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Non-Flow Thermodynamic Processes

Constant Pressure pv(0 ) = c

Constant Temperature

pv(1) = c
Adiabatic Process Ploytropic Process pv(k ) = c

Constant Volune pv( ) = c

pv(n ) = c

v
1

CONSTANT VOLUME NON_FLOW PROCESS Q = E + W


W = pdV = 0 Q = m (u 2 - u 1 ) = m c v (T 2 - T1 ) Q = u 2 - u 1 = c v dT m du = c v dT q= kJ, BTU

kJ/kg, BTU/lb

CONSTANT PRESSURE NON-FLOW PROCESS Q = E + W

W = p dV = m p dv = m p (v2 - v1 ) kJ, ft lbf W = (p2v2 - p1v1 ) = R (T2 - T1 ) kJ/kg,ft lbf /lbm m Q = m (u2 - u1 ) + m (p2 v2 - p1v1 ) w= q = (u 2 + p2 v2 ) - (u1 + p1v1 ) q = h 2 - h1 = cpdT dh = cpdT
2

Constant Temperature Non-Flow Process


pv(1) = constant p 2 v1 = p1 v 2 Q = E + W First Law, Non - Flow Closed System DE = 0 V2 v2 Q = pdV Q = m RT ln V = m RT ln v 1 1 pV = mRT Ideal Gas Law v2 p1 mRT Q = m RT ln v = m RT ln p p= 1 2 V v2 m RT q = p1v1ln Q= dV v V 1 Q = m RT lnV p2 v2 v2 q= ln q = RT ln V J v 1

What is the heat flow when 3 lb of nitrogen undergoes a constant temperature process at 300 F from an initial volume of 40 ft3 to a final volume of 22.5 ft3? Q = DE + W DE = 0 Q=W
v2 V2 q = R T ln = R T ln v V 1 1 22.5 q = 55.17 760 ln 40 q = -24,115.ft - lbf/lbm

2 p T=const

- 24,115 ft - lbf/lbm 3 lbm 778ft - lb/BTU Q = -93.29 BTU Q=

1
40 ft3

Also : p1 q = R T ln p 2

22.5ft3

V, ft3

POLYTROPIC PROCESS

pvn = constant
n p1v1 = p2 vn 2

c v - n +1 W = m pdv = m c v dv = 1- n m(p2 v 2 - p1v1 ) m R (T2 - T1 ) W= = 1- n 1- n Q = E + W


-n

p 2 v1 = p1 v 2 substitute from pv = RT T2 v1 = T1 v 2
n -1

q = u + w

p2 = p 1

n -1 n

R (T2 - T1 ) q = c v (T2 - T1 ) + 1- n k -n q = cv (T2 - T1 ) 1- n


n -1 n k - n p 2 q = cv 1 T1 1 - n p1 n -1 k - n v1 q = cv - 1 T1 v 1- n 2

ADIABATIC PROCESS, Q=0


Q = E + W First Law, Non - Flow Closed System q = Du + w 0 = c v dT + pdv pv T= Ideal Gas Law R 1 dT = (vdv + pdp) R cv cv 0 = pdv + vdv + pdv R R c dv c dp 0 = v + 1 + v R v R p

1 1 + 1ln v + ln p = Constant k -1 k -1 pvk = constant


6

ADIABATIC PROCESS k Q=0, pv = constant


pv k = constant
k k p2 v 2 = p1v1

Q = E + W = 0 q = u + w w = u = c v dT = c v (T2 - T1 ) 1 p2 v2 p2 v2 (p2 v 2 - p1v1 ) w = cv = R R k 1 R = cp - c v


k -1 p2 k w = c v T1 p - T1 1 k -1 k p2 cR w = v T1 1 p cp - cv 1 k -1 p2 k 1 w= R T1 1 p k -1 1 v k -1 1 1 w= R T1 - 1 v2 k -1

p2 v1 = p1 v 2 substitutefrom pv = RT T2 v1 = T1 v 2
k -1

p2 = p 1

k -1 k

k p1v1 = p2 v k 2

p 2 = p1 (10)

p2 v2 = p1 v1

.5 lbm of air present in a gasoline engine cylinder,which has a compression ratio of 10 (V1 /V2 = 10), is compressedadiabatically from 70O F and 14.7psia. What work is required? What is the final temperature and pressure?

1.4

p 2 = 14.7psia 25.11 p 2 = 369.3psia T2 p 2 = T1 p1


k -1 k

Also by formula :
1.4-1 1.4

T2 = (70 + 460)(25.11) T2 = 1331O R Q = E + W Q=0 W = E

v k -1 1 1 W = m R T1 - 1 v2 k -1 1 1.4-1 W = .5 53.35 530 (10) - 1 1.4 - 1 W = 53,437ftlbf

W = m c v (T2 - T1 )

W=

W = .5 .17(1331- 530) W = 68.09 BTU

53,437ftlb = 68.8 BTU ftlb 778 BTU


8

NON-FLOW EQUATIONS FOR AN IDEAL GAS


Process n exponent in Constant Pressure Constant Volume Constant Temperature Polytropic Process **

pv = const.
n

n=0

n=

n =1

n=n
n p1v1n = p2 v2

p, v, T Property Relationships

T2 v2 = T1 v1

T2 p2 = T1 p1

p1v1 = p2 v2

T2 v2 = T1 v1
v2 p1v1 ln v 1 p1 = R T ln 1 1 p 2

n -1

p2 = p 1

n -1 n

q, heat energy/mass

c p (T2 - T1 )

cv (T2 - T1 )

k -n cp (T2 - T ) 1 n

w, work w = pdv energy/mass

p1 (v2 - v2 )

v2 p1v1 ln v 1

p1 = R T ln 1 1 p 2

p2v2 - p1v1 R(T2 - T1 ) = 1- n 1- n

Specific Heat

c p = R + cv cp = Rk k -1

cv = c p - R cv = R k -1

c p , cv

* * for n = k =

cp 9 , the process is adiabatic cv