITU-T G.813

6.5 Integrated System Performance


Integrated system performance includes the dimensions, weight, power consumption, power supply, EMC, surge protection, safety, and environment.

Dimensions
Table 6-76 Dimensions Component IDU ODU Dimensions 442 mm (W) x 225 mm (H) x 220 mm (D) < 280 mm (W) x 280 mm (H) x 92 mm (D)

Weight
Table 6-77 Typical weight Component IDU ODU Typical Weight 19.7 kg (8[1+0] configuration) < 4.6 kg

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Power Consumption
Table 6-78 Typical power consumption No. Radio Link Form Intergrade IP radio link Configuration (Service Interface, RF Configuration) 4xSTM-1/4+6xGE+4xFE+32xE1, 8[1 +0] configuration (2xCSHN+8xISU2+1xEM6T+1xSP3D +1xFAN+2xPIU+8xXMC-2 ODU) Typical Power Consumption (IDU+ODU) 1 470 W

Power Supply
Table 6-79 Power Supply Component IDU Performance l Compliant with ETSI EN300 132-2 l Supports two -48 V/-60 V (-38.4 V to -72 V) DC power inputs (mutual backup) ODU l Compliant with ETSI EN300 132-2 l Supports one -48 V (-38.4 V to -72 V) DC power input that is provided by the IDU

Electromagnetic Compatibility
l l l l l Passes CE authentication. Compliant with ETSI EN 301 489-1. Compliant with ETSI EN 301 489-4. Compliant with CISPR 22. Compliant with EN 55022.

Lightning Protection
l l Compliant with ITU-T K.27. Compliant with ETSI EN 300 253.

Safety
l l l l
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Passes CE authentication. Compliant with ETSI EN 60215. Compliant with ETSI EN 60950. Compliant with IEC 60825.
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Environment
The IDU is used in a place that has weather protection and where the temperature can be controlled. The ODU is an outdoor unit. Table 6-80 Environment performance Item Component IDU Major reference standards Operation Transportation Storage Air temperature Operation Compliant with ETSI EN 300 019-1-3 class 3.2 ODU Compliant with ETSI EN 300 019-1-4 class 4.1

Compliant with ETSI EN 300 019-1-2 class 2.3 Compliant with ETSI EN 300 019-1-1 class 1.2 Long-term: -5C to +60C Short-term: -20C to +65C -35C to +55C

Transportation and storage Relative humidity Noise

-40C to +70C 5% to 95% < 7.2 bel, compliant with ETSI EN 300 753 class 3.2 attended 5% to 100% -

Earthquake Mechanical stress

Compliant with Bellcore GR-63-CORE ZONE 4 Compliant with ETSI EN 300 019

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A Compliance Standards

Compliance Standards

A.1 ITU-R Standards The OptiX RTN 980 complies with the ITU-R standards designed for microwave equipment. A.2 ETSI Standards The OptiX RTN 980 complies with the ETSI standards designed for microwave equipment. A.3 IEC Standards The OptiX RTN 980 is compliant with the IEC standards related to the waveguide. A.4 ITU-T Standards The OptiX RTN 980 complies with the ITU-T standards designed for SDH/PDH equipment. A.5 IETF Standards The OptiX RTN 980 complies with IETF standards. A.6 IEEE Standards The OptiX RTN 980 complies with the IEEE standards designed for Ethernet networks. A.7 MEF Standards The OptiX RTN 980 complies with MEF standards. A.8 AF Standards The OptiX RTN 980 complies with AF standards. A.9 Environmental Standards The OptiX RTN 980 complies with the environmental standards designed for split-mount microwave equipment.

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A Compliance Standards

A.1 ITU-R Standards


The OptiX RTN 980 complies with the ITU-R standards designed for microwave equipment. Table A-1 ITU-R standard Standard ITU-R F.383-8 ITU-R F.384-10 Description Radio-frequency channel arrangements for high capacity radio-relay systems operating in the lower 6 GHz band Radio-frequency channel arrangements for medium and high capacity analogue or digital radio-relay systems operating in the upper 6 GHz band Radio-frequency channel arrangements for fixed wireless systems operating in the 7 GHz band Radio-frequency channel arrangements for medium and high capacity analogue or digital radio-relay systems operating in the 8 GHz band Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay systems operating in the 11 GHz band Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay systems operating in the 13 GHz frequency band Radio-frequency channel arrangements for fixed wireless systems operating in the 18 GHz frequency band Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay systems operating in the 15 GHz band Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay systems operating in the 23 GHz band Radio-frequency channel arrangements for fixed wireless systems operating in the 10 GHz band Radio-frequency channel arrangements for radio-relay systems operating in the 25, 26 and 28 GHz bands Radio-frequency arrangements for systems of the fixed service operating in the 38 GHz band Bandwidths and unwanted emissions of digital radio-relay systems Radio-frequency channel arrangements for systems in the fixed service operating in the band 31.8-33.4 GHz Propagation data and prediction methods required for the design of terrestrial line-of-sight systems The radio refractive index: its formula and refractivity data Calculation of free-space attenuation
124

ITU-R F.385-9 ITU-R F.386-8 ITU-R F.387-10 ITU-R F.497-7 ITU-R F.595-9 ITU-R F.636-3 ITU-R F.637-3 ITU-R F.747 ITU-R F.748-4 ITU-R F.749-2 ITU-R F.1191-1-2 ITU-R F.1520-2 ITU-R P.530-12 ITU-R P.453-9 ITU-R P.525-2
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OptiX RTN 980 Radio Transmission System Product Description

A Compliance Standards

Standard ITU-R P.837-5 ITU-R P.838-3 ITU-R F.1093 ITU-R F.1101 ITU-R F.1102 ITU-R F.1330

Description Characteristics of precipitation for propagation modelling Specific attenuation model for rain for use in prediction methods Effects of multipath propagation on the design and operation of lineof-sight digital fixed wireless systems Characteristics of digital fixed wireless systems below about 17 GHz Characteristics of fixed wireless systems operating in frequency bands above about 17 GHz Performance limits for bringing into service the parts of international plesiochronous digital hierarchy and synchronous digital hierarchy paths and sections implemented by digital fixed wireless systems Error performance and availability estimation for synchronous digital hierarchy terrestrial fixed wireless systems Error performance objectives for real digital fixed wireless links used in 27 500 km hypothetical reference paths and connections Availability objectives for real digital fixed wireless links used in 27 500 km hypothetical reference paths and connections Vocabulary of terms for the fixed service Radio-frequency arrangements for fixed service systems Architectures and functional aspects of radio-relay systems for synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)-based network Transmission characteristics and performance requirements of radiorelay systems for SDH-based networks Hypothetical reference digital path for radio-relay systems which may form part of an integrated services digital network with a capacity above the second hierarchical level Unwanted emissions in the spurious domain

ITU-R F.1605 ITU-R F.1668 ITU-R F.1703 ITU-R F.592 ITU-R F.746 ITU-R F.750 ITU-R F.751 ITU-R F.556

ITU-R SM.329-10

A.2 ETSI Standards


The OptiX RTN 980 complies with the ETSI standards designed for microwave equipment. Table A-2 ETSI standard Standard ETSI EN 302 217-1 V1.3.1 Description Fixed Radio Systems; Characteristics and requirements for point-topoint equipment and antennas; Part 1: Overview and systemindependent common characteristics

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Standard ETSI EN 302 217-2-1 V1.3.1

Description Fixed Radio Systems; Characteristics and requirements for point-topoint equipment and antennas; Part 2-1: System-dependent requirements for digital systems operating in frequency bands where frequency co-ordination is applied Fixed Radio Systems; Characteristics and requirements for point-topoint equipment and antennas; Part 2-2: Harmonized EN covering essential requirements of Article 3.2 of R&TTE Directive for digital systems operating in frequency bands where frequency co-ordination is applied Fixed Radio Systems; Characteristics and requirements for point-topoint equipment and antennas; Part 3: Harmonized EN covering essential requirements of Article 3.2 of R&TTE Directive for equipment operating in frequency bands where no frequency coordination is applied Fixed Radio Systems; Characteristics and requirements for point-topoint equipment and antennas; Part 4-1: System-dependent requirements for antennas Fixed Radio Systems; Characteristics and requirements for point-topoint equipment and antennas; Part 4-2: Harmonized EN covering essential requirements of Article 3.2 of R&TTE Directive for antennas Fixed Radio Systems; Conformance testing; Part 1: Point-to-Point equipment - Definitions, general requirements and test procedures Fixed Radio Systems; Conformance testing; Part 3-1: Point-to-Point antennas; Definitions, general requirements and test procedures Fixed Radio Systems; Point-to-point and Multipoint Systems; Spurious emissions and receiver immunity limits at equipment/ antenna port of Digital Fixed Radio Systems

ETSI EN 302 217-2-2 V1.3.1

ETSI EN 302 217-3 V1.2.1

ETSI EN 302 217-4-1 V1.4.1 ETSI EN 302 217-4-2 V1.5.1

ETSI EN 301 126-1 V1.1.2 ETSI EN 301 126-3-1 V1.1.2 ETSI EN 301 390 V1.2.1

A.3 IEC Standards


The OptiX RTN 980 is compliant with the IEC standards related to the waveguide. Table A-3 Relevant IEC standards Standard IEC 60154-1 IEC 60154-2 IEC 60154-3 Description Flanges for waveguides. Part 1: General requirements Flanges for waveguides. Part 2: Relevant specifications for flanges for ordinary rectangular waveguides Flanges for waveguides. Part 3: Relevant specifications for flanges for flat rectangular waveguides
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A Compliance Standards

Standard IEC 60154-4 IEC 60154-6 IEC 60154-7 IEC 60153-1 IEC 60153-2 IEC 60153-3 IEC 60153-4 IEC 60153-6 IEC 60153-7

Description Flanges for waveguides. Part 4: Relevant specifications for flanges for circular waveguides Flanges for waveguides. Part 6: Relevant specifications for flanges for medium flat rectangular waveguides Flanges for waveguides - Part 7: Relevant specifications for flanges for square waveguides Hollow metallic waveguides. Part 1 : General requirements and measuring methods Hollow metallic waveguides. Part 2 : Relevant specifications for ordinary rectangular waveguides Hollow metallic waveguides. Part 3 : Relevant specifications for flat rectangular waveguides Hollow metallic waveguides. Part 4 : Relevant specifications for circular waveguides Hollow metallic waveguides. Part 6 : Relevant specifications for medium flat rectangular waveguides Hollow metallic waveguides. Part 7 : Relevant specifications for square waveguides

A.4 ITU-T Standards


The OptiX RTN 980 complies with the ITU-T standards designed for SDH/PDH equipment. Table A-4 ITU-T standard Standard ITU-T G.664 ITU-T G.702 ITU-T G.703 ITU-T G.704 ITU-T G.706 ITU-T G.707 ITU-T G.773 Description Optical safety procedures and requirements for optical transport systems Digital hierarchy bit rates Physical/electrical characteristics of hierarchical digital interfaces Synchronous frame structures used at 1544, 6312, 2048, 8448 and 44,736 kbit/s hierarchical levels Frame alignment and cyclic redundancy check (CRC) procedures relating to basic frame structures defined in Recommendation G.704 Network node interface for the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) Protocol suites for Q-interfaces for management of transmission systems

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Standard ITU-T G.774 ITU-T G.774.1 ITU-T G.774.2 ITU-T G.774.3 ITU-T G.774.4 ITU-T G.774.5 ITU-T G.774.6 ITU-T G.774.7 ITU-T G.774.9 ITU-T G.774.10 ITU-T G.775

