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1982

lI ,

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/l ( ( -ll ) , II . ,
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()Ill, 1975, . 10-1l.

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KOllmaJ'Ia.

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variability (:()() lllLl lc l llyl() l, ll u.llll1, ll(P()llllt)t,lllh, ll(.|,(ll1oLium : variability of temper Lll l u0( lll l (l<, ll ( )Cl l L!,
vaiability of hrtt m mla, vaiilbility
of prices . lu .


clandestine variability , ,
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u] .
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,
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thin sheet, oHrllti - delicate taste,


r7u - keen hig, lotllti mu- astute
poli/tician;

I. ,
II t{ JI.
cko}l tl,
.

,
ts.

,, ,) , ,JII{
coBa colnmit JrIl .

* . ;tt 1lllrJI-il c.ltoBapb .


. : ('t-ltll )tll{, 1972, ..JrIl
trl"t _ (l))).
8

This group to lvhich BTitain and the Unlted States


belong, has lrd committed itself to plovid
$ 6.000 m, (about 2.14 m.) of international

credits available to drw in case of need.


commltted l the concept of formulation
fig policy of reconciliation fr the post Yietnam
period.

was

commit

commit oneself to do Smth.,


um mm, m m-

m, m ., ',
;

, . -

, .
( 2 . 143 . q) ,
_
.
commlt to committed to the concept
to committed to neutral,ism,
md mm u mu,
O -

concept (, . to
committed to the concept). -
(( ,., t>>, & , '((
-.)) ( ( -.)) (, , .). , /l
dll cJlellylolllbl rt:

udui m?
zd, _
.

. commit
. : commit*cy um m-/l. (to commit suicide (
rim, aggression, an rr) etc.); mmittd*1,99 O ( ) ( committed republi-

ld u, committed wTitet ud-

umm)

,
IV. ,
- .
,
,

,
. _
FIe i
9, ,
,
, .
, , g challenge
l : l. l) ( ,
. .); 2) ] ,ta d),; 2, co.1lHeHue;
m d : r. r,rl mu d dtr.r,, 3. . l') m0 u.q)r? dm; 2) u ( -,) d ;
4, . l) du um tu;
2)

tt

t l

_ u

tt u

u u up m.0

l ?

m-

uu mm ?sl];5, , mu, umu;6. . mlt (); 7. u (); 8. . m, ilu ,u |uml;9. . , dlu m,


m oHu tt d, <.

_ ) (.: , 1980),
<<.)),
: 70- t,tcbttttatttte, (cBoux) u; ?u u; m, m_lul il_y)!(,KtllBa, md u m. ,
, lll lr 1,1lllI
challenge du: the-of
l age du, m mum d tu dt
,.

ll, l{/ll t ,
c;loBo clrallenge, , , lta 2 s] ( _
, ll, 0
T

.u.

bt c,t.y),

The new major series of nuclear tests rvhich the ut


is rrig out is hllg to mankind. _
, ,-2 (t)

LI.

Mr Snlith's action
10

was challenge to the British people,

,
.

.
challenge
, challenge -

.
Nt
l,JI }l: |.
uu du. , ,
hostage .
These l would fight even hrd against any
mi srdl to what they call the oil hostage
gm. cTopobt

mil"|lt.

hostage ;Q oi1 hostage game,

m m.
Hostage ilm,
The Economy Becomes Hostage. -

m.

-
, rII :

Is

ld econoart of the


) r
?
to 1to held) hostage to smth, m i ), dm
uu peleHue Z-, 0m llu
u-m uu.

Said the str: "The SALT treaty must not held


hostage to the situation in some country.'2 < .
- )) -

.

Il

l}c:c,rpll x()ll.cKc.l,yilJll,tl1,Ix .,llI


Jllll!ll, llil tlcpll1,1ll rll1 Jl./l ilit(l ()F hostage
IlltlN,ll,t (,'l ()cll(rlIll(tl (l c^ll()tlllpllOt,0 ]lltI
3atlo?lcltttL.
Il:r caMopt /(cJlc K()lllc*c,|
.irt.rrbllc ] rc
;' l , .l' .1! t,! l l l l I(, r l l t til J t,,
t tl " ;i ;
l
;fi;;:
, l loc KoJl ]itJI() t l
i
: :-o-]_lj,I
, tlllli r.i :JJI

- tj.l

'Dr . i
;;ffii;;
Im duck.
?

, }lt. r
, tI _

.ult,
. ll 20 rr ,9 .
,
KPO}yI ) , ,
,
lame duck.
'duck
, Im
.
, now Britain had m mostly diplomatic and
economic lm duck. _

JI ilzpamb mm
( 'um mmu cou Hue uuu).

The senate m vote


nomination dig
Tvill s
,

__ .JI
.-_
latne duck

ii",

.-

*'.

}'rl

t2

lr; Y ,.I''"

*_g;

i,l i ,u]

'

r. , i,

' -u

,
- .
.
l (, );
The senator suggests that the l in the Middle
East should kept tipped in Isaefs fr. , mulu uL
_
,
The minister dealt at length with rvhat he portrayed
as lack of l in press and televisioti coverago
f the news, ,ll}l, Jlo/(p<llltr |] lla.
_, ,t otl ] l(a , -u ()
.
balance-sheet ;
It's time for the president to drw | l-sht
his relations with that utr. /lFI
t)lt tl O
.
l

l-sht of his initiative is struck, the


United States m have achieved no mI than dclay
in the pcoss that thts to lead evenfually to its
own military mrilmt i thc conflict.
dd um? I, It ,

wh the

]-_

, r ,
q, cQOcTBeHHoN{y . .
fo keep smb, off balance -.
fi. ('); (. to keep
smD. m uspense -.
, )

m cTpaH9l _ } ,
it committee (sessio.n) I.
to
,- go
"- ("arltl.i
) ( lr/tJltl ,
2, I, l{ );
i,
(ill ))

The summit wt it lry sssi, ,


94,
9 /IU
0u.,

to rub (rig, press, hmmr) home 4

i,
has been losing grd in
has now rubbed hm
showing that

The m is politician d this is gss. Somehow


he has sid balancing competing forces d
kig lhe op1losilio o|f l.
.
, JI
}t dt
uuu mttu mlmu,

to catch off balance


Although the grills w caught oll l the
ir id, thcy r w tig vigorously against thc
racist grmt. J{ lla 1, ]
mul.t O lrt_ut}] il-,
t Becbi| Jl;ltll
JI.
to g soft

aid one diplorna| "If the U. S. lets its clicnt go down


the drain h allies wjll ld that the mris
have g so/r". : l _
ts
Ij, 0 ,
mu O,l>>,
to go Iortg way down the line -.{.'
9) r -.
Great Britain wt lg l+,ay dw lhe li to mcet the
tr. But the, im iist gd trn the
gt, it,rll MaKcLl,ua,llo lilq
l4

nts r+,ould rfr

candidate.



,


.
pious h ()

settlement of diffeTences with the colntry, they


But
-;;;;;iir"rl'
at present mofe pious hope than

practical aspiration.
t
lm
,
identity ; , I;

1ts idtii Jerusal


tm

F all the Israeli'

I;

J-

rsrd

Jfi( ,
partisan politics , ll

(,

l,I }la, f, llTepecax l );

rtis' plitics . ttllrl JI}iIl


r, rr2li Il,ir l tl)

that I should devote an hr or aday of


m time to any partisa causes or to any duties other
than the awesome duties of this office the presidency
of the country. ,
fi _Qmut
, fi ,
t .

