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The Abdomen

Surface Anatomy, Muscles


and Peritoneum

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Abdominopelvic Cavity

Largest part of ventral


body cavity
Abdominal
Stomach, liver, kidneys,
etc
Pelvic
Bladder, some
reproductive organs,
rectum
Two cavities are
continuous
pg 12 www.smso.net
Abdomen
pg 742
Umbilicus = navel

Linea alba = white


line
Xiphoid process to
pubic symphysis
Tendinous line
Inferior Boundaries
Iliac crest
Ant. Sup. Iliac spine
Inguinal ligament
Pubic crest www.smso.net Pg 187
Four Abdominal Quadrants

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Pg 16
Muscles of Abdominal Wall
No bony
reinforcement
3 sheet-like layers
Continuous with
layers of intercostal
muscles
Fibers of layers run in
different directions
for strength
Ends in aponeurosis
which contains rectus
abdominis muscle
Function: hold in
organs, move trunk,
pg 278 www.smso.net
Wall
External Obliques
O: lower 8 ribs I: aponeurosis to linea alba
Function: Flex trunk, compress abd. wall (together)
Rotate trunk (separate sides)
Internal Obliques
O: Lumbar fascia, iliac crest, inguinal ligament
I: Linea alba, pubic crest, last 3-4 ribs, costal margin
Function: Same as External obliques
Transversus Abdominis
O:same as Internals, plus last 6 ribs
I: Xiphoid process, costal cart. 5-7
Function: Compress abdomen
Rectus Abdominis
O: Pubic crest, pubic symphysis I: Xiphoid, cost
cart 5-7 www.smso.net
Muscles of
the Anterior
Abdomen
Wall

All muscles of anterior abdomenwww.smso.net


innervated by INTERCOSTAL nerves
Muscles of the Posterior Abdominal
Wall
Iliopsoas
Psoas major
O: Lumbar vertebrae + T12
I: Lesser trochanter of femur via iliopsoas tendon
Function: Thigh flexion, trunk flexion, lateral flexion
Iliacus
O: Iliac fossa, ala of sacrum
I: Lesser trochanter of femur via iliopsoas tendon
Function: Thigh flexion, trunk flexion
Quadratus lumborum
O: iliac crest, lumbar fascia
I: trans. proc of upper lumbar vertebrae
Function: Flex vertebral column

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Quadratus
lumborum

Iliiopsoas
Muscles of
Iliacus Posterior
Psoas major Abdominal
Wall

Pg 299
www.smso.net
Peritoneum
Extension of serous membrane in the
abdomino-pelvic cavity
Mesentery: Double layer of peritoneum
Hold organs in place
Store fat
Route for vessels + nerves
Retroperitoneal: some organs behind
peritoneum (eg) duodenum, ascending +
descending colon, rectum, pancreas
Peritoneal: remain surrounded by
peritoneal cavity (eg) liver, stomach,
www.smso.net
Peritoneal vs
Retroperitoneal

Pg 13, 614
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