Description Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) management information model for the network element view Synchronous Digital Hierarch y(SDH) performance monitoring for the network element view Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) configuration of the payload structure for the network element view Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) management of multiplexsection protection for the network element view Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) management of the subnetwork connection protection for the network element view Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) management of connection supervision functionality(HCS/LCS) for the network element view Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) unidirectional performance monitoring for the network element view Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) management of lower order path trace and interface labeling for the network element view Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) configuration of linear multiplex section protection for the network element view Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) configuration of linear multiplex section protection for the network element view Loss of Signal (LOS), Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) and Remote Defect Indication (RDI) defect detection and clearance criteria for PDH signals Common equipment management function requirements Vocabulary of terms for synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) networks and equipment Synchronization layer functions Characteristics of synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) equipment functional blocks Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) management Architecture of transport networks based on the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) Generic functional architecture of transport networks Characteristics of transport equipment - Description methodology and generic functionality Generic protection switching - Linear trail and sub-network protection

ITU-T G.7710 ITU-T G.780 ITU-T G.781 ITU-T G.783 ITU-T G.784 ITU-T G.803 ITU-T G.805 ITU-T G.806 ITU-T G.808.1

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Standard ITU-T G.810 ITU-T G.811 ITU-T G.812 ITU-T G.813 ITU-T G.821

Description Definitions and terminology for synchronization networks Timing characteristics of primary reference clocks Timing requirements of slave clocks suitable for use as node clocks in synchronization networks Timing characteristics of SDH equipment slave clocks (SEC) Error performance of an international digital connection operating at a bit rate below the primary rate and forming part of an integrated services digital network Controlled slip rate objectives on an international digital connection The control of jitter and wander within digital networks which are based on the 2048 kbit/s hierarchy The control of jitter and wander within digital networks which are based on the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) Error performance parameters and objectives for international, constant bit rate digital paths at or above the primary rate Error performance parameters and objectives for international, constant bit rate synchronous digital paths Error performance events for SDH multiplex and regenerator sections Management capabilities of transport networks based on the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) Transport of SDH elements on PDH networks - Frame and multiplexing structures Types and characteristics of SDH network protection architectures Inter-working of SDH network protection architectures Optical interfaces for equipments and systems relating to the synchronous digital hierarchy Digital line systems based on the synchronous digital hierarchy for use on optical fiber cables. Virtual concatenation of Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) signals Architecture of Ethernet layer networks Ethernet over Transport - Ethernet services framework Ethernet private line service Ethernet virtual private line service Ethernet UNI and Ethernet over transport NNI

ITU-T G.822 ITU-T G.823 ITU-T G.825 ITU-T G.826 ITU-T G.828 ITU-T G.829 ITU-T G.831 ITU-T G.832 ITU-T G.841 ITU-T G.842 ITU-T G.957 ITU-T G.958 ITU-T G.7043/Y. 1343 ITU-T G.8010 ITU-T G.8011 ITU-T G.8011.1 ITU-T G.8011.2 ITU-T G.8012

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Standard ITU-T G.8021 ITU-T G.8110 ITU-T G.8110.1 ITU-T G.8121 ITU-T G.8112 ITU-T G.8131 ITU-T G.8261/Y. 1361 ITU-T G.8262/Y. 1362 ITU-T G.8264 ITU-T Y.1541 ITU-T Y.1710 ITU-T Y.1730 ITU-T Y.1731 ITU-T G.8032/Y. 1344 ITU-T Y.1711 ITU-T Y.1720 ITU-T I.610 ITU-T Y.1291

Description Characteristics of Ethernet transport network equipment functional blocks MPLS layer network architecture Application of MPLS in the transport network Characteristics of transport MPLS equipment functional blocks Interfaces for the transport MPLS (T-MPLS) hierarchy Protection switching for transport MPLS (T-MPLS) networks Timing and synchronization aspects in packet networks Timing characteristics of synchronous Ethernet equipment slave clock (EEC) Timing distribution through packet networks Network performance objectives for IP-based services Requirements for OAM functionality for MPLS networks Requirements for OAM functions in Ethernet based networks and Ethernet services OAM functions and mechanisms for Ethernet based networks Ethernet Ring Protection Switching Operation & Maintenance mechanism for MPLS networks Protection switching for MPLS networks B-ISDN operation and maintenance principles and functions An architectural framework for support of quality of service (QoS) in packet networks

A.5 IETF Standards


The OptiX RTN 980 complies with IETF standards. Table A-5 IETF standard Standard RFC 2819 RFC 4664 Description Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base Framework for layer 2 virtual private networks (L2VPNs)

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Standard RFC 3031 RFC 3469 RFC 3811 RFC 3813 RFC 3814

Description MPLS architecture Framework for multi-protocol label switching (MPLS)-based recovery Definitions of textual conventions for multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) management Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) label switching router (LSR) management information base Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) forwarding equivalence class to next hop label forwarding entry (FEC-To-NHLFE) management information base Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) management overview Operations and management (OAM) requirements for multi-protocol label switched (MPLS) networks A framework for multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) operations and management (OAM) MPLS label stack encoding Time to live (TTL) processing in multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) networks Requirements for pseudo-wire emulation edge-to-edge (PWE3) Pseudo wire emulation edge-to-edge (PWE3) architecture Requirements for edge-to-edge emulation of time division multiplexed (TDM) circuits over packet switching networks Pseudowire emulation edge-to-edge (PWE3) control word for use over an MPLS PSN IANA allocations for pseudowire edge to edge emulation (PWE3) Ethernet address resolution protocol Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) support of differentiated services Encapsulation methods for transport of Ethernet over MPLS networks Structure-agnostic time division multiplexing (TDM) over packet (SAToP) Pseudo wire virtual circuit connectivity verification (VCCV) Structure-Aware Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) Circuit Emulation Service over Packet Switched Network (CESoPSN) Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) over MPLS Networks

RFC 4221 RFC 4377 RFC 4378 RFC 3032 RFC 3443 RFC 3916 RFC 3985 RFC 4197 RFC 4385 RFC 4446 RFC 0826 RFC 3270 RFC 4448 RFC 4553 RFC 5085 RFC 5086 RFC 4717

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Standard RFC 4816 RFC 4385 RFC 5254 RFC 3644 RFC 2212 RFC 2474 RFC 2475 RFC 2597 RFC 2698 RFC 3246 RFC 3270 draft-ietf-l2vpnoam-req-frmk-05 draft-ietf-pwe3segmented-pw-03 draft-ietf-pwe3-mspw-requirements-03 draft-ietf-pwe3-mspw-arch-02

Description Pseudowire Emulation Edge-to-Edge (PWE3) Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Transparent Cell Transport Service Pseudowire emulation edge-to-edge (PWE3) control word for use over an MPLS PSN Requirements for Multi-Segment Pseudowire Emulation Edge-toEdge (PWE3) Policy quality of service (QoS) Information model Specification of guaranteed quality of service Definition of the differentiated services field (DS Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 headers An architecture for differentiated services Assured forwarding PHB group A two rate three color marker An expedited forwarding PHB (Per-hop behavior) Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) support of differentiated services L2VPN OAM requirements and framework Segmented pseudo wire Requirements for inter domain pseudo-wires An architecture for multi-segment pseudo wire emulation edge-toedge

A.6 IEEE Standards


The OptiX RTN 980 complies with the IEEE standards designed for Ethernet networks. Table A-6 IEEE standard Standard IEEE 802.3 IEEE 802.3u Description Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specification Media Access Control (MAC) parameters, physical Layer, medium attachment units, and repeater for 100 Mb/s operation, type 100BASE-T
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Standard IEEE 802.3x IEEE 802.3z IEEE 802.3ah IEEE 802.1d IEEE 802.1q IEEE 802.1ad IEEE 802.1ag

Description Full Duplex Operation and Type 100BASE-T2 Media Access Control (MAC) parameters, physical Layer, repeater and management parameters for 1000 Mb/s operation Media Access Control Parameters, Physical Layers, and Management Parameters for Subscriber Access Networks Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges Virtual bridged local area networks Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks Amendment 4: Provider Bridges Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks Amendment 5: Connectivity Fault Management

A.7 MEF Standards


The OptiX RTN 980 complies with MEF standards. Table A-7 MEF standard Standard MEF 2 MEF 4 MEF 9 MEF 10 MEF 14 Description Requirements and framework for Ethernet service protection in metro Ethernet networks Metro Ethernet network architecture framework - Part 1: generic framework Abstract Test Suite for Ethernet Services at the UNI Ethernet services attributes phase 1 Abstract Test Suite for Traffic Management Phase 1

A.8 AF Standards
The OptiX RTN 980 complies with AF standards. Table A-8 AF standard Standard AF-PHY-0086.001 AF-TM-0121.000 Description Inverse Multiplexing for ATM Specification Version 1.1 Traffic Management Specification

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A.9 Environmental Standards


The OptiX RTN 980 complies with the environmental standards designed for split-mount microwave equipment. Table A-9 environmental standard Standard EN 55022 CISPR 22 ETSI EN 301 489-1 Description Limits and Methods of Measurement of Radio Disturbance Characteristics of Information Technology Equipment Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance characteristics of information Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standard for radio equipment and services; Part 1: Common technical requirements Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standard for radio equipment and services; Part 4: Specific conditions for fixed radio links and ancillary equipment and services Information technology equipment-Safety-Part 1: General requirements Information technology equipment-Safety-Part 1: General requirements Safety of laser products-Part 1: Equipment classification, requirements and user's guide Safety of laser products-Part 2: Safety of optical fiber communication systems (OFCS) Information technology equipment-Safety-Part 1: General requirements Information technology equipment-Safety-Part 22: Equipment to be installed outdoors Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 2: Testing and measurement techniques Section 2: Electrostatic discharge immunity test Basic EMC Publication Electromagnetic compatibility; Part 3: Testing and measurement techniques Section 3 radio frequency electromagnetic fields; immunity test. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques Section 4: Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test Basic EMC publication

ETSI EN 301 489-4

EN 60950-1 UL 60950-1 IEC 60825-1 IEC 60825-2 IEC 60950-1 IEC 60950-22 (Outdoor Unit) IEC 61000-4-2

IEC 61000-4-3

IEC 61000-4-4

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Standard IEC 61000-4-5 IEC 61000-4-6

Description Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 5: Testing and measurement techniques Section 5: Surge immunity test Electromagnetic compatibility: Part 6: Testing and measurement techniques: Section 6 conducted disturbances induced by radiofrequency fields; immunity test Classification of environmental conditions - Part 3: Classification of groups of environmental parameters and their severities - Section 1: Storage Classes 1K4/1Z2/1Z3/1Z5/1B2/1C2/1S3/1M2 Classification of environmental conditions - Part 3: Classification of groups of environmental parameters and their severities - Section 2: Transportation Classes 2K4/2B2/2C2/2S2/2M2 Classification of environmental conditions - Part 3: Classification of groups of environmental parameters and their severities - Section 3: Stationary use at weather protected locations Classes 3K5/3Z2/3Z4/3B2/3C2(3C1)/3S2/3M2 Classification of environmental conditions - Part 3: Classification of groups of environmental parameters and their severities - Section 4: Stationary use at non-weather protected locations. Classes 4K2/4Z5/4Z7/4B1/4C2(4C3)/4S2/4M5 Environmental conditions and environmental tests for telecommunications equipment; Part 1-1: Classification of environmental conditions; Storage Class 1.2 Environmental conditions and environmental tests for telecommunications equipment; Part 1-2: Classification of environmental conditions; Transportation Class 2.3 Environmental conditions and environmental tests for telecommunications equipment; Part 1-3: Classification of environmental conditions; Stationary use at weather-protected locations; Class 3.2 Environmental conditions and environmental tests for telecommunications equipment; Part 1-4: Classification of environmental conditions; Stationary use at non-weather-protected locations Class 4.1 Environmental Engineering (EE); Power supply interface at the input to telecommunications equipment; Part 2: Operated by direct current (dc) Environmental Engineering (EE); European telecommunication standard for equipment practice; Thermal Management Guidance for equipment and its deployment Equipment Engineering (EE);Acoustic noise emitted by telecommunications equipment