, -\ day, r

I do not believe

to make ptrblic issue of smth, O O_.,

-. ,I

mu,

close face 91**I_:


} ; oopboQ

?, O

m,
pulling power JI}I

His own landslide victory

swept m neTv Democrati

lJtl, .
I
9 II pulling powef, II
victory { - swepl J
tI I
q .
- sweep mu, m
4 _

(ll . .flVl). l} JInllr|o}v, _l, Ir


swept dumu ,
,l,L Jt .
16

"!

showdown , 0,

um,

; _'

_'

,:l' \ }]C;
'-.r,,i,i;

.Il

i ];

(: ...

to stand qr]d counted ;


It ls time fr the grt silent majority to std up d


utd, i um uuu.
1. I
.

w ' insolent hllg not only to the Vietnaeso


people but to all the peop.les of the Socialist countis."

2. "

"

a"II

,
,. .
.
, Koopbte }t lt , - (rl{
, ). :
limt, diplomat contrast, confrontation, federation
. . r
.
r, , _
- . _
ts ,
1, ,
_
, .
, decade. dmut,' rSt mu,
d,, arnmunition ul; complexion m u;
actual 0 mumt , l m t ; accurate
m; t, ut;

flrot

zHeB, m

,
- , ocTaJbtl, , : partisan m,,
ltil uu; ti ,!l.,
ttapod, m; ?oc_|,dapc,tttBo,,rccod ), |l_l/
2.

,u, zmu; uzu;

m;

m.m; ? .m -. ;cynical uu ,

mu,, masslve uu, u.t; il; tu .; discrimination ducKpuMtt-

llu, unm

dmrcu

um/

m,

Hbt ;

l.; dramatic

mu Hbt ; u ;

4mt;

um

Hbt .

, f
lr _


lI94 Q Q
8

19

- _
.*
., KilK revolufion, democcy, socialism,
_]jIT:

r JI,
, , Tevolution
J JI .
;

! Chile hd Pinochet.
,
.

rr_g!!l_


interyentionist
-

that followed World Wr L


_


r( Mllpo|ylo .
u ll u ll ilc r ii :U
J, :},ll
JI :t, 9 9JI

When the Second Wld W'ar 1


position of rld impornce
history of elther isolalioism
-

,
, u uum muu/luu.


, intenationalism _
uuuu
mu ,vtupoBo Iumuq
I"I ,I idealism tll tI
- ( , >.

The Foreign Secretary' most elaborate and mrs


speeches seem to r that idealis is his guiding
star. _
, udu- .

, uu

3 (I\)
'u,,t

(),
(JI )).
radica1
.,tt. - "The Penguin
,linglish Dictionary" (Penguin Books, 1965) radical
ll "one rh holds Oxtreme left-wing views;
onc who advcates far-reaching leforms" m; m,u* . . IJ <
( illlr 3, 4, -5 QOt
r|laKybeTa>, , . 1973, ,37,
.

* -
_ ( .
9 , ; -i(, I969.
)), . , ,
**

S.

The Advanced L.s I)ictionary ui slish

Pr9ss, 1958.
20

Il, . Y, Gth, l[. Wlrkcficlc, Lonclon *r 0irrlti

&L

rcut /l .; mm,

d d udu ,

mm

YperrcHeHlre 2. , } 4
.
rru, .

sad, pathetic sight. 20. What itllig you have was


uid tt lack f education. 2|, h pension is not
charitable gift but right rd s of triuti.
jl. Rev. D.W., miislr of tlte Established hh, is
t,cctor hr. 23. Since Stm, the Fh gmt
lras rl rd m tlran 1,000 tons of ms - chiefly
mmuiti, automatic wcapons d mrts - into the .
24. hs if all the diplomats' dtrts rr to made
to rea_lize that there is absolutely nothing that the Grment do against the Corps Diplomatique as whole
with rgd _t limiting its rits and privileges then the
ig furore would die out. 25. was lrd deeply
involved in fig affairs, committed itrtiqlist
d ittiist.

3.

I-q
, . .. }I

.

i - 1r, ,


lI, f JI_
l

backlash, , II _
JTocb .*
- d i
. lltl
tull ll ltct l-,!*

The killings jn did seemad

dcsigned, in rt at
1east to provoke ighi-wig milit backlash gist
the lft-f-tr gmt ,
ir.,-, ,. t
, , .I mm_d-

* ., rrt, * lrT,,lepTBb l.
** .lttl_ c.lloBitpb rr
. , , Io
22

4
23

lJ .
low-key diplomacy (campaign, strategy, h ,)
_
. -

).
mrik }Iw 1te,l()6eK
. tlie.a ), ' (t, l1 ? ll ll,\t il(a ) t
, l

u(.) r!lt): ottt i)p.l,ztt.l !,(lll|lll(,.

'

' ciliaHc ll] the odd utry


,

) u.

- <<fl)) Iow
rrl :7, rct lLl\ ltl (\.|rtl8dtttl; J|m;
to keep N .tl dm; m
cdeplccltltto;.,3, Maltoe l, .q ; the British
st thr Q?|l ll?m m
.4. , il _
-

stg (high) profile, :


l) u uu; 2) ,ttu ; to keep (have)

tg rl |lzpamb po,,tb (ttm u


uu).

i- low posture
. - O
; llBll a.n llull,

mik ] t , JIJ(
J cor"I . JJ { <}D) |uudm,
, uOrculu d muu, udttdum ,. , , ',
mavcrick
, , 0 &

mik i :

u,t_l,

llu|l,tii omlu,ttt_l,t() 0l OJryeltx ?u ., IT..


ocld-man<lul /l, d8.
tu t ( uq , .); mu ul (.
2+

lt.

to bite the butlet

t.

lt:tutt ttlBcploctttb pll 11tlmuu

um.
""''fin[uea


d, .l,

gg-m-ig
,, fr
lf

llTb ,

dttttt,

(.s Bcelt cpedcmBa,lttt, (]tOtlum c60ll )uluu um,

.
shuttle) du,
' fi \, ,
25

,u*r a, KuHo HaoTKpbI" JuI ; rvrite-in du


d,' . _
)
.

-l

Jlti
fi li
rr, rttt

lI. JI itt J{ ,
il lt ;l
. .
It . 1l{r( I-{ .
.

What is going to happen j F in the wake of


the Helsinki r? Is it going to rr
being of NATO but not quite in ,it ot Natoise
itsel rr _
?
, I,
l zuuu?

II 0
natoisc ts (.:

lti uh - lutiiz ttuuLum).


]- }le
ll ( }l ,I, ((>) Jl .
i JI lI gulliverise.

The rgm| provided the grss did not tinker


with it, ras to gulliyerise Russia. ,
,
, ) m
. m mzs iz.
gulliis t )_
. '
*

_,

It .

HATQ

21

. Il1{ tlTop .;j Melittlopy, Jr


ir Colo, l(oTopoJ,o R l ti, ., Kolol)o1,o Jl}tJl}tyT
. lltt lll lr
l,FI,
,ti tIoBoopir}oall _
I.tll l{t{ tIeil l;,ltttlit .
1,1i}, (trittlll l.t d)
]ill, l,il}l ts "The Economist",
lt t ollo l)/l cJlooM dmu.
)l(c lll}t(lI1.1lt cTilTb}t l1r IIll il ...

The ml China's leading mdt, r

the
suts, showed the hollowness

'

protests f his
Maoist dmr. ,
N(Il , {
,
).

t 3. , II9 }I9.