IEC 721-3-1 Classes 1K4/1Z2/1Z3/1Z5/1 B2/1C2/1S3/1M2 IEC 721-3-2 Classes 2K4/2B2/2C2/2S2/2 M2 IEC 721-3-3 Classes 3K5/3Z2/3Z4/3B2/3 C2(3C1)/3S2/3M2 (Indoor Unit) IEC 721-3-4 Classes 4K2/4Z5/4Z7/4B1/4 C2(4C3)/4S2/4M5 (Outdoor Unit) ETSI EN 300 019-1-1 Class 1.2 ETSI EN 300 019-1-2 Class 2.3 ETSI EN 300 019-1-3 Class 3.2 (Indoor Unit) ETSI EN 300 019-1-4 Class 4.1 (Outdoor Unit) EN 300 132-2

EN 300 119 TR 102 489 V1.1.1 ETS 300 753

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Standard IEC 60215 IEC 60825 IEC 60657 IEC 60297 IEC 60529 IEC 60068

Description Safety requirements for radio transmitting equipment Safety of laser products Non-ionizing radiation hazards in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 300 000 MHz Dimensions of mechanical structures of the 482.6 mm (19 in) series Degrees of protection provided by enclosures Environmental Testing

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B Glossary

B
Terms are listed in an alphabetical order. B.1 0-9 This section provides the terms starting with numbers. B.2 A-E This section provides the terms starting with letters A to E. B.3 F-J This section provides the terms starting with letters F to J. B.4 K-O This section provides the terms starting with letters K to O. B.5 P-T This section provides the terms starting with letters P to T. B.6 U-Z This section provides the terms starting with letters U to Z.

Glossary

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B Glossary

B.1 0-9
This section provides the terms starting with numbers. 1U The standard electronics industries association (EIA) rack unit (44 mm/1.75 in.)

B.2 A-E
This section provides the terms starting with letters A to E.

A
ABR ACAP access control list ACL adaptive modulation See available bit rate See adjacent channel alternate polarization A list of entities, together with their access rights, which are authorized to have access to a resource. See access control list A technology that is used to automatically adjust the modulation scheme according to the channel quality. When the channel quality is favorable, the equipment adopts a highefficiency modulation scheme to improve the transmission efficiency and the spectrum utilization of the system. When the channel quality is degraded, the equipment adopts the low-efficiency modulation scheme to improve the anti-interference capability of the link that carries high-priority services. See analog to digital converter Network elements that provide access to all or some subset of the constituent signals contained within an STM-N signal. The constituent signals are added to (inserted), and/ or dropped from (extracted) the STM-N signal as it passed through the ADM. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is an Internet Protocol used to map IP addresses to MAC addresses. It allows hosts and routers to determine the link layer addresses through ARP requests and ARP responses. The address resolution is a process in which the host converts the target IP address into a target MAC address before transmitting a frame. The basic function of the ARP is to query the MAC address of the target equipment through its IP address. A channel configuration method, which uses two adjacent channels (a horizontal polarization wave and a vertical polarization wave) to transmit two signals. See add/drop multiplexer The information structure which provides adaptation between the higher order path layer and the multiplex section layer. It consists of an information payload (the higher order VC) and an AU pointer which indicates the offset of the payload frame start relative to the multiplex section frame start. See assured forwarding A collection of objects that makes a whole. An aggregation can be a concrete or conceptual set of whole-part relationships among objects.
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ADC add/drop multiplexer

Address Resolution Protocol

adjacent channel alternate polarization ADM administrative unit

AF aggregation

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B Glossary

AIS

See alarm indication signal

alarm automatic report When an alarm is generated on the device side, the alarm is reported to the Network Management System (NMS). Then, an alarm panel prompts and the user can view the details of the alarm. alarm cascading Alarm Filtering The shunt-wound output of the alarm signals of several subracks or cabinets. An NE reports the detected alarm to the element management system (EMS). Based on the filter state of the alarm, the EMS determines whether to display or save the alarm information. If the filter state of an alarm is set to Filter, the alarm is not displayed or stored on the EMS. The alarm, however, is still monitored by the NE.

alarm indication signal A code sent downstream in a digital network as an indication that an upstream failure has been detected and alarmed. It is associated with multiple transport layers. alarm suppression A function used not to monitor alarms for a specific object, which may be the networkwide equipment, a specific NE, a specific board and even a specific function module of a specific board. See adaptive modulation An electronic circuit that converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. The reverse operation is performed by a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). See automatic protection switching See Address Resolution Protocol One of the four per-hop behaviors (PHB) defined by the Diff-Serv workgroup of IETF. It is suitable for certain key data services that require assured bandwidth and short delay. For traffic within the bandwidth limit, AF assures quality in forwarding. For traffic that exceeds the bandwidth limit, AF degrades the service class and continues to forward the traffic instead of discarding the packets. A protocol for the transmission of a variety of digital signals using uniform 53 byte cells. A transfer mode in which the information is organized into cells; it is asynchronous in the sense that the recurrence of cells depends on the required or instantaneous bit rate. Statistical and deterministic values may also be used to qualify the transfer mode. See Asynchronous Transfer Mode ATM permanent virtual circuit See automatic transmit power control A device used to increase the attenuation of an Optical Fiber Link. Generally used to ensure that the signal at the receive end is not too strong. See administrative unit Capability of a transmission system to detect a failure on a working facility and to switch to a standby facility to recover the traffic. A method of adjusting the transmit power based on fading of the transmit signal detected at the receiver A kind of service categories defined by the ATM forum. ABR only provides possible forwarding service and applies to the connections that does not require the real-time quality. It does not provide any guarantee in terms of cell loss or delay.

AM analog to digital converter APS ARP assured forwarding

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

ATM ATM PVC ATPC attenuator AU automatic protection switching automatic transmit power control available bit rate

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B Glossary

B
backward defect indication bandwidth When detecting a defect, the sink node of an LSP uses backward defect indication (BDI) to inform the upstream end of the LSP of a downstream defect along the return path. A range of transmission frequencies that a transmission line or channel can carry in a network. In fact, it is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies the transmission line or channel. The greater the bandwidth, the faster the data transfer rate. A logical entity that connects the BTS with the MSC in a GSM network. It interworks with the BTS through the Abis interface, the MSC through the A interface. It provides the following functions: radio resource management, base station management, power control, handover control, and traffic measurement. One BSC controls and manages one or more BTSs in an actual network.

base station controller

base transceiver station A Base Transceiver Station terminates the radio interface. It allows transmission of traffic and signaling across the air interface. The BTS includes the baseband processing, radio equipment, and the antenna. basic input/output system BDI BE BER best effort A firmware stored in the computer mainboard. It contains basic input/output control programs, power-on self test (POST) programs, bootstraps, and system setting information. The BIOS provides hardware setting and control functions for the computer. See backward defect indication See best effort See bit error rate A traditional IP packet transport service. In this service, the diagrams are forwarded following the sequence of the time they reach. All diagrams share the bandwidth of the network and routers. The amount of resource that a diagram can use depends of the time it reaches. BE service does not ensure any improvement in delay time, jitter, packet loss ratio, and high reliability. The binding strap is 12.7 mm wide, with one hook side (made of transparent polypropylene material) and one mat side (made of black nylon material). See basic input/output system See bit interleaved parity An incompatibility between a bit in a transmitted digital signal and the corresponding bit in the received digital signal. Ratio of received bits that contain errors. BER is an important index used to measure the communications quality of a network. A method of error monitoring. With even parity an X-bit code is generated by the transmitting equipment over a specified portion of the signal in such a manner that the first bit of the code provides even parity over the first bit of all X-bit sequences in the covered portion of the signal, the second bit provides even parity over the second bit of all X-bit sequences within the specified portion, etc. Even parity is generated by setting the BIP-X bits so that there is an even number of 1s in each monitored partition of the signal. A monitored partition comprises all bits which are in the same bit position within the X-bit sequences in the covered portion of the signal. The covered portion includes the BIP-X. See bridge protocol data unit

binding strap BIOS BIP bit error bit error rate bit interleaved parity

BPDU

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B Glossary

bridge protocol data unit

The data messages that are exchanged across the switches within an extended LAN that uses a spanning tree protocol (STP) topology. BPDU packets contain information on ports, addresses, priorities and costs and ensure that the data ends up where it was intended to go. BPDU messages are exchanged across bridges to detect loops in a network topology. The loops are then removed by shutting down selected bridges interfaces and placing redundant switch ports in a backup, or blocked, state. A means of delivering information to all members in a network. The broadcast range is determined by the broadcast address. See base station controller See base transceiver station A storage area used for handling data in transit. Buffers are used in inter-networking to compensate for differences in processing speed between network devices. Bursts of data can be stored in buffers until they can be handled by slower processing devices. In a program, buffers are created to hold some amount of data from each of the files that will be read or written. In a streaming media application, the program uses buffers to store an advance supply of audio or video data to compensate for momentary delays.

broadcast BSC BTS buffer

C
cable tie cable tray cable trough CAR CBR CBS CC CCC CCDP CCM CE The tape used to bind the cables. N/A N/A See committed access rate See constant bit rate See committed burst size See connectivity check See circuit cross connect See co-channel dual polarization See continuity check message See customer edge

central processing unit The computational and control unit of a computer. The CPU is the device that interprets and executes instructions. The CPU has the ability to fetch, decode, and execute instructions and to transfer information to and from other resources over the computer's main data-transfer path, the bus. CES CF CGMP channel See circuit emulation service See compact flash See Cisco Group Management Protocol A telecommunication path of a specific capacity and/or at a specific speed between two or more locations in a network. The channel can be established through wire, radio (microwave), fiber or a combination of the three. The amount of information transmitted per second in a channel is the information transmission speed, expressed in bits per second. For example, b/s (100 bit/s), kb/s (103 bit/s), Mb/s (106 bit/s), Gb/s (109 bit/s), and Tb/s (1012 bit/s).
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CIR circuit cross connect circuit emulation service

See committed information rate An implementation of MPLS L2VPN through the static configuration of labels. A function with which the E1/T1 data can be transmitted through ATM networks. At the transmission end, the interface module packs timeslot data into ATM cells. These ATM cells are sent to the reception end through the ATM network. At the reception end, the interface module re-assigns the data in these ATM cells to E1/T1 timeslots. The CES technology guarantees that the data in E1/T1 timeslots can be recovered to the original sequence at the reception end. N/A See common and internal spanning tree A switch of the highest priority is elected as the root in an MSTP network. The method to keep the time on each node being synchronized with a clock source in a network. A channel configuration method, which uses a horizontal polarization wave and a vertical polarization wave to transmit two signals. The Co-Channel Dual Polarization is twice the transmission capacity of the single polarization. A signal transmission technology that multiplexes widely-spaced optical channels into the same fiber. CWDM widely spaces wavelengths at a spacing of several nm. CWDM does not support optical amplifiers and is applied in a short-distance chain network. A packet whose priority is determined by defined colors. A traffic control method that uses a set of rate limits to be applied to a router interface. CAR is a configurable method by which incoming and outgoing packets can be classified into QoS (Quality of Service) groups, and by which the input or output transmission rate can be defined. committed burst size. A parameter used to define the capacity of token bucket C, that is, the maximum burst IP packet size when the information is transferred at the committed information rate. This parameter must be larger than 0. It is recommended that this parameter should be not less than the maximum length of the IP packet that might be forwarded.