',

l
jl

l
I


.
- "Gisdd". c.rloBo
}r tlltl (Gisrd d'Estaing;
ri }tt_lI.l II l;l to discard tm,
,ttll, .yBoltbH.-1mb. ,
illl (Ill.
. :
Pesident Gisd d'Estaing dropped lris Caullist rim
Ministe otr Wednesday,
' rtllt Om m l i li ,l{ I\t _.


]ui ts: u l

u, 0'ttl.u.

rtIl }r I
l,t,

Irt,

/l.
it}IJ }t 3,

fl (rr gulliVerise),
28

ballot, id 5 r cent f the vote i wril-i.


l8. The militants inviting the prrblic to leach,is,
film shows and discussion meetings. 19. unnamed

membet of the cabinet was quoted in 1978 New


York Times Washington correspondent as observing of the
president: " is still not rd to admit that sm
these things - like 4 r cent unemploymerrt and 4
cent inflation and balanced budget - r irreconcilable.
Ifs trril painful for him. hr's reluctance on his
part to bite the bullet d make the hrd choices."

II

1. JI ll

.
.
,

.
FI ,
.

: silent majority ,,tu llluHcmlo, -ttmtd lmt l, -rtis policy mu
ttuk (,
).
rt
(*))
- _
; . :
negotiating (bagaining),table m _2;.l
session du; developing countries uLu mll.

, , ,
,
,
30

i\{ . . -

I( tI
rI -l{ . : white m ti
; white powet m l.

, , , _

(). : public man
umuut dm; public opinion ulm
MLtetlue; public scandal ttt d; public denial
uu Ju; pttblic image Omu
dm (muu, m), lu tm

.MlleHull;

public rt

Ill .

zdmLl m-


, ]
I ,
. ;

And then don't fgt, the two utis r bound


together tt f

fridl years,
fiendly treaty ,
. ,
- .
lJ , , II ,

15

.8


tl

. ,_ _

Il :

,
mdmu/lmu d drc.
*

. .. .,

Il. .: . , 1976, , 146

31

l
,

JI tll{, , .
, t JI tI,
t { ,
, _

ItI

. ;
The urst mg the tribes urgd sm puitive
- tolk those in the grmt who still hk
ftr military solution.
punitive talk rtnitive m. q,
.
operation, expedition ..
_l , , .
?
ml , _ 9
.

.
FI, . : negotiated
settlement :/lu, docmuzHynloe /lmm zoBopoB; -rlirti tt doeooop lmHeltttit O7 tu; nuclear paticipation m
d crlJlox; opinion polL tqm2 ,
u .
- rr
' ((*)). : committee mm lum
.Mtlpa, ( >l.
ioMy,
,

Man )is" transplant Dild II.



[reart. t t TaKIlx JIlt L{

endly l -

, shuttle diplomacy }I shuttle.


I} shuttle , -

. ,

l]a (l,,t du,mu)), ;


FI -

,I

Il}To;- ilrtl tlo rlu Mllpa.


(*_
))
FI. : nrountain
wat 2 ( ); weekend
demonstration dttmu du, ( ); succession struggle ,,lm
( ); space grm ?
KochtLlectlx LIudtt ( );
suffocation death m m dul (
).

r (_
) ,
.
2,. rIF OOir
II

I J Jl , ,l, , .
JI , tI , I , ,
1l l,N rI .
.: new Soviet rsl- Common kt country
rr W-arsaw Pact counties. .l .m trld9

O fi_
. 'Warsaw
q
ri (Comnron r' lt rT
Pact),
., u. .[[
Ot( - )llt 2 pblHa clpabt l}apttlaBcozo dl" ,
_
. r, public security action
JrcLl.

dmu-

rtttu u7r:mtl rlmu,

,l ,,.{ tl,i,
rr
I{,
I .
I\{ J] Q, Ji Bus Death Strike.
ts l{ strike
m, us death-* l{ i it, bus m,
, , death l
lrJU{. ,
,t m. _,
I bils death
JI strike JI
, i
<< l ?> , le,lloH-

mt dm
m.

um Om

_
tl
, lt, rt llI r.
rt
, }ie QIf . I.

Jla tJ|Q

, .

j.

r /{lR_tlOt, il[)il l\IlItlJl


tlltj lta }ll,ll 1.1.
tt1,1ltx most-favoLlr"C-naliu]i-riualng
,
.,
shtus rrt
Lrtus l1o l|ellocpertcTell]lo
l]
ding; msfrd-ii_ Jl .JI] . I
,l/lrt l{aJleBo: tzt mm u
(

l,

tlt, lt. l t .:!' tl li


ll' l.
l Trident

at

l t

smi-lhd rnissitc, I{ r

pipe-puffing, tough, no-nonsense, 55 year-oId frmr


president's law itt-i Ifi ,
) II, .


JI ( ) ts
ts , { , II
:
.
-
l{
55 .

xapaTepofuI,
, 9_
rI .

, _ LII(. , larv
rtr f tt

Jj :
u? m .
I
r0"

._14

35

The president pursued his ttr-lt-th-r courtship of, the Congress * and as result made some
headway witlr the bill he needs to start Teorganizing
the bureaucracy.

Better late than neyer JIt dil, lt u2 , I JI.

etter-late-tha-eyer courtship
trFI courtship.
/I _
. }Ia
:
,
, .l , .
,
i r .
The no-room-at-the-inn incident
; , rr , ,
. uudm. , , i{

N{ -

, , O

. -
: udm mO tt

ti

tt,tt

utt

u.

I, ,
l
,
IlepeI]oj{oI ] _Stop
Dumping in Death Pit Bid J.uh,d l{ :
u (Bid Launchcd) g llpLlK!)lll|crltte
)|rl .flvbl (Stop Dumping in Pit) orlacHbtx d
Jltll (Death,; dumt m.
l
(death
, JI ). lrl. Iots()li. IOti
[l , c; Ie.]:l},e,l . Io-IJ lIrlllN{.
l

: ,u

Jo

t] LO

mu

tt

:]

L)

ll l l l J

.t/.l,(.

r II (, :
l] JI (),
:|h,t ,
tr, JI (,).

t 4. r .
D ,

*1, In the elections'the congressman carfied the main


partisa urd of campaigning foT individual Republicans.
2. The Temedial measules that r needed in this crisis should
ri bipartisa support. . The rMeakness of this
gumt is tlrat it virtuall5z forecioses the possibility f
egotiated , 4. The plan does not offer any r1
hope of security to the Basques i the hostile future to
which it would condemn thern. 5. h discovery of oi1
off tlre northern Norwegian coast wil1 make it mh
hrdr f Norway to resist domestic pressures to start
opening up its own noTthern wtrS, long believed to
ih in oil. *6. hr seems nothing Nw could do in

law to stop Klodike-style rush to dill in

these

of the Middle
E,ast in Apri1 the trade minister was last-miute
project undertaken with little consultation between the
lbreign and trd ministries. 8. The draft of -rlifrti treaty was prepared fr discussion. 9. The Israeli
cabinet has issued Ikt rejectio of the entiTe Arab
proposals. 10. The president intended to press Congress
-m's waters. 7. The well-published tour

r approva| of w militaty-aid grmts. 11. Rth


wanted the AFL-CIO to fight hafder to recruit new
mmrs and to clusade mr. Sturl, Meany took
pragmatic, go-slow approach. 12, As he spoke in the
t,ltttttclt,lit,red receptio

hall,.deep|y carpeted and hung with

gold d, great rolls of thunder and flashes f


liglrtrring accompanied him. 13. The State Srt hoped
to inform Congress that, as the result ot behind-the-scees
U.S, procidig Turkey had agreed to or would soon gr
[ some w steps. ]4. 'The proposed millio-barrel-per-

day reductio i oi1 imports is the centeTpiece of th.e


;lresident's enelgy rgrm. -15. It was isl the period
of the world pre-war Uited People's Frt struggle against
[ascism, 16. The Shah was Q-m White us d
37

t{ trd 0,
O
IlII!IrI, }1

.l

|id m, () -llid alley 1, ;


2, ,ti IIJI(]{
liberal goyelnment ..-

measure.

III

1. trl
JI, Il


, ,
,
,
-

. t{
, 9
lia^K . : to take effect

mum lt,

"

.
,
high

.
, _
, ,
. . ( ,_
) t i

.
38

I ib eral educati i (lr


)
lril rrr . r-l seilse .

to make tables (bricks, viine. mitchines) ;r. , c,oJlbl (ltll, B}lllo, ) : / take il (ol) r
. . _,; _. ,

to take pencil ( sheet of paper, spade)


I ( , ) - lo take is

-
ts II
I ],.
{ ( . , lid LJ , l , I :
cJletla lllllu,, i m ..] take
m, m
, ,
. O i LI, _
}{ Jt ) , .] .
l,rl , ts
rt tt ,
I{ ]irFJ. IJ.l:

to go to the country fl -t go to the


country

ttl sit the fence -t sit the


fgnce (iII I{t
9

to

to mk

fe

to

rd tape i TecbMa-red
,

dw

tape,,,

,
, KoIlKpeTHoM JI
. .
, -

-
- .

2,
- -

Jl

, G-

;:,"#,

,, , .

t],

1. ,
:
to l with fi um ozHe,|{; to take the bull
the horns ; to sugar (to gild) the pill
dtu (umm) tt; shadow cabinet
m um>; the lion's shr zlt d; poot
as huh mouse d .1 ; to
r under luk star podumbc-q d mu d; to ut the Gordian kt uttt du l:
to ss the lti ttttt .l,u; to 8 to Canossa
m 1, (
]
2. .lltlltll, rl
ll: to urs 's strs illl
d,, the rt the tl z,, in full
swing 2: to slecp l volcano um
(cttdelttb ti ); whip-and-carrot
policy ollt]ltllKo m u u; to sleep like log
(rock) m ,
40

3. , : once in l m u-m BeKu;


zod u4u; to put one's eggs into baske t mum m; to show the white fth um
du, mum; hook r rk m,
m Qm; BceMu du u D,- ups and
downs mmu d; id in the hand is wth
two in the bush ..! uu , r .
4. , _
: skeleton i the cupboatd , m;
tfuough thick d thi um, ; u
Karue mmu.; to m (to get) down to brass
tacks (nails) tt m d; um dmu;
l:,s cool as mr mu, dt;
(io) go the whole hog udmu , u d ml1/lum,, to t ice Ll? dum;
um,, to talk thrugh one's hat zum d;
th is love lost between thsnr mm ?m
d dz, u u dz dpyza (
)f

3. II J

ts

--

, . r
,

hrfr the tr hopes for concrete r rth


htm advantages from pusuing policy of rlti
Testraint.

, -

, m ((, )) m-
O. It9

4l

, -r.
.

(dtr, no notice of his friends, life)

, _
, II
u md tle ut m.

Lt

)I

HIM. { .


.
, .-1
, r,
JII.

,
' (Passing the
SALT) II I_
(fll). ,
:
dum m|,ameblt.oti zmt] d
zIuu ,
r
JI /{ _
JIII
.
rrl
r

Sir DTvight Ilanlilton, grtcst of Lady Penmore's ball,


complairrcd ol' llig jll, took his lrtrt, his coat, his
drtu, no noticc [' his ll,icrrds. zt Ll>li, pistol
fTom his pocket and 1inally his ]jfe:

}I.lIr 'l- l|])l111,a,,,,}l (,( loIl l' Il '|()\l. r|To


take Jlollo.ullclllllt. u_\, tIrI
(hat ! taxi, pistol)
42

fl ,
, ,
, ,
.

, _

"Pass the SALT fll" q


])
'?ass the salt ls" JI salt SALT Sttgi rms Limitation Talks z
ozp u el u m 1 2 u z )r .

.
- .

,

_,
ts, . .
'Makes the Whole World Kin" (
<< >) . uI I ir- ,
:

respectable urglr always takes his li fr he

takes thig else.

l."l -


i:

um
, ero um.
. _
, take one's time mum, -

luumb, udt, ilum


ocloubcst {cpedu
|lJtz d), t . take () tl
ts llpucqotllb, | JI
ul JI IIJII ,t .
, lI ) _
0 :
These 1 variations the Security Council's Middle
East Tcsolution t thouglrL lo cut ult ice wheri
the rvhole resolution is so i-ud,
,

1,,

to cut no ice

um l], u?m HuKaKoti ;

uz

dum. ice -

, tl cuL ice-bound c,KoBatlHbr d,


I. _
I .

:
, l _
]I _

, r ,

ll

But it wasn't the content of tlre Agnew package that


pained itis so rnuch as the way he wrapped it.
package Ll. -

- m-

pozpata"

, , }l,
, , wrap Llqm
package G.m,
!?.u.tl \.ltl). II
l coxparteH.

9_
, ,
.

- ' , _
- ,
9 . - , ) . -

'Which

of the two r is m likely to conduct steady


and steadfast foreign poUcy? d w]rich of therT has
the a.ybeslos ,lth 1 stick jt clrlt in tllc ft_t-
heat of the White llousg ,''itll?
The presidet' aide takcs .lris placc at 1he big Lrble
lig the sidtil sl to pteside, but the

aide's rs spil/s d his chair, iS recognized


as the ascendant power.

, ,
,IJl,
nyTe _
JI
tlJ!l!ll m,
I,1, ( D ((rr )) _
( JI
(tl)), (( )), r
). Jl rr _
1 JIIt:',r
,
(fur- heat of the
14

White House Kitchen). r :

:r JItt) Iut]t .t,?


- : llJ,It(l r,
, r itl l!0ltlr m, lI : tl. I-],
?
, _
Il spi1l tl, (iollb , the aide's
s spills beyond his chair ,
ec,IecTBeHHo, , .
.[I rr , l , . IJ,o tl
Bbtxodum -q I!llqil? LlM lla tqu1,1.
l, J] it,I,.

, ocoBall_
Nl I ,-,
Il Il, l\4 , .
\l, f Relief. frm Overseas
d oitez,letttl :., rut cIa'Ibe -:

h pesidenfs choice of us V. as hjs Srt tli'


State kd alnrost audiblo sigh of approval. -

r. :t

Ir+1 -

stable door aJler the lrs had stI. The time to set is
now whenthe wrks and the trade union can still shape and
influence politics. 75. SkIts should alwas kept locked

alvay i cupboards. 16. The Vietnanrcse l upliet the


American apple-carts.

I
l

rr 5. IJrI I],
.