Cisco Group Management Protocol CIST CIST root clock tracing co-channel dual polarization coarse wavelength division multiplexing colored packet committed access rate

committed burst size

committed information The rate at which a frame relay network agrees to transfer information in normal rate conditions. Namely, it is the rate, measured in bit/s, at which the token is transferred to the leaky bucket. common and internal spanning tree compact flash The single spanning tree calculated by STP and RSTP together with the logical continuation of that connectivity by using MST Bridges and regions, calculated by MSTP to ensure that all LANs in the bridged local area network are simply and fully connected. Compact flash (CF) was originally developed as a type of data storage device used in portable electronic devices. For storage, CompactFlash typically uses flash memory in a standardized enclosure. A process that combines multiple virtual containers. The combined capacities can be used a single capacity. The concatenation also keeps the integrity of bit sequence. Ethernet CFM can detect the connectivity between MEPs. The detection is achieved by each MEP transmitting a Continuity Check Message (CCM) periodically.

concatenation connectivity check

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B Glossary

constant bit rate

A kind of service categories defined by the ATM forum. CBR transfers cells based on the constant bandwidth. It is applicable to service connections that depend on precise clocking to ensure undistorted transmission. CCM is used to detect the link status. Used to protect optical fibers. See central processing unit See cyclic redundancy check A technology used in the case of the Co-Channel Dual Polarization (CCDP) to eliminate the cross-connect interference between two polarization waves in the CCDP. A part of BGP/MPLS IP VPN model. It provides interfaces for direct connection to the Service Provider (SP) network. A CE can be a router, switch, or host. See coarse wavelength division multiplexing A procedure used in checking for errors in data transmission. CRC error checking uses a complex calculation to generate a number based on the data transmitted. The sending device performs the calculation before transmission and includes it in the packet that it sends to the receiving device. The receiving device repeats the same calculation after transmission. If both devices obtain the same result, it is assumed that the transmission was error free. The procedure is known as a redundancy check because each transmission includes not only data but extra (redundant) error-checking values.

continuity check message corrugated pipe CPU CRC cross polarization interference cancellation customer edge CWDM cyclic redundancy check

D
data communication network data communications channel A communication network used in a TMN or between TMNs to support the Data Communication Function (DCF). The data channel that uses the D1-D12 bytes in the overhead of an STM-N signal to transmit information on operation, management, maintenance and provision (OAM&P) between NEs. The DCC channels that are composed of bytes D1-D3 is referred to as the 192 kbit/s DCC-R channel. The other DCC channel that are composed of bytes D4-D12 is referred to as the 576 kbit/s DCC-M channel. A kind of PDU which is used in Connectionless Network Protocol, such as IP datagram, UDP datagram. See direct current See DC-return common (with ground) DC-return common (with ground) See DC-return common (with ground) See DC-return isolate (with ground) A power system, in which the BGND of the DC return conductor is short-circuited with the PGND on the output side of the power supply cabinet and also on the line between the output of the power supply cabinet and the electric equipment. A power system, in which the BGND of the DC return conductor is short-circuited with the PGND on the output side of the power supply cabinet and also on the line between the output of the power supply cabinet and the electric equipment.
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Datagram DC DC-C DC-C DC-C DC-I DC-return common (with ground) DC-return common (with ground)

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B Glossary

DC-return isolate (with A power system, in which the BGND of the DC return conductor is short-circuited with ground) the PGND on the output side of the power supply cabinet and is isolated from the PGND on the line between the output of the power supply cabinet and the electric equipment. DCC DCN DDF DDN DE differentiated services See data communications channel See data communication network See digital distribution frame See digital data network See discard eligible A service architecture that provides the end-to-end QoS function. It consists of a series of functional units implemented at the network nodes, including a small group of perhop forwarding behaviors, packet classification functions, and traffic conditioning functions such as metering, marking, shaping and policing. A marker in the header of each IP packet that prompts network routers to apply differentiated grades of service to various packet streams. It is specified by the DiffServ policy proposed by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). This allows Internet and other IP-based network service providers to offer different levels of service to customers. See differentiated services A high-quality data transport tunnel that combines the digital channel (such as fiber channel, digital microwave channel, or satellite channel) and the cross multiplex technology. A type of equipment used between the transmission equipment and the exchange with transmission rate of 2 to 155 Mbit/s to provide the functions such as cables connection, cable patching, and test of loops that transmitting digital signals. A digital modulation controls the changes in amplitude, phase, and frequency of the carrier based on the changes in the baseband digital signal. In this manner, the information can be transmitted by the carrier. Electrical current whose direction of flow does not reverse. The current may stop or change amplitude, but it always flows in the same direction. A bit in the frame relay header. It indicates the priority of a packet. If a node supports the FR QoS, the rate of the accessed FR packets is controlled. When the packet traffic exceeds the specified traffic, the DE value of the redundant packets is set to 1. In the case of network congestion, the packets with DE value as 1 are discarded at the node. An Internet gateway protocol mainly based on the RIP. The protocol implements a typical dense mode IP multicast solution. The DVMRP protocol uses IGMP to exchange routing datagrams with its neighbors. A DS node that connects one DS domain to a node either in another DS domain or in a domain that is not DS-capable. In the DifferServ mechanism, the DS domain is a domain consisting of a group of network nodes that share the same service provisioning policy and same PHB. It provides point-to-point QoS guarantees for services transmitted over this domain. A DS node located at the center of a DS domain. It is a non-DS boundary node. A DS-compliant node, which is subdivided into DS boundary node and ID interior node. See differentiated services code point

differentiated services code point

DiffServ digital data network

digital distribution frame digital modulation

direct current discard eligible

Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol DS boundary node DS domain

DS interior node DS node DSCP

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B Glossary

dual-polarized antenna An antenna intended to radiate or receive simultaneously two independent radio waves orthogonally polarized. DVMRP See Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol

E
E-Aggr E-LAN E-Line E-Tree EBS ECC EF electromagnetic compatibility See Ethernet aggregation See Ethernet LAN See Ethernet line See Ethernet-tree See excess burst size See embedded control channel See expedited forwarding Electromagnetic compatibility is the condition which prevails when telecommunications equipment is performing its individually designed function in a common electromagnetic environment without causing or suffering unacceptable degradation due to unintentional electromagnetic interference to or from other equipment in the same environment. Any electromagnetic disturbance that interrupts, obstructs, or otherwise degrades or limits the effective performance of electronics/electrical equipment. The sudden and momentary electric current that flows between two objects at different electrical potentials caused by direct contact or induced by an electrostatic field. A logical channel that uses a data communications channel (DCC) as its physical layer, to enable transmission of operation, administration, and maintenance (OAM) information between NEs. See electromagnetic compatibility See electromagnetic interference A mark on a cable, a subrack, or a cabinet for identification. See Ethernet private line See Ethernet private LAN service A method of avoiding selective fading of frequencies. Equalization can compensate for the changes of amplitude frequency caused by frequency selective fading. See Ethernet ring protection switching See electrostatic discharge Electrostatic discharge jack. A hole in the cabinet or shelf, which connect the shelf or cabinet to the insertion of ESD wrist strap. A technology complemented in LAN. It adopts Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection. The speed of an Ethernet interface can be 10 Mbit/s, 100 Mbit/s, 1000 Mbit/ s or 10000 Mbit/s. The Ethernet network features high reliability and easy maintaining. A technology complemented in LAN. It adopts Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection. The speed of an Ethernet interface can be 10 Mbit/s, 100 Mbit/s, 1000 Mbit/ s or 10000 Mbit/s. The Ethernet network features high reliability and easy maintaining.

electromagnetic interference electrostatic discharge embedded control channel EMC EMI Engineering label EPL EPLAN equalization ERPS ESD ESD jack Ethernet

Ethernet

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Ethernet aggregation Ethernet LAN Ethernet line Ethernet private LAN service Ethernet private line Ethernet ring protection switching Ethernet virtual private LAN service Ethernet virtual private line Ethernet-tree ETS ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute EVPL EVPLAN excess burst size

A type of Ethernet service that is based on a multipoint-to-point EVC (Ethernet virtual connection). A type of Ethernet service that is based on a multipoint-to-multipoint EVC (Ethernet virtual connection). A type of Ethernet service that is based on a point-to-point EVC (Ethernet virtual connection). An Ethernet service type, which carries Ethernet characteristic information over a dedicated bridge, point-to-multipoint connections, provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS server layer networks. A type of Ethernet service that is provided with dedicated bandwidth and point-to-point connections on an SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS server layer network. protection switching mechanisms for ETH layer Ethernet ring topologies. An Ethernet service type, which carries Ethernet characteristic information over a shared bridge, point-to-multipoint connections, provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS server layer networks. An Ethernet service type, which carries Ethernet characteristic information over shared bandwidth, point-to-point connections, provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS server layer networks. An Ethernet service type that is based on a Point-to-multipoint Ethernet Virtual Connection. European Telecommunication Standards See European Telecommunications Standards Institute A standards-setting body in Europe. Also the standards body responsible for GSM.

See Ethernet virtual private line See Ethernet virtual private LAN service A parameter related to traffic. In the single rate three color marker (srTCM) mode, the traffic control is achieved by the token buckets C and E. Excess burst size is a parameter used to define the capacity of token bucket E, that is, the maximum burst IP packet size when the information is transferred at the committed information rate. This parameter must be larger than 0. It is recommended that this parameter should be not less than the maximum length of the IP packet that might be forwarded. An operation to check if the protection switching protocol functions normally. The protection switching is not really performed. Connecting a storage system to more disk enclosures through connection cables, expanding the capacity of the storage system. The highest order QoS in the Diff-Serv network. EF PHB is suitable for services that demand low packet loss ratio, short delay, and broad bandwidth. In all the cases, EF traffic can guarantee a transmission rate equal to or faster than the set rate. The DSCP value of EF PHB is "101110".

Exercise Switching expansion expedited forwarding

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B Glossary

B.3 F-J
This section provides the terms starting with letters F to J.