]. The utr wil[ dw iL own lsi frm the'


Opposition's hiu. said Mrs,X, wlretr she fist td

gu
sitting
cul his
tvhich
at

hr
"
that mu
he mod
f

ittee

tlr al|-night
2. has again

patchecl grt

. , N
0 . Iu <<Jl ) , ,
. : i.

iti o('the
Ruli Party. 3. The riist boasls that he ditl this

1. Ir
l J l
_
,. . l{
r, rr,t,t tll,
. l: genocide ud;ltirr mu;

"Washington Post" <<tJt tlttztoH mr>. , t] ) ,I7r{,


.
: JI -
[],

indisposed and inconrlrlunicado. 10. h im Ministcr's

[],

].

t ll _
,r.i,
.]llr] l]
f lr, r lte O. Ilrr:
"Guardi an" << d u >> ; knov,r-how lt - ; G eneral ts
! m,
JI

II - N

ur courrtrics itttd nittitlttitl t:irpilitls lcl ltattrl ttr GIeat


rili plalc, lirrtlr ctltlccssitllls Jil trjltg tlrc
European ri Conrnrunity, 74. Thats lockit-tg the
46

(, ,
lrl KaTt [] []: I-Iatrow ;
,, [th] [] [] "rttt' <>; Elisabeth um r.T . .).
_ l}ll.I,iltl ll }IJl Il}r }; _ . , "Herald

l
l
l

{I

Ttibune"

<<d u>>

,9 _

, - ; "Christian
Science it" <<u um>>
Q F, -_
(it ['mtt]). _

, , , , ,

, . :
Galsrvorthy ,tu, Drstshi,llmu, "Q
Elisab eth" << u u m>> ( ),'Morning
St" <<[l[ u z m >, National roadcasting r oration
u,t lldmuttz ll;, Downing Street f ayHuHz
rum, imhmt u, tribalism mu,
linkage ud||d?| .

2.

rr'

I l
. 0.
i. : backbencheT dqlJ,

shuttle diplomacy

<<q dutu>>,

<shadow cabineb m ,l,tm, White House tti


0.

3.

Il
II:
1) rr
. : baby-sitter m (mm), m mm d m q m ;highball . Buc Ku od u bd ,,
d mq; maverick zdmt
dmt (cmllaHa), ulu (-ul) m.
du u,Lt (. Y);
2)
, : negotiate d s ettlement z l m m q) ? Bt4lo ,, etter-latethan-never admission ,Llllu, t,deatltoe 7lo uu

,tr

Hue,

mu m

I)

ulul d, HuKozoall

) )

(. JI).

1.1rll, I.

. , ;
48

The general

Was manoeyered out

of the presidency in

1974, m uOm
1974 \ mm ? ult,

i D u ylimu, mm,, ? muu


] was mrd

. ) ,
, ,
, _

. ,
: tll zm lld.m
drc um um BocKtr)ecllbte dHu.

'

tt 6, TJI},
.

Gloucester, Ui City, Somersetshire,

West,

Southhampton, Hastings, Seattle, Oklahoma City, Financial

'ims, Globe and Mail, Maugham, Murdock, Heathrorv


(airpolt), British tlm m, Chase Manhattan
Corporation, krs Trust New York rrti, New
Jrs ldaho, Illinois, Utah, Milwaukee Journal, Chicago
Daily News, rmik, O'Brien, Stapleton, Saint Lauren|
SutheTland

7.
tr fir..

1. The USSR is the worlds Nr, 1 producer of 1.*


2. Six get life for murderinc 27 l. 3. Heart m
wotsens. 4. As villagers the mirit often found,

themselves cheated of thir lands" 5. With wr ovel new


chance for Uganda. 6. According to Wld Health Organi_
zation Statistics, heart disoao I Nr" 1 killer. t7. The
* 1 7 ..
tdl I> (; , 1973, , 203)

4,

Btifish used to say during


the Yanks is that they wr

here?'. 8. The gu 1
9. The tr is inteested
modation with its neighbours, 10. tw-r-ld was
hrld to his death from fourth floor tmt rvindow.

4.

w. given f th.tl t r the rivolved. It wrr.s, hs nocoincidence that . .hi


Fd ,| wh he bought w .

.
,

lry,

; ,
, _
. ,
JI I
*9 :r
_
,,
. _
, .
, :
W-all S t et - m um,'\Y h i tehall ii m , ,
,
cooTBetcTBeHHo:
l ;lli ; ,l9, Irt: White House t. d, lo

:'W estmi stet


(),1l1.lKo .ltU,ltl l|,I()

_-

mu t

;lrti
|)],}l }lx N,lil.
, , ):

,;^,.'l,.;]#',?,,'If,Y:l1:li''l;h

r[_ that w. conllscatctl whcn was .ittl


j l9_5. it was done with the utmost 1acl No cleili

Ir

ttlrw the presidcnt


is .t, [ Inct ian
Kl that tlre gmt
that d:ry * ..it st Yt
th

* .Ilrlt Foggy Bottom, rla}Ba}I}te


.Uur) J|tl)+ elI _ltit _
, , .ill:t llepcHOcy rlil. iIillcIt illt }JcjlotcTBa. } l tttl, t ]l|)}{

I lt() }lllIl c.rl_!,tlll\ l)()l\rJIl|}l cJtoB.


l l-l'ti,
[,1 Il;,l\lllt,l llJl;Kll. la lt) t)OJIllt.lclllle}t aN{cpKaII lttllllI() l-jl; Whitcha|l, lla ltsi|tl}{e
}'jlIlllT,T I]
_llrllt,,tollc, ]Ia -()l)()li 1rilrl.t;}l lIJ)alJll Ie-ilt c l,Belil,tc
, .
, o]tao, .
f ogg},,tsottom, tF| WaIl Street ., i
l _
tl, I _
lt;l.,lttl,tlttc
l

[;:rlpltrtep. Wlrll Slrcct. jl:l ilritllllc _t,;illtl

tl, BOi\ro;,.IIo. IlocTal}}tl l .II]ii''l


yl Bep;K/,lelIl,tll l.vcpllalo;)a II:l cB()ct\{ :]i|Il{

l ll l,.,! )-|! r|l l ! )li l _ttt.t, (, ocll il ,|,.
'LlTcl
lt Ilil.'laT1,1 |)II,1 l.rl.,ll, ro , )

l l

tl l

]\{o;KI ( (). ,_,I();I{ I,oJI

t:

ocoail

l !

()

tl tt

() }l|l .

1. his detriictors r sayitrg that he has left maTk


Foggl Bottom that rvil1 r rsd.
2. The Senate may vclte on the g's confirrnation
during the lame-duck sessio, t tlre House rvilI
probably postpone iK voto until next .
50

riner". , ,
.
.


- u u


, )

il. tll,t) ,Otl oc'l il,,| tliL


l |,| ll l ' lll D,
l l l .lt lu ll l ., ll o1l,)
(,, ,
r tuir) l J,l,rl l94"
r,,, a.n . I{] I. ts r , 9_
::a
rrr tt,l,t t

<< > , ,
"...unless the Middle East time-bomb was defused the world
will see new wt, new oil boycott, and possible consequs thl'm gig fm anotheT grt d.ssi
to Armageclclott itsell". ..,
-;ll,r ] ,
;,ti lIN.t t-t .
rl, r:l1,I r,l,t i
qmu.
tt
( ),
0. Armagcddon._MecTo, }IyTbcrl .
}lJl ., |)e}l ()(: l ONl cl\-l Jl ((I, il)

it>).

((

KiI,I itK-| l l l.tl\l,)).

tr-,lt.Iilllti
l]ltllitll. Jlitl\,l IJl ,
lll]lltle\,t lil .\il 1,1 ]. I]a ttlt
c,,le_|lall. IIttl, (j, c'est nroi (
l'(tlrt, 'est ,li tt,.l,d(,lllL) - l :!- l], _
ljiltl l.t lY); s moi le dIg :
Il m m- , Y

N{

days ago considered the albalross


wh
";.
itlbi, ., w sidr him life jacket,
, 60
",9 :::9::I1
ltlee, tl,) eI,o tl14,
albatross 7) t tlou,la,
toti tttlleBoztt; 2) .tt, mp1.,dtto
(. <l{l>) Jl

. tll "Thg anciat m52

Teddy Kennedy was holding his rss fr to bow


out of the 1976 presidential r. Not only was he
facing the constant tht of assassination and besel
Job's w it fmil rlms, but the ligring ghost of Chappacluiddick threatened messy,
mudslinging campaj8n.

ti -

}I Lr l.

-, 9Q 9,f I -


l . , ,

vl rt

53

r , ll, JI -

(Fri Dl
Roosevelt), JFK (John Fitzgerald d) LBJ (Ld
Baines Johnson). ,
,
- .
, Teddy Kennedy
. .
_, r}l tI}!
,
ceMbeli .L
. l ,,
( , ) ,

( ).
-, Chappaquiddick-MecTo,
, ,
.. . II
.
.
_
:
- -, , {
1976 .
,
, , t ,
,
uddr .

,
- ,

. . JI .

BreweT's Dictionary of Phrase ancl Fables, British
Encyclopedia, The Oxford Dictionay of Quotations, Random House DictionaTy 9
.

rl 8. qI llI
II{ _O .
*1. Not many Egyptians h taken in this ll
iwdrld tale.2. whatever the outcome of the immediate fr and hwr r smith window-dresses the is
talks, the writig is the lall for rvhite rl in Rhodesia.
*3. group of
monstrated at the airpott

rvith

placards

Ministet of "Gig

to

ss". *4. L
m tl the Yictoria
Falls bridge between flle sidts had all the euphoric
promise of love match between Beauty d the Beast.
*5. Gr's aide asked Eagleton at the Democratic
National Convention immediately ftr Senator G
told Senatot Eagleton he Tvanted him thc ticket: "m, do
you h skeletos raltling rud i your clos|etP
6. TIre s at the Ri rt's national conventio
in Kansas City was just Jike New Y('s i dlm.

J YI

rr

.
, ( ) (_
I
).
rr
fi JIl :
]) - .

The nervly appointed Prime Minister is expected to get


thevote of confidenceheseeks. ,
,I
-

, r q.
2) .

Yietnam thanked ths Soviet Union for ff,ig hr


hig hd. I

i,

{.

3) .

uganda.
with
.
tl}l
, _
I .
yyar oyer, ,, chance fcir

Behind these points of detail, however, the Israelis r


Tight to detect growing unanimity f world opinion
which insists that they should willing to accept now
offer they certainly would have jumped at had jt been

made to them time fr June 1967; with


thi neighbours, recognition of thi existence within
the ftirs they had then, with some minor Tectitcations, plus no doubt demilitajzation of substarrtial
ftir zones with United Nations suisi, rl
warning systems and whtr international grts
they think worth having.
, fI,
l _
, ,
, (
) 197 . .
,
1967
,

_
_
, _

ri, .

, }l, -

J]ilJl I_
tll\.1llr{.
ti IIO
ll: Jlfl9 0]!
( t.

il

The minister has been careful to define the questiotrs


without giving his own sws and this is probably
prudent his t. F thc grmt has n<lt yet

completed, let l signed, and the miist


waiting fr the citical 1ast-nrinutc armcndments
fr saying what in the end he would do.
,
. tl
, ToJtbko FI, .
_
, ,
It .

is

, }{l
, :
.) ,
;
)
, Fr,
) .
, and.
tl 9. ,
l

1. With the Agreement of September |976 the American


policy exhausted its capacity fr advancing the cause of
- and indeed m would rg that although that
gmt made new wr less likely in the ft it
also, the mistrust it sowed. betwecn thc r States,

made an overall settlement m difiult to achieve.


2, As matter of fact, the st seems to say that m
he'cl sign the treaty and maybe he wouldn'| but in the rcess, the itiw dramatizes the influential role the senator

is still playing in the conduct f mri fig policy.


3. This gumt was apparerrfly strengthened at least

in the eyes of the mri Administration when the ldr


of thc, Oppositon tuItd to wr i Trrkc_t,.and began to
develop l1ew ukish figrr ptllic_l lvhich could perhalls
described as Garrllist br_lth lrecause it L,ln})I]xsil!.s
rkl"s specil-rc natiol]al itgsts l than thoscl ol- Nato
d us it is unfolded i mysteious mlr which
51

keeps tho rest of the rvorld guossing about its ris

imnlications.
^4.
cettain extent tlro utr. is w paying the ri;

dent's resigtration.
5. We til r] clean u1l l thc itish political

f tlre l. F the plan was to fstrt the dcmancls


t
-i
tb. lirii movemedt while rig to sfrrt thcm,
This duplicity is still going on. It nust totally exposed.

II

1. {


_ .
, : . . , lI
. FIe r fr 0
, fil{
,
.
The president said that thc new-found brotherhood
t the two countries had caused mj changc

l f ts i tlre rgi. Ttrc two


countries gd to d their bittcr fd and wk

in the

towards unity.

, ;l
IJI t
ll l] r.
JIJl }, )

IJ L{ .
,l

Jl ,
, ( : il m patioHe ) , , 8II I] r,ts rr. . rI
}r ,
(
, t}JI.

2.
,
, -

:
1) ;r r,
ll,t ( - r). ,
hr! h! I !
!, <!>. bulldoze lt
z d, - m4)lcllp m , u d m. :

But r,vhat impressed me was the mm determination


not
bulldozed into sulr of any jot the
' FIo
military.
ddl udu t
ycl ,

bulldoze.

Ir l]

to

( > (?),
-
I{ .
II , l, }1 ri <
). <- l> , ((
maLlm m !
JMHazo I)LlcKa Ll l !(, d,d, Ll O>>,
59

, ,t

, ,

qI] JI Boiiiry. ,
] Ft, KaFI l( }. |l]l, l]o l l/leH,r _
i ., . ,i
1,1

(l ), . . -

- .
tttt -, I JI(] l t]il N{,t ,tl
l]I KoIltlc.
rt:

II

IvleCTe II

), Jr
- .
. :
Danger of coup tir forces in the country
to install "dictatorship of tri" increased yesterday
(,r-rts '

>)

2) tly)t(/1b]x
k . ,
;

, ,
,
ir <<m t. >. (?)

rI

O
m Hanoi into stone age (. <<

>).
um , q
rc,

YI
N{

following intensification of dificulties inside the


Armed Forces Movement.
ff
0 l{ .
Jl (l,,).

Il)
Jl Jl ,,

_
Q , _
, .- .
, ts White fr behind US violence white Ir
< >.
:
Hacttltte l. lOJ , m m m lm m ll/lu II . .
2.

, -.

-urr iI] r,
.
1.
FI, ,
( ), I\4
60



. :
It was as Gr1 de Gaulle's heir that the Fh president gol flower-wavig welcome in Peking. t m mq
FI \, ],
.

II flowor_

wavin
}I
,
mu;
j
dt ( welcme),
i, II it was ...
that- , , 0 ,:
.

3. ["

cJto

, zt lt_ ,
oBal,l
, :

Govern's |972 economic rgfm turned


,
tlote-losig albaltoss. tt into
r r d

Georgo

u m ?o,rocoB uu,t.

4.

lr Il J)t]t,,.l (lll\, ji)


, KOl ,llr ()I;lCll1,1I(le -l()() ( )
]lJ.ll!lllI\l l(Jll jli .

treaty was pronounced ull d vofd.. (' The


I) . mum,
HtJlM.

The agreement signed the two utis provided


just d ecluitable conditions foT both sides.

q,l
.