F
failure If the fault persists long enough to consider the ability of an item with a required function to be terminated. The item may be considered as having failed; a fault has now been detected. Any network that supports transmission rate of 100Mbits/s. The Fast Ethernet is 10 times faster than 10BaseT, and inherits frame format, MAC addressing scheme, MTU, and so on. Fast Ethernet is extended from the IEEE802.3 standard, and it uses the following three types of transmission media: 100BASE-T4 (4 pairs of phone twisted-pair cables), 100BASE-TX (2 pairs of data twisted-pair cables), and 100BASE-FX (2-core optical fibers). The link pulse that is used to encode information during automatic negotiation. See frequency diversity See forward defect indication See fast Ethernet See forward error correction fast failure detection A kind of fiber used for connections between the subrack and the ODF, and for connections between subracks or inside a subrack. A type of semi-customized circuit used in the Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) field. It is developed on the basis of the programmable components, such as the PAL, GAL, and EPLD. It not only remedies the defects of customized circuits, but also overcomes the disadvantage of the original programmable components in terms of the limited number of gate arrays. See First in First out A member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols, used to copy files between two computers on the Internet. Both computers must support their respective FTP roles: one must be an FTP client and the other an FTP server. A stack management mechanism. The first saved data is first read and invoked. For normal traffic signals, switches normal traffic signal to the protection section, unless an equal or higher priority switch command is in effect or SF condition exists on the protection section, by issuing a forced switch request for that traffic signal. Forward defect indication (FDI) is generated and traced forward to the sink node of the LSP by the node that first detects defects. It includes fields to indicate the nature of the defect and its location. Its primary purpose is to suppress alarms being raised at affected higher level client LSPs and (in turn) their client layers. A bit error correction technology that adds the correction information to the payload at the transmit end. Based on the correction information, the bit errors generated during transmission are corrected at the receive end.
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fast Ethernet

fast link pulse FD FDI FE FEC FFD fiber patch cord field programmable gate array

FIFO File Transfer Protocol

First in First out Forced switch

forward defect indication

forward error correction

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B Glossary

Forwarding plane FPGA fragment Fragmentation frame

Also referred to as the data plane. The forwarding plane is connection-oriented, and can be used in Layer 2 networks such as an ATM network. See field programmable gate array Piece of a larger packet that has been broken down to smaller units. Process of breaking a packet into smaller units when transmitting over a network medium that cannot support the original size of the packet. A frame, starting with a header, is a string of bytes with a specified length. Frame length is represented by the sampling circle or the total number of bytes sampled during a circle. A header comprises one or a number of bytes with pre-specified values. In other words, a header is a code segment that reflects the distribution (diagram) of the elements prespecified by the sending and receiving parties. A diversity scheme that enables two or more microwave frequencies with a certain frequency interval are used to transmit/receive the same signal and selection is then performed between the two signals to ease the impact of fading. See File Transfer Protocol A full-duplex, or sometimes double-duplex system, allows communication in both directions, and, unlike half-duplex, allows this to happen simultaneously. Land-line telephone networks are full-duplex, since they allow both callers to speak and be heard at the same time. A good analogy for a full-duplex system would be a two-lane road with one lane for each direction.

frequency diversity

FTP full-duplex

G
gateway network element GE generic framing procedure A network element that is used for communication between the NE application layer and the NM application layer See gigabit Ethernet A framing and encapsulated method which can be applied to any data type. It has been standardized by ITU-T SG15.

generic traffic shaping A traffic control measure that initiatively adjusts the output speed of the traffic. This is to adapt the traffic to network resources that can be provided by the downstream router to avoid packet discarding and congestion. GFP gigabit Ethernet See generic framing procedure GE adopts the IEEE 802.3z. GE is compatible with 10 Mbit/s and 100 Mbit/s Ethernet. It runs at 1000 Mbit/s. Gigabit Ethernet uses a private medium, and it does not support coaxial cables or other cables. It also supports the channels in the bandwidth mode. If Gigabit Ethernet is, however, deployed to be the private bandwidth system with a bridge (switch) or a router as the center, it gives full play to the performance and the bandwidth. In the network structure, Gigabit Ethernet uses full duplex links that are private, causing the length of the links to be sufficient for backbone applications in a building and campus. A global navigation satellite system. It provides reliable positioning, navigation, and timing services to worldwide users. See gateway network element See Global Positioning System

Global Positioning System GNE GPS

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graphical user interface A visual computer environment that represents programs, files, and options with graphical images, such as icons, menus, and dialog boxes, on the screen. GTS GUI guide rail See generic traffic shaping See graphical user interface Components to guide, position, and support plug-in boards.

H
HA half-duplex See high availability A transmitting mode in which a half-duplex system provides for communication in both directions, but only one direction at a time (not simultaneously). Typically, once a party begins receiving a signal, it must wait for the transmitter to stop transmitting, before replying. See high level data link control A type of QoS that can control the traffic of users, and perform the scheduling according to the priority of user services. HQoS has a perfect traffic statistics function, and the administrator can monitor the usage of bandwidth of each service. Hence, the bandwidth can be allocated reasonably through traffic analysis. Typically, a scheme in which two modules operate in active/standby mode to achieve high availability. When the active module fails, the standby module automatically takes over the system functions of the active module. The HDLC protocol is a general purpose protocol which operates at the data link layer of the OSI reference model. Each piece of data is encapsulated in an HDLC frame by adding a trailer and a header. A modulating-demodulating algorithm put forward in 3GPP R5 to meet the requirement for asymmetric uplink and downlink transmission of data services. It enables the maximum downlink data service rate to reach 14.4 Mbit/s without changing the WCDMA network topology. In an SDH network, the higher order path layers provide a server network from the lower order path layers. The priority of the tunnel with respect to holding resources, ranging from 0 (indicates the highest priority) to 7. It is used to determine whether the resources occupied by the tunnel can be preempted by other tunnels. A network connection between two distant nodes. For Internet operation a hop represents a small step on the route from one main computer to another. A mechanism of ensuring device running security. The environment variables and storage information of each running device are synchronized to the standby device. When the faults occur on the running device, the standby device can take over the services in the faulty device in automatic or manual way to ensure the normal running of the entire system. See higher order path See hierarchical quality of service See hot standby See High Speed Downlink Packet Access
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HDLC hierarchical quality of service

high availability

high level data link control High Speed Downlink Packet Access

higher order path Hold priority

hop hot standby

HP HQoS HSB HSDPA


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B Glossary

HSM HTB hybrid radio

hitless switch mode high tributary bus The hybrid transmission of Native E1 and Native Ethernet signals. Hybrid radio supports the AM function.

I
ICMP IDU IEC IEEE IETF IF IGMP IGMP snooping See Internet Control Message Protocol See indoor unit See International Electrotechnical Commission See Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers See Internet Engineering Task Force See intermediate frequency See Internet Group Management Protocol A multicast constraint mechanism running on a layer 2 device. This protocol manages and controls the multicast group by listening to and analyze the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) packet between hosts and layer 3 devices. In this manner, the spread of the multicast data on layer 2 network can be prevented efficiently. See inverse multiplexing over ATM The indoor unit of the split-structured radio equipment. It implements accessing, multiplexing/demultiplexing, and IF processing for services. A method of looping the signals from the cross-connect unit back to the cross-connect unit. A society of engineering and electronics professionals based in the United States but boasting membership from numerous other countries. The IEEE focuses on electrical, electronics, computer engineering, and science-related matters.

IMA indoor unit Inloop Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

intermediate frequency The transitional frequency between the frequencies of a modulated signal and an RF signal. Intermediate System The basic unit in the IS-IS protocol used to transmit routing information and generate routes.

Intermediate System to A protocol used by network devices (routers) to determine the best way to forward Intermediate System datagrams or packets through a packet-based network, a process called routing. routing protocol internal spanning tree International Electrotechnical Commission International Organization for Standardization A segment of CIST in a certain MST region. An IST is a special MSTI whose ID is 0. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international and nongovernmental standards organization dealing with electrical and electronic standards. An international association that works to establish global standards for communications and information exchange. Primary among its accomplishments is the widely accepted ISO/OSI reference model, which defines standards for the interaction of computers connected by communications networks.

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International Telecommunication UnionTelecommunication Standardization Sector Internet Control Message Protocol

An international body that develops worldwide standards for telecommunications technologies. These standards are grouped together in series which are prefixed with a letter indicating the general subject and a number specifying the particular standard. For example, X.25 comes from the "X" series which deals with data networks and open system communications and number "25" deals with packet switched networks. A network-layer (ISO/OSI level 3) Internet protocol that provides error correction and other information relevant to IP packet processing. For example, it can let the IP software on one machine inform another machine about an unreachable destination. See also communications protocol, IP, ISO/OSI reference model, packet (definition 1). A worldwide organization of individuals interested in networking and the Internet. Managed by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG), the IETF is charged with studying technical problems facing the Internet and proposing solutions to the Internet Architecture Board (IAB). The work of the IETF is carried out by various working groups that concentrate on specific topics, such as routing and security. The IETF is the publisher of the specifications that led to the TCP/IP protocol standard. The protocol for managing the membership of Internet Protocol multicast groups among the TCP/IP protocols. It is used by IP hosts and adjacent multicast routers to establish and maintain multicast group memberships. The TCP/IP standard protocol that defines the IP packet as the unit of information sent across an internet and provides the basis for connectionless, best-effort packet delivery service. IP includes the ICMP control and error message protocol as an integral part. The entire protocol suite is often referred to as TCP/IP because TCP and IP are the two fundamental protocols. IP is standardized in RFC 791. A update version of IPv4. It is also called IP Next Generation (IPng). The specifications and standardizations provided by it are consistent with the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). IPv6 is also called. It is a new version of the Internet Protocol, designed as the successor to IPv4. The difference between IPv6 and IPv4 is that an IPv4 address has 32 bits while an IPv6 address has 128 bits. A update version of IPv4. It is also called IP Next Generation (IPng). The specifications and standardizations provided by it are consistent with the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). IPv6 is also called. It is a new version of the Internet Protocol, designed as the successor to IPv4. The difference between IPv6 and IPv4 is that an IPv4 address has 32 bits while an IPv6 address has 128 bits. The ATM inverse multiplexing technique involves inverse multiplexing and demultiplexing of ATM cells in a cyclical fashion among links grouped to form a higher bandwidth logical link whose rate is approximately the sum of the link rates. This is referred to as an IMA group. See Internet Protocol See Internet protocol version 6 See Internet protocol version 6 See Intermediate System to Intermediate System routing protocol See International Organization for Standardization See internal spanning tree See International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication Standardization Sector

Internet Engineering Task Force

Internet Group Management Protocol Internet Protocol

Internet protocol version 6

Internet protocol version 6

inverse multiplexing over ATM

IP IPV6 IPv6 IS-IS ISO IST ITU-T

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B Glossary

J
Jitter Short waveform variations caused by vibration, voltage fluctuations, and control system instability.

B.4 K-O
This section provides the terms starting with letters K to O.

L
L2VPN label switched path See Layer 2 virtual private network A sequence of hops (R0...Rn) in which a packet travels from R0 to Rn through label switching mechanisms. A label-switched path can be chosen dynamically, based on normal routing mechanisms, or through configuration. Basic element of MPLS network. All LSRs support the MPLS protocol. The LSR is composed of two parts: control unit and forwarding unit. The former is responsible for allocating the label, selecting the route, creating the label forwarding table, creating and removing the label switch path; the latter forwards the labels according to groups received in the label forwarding table. See Link Aggregation Control Protocol See link aggregation group See local area network See local area network link access protocol-SDH A component that generates directional optical waves of narrow wavelengths. The laser light has better coherence than ordinary light. The fiber system takes the semi-conductor laser as the light source. A data forwarding method. In LAN, a network bridge or 802.3 Ethernet switch transmits and distributes packet data based on the MAC address. Since the MAC address is the second layer of the OSI model, this data forwarding method is called layer 2 switch.

label switching router

LACP LAG LAN LAN LAPS Laser

layer 2 switch

Layer 2 virtual private A virtual private network achieved by Layer 2 switching technologies in the packet network switched (IP/MPLS) network. LB LCAS LCT line rate line rate forwarding Link Aggregation Control Protocol See loopback See link capacity adjustment scheme local craft terminal The maximum packet forwarding capacity on a cable. The value of line rate equals the maximum transmission rate capable on a given type of media. The line rate equals the maximum transmission rate capable on a given type of media. A method of bundling a group of physical interfaces together as a logical interface to increase bandwidth and reliability. For related protocols and standards, refer to IEEE 802.3ad.

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link aggregation group An aggregation that allows one or more links to be aggregated together to form a link aggregation group so that a MAC client can treat the link aggregation group as if it were a single link. link capacity adjustment scheme LCAS in the virtual concatenation source and sink adaptation functions provides a control mechanism to hitlessly increase or decrease the capacity of a link to meet the bandwidth needs of the application. It also provides a means of removing member links that have experienced failure. The LCAS assumes that in cases of capacity initiation, increases or decreases, the construction or destruction of the end-to-end path is the responsibility of the Network and Element Management Systems. Protection provided by the bypass tunnel for the link on the working tunnel. The link is a downstream link adjacent to the PLR. When the PLR fails to provide node protection, the link protection should be provided. linear multiplex section protection A network formed by the computers and workstations within the coverage of a few square kilometers or within a single building. It features high speed and low error rate. Ethernet, FDDI, and Token Ring are three technologies used to implement a LAN. Current LANs are generally based on switched Ethernet or Wi-Fi technology and running at 1,000 Mbit/ s (that is, 1 Gbit/s). A network formed by the computers and workstations within the coverage of a few square kilometers or within a single building. It features high speed and low error rate. Ethernet, FDDI, and Token Ring are three technologies used to implement a LAN. Current LANs are generally based on switched Ethernet or Wi-Fi technology and running at 1,000 Mbit/ s (that is, 1 Gbit/s). When the switching condition is satisfied, this function disables the service from being switched from the working channel to the protection channel. When the service has been switched, the function enables the service to be restored from the protection channel to the working channel. See Loss Of Frame loss of multiframe A troubleshooting technique that returns a transmitted signal to its source so that the signal or message can be analyzed for errors. See loss of pointer See Loss Of Signal A condition at the receiver or a maintenance signal transmitted in the PHY overhead indicating that the receiving equipment has lost frame delineation. This is used to monitor the performance of the PHY layer. Loss of Pointer: A condition at the receiver or a maintenance signal transmitted in the PHY overhead indicating that the receiving equipment has lost the pointer to the start of cell in the payload. This is used to monitor the performance of the PHY layer. Loss of signal (LOS) indicates that there are no transitions occurring in the received signal. lower order path link-state pass through See label switched path

Link Protection

LMSP local area network

local area network

Locked switching

LOF LOM loopback LOP LOS Loss Of Frame

loss of pointer

Loss Of Signal LP LPT LSP

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LSR

See label switching router

M
MA MAC MAC MADM main topology See maintenance association See media access control See media access control multiple add/drop multiplexer A interface that displays the connection relationships of NEs on the NMS (screen display). The default client interface of the NMS, a basic component of the humanmachine interactive interface. The topology clearly shows the structure of the network, the alarms of different NEs, subnets in the network, the communication status as well as the basic network operation status. All topology management functions are accessed here. That portion of a Service Instance, preferably all of it or as much as possible, the connectivity of which is maintained by CFM. It is also a full mesh of Maintenance Entities. A MEP is an actively managed CFM Entity, associated with a specific DSAP of a Service Instance, which can generate and receive CFM frames and track any responses. It is an end point of a single Maintenance Association, and terminates a separate Maintenance Entity for each of the other MEPs in the same Maintenance Association. The network or the part of the network for which connectivity is managed by CFM. The devices in an MD are managed by a single ISP. Maintenance Point (MP) is one of either a MEP or a MIP. A type of database used for managing the devices in a communications network. It comprises a collection of objects in a (virtual) database used to manage entities (such as routers and switches) in a network. Switches normal traffic signal to the protection section, unless a failure condition exists on other sections (including the protection section) or an equal or higher priority switch command is in effect, by issuing a manual switch request for that normal traffic signal.

maintenance association maintenance association end point

maintenance domain maintenance point management information base manual switch

maximum transmission The largest packet of data that can be transmitted on a network. MTU size varies, unit depending on the network576 bytes on X.25 networks, for example, 1500 bytes on Ethernet, and 17,914 bytes on 16 Mbps Token Ring. Responsibility for determining the size of the MTU lies with the link layer of the network. When packets are transmitted across networks, the path MTU, or PMTU, represents the smallest packet size (the one that all networks can transmit without breaking up the packet) among the networks involved. MBS MCF MD MDI Mean Time Between Failures Mean Time To Repair
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maximum burst size See message communication function See maintenance domain See medium dependent interface The average time between consecutive failures of a piece of equipment. It is a measure of the reliability of the system. The average time that a device will take to recover from a failure.
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media access control

A protocol at the media access control sublayer. The protocol is at the lower part of the data link layer in the OSI model and is mainly responsible for controlling and connecting the physical media at the physical layer. When transmitting data, the MAC protocol checks whether to be able to transmit data. If the data can be transmitted, certain control information is added to the data, and then the data and the control information are transmitted in a specified format to the physical layer. When receiving data, the MAC protocol checks whether the information is correct and whether the data is transmitted correctly. If the information is correct and the data is transmitted correctly, the control information is removed from the data and then the data is transmitted to the LLC layer. A protocol at the media access control sublayer. The protocol is at the lower part of the data link layer in the OSI model and is mainly responsible for controlling and connecting the physical media at the physical layer. When transmitting data, the MAC protocol checks whether to be able to transmit data. If the data can be transmitted, certain control information is added to the data, and then the data and the control information are transmitted in a specified format to the physical layer. When receiving data, the MAC protocol checks whether the information is correct and whether the data is transmitted correctly. If the information is correct and the data is transmitted correctly, the control information is removed from the data and then the data is transmitted to the LLC layer. The electrical and mechanical interface between the equipment and the media transmission. See maintenance association end point maintenance end point The MCF is composed of a protocol stack that allows exchange of management information with their prs. See management information base maintenance intermediate point A piece of angle plate with holes in it on a rack. It is used to fix network elements or components. See maintenance point maintenance point identification See Multiprotocol Label Switching The MPLS L2VPN provides the Layer 2 VPN service based on an MPLS network. In this case, on a uniform MPLS network, the carrier is able to provide Layer 2 VPNs of different media types, such as ATM, FR, VLAN, Ethernet, and PPP. The MPLS OAM provides continuity check for a single LSP, and provides a set of fault detection tools and fault correct mechanisms for MPLS networks. The MPLS OAM and relevant protection switching components implement the detection function for the CRLSP forwarding plane, and perform the protection switching in 50 ms after a fault occurs. In this way, the impact of a fault can be lowered to the minimum. See multiprotocol label switching traffic engineering

media access control

medium dependent interface MEP MEP message communication function MIB MIP mounting ear MP MPID MPLS MPLS L2VPN

MPLS OAM

MPLS TE

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B Glossary

MPLS TE tunnel

In the case of reroute deployment, or when traffic needs to be transported through multiple trails, multiple LSP tunnels might be used. In traffic engineering, such a group of LSP tunnels are referred to as TE tunnels. An LSP tunnel of this kind has two identifiers. One is the Tunnel ID carried by the SENDER object, and is used to uniquely define the TE tunnel. The other is the LSP ID carried by the SENDER_TEMPLATE or FILTER_SPEC object. See multiplex section See multiplex section protection See Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol See Mean Time Between Failures See Mean Time To Repair See maximum transmission unit A process of transmitting packets of data from one source to many destinations. The destination address of the multicast packet uses Class D address, that is, the IP address ranges from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. Each multicast address represents a multicast group rather than a host. Multiple spanning tree protocol. The MSTP can be used in a loop network. Using an algorithm, the MSTP blocks redundant paths so that the loop network can be trimmed as a tree network. In this case, the proliferation and endless cycling of packets is avoided in the loop network. The protocol that introduces the mapping between VLANs and multiple spanning trees. This solves the problem that data cannot be normally forwarded in a VLAN because in STP/RSTP, only one spanning tree corresponds to all the VLANs. The trail between and including two multiplex section trail termination functions. A function, which is performed to provide capability for switching a signal between and including two multiplex section termination (MST) functions, from a "working" to a "protection" channel. A technology that uses short tags of fixed length to encapsulate packets in different link layers, and provides connection-oriented switching for the network layer on the basis of IP routing and control protocols. It improves the cost performance and expandability of networks, and is beneficial to routing. N/A

MS MSP MSTP MTBF MTTR MTU Multicast

Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol

multiplex section multiplex section protection Multiprotocol Label Switching

multiprotocol label switching traffic engineering

N
N+1 protection NE NE Explorer A radio link protection system composed of N working channels and one protection channel. See network element The main operation interface, of the NMS, which is used to manage the telecommunication equipment. In the NE Explorer, the user can query, manage and maintain the NE, boards, and ports on a per-NE basis.

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B Glossary

network element

A network element (NE) contains both the hardware and the software running on it. One NE is at least equipped with one system control and communication(SCC) board which manages and monitors the entire network element. The NE software runs on the SCC board.

Network Management A system in charge of the operation, administration, and maintenance of a network. System network service access A network address defined by ISO, through which entities on the network layer can point access OSI network services. network to network interface next hop NLP NMS NNI node An internal interface within a network linking two or more elements. The next router to which a packet is sent from any given router as it traverses a network on its journey to its final destination. normal link pulse See Network Management System See network to network interface A node stands for a managed device in the network. For a device with a single frame, one node stands for one device. For a device with multiple frames, one node stands for one frame of the device. Therefore, a node does not always mean a device. A parameter of the FRR protection. It indicates that the bypass tunnel should be able to protect the downstream node that is involved in the working tunnel and adjacent to the PLR. The node cannot be a merge point, and the bypass tunnel should also be able to protect the downstream link that is involved in the working tunnel and adjacent to the PLR. A network element whose communication with the NM application layer must be transferred by the gateway network element application layer. See non-gateway network element See network service access point not stop forwarding

Node Protection

non-gateway network element non-GNE NSAP NSF

O
OAM ODF ODU OM One-to-One Backup See operation, administration and maintenance See optical distribution frame See outdoor unit Operation and maintenance A local repair method in which a backup tunnel is separately created for each protected tunnel at a PLR.

open shortest path first A link-state, hierarchical interior gateway protocol (IGP) for network routing. Dijkstra's algorithm is used to calculate the shortest path tree. It uses cost as its routing metric. A link state database is constructed of the network topology which is identical on all routers in the area.

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B Glossary

Open Systems Interconnection

A framework of ISO standards for communication between different systems made by different vendors, in which the communications process is organized into seven different categories that are placed in a layered sequence based on their relationship to the user. Each layer uses the layer immediately below it and provides a service to the layer above. Layers 7 through 4 deal with end-to-end communication between the message source and destination, and layers 3 through 1 deal with network functions. A group of network support functions that monitor and sustain segment operation, activities that are concerned with, but not limited to, failure detection, notification, location, and repairs that are intended to eliminate faults and keep a segment in an operational state and support activities required to provide the services of a subscriber access network to users/subscribers. A device installed at the end of a fiber, optical source or receive unit. It is used to couple the optical wave to the fiber when connected to another device of the same type. A connector can either connect two fiber ends or connect a fiber end and an optical source (or a detector).+ A frame which is used to transfer and spool fibers. A channel that provides voice communication between operation engineers or maintenance engineers of different stations. See Open Systems Interconnection See open shortest path first The outdoor unit of the split-structured radio equipment. It implements frequency conversion and amplification for RF signals. A method of looping back the input signals received at a port to an output port without changing the structure of the signals. The ranger of optical energy level of output signals.

operation, administration and maintenance

optic fiber connector

optical distribution frame orderwire OSI OSPF outdoor unit Outloop Output optical power

B.5 P-T
This section provides the terms starting with letters P to T.