5. u

/{

l]Jlr, ,

-I ,I0,
, }|il
.__

. 62

It

,s t ulil t944 that thc Allies d thc long


awaitcd second f1,ot. trrtltl mlu
(JI ttIst l, r, 1944

Few have watched the president yyilhottt wdrig


how it happened that the I'residency alrd its occupant
m to such miberable pass. }I ,
l i,
Ite ?lu }/ , t],

.
bqfore the two statesmen meet to sign
tlre treaty.
l u,
lr l0. /t /ll J),
lllltl ittl Jt[l c.ltoB.
I, fl

It y,ill h Ju

1. The discoveTy of oil rvill make it much harder for


Nrw to resist domestic rssus to start opening up
its own rth wts, lg belieyed to 'ih i oil.
2. The opening in Vi otl Tuesday of the log-delayed
East-West talks on fr eductions in ur saw the
estating of fmili opposed positions. . The United
Nations had been conspicuously unable to g
frml for haltig the Isrli- war when it began on
t th, r fr keepig mf ms out. 4. The gr1
spoke With skill and eloquence, disproving D dig so
the suggestion that o1d age is diminishing his faculties.
5. The 1lig that the statesman will hard to
c]eal yvith is widespread and what has been seen and
heard of him since his re-elcction tends to confirm it.
6. The conclusions rrid cl jn Stockholm l both
till d itrtill. *7. The rglm has brought
death, misery d isecurity to y million homes.
8. The prtrposal ,was rejected attcl repudiated. 9. The bold
d courageous struggle f the working class and its
Communist tr'arty rrid the day. 10. The utr is t
prepared to surrendel the l util a|ternate fl supplies
lirmly guaranteed. 17. Nothig changed in the Freign t'i, ihr tlre policy itselt r tl,tose wh implenont it.

'


II

,s introduced to ltr Black


r lrrr,

3)
FI .
Mr Johnson is quoted as saying fr Brown's election.
"You'll see. FIe won't elected President of thg

Bank. If the mmrs of the board reject me, it


certainly won't to take rw," .
- .i
: ,

. .r , ,
KaKo?o-mQ .

;
1. , , rI ,
ts.
The Richard who rd in

highly-strung and l

r's account was man


of both gt evil and
-_r

, _

2, , I,
,
,
- ,
.

is gr ilstil cities - Leeds and Bradfd, Newcastle and imighm. hs lhe gld
that really counts. - -

England

:i";"#""J;1;;ffi

is d. u cebll KeHtteda.
2) < >> ( ).

'i;:;

- ,

.
.

. fl -

Il 11. ,
8{ .

l. Leon LarnbeTfs gdfthr mrrid Rotschild,


and there have il and family links betrveen

_65

3-02

.l]
AHJll{IicKotT IIIII1
,tll
J.l,.h.l\l Ii
utJl Jl1.1llcK()llvt

tl t:

ill]. ] ;r
^

The lnterpr eter had st/r before tho delegation


arfived. t\4 ,

.
Il,l
IJI,I ; ts , I
.
_
tt .
.
1. rr ,
O _
( )
, O - .
During meetings with foreigners he rhd on the
edge of his chair ( traditional Chinese sign of
subservience) speaking quietly d wh sk to.

FIa r] (
I il) , , d
tu.

2. ,
,
-JI , .
The Prime Minister was iyited to d accepted return
visit to Zambia, -
.
.

3. .
, I ,9
l,K0 |lOtl _\,lOu!llt\{l,t KOcsetlHoI J{
allp},Mep: lo .scnd r tl(jl16(lllrb ttcl,, to deal with

lll0-.l, ( tllt, cTal.be)

66

.
Whites in both countries are yastly uturd
blacks. H.aMHozo dum .
The, wounded will tk care of the medical
staff, mum 9.
.
Bilateral lks between delegatios }1,4 fol|oyyed toy

61

3.

gr1 ff,

dlt

.
4. I ) _
, ,
.
Invariay, the visitos are tk on the touT / see the
new hotels. r
9, .
12. II ,

important Iandmark, 15. But instead of being l to u


bicycle thoy cre i8 .forcerJ 1 seil thoir bicyclas jut
to u rico.

XI
II

rr
, '
J], II
.
1. II
ll 9 i],JI , tJI
, F , 0 , tl,lg,
The presidcnt announced his resignation ftr the
failuro of his drive to push through th mgr f
the two utjs last summer l Jo tell mass
rll few days later that he would tI on.
,
}4 ,
, , , ,
.

I , ]1 l I(.

2. Jr the last the only _


It ,
ts KOEITeKTOM.

the lirst high official to admitted to the


i,nner councils of gyrmt, to the cabinet; but
mr irnportant, to tlre meetings of the NationAl
Security Council,
, }r
}, _
}IcTa , , I (, ,
,fl rr.

II ;s

68

the l Frig Miister to see the president


during the tIN Session.
, t_l_t .

wlll

3. if + noun *
d mz mr,

infinitive -

The Teorganization of the m was necessary if the


capilaIist s_llslelft wat lo suiye, [ mz rt
: !lt, }l(t

4, -

The American govetnment wanted the mmrs of the


mm Market

oil producing

) m
du
.

5. - ' -

r }, ,
1) f to believe,

to sid, to think, to dstd, to allege, to

see,

to h
-J{tI (m,

The Republican senator of New york l reported to i


troub|e rvith t "consefvatives" in his home State.
tm4 J{To
- ummu (,
) .
, I
to expect r IJpeMeHeM.
Tlre Sectetary of State is expected to i"frm key mmrs
of Congres tomoffow that some progre is boing
,l0

rnade in the negotiations, um, tum


, t
9 0.

2)

.
,
Q ,
q , Q flm| dmm,
uOut mrc, d, daHHbtM,
d ..
tO sm, to r,

Tho economic truS frtig Japan reaching


lmig rtis. Bulletins from oIficials on the

dctcriorating national situation dr lo gettig


progressively nrote tiequent d quirig increasingly agitated tone. ,
tI , ,I
r. lt q .
Q
ulug jt mm , mlm
,
But fr the,moment, thor seems to l\tila that the
U,S. can do ut that exeept to wrf"
MoMeI]T
f, r ,
, no-BtldulvtoMy, Q 9
I.

3) likely, unlikely, sure, certain, I.


FIN4 , .
Nr JID s0:!lllu, lt,{) u, , tl.
lto ,r.., tll{,t,l 9 , ul .

The fact lemains that the Dutch Foreign Minister's

q. - gr 'h firril ls facing


New Yrk are rti to
haye serious repetcusgions for the whole nation.
99 tr-O{ 9 7t

4 ftl um ' .
, .

6. r r .

.
IO r
{ ( is u
).

Th9 tlde had wl too

tr Jbr r Watlace to reyerse it,


3}l If,
_991r]

} ltK .

Six, acting as

,

___9,.,9*gg* r (Perfect Infinitive)


s -.
_ _ ?*
.
, j
7z

, -" LI
, , .
&

,'),
to

0 .
The ttig pattles

itdd to haye lItilld tho


document on Tuesday. .
9 fi .
(rro . })

9. I _
, -r
: to mr
exact (is) m z; to
yclloBHo, Dmuml, (td)
to tell the truth td
l" ; ,ll ll ttt; to frk
O eoo]).q, ompolllto 2; to sir ?
um'd; to say thig oL t; to k
(cut) long str hrt ; s to speak
(so to say) z
safe side lla ,
.


(. r )V).
13. Q , I
O .