P
packet switched network Packing case Path A telecommunication network which works in packet switching mode. A case which is used for packing the board or subrack. A performance resource object defined in the network management system. The left end of a path is a device node whose port needs to be specified and the right end of a path is a certain IP address which can be configured by the user. By defining a path in the network management system, a user can test the performance of a network path between a device port and an IP address. The tested performance may be the path delay, packet loss ratio or other aspects. See peak burst size See printed circuit board

PBS PCB

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B Glossary

PCI bus PDH PDU PE peak burst size

PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) bus. A high performance bus, 32-bit or 64-bit for interconnecting chips, expansion boards, and processor/memory subsystems. See plesiochronous digital hierarchy See protocol data unit See provider edge A parameter used to define the capacity of token bucket P, that is, the maximum burst IP packet size when the information is transferred at the peak information rate. This parameter must be larger than 0. It is recommended that this parameter should be not less than the maximum length of the IP packet that might be forwarded. A traffic parameter, expressed in bit/s, whose value should be not less than the committed information rate. Penultimate Hop Popping (PHP) is a function performed by certain routers in an MPLS enabled network. It refers to the process whereby the outermost label of an MPLS tagged packet is removed by a Label Switched Router (LSR) before the packet is passed to an adjacent Label Edge Router (LER). IETF Diff-Serv workgroup defines forwarding behaviors of network nodes as per-hop behaviors (PHB), such as, traffic scheduling and policing. A device in the network should select the proper PHB behaviors, based on the value of DSCP. At present, the IETF defines four types of PHB. They are class selector (CS), expedited forwarding (EF), assured forwarding (AF), and best-effort (BE). See per-hop behavior See penultimate hop popping See peak information rate physical link aggregation A multiplexing scheme of bit stuffing and byte interleaving. It multiplexes the minimum rate 64 kit/s into the 2 Mbit/s, 34 Mbit/s, 140 Mbit/s, and 565 Mbit/s rates.

peak information rate penultimate hop popping

per-hop behavior

PHB PHP PIR PLA plesiochronous digital hierarchy

Point-to-Point Protocol A protocol on the data link layer, provides point-to-point transmission and encapsulates data packets on the network layer. It is located in layer 2 of the IP protocol stack. polarization A kind of electromagnetic wave, the direction of whose electric field vector is fixed or rotates regularly. Specifically, if the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave is perpendicular to the plane of horizon, this electromagnetic wave is called vertically polarized wave; if the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave is parallel to the plane of horizon, this electromagnetic wave is called horizontal polarized wave; if the tip of the electric field vector, at a fixed point in space, describes a circle, this electromagnetic wave is called circularly polarized wave. A direct current power distribution box at the upper part of a cabinet, which supplies power for the subracks in the cabinet. See Point-to-Point Protocol See priority queue See pseudo random binary sequence primary reference clock

Power box PPP PQ PRBS PRC

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B Glossary

printed circuit board

A board used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using conductive pathways, tracks, or traces, etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. An abstract data type in computer programming that supports the following three operations: (1) InsertWithPriority: add an element to the queue with an associated priority (2) GetNext: remove the element from the queue that has the highest priority, and return it (also known as "PopElement(Off)", or "GetMinimum") (3) PeekAtNext (optional): look at the element with highest priority without removing it A cable which connects the equipment and the protection ground bar. Usually, one half of the cable is yellow; while the other half is green. A specific path that is part of a protection group and is labeled protection. It is a data packet at the network layer of the OSI model. A device that is located in the backbone network of the MPLS VPN structure. A PE is responsible for VPN user management, establishment of LSPs between PEs, and exchange of routing information between sites of the same VPN. During the process, a PE performs the mapping and forwarding of packets between the private network and the public channel. A PE can be a UPE, an SPE, or an NPE.

priority queue

protection ground cable Protection path protocol data unit provider edge

pseudo random binary A sequence that is random in a sense that the value of an element is independent of the sequence values of any of the other elements, similar to real random sequences. pseudo wire An emulated connection between two PEs for transmitting frames. The PW is established and maintained by PEs through signaling protocols. The status information of a PW is maintained by the two end PEs of a PW.

pseudo wire emulation A type of end-to-end Layer 2 transmitting technology. It emulates the essential attributes edge-to-edge of a telecommunication service such as ATM, FR or Ethernet in a Packet Switched Network (PSN). PWE3 also emulates the essential attributes of low speed Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) circuit and SONET/SDH. The simulation approximates to the real situation. PSN PTN PW PWE3 See packet switched network packet transport network See pseudo wire See pseudo wire emulation edge-to-edge

Q
QinQ A layer 2 tunnel protocol based on IEEE 802.1Q encapsulation. It encapsulates the tag of the user's private virtual local area network (VLAN) into the tag of the public VLAN. The packet carries two layers of tags to travel through the backbone network of the carrier. In this manner, the layer 2 virtual private network (VPN) is provided for the user. See quality of service See quadrature phase shift keying

QoS QPSK

quadrature phase shift A modulation method of data transmission through the conversion or modulation and keying the phase determination of the reference signals (carrier). It is also called the fourth period or 4-phase PSK or 4-PSK. QPSK uses four dots in the star diagram. The four dots are evenly distributed on a circle. On these phases, each QPSK character can perform twobit coding and display the codes in Gray code on graph with the minimum BER.
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B Glossary

quality of service

A commonly-used performance indicator of a telecommunication system or channel. Depending on the specific system and service, it may relate to jitter, delay, packet loss ratio, bit error ratio, and signal-to-noise ratio. It functions to measure the quality of the transmission system and the effectiveness of the services, as well as the capability of a service provider to meet the demands of users.

R
radio frequency A type of electric current in the wireless network using AC antennas to create an electromagnetic field. It is the abbreviation of high-frequency AC electromagnetic wave. The AC with the frequency lower than 1 kHz is called low-frequency current. The AC with frequency higher than 10 kHz is called high-frequency current. RF can be classified into such high-frequency current. A device in the RNS which is in charge of controlling the use and the integrity of the radio resources.

radio network controller

random early detection A packet loss algorithm used in congestion avoidance. It discards the packet according to the specified higher limit and lower limit of a queue so that global TCP synchronization resulted in traditional Tail-Drop can be prevented. Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol RDI received signal level Received Signal Strength Indicator Receiver Sensitivity RED Reed-Solomon-Code An evolution of the Spanning Tree Protocol, providing for faster spanning tree convergence after a topology change. The RSTP protocol is backward compatible with the STP protocol. See remote defect indication The signal level at a receiver input terminal. The received wide band power, including thermal noise and noise generated in the receiver, within the bandwidth defined by the receiver pulse shaping filter, for TDD within a specified timeslot. The reference point for the measurement shall be the antenna Receiver sensitivity is defined as the minimum acceptable value of average received power at point R to achieve a 1 x 10-12 BER (The FEC is open). See random early detection A forward error correction code located before interleaving that enables correction of errors induced by burst noise. Widely used error correction scheme to fight transmission errors at the receiver site. See remote error indication A signal transmitted at the first opportunity in the outgoing direction when a terminal detects specific defects in the incoming signal.

REI remote defect indication

remote error indication A remote error indication (REI) is sent upstream to signal an error condition. There are two types of REI alarms: Remote error indication line (REI-L) is sent to the upstream LTE when errors are detected in the B2 byte. Remote error indication path (REI-P) is sent to the upstream PTE when errors are detected in the B3 byte. Request For Comments A document in which a standard, a protocol, or other information pertaining to the operation of the Internet is published. The RFC is actually issued, under the control of the IAB, after discussion and serves as the standard. RFCs can be obtained from sources such as InterNIC.

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B Glossary

Resource Reservation Protocol

The Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) is designed for Integrated Service and is used to reserve resources on every node along a path. RSVP operates on the transport layer; however, RSVP does not transport application data. RSVP is a network control protocol like Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). A traffic control method. In telecommunication, when detecting that the transmit end transmits a large volume of traffic, the receive end sends signals to ask the transmit end to slow down the transmission rate. See radio frequency See Request For Comments See Routing Information Protocol remote network monitoring remote network monitoring See radio network controller An alarm directly caused by anomaly events or faults in the network. Some lower-level alarms always accompany a root alarm. A route is the path that network traffic takes from its source to its destination. In a TCP/ IP network, each IP packet is routed independently. Routes can change dynamically. A mapping table that stores the relationship between the original address, destination address, short message (SM) protocol type and account. The SMSC delivers an SM to the designated account according to the information set in the route table. A simple routing protocol that is part of the TCP/IP protocol suite. It determines a route based on the smallest hop count between source and destination. RIP is a distance vector protocol that routinely broadcasts routing information to its neighboring routers and is known to waste bandwidth. A table that stores and updates the locations (addresses) of network devices. Routers regularly share routing table information to be up to date. A router relies on the destination address and on the information in the table that gives the possible routes--in hops or in number of jumps--between itself, intervening routers, and the destination. Routing tables are updated frequently as new information is available. See received signal level See Received Signal Strength Indicator See Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol See Resource Reservation Protocol radio transmission node

reverse pressure

RF RFC RIP RMON RMON RNC Root alarm route route table

Routing Information Protocol

routing table

RSL RSSI RSTP RSVP RTN

S
SD SDH SEMF See space diversity See synchronous digital hierarchy See synchronous equipment management function

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service level agreement A service contract between a customer and a service provider that specifies the forwarding service a customer should receive. A customer may be a user organization (source domain) or another differentiated services domain (upstream domain). A SLA may include traffic conditioning rules which constitute a traffic conditioning agreement as a whole or partially. Service Level Agreement * A management-documented agreement that defines the relationship between service provider and its customer. It also provides specific, quantifiable information about measuring and evaluating the delivery of services. The SLA details the specific operating and support requirements for each service provided. It protects the service provider and customer and allows the service provider to provide evidence that it has achieved the documented target measure. See severely errored second The priority of the tunnel with respect to obtaining resources, ranging from 0 (indicates the highest priority) to 7. It is used to determine whether the tunnel can preempt the resources required by other backup tunnels.

SES Setup Priority

severely errored second A one-second period which has a bit error ratio X 10-3 or at least one defect. Time interval of one second during which a given digital signal is received with an error ratio greater than 1 X 10 -3 (Rec. ITU R F. 592 needs correction). SF SFP side trough signal cable signal fail signal to noise ratio See signal fail See small form-factor pluggable The trough on the side of the cable rack, which is used to place nuts so as to fix the cabinet. Common signal cables cover the E1 cable, network cable, and other non-subscriber signal cable. A signal that indicates the associated data has failed in the sense that a near-end defect condition (non-degrade defect) is active. The ratio of the amplitude of the desired signal to the amplitude of noise signals at a given point in time. SNR is expressed as 10 times the logarithm of the power ratio and is usually expressed in dB (Decibel). A network management protocol of TCP/IP. It enables remote users to view and modify the management information of a network element. This protocol ensures the transmission of management information between any two points. The polling mechanism is adopted to provide basic function sets. According to SNMP, agents, which can be hardware as well as software, can monitor the activities of various devices on the network and report these activities to the network console workstation. Control information about each device is maintained by a management information block. Designating or pertaining to a method of operation in which information can be transmitted in either direction, but not simultaneously, between two points. See service level agreement See Service Level Agreement * To divide data into the information units proper for transmission. A specification for a new generation of optical modular transceivers. See subnetwork connection

Simple Network Management Protocol

simplex SLA SLA* Slicing small form-factor pluggable SNC

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SNCP SNMP SNR space diversity

See subnetwork connection protection See Simple Network Management Protocol See signal to noise ratio A diversity scheme that enables two or more antennas separated by a specific distance to transmit/receive the same signal and selection is then performed between the two signals to ease the impact of fading. Currently, only receive SD is used.

Spanning Tree Protocol STP is a protocol that is used in the LAN to remove the loop. STP applies to the redundant network to block some undesirable redundant paths through certain algorithms and prune a loop network into a loop-free tree network. SSM static virtual circuit See Synchronization Status Message Static virtual circuit. A static implementation of MPLS L2VPN that transfers L2VPN information by manual configuration of VC labels, instead of by a signaling protocol.

Statistical multiplexing A multiplexing technique whereby information from multiple logical channels can be transmitted across a single physical channel. It dynamically allocates bandwidth only to active input channels, to make better use of available bandwidth and allow more devices to be connected than with other multiplexing techniques. Compare with TDM. STM STM-1 STM-N STP sub-network See Synchronous Transport Module See synchronous transport mode-1 See synchronous transport module of order N See Spanning Tree Protocol Sub-network is the logical entity in the transmission network and comprises a group of network management objects. The network that consists of a group of interconnected or correlated NEs, according to different functions. For example, protection subnet, clock subnet and so on. A sub-network can contain NEs and other sub-networks. Generally, a sub-network is used to contain the equipment located in adjacent regions and closely related with one another, and it is indicated with a sub-network icon on a topological view. The U2000 supports multilevels of sub-networks. A sub-network planning can better the organization of a network view. On the one hand, the view space can be saved, on the other hand, it helps the network management personnel focus on the equipment under their management. The technique used by the IP protocol to determine which network segment packets are destined for. The subnet mask is a binary pattern that is stored in the client machine, server or router and is matched with the IP address.

subnet mask

subnetwork connection A "transport entity" that transfers information across a subnetwork, it is formed by the association of "ports" on the boundary of the subnetwork. subnetwork connection A function, which allows a working subnetwork connection to be replaced by a protection protection subnetwork connection if the working subnetwork connection fails, or if its performance falls below a required level. SVC switch See static virtual circuit To filter, forward frames based on label or the destination address of each frame. This behavior operates at the data link layer of the OSI model.

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Synchronization Status A message that carries quality levels of timing signals on a synchronous timing link. Message Nodes on an SDH network and a synchronization network acquire upstream clock information through this message. Then the nodes can perform proper operations on their clocks, such as tracing, switching, or converting to holdoff, and forward the synchronization information to downstream nodes. synchronous digital hierarchy A transmission scheme that follows ITU-T G.707, G.708, and G.709. It defines the transmission features of digital signals such as frame structure, multiplexing mode, transmission rate level, and interface code. SDH is an important part of ISDN and BISDN. It interleaves the bytes of low-speed signals to multiplex the signals to high-speed counterparts, and the line coding of scrambling is used only for signals. SDH is suitable for the fiber communication system with high speed and a large capacity since it uses synchronous multiplexing and flexible mapping structure. The SEMF converts performance data and implementation specific hardware alarms into object-oriented messages for transmission over DCCs and/or a Q interface.

synchronous equipment management function

synchronous transport Synchronous Transfer Mode at 155 Mbit/s. mode-1 Synchronous Transport Module An STM is the information structure used to support section layer connections in the SDH. It consists of information payload and Section Overhead (SOH) information fields organized in a block frame structure which repeats every 125. The information is suitably conditioned for serial transmission on the selected media at a rate which is synchronized to the network. A basic STM is defined at 155 520 kbit/s. This is termed STM-1. Higher capacity STMs are formed at rates equivalent to N times this basic rate. STM capacities for N = 4, N = 16 and N = 64 are defined; higher values are under consideration.

synchronous transport A STM-N is the information structure used to support section layer connections in SDH. See ITU-T Recommendation G. 707 for STM modules of order 1, 4, 16 and 64. module of order N

T
tail drop A type of QoS. When a queue within a network router reaches its maximum length, packet drops can occur. When a packet drop occurs, connection-based protocols such as TCP slow down their transmission rates in an attempt to let queued packets be serviced, thereby letting the queue empty. This is also known as tail drop because packets are dropped from the input end (tail) of the queue. A congestion management mechanism, in which packets arrive later are discarded when the queue is full. This policy of discarding packets may result in network-wide synchronization due to the TCP slow startup mechanism. tag control information See Transmission Control Protocol See time division multiplexing See traffic engineering See traffic engineering database

Tail drop

TCI TCP TDM TE TEDB

Telecommunication A protocol model defined by ITU-T for managing open systems in a communications Management Network network. An architecture for management, including planning, provisioning, installation, maintenance, operation and administration of telecommunications equipment, networks and services.
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B Glossary

TIM time division multiplexing

trace identifier mismatch A multiplexing technology. TDM divides the sampling cycle of a channel into time slots (TSn, n=0, 1, 2, 3, ...), and the sampling value codes of multiple signals engross time slots in a certain order, forming multiple multiplexing digital signals to be transmitted over one channel. A technique used in best-effort delivery systems to prevent packets that loop endlessly. The TTL is set by the sender to the maximum time the packet is allowed to be in the network. Each router in the network decrements the TTL field when the packet arrives, and discards any packet if the TTL counter reaches zero. See Telecommunication Management Network A ToS sub-field (the bits 0 to 2 in the ToS field) in the ToS field of the IP packet header. See tributary protection switch A technology that is used to dynamically monitor the traffic of the network and the load of the network elements, to adjust in real time the parameters such as traffic management parameters, route parameters and resource restriction parameters, and to optimize the utilization of network resources. The purpose is to prevent the congestion caused by unbalanced loads. TEDB is the abbreviation of the traffic engineering database. MPLS TE needs to know the features of the dynamic TE of every links by expanding the current IGP, which uses the link state algorithm, such as OSPF and IS-IS. The expanded OSPF and IS-IS contain some TE features, such as the link bandwidth and color. The maximum reserved bandwidth of the link and the unreserved bandwidth of every link with priority are rather important. Every router collects the information about TE of every links in its area and generates TE DataBase. TEDB is the base of forming the dynamic TE path in the MPLS TE network. It is a way of controlling the network traffic from a computer to optimize or guarantee the performance and minimize the delay. It actively adjusts the output speed of traffic in the scenario that the traffic matches network resources provided by the lower layer devices, avoiding packet loss and congestion. The protocol within TCP/IP that governs the breakup of data messages into packets to be sent via IP (Internet Protocol), and the reassembly and verification of the complete messages from packets received by IP. A connection-oriented, reliable protocol (reliable in the sense of ensuring error-free delivery), TCP corresponds to the transport layer in the ISO/OSI reference model. Tributary protection switching, a function provided by the equipment, is intended to protect N tributary processing boards through a standby tributary processing board. See two rate three color marker See time to live tributary unit A channel on the packet switching network that transmits service traffic between PEs. In VPN, a tunnel is an information transmission channel between two entities. The tunnel ensures secure and transparent transmission of VPN information. In most cases, a tunnel is an MPLS tunnel.

time to live

TMN ToS priority TPS traffic engineering

traffic engineering database

Traffic shaping

Transmission Control Protocol

tributary protection switch trTCM TTL TU Tunnel

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two rate three color marker

The trTCM meters an IP packet stream and marks its packets based on two rates, Peak Information Rate (PIR) and Committed Information Rate (CIR), and their associated burst sizes to be either green, yellow, or red. A packet is marked red if it exceeds the PIR. Otherwise it is marked either yellow or green depending on whether it exceeds or doesn't exceed the CIR.

B.6 U-Z
This section provides the terms starting with letters U to Z.

U
U-VLAN UAS UBR UDP underfloor cabling UNI unicast unspecified bit rate A VLAN attribute indicating that the current VLAN is a user VLAN of an M-VLAN. Multicast services are copied from the M-VLAN to the user VLAN. unavailable second See unspecified bit rate See User Datagram Protocol The cables connected cabinets and other devices are routed underfloor. See user network interface The process of sending data from a source to a single recipient. No commitment to transmission. No feedback to congestion. This type of service is ideal for the transmission of IP datagrams. In case of congestion, UBR cells are discarded, and no feedback or request for slowing down the data rate is delivered to the sender. An operation to report some or all configuration data of an NE to the NMS(Network Management system). The configuration data then covers the configuration data stored at the NMS side. A TCP/IP standard protocol that allows an application program on one device to send a datagram to an application program on another. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) uses IP to deliver datagrams. UDP provides application programs with the unreliable connectionless packet delivery service. Therefore, UDP messages can be lost, duplicated, delayed, or delivered out of order. UDP is used to try to transmit the data packet, that is, the destination device does not actively confirm whether the correct data packet is received.

upload

User Datagram Protocol

user network interface The interface between user equipment and private or public network equipment (for example, ATM switches).

V
V-UNI variable bit rate See virtual user-network interface One of the traffic classes used by ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode). Unlike a permanent CBR (Constant Bit Rate) channel, a VBR data stream varies in bandwidth and is better suited to non real time transfers than to real-time streams such as voice calls. See variable bit rate See virtual container
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VBR VC
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VCC VCG VCI VCTRUNK virtual channel connection virtual channel identifier virtual concatenation group virtual container

See virtual channel connection See virtual concatenation group See virtual channel identifier A virtual concatenation group applied in data service mapping, also called the internal port of a data service processing board The VC logical trail that carries data between two end points in an ATM network. A logical grouping of multiple virtual channel connections into one virtual connection. A 16-bit field in the header of an ATM cell. The VCI, together with the VPI, is used to identify the next destination of a cell as it passes through a series of ATM switches on its way to its destination. A group of co-located member trail termination functions that are connected to the same virtual concatenation link The information structure used to support path layer connections in the SDH. It consists of information payload and path Overhead (POH) information fields organized in a block frame structure which repeats every 125 or 500 s. A logical grouping of two or more nodes which are not necessarily on the same physical network segment but which share the same IP network number. This is often associated with switched Ethernet. The field in the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) cell header that identifies to which virtual path the cell belongs. A type of point-to-multipoint L2VPN service provided over the public network. VPLS enables geographically isolated user sites to communicate with each other through the MAN/WAN as if they are on the same LAN.

virtual local area network virtual path identifier virtual private LAN service

virtual private network A system configuration, where the subscriber is able to build a private network via connections to different network switches that may include private network capabilities. virtual route forward VRF performs the function of establishing multiple virtual routing devices on one actual routing device. That is, the L3 interfaces of the device are distributed to different VRFs, performing the function of establishing multiple virtual route forwarding instances on the device. A virtual user-network interface, works as an action point to perform service classification and traffic control in HQoS. See virtual local area network An IP telephony term for a set of facilities used to manage the delivery of voice information over the Internet. VoIP involves sending voice information in a digital form in discrete packets rather than by using the traditional circuit-committed protocols of the public switched telephone network (PSTN). See voice over IP See virtual path identifier See virtual private LAN service See virtual private network See virtual route forward

virtual user-network interface VLAN voice over IP

VoIP VPI VPLS VPN VRF

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B Glossary

W
wait to restore WAN Web LCT weighted fair queuing The number of minutes to wait before services are switched back to the working line. See wide area network The local maintenance terminal of a transport network, which is located on the NE management layer of the transport network A fair queue scheduling algorithm based on bandwidth allocation weights. This scheduling algorithm allocates the total bandwidth of an interface to queues, according to their weights and schedules the queues cyclically. In this manner, packets of all priority queues can be scheduled.

weighted random early A packet loss algorithm used for congestion avoidance. It can prevent the global TCP detection synchronization caused by traditional tail-drop. WRED is favorable for the high-priority packet when calculating the packet loss ratio. weighted round Robin N/A WFQ wide area network See weighted fair queuing A network composed of computers which are far away from each other which are physically connected through specific protocols. WAN covers a broad area, such as a province, a state or even a country. A tool for fiber routing, which acts as the corrugated pipe. See weighted random early detection See weighted round Robin See wait to restore

winding pipe WRED WRR WTR

X
XPIC See cross polarization interference cancellation

Issue 02 (2012-01-30)

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