*1. Tho mris appeared io wt l to think that

thcy wr t thr like guest at party which he


thinks is t quite up to his social standing. 2. I p'refer to
haye m t the frierrd rth than the m of
demands fr social justice. *3. J rmiS the chief
irim of mri policy in that region. It needs to if some
other ut ls t to the mi fii of the
situation there. 4. The ministe stepped down d
up the steps to greeted at the plate_glass dr
the chief usher. 5. Apparently the minister udrsld
"dlscretio" to fsl to tell the press what tvas
said. 16. The delegafion of the Netherlands, which has
policy of generally open informationr lnterpreted il to
giving fir summ of the speeches. ?. is said to
lmve lllressed everybody during the ks. 8. I rit


:
1. .
kig on loss of r within the rd tusts
m turn out to misguided. m ,
,
.
,2. .
Under the rssr of nationaI campaign, he showed
positive gift for sig the wrong things in the
,wg
wrg_ rvords at the
time. fl ?um , ,
, , , .

JI

II /l }l It
KOHCTPyKlUtl,
.lit

p1,1

it

t t

.l l

itc

_\, 1l,

_ llilllJIFIOI.}l
.9

7l

;;.;;i;

JJJI

9 l.

3. .
In W'ashington thr is quiet satisfaction that the
French jiig the float h iditl acknowledged that the U,S. was right all along. , _
4 uduuu ir
, ,
.
The pTesident and his Chinese hosts parted without
;igig official communique. _
,
dud .
r rr (Gerund ft), I
r ( rund_Indefinite),
/l, l ,
ll JI.
ft hayiig co7onies for long time, m
Asian and African counties h now m
independent states. ,
tu BpeMeHpI , Iocy.

Perfect.

Yietnam thanked the Soviet Union/or offerig (= having


75

9fft her helping ha4d. , r ;;;}0rl {.

r (/_
+) , -

lth ptlblic

ciispul,r-' ()t,lg1-,,,.-,' the altc-nrpi


the
Dcl'cncc depalrlli,llt lrl jllsisl ui u, ulltltltttlt.eh,it,
tllatle: i the S.,\LT llgtr...lrlt lil tilt]
;;i;;'].,.,;r.];i
1ht is tltldr-- tler,elllplllc,tlt, l_rue ()jlllo I1\,.:llt(llloe

_ t,illIo tl l,t n,,,iri,.:a.pi'iro


ll-rr Tnro. ,,iribi.1l COrJtameLIlIt

u dm"i *"ut ,
------^'
.
oc1;,tt",tetIltc

14, II. }
I.
,

gmt since

it

sius proposals. 9. Atnnesty, t granted to student

trlmkrs last r, is to thing of the,past at m

colleges. Istead of ig forgive fr miscnduct, more


students to suspended r expelled. 10. They ato
tritd of ig drawn it tkig oyet responsibility fr
their own security. 11. The same end is not at 11 served, at
]cast not in any direct way, gettig rid of the secretary
of defence, 12. No sign exists of the presidet hvig
,rd himself with the substance of these two important
questions. 13. The minister has r1 rlm i gettig
l to li he's in hrg of anything. 14. Should
Lhe president falter in these races, some politicians speculate,
h might step aside as Lyndon Johnson did after ruig
jntci tul in rl 1968. 15. While the fashionable set
at White Sulphur Springs has taken to going barefoo|
1he movie colony at Hollywood has g them one tt
promenading through the streets tvith stockings, 16. Last
nronth the str came r to sayig that the
U.S, mig*tt use fr to sur its oil import.

ts I

II :19:r. I

was ai

"tI .
: , , _

, fl
tI , }JopMaM | l() tttittttg books a[roul
ill silus t() llrjte, i.,,*i
_ lirr litllll rlb_jcc.tir.. Z. \l ir,-;ii

trl. ;r Lliltlt,ttc
l,.itI \t
7

ir

ltlt:lt

l.c-

illirlgrtcss lo OSid;.

1'

pyccol\,{

/tf - .
Two r;uestio. r down fot sw in the Bundestag,
askig isl if it is tru that r . envisages the
dismemberment of NATO and thinks the mi
military rs in the t could diminished
hlf without hrrig its dtt effect. Jt - . }I}{ ts: ,
,
r,}, tsO l
9g9 ,

BbTpaxcemle (( .., flIlu{> (

l_ (rc
. .
l - _
9.
.
_
JI .

," _,g":g:

.
,

,,i I
t .

The

statenrent sig that both sides r to abide


the cease-fire resolution was signed most of the

delegates. , m aum,
fi )II fi JILI
, r I.
, I
. ,
_, _
, }l tla II_
Ir u .

Heavy arfillery and mtf fir rk out gi in the


city last night, virlually putting lhe whole population
of the i udr tale of siege.
It s
, mm ?
H,acetle|ue mu t uu.

The sr d that in August the stlig


had gold and dollar deficit of 44 million

dollars rigig the golcl d dollar rs dolll to


the lowest ll reached this year.
r _ r

44 , TaKtlM .tl,
l

,Ll

1/l l dmuu d? u? ypoBtlll m zoO.

.LI, rlptIalcTlte I ,
JI, ,
Addressig the gthig, the minister stessed the
rt of talks. rr _
78

II

s
rrr"*r _
I\( ,
t,lt
Jl.

I
lt*r."
I l ,
The soviet ui w
proposals approved

Jju u
.

II It

l,
ll()I].

somo of tho lms dealt tylth at the


These
^-.r"rr..
, m

qmu

I Il _ Il]rI O . }r4-

.79

JIIII: .tidd .u" given


tl /l u u, ai uu,, tailin g u m m u u ;

g
following
assuming

uu,

ed

_
sidi

:fi$*ifj; k"#"";*1
D

r*"",:i?i.?r1##:""

lDr 15. ,
t ,

1. hls do GIl quoted Solon, who, wh


asked rrhat was th best constitution, lid: "TeIl m
Ilrst f what peoplo d in what epoch?" .,2. Tlre officlals
weTo left drig whth thi ts wore caught
rd whth it was all rt of lg game
aimed at upstaging rivat gizti. *3. lsked what
rvould h to the waste fuel fm the siis reactor,
Frh ofcial said the wr fell withi "the ds of
tanks \ry put
confidentiali". 4. Five mr foreign
t f action, rlgig to 20 ,the mt of m
alm9ut destroyed in weck. 5. h was thc case f thit
mh discussed diplonrat relerred / as Royal Highness
(but never ofl'icially identi|ied) whose Iggg was opcned
i the NctheIands and fd to ti ms d ltt_
bombs. 6. Fillg good will the t of both sides,
the st dcadlock m followed new trk
divjsion
f .hostilities. 7. thr dispatch quoted
mmdr as declariag that the incident jnvolvil five
Tecalcitrant soldiers was "r small'. 8. The possibility
[ l settlem.ent in that utr, rdd ccase_
fir gmt, must not rld oul 9. ruw
iti i the U.S., possibly followed sr business
slump, rvould disst f ri. 10. Peoplo wdt
whth msrs ig used tho gfmt to
combat int]ation will in fact wk. l1. important
th defeat itr, hw; ws the extent to which
thc debdte, ig rttrs of sst, suggested the
possibilities f fil solution. *l2. The rim Ministcr's
lim yesterday that his gmt had th "total ruill and
determination" to grl with inl'lation Was frd, like
thc rest [ the itlshig rgd Dlg hurd ouL
! rrt the w wage curbs. L3, Grld tht . d
0

.l another go

1984.

xlv

, I
.

tl}t _, IIJ,
:ri I i,r II.

The
Prime Minister and tho fri National il
s kig

tl

im

lapsed into mtul recrimination, each

tho other f deadlock. -r

lrIvl

.
|l1 lr ( ,
$ l) uil
0l

Iry .
, _ :l}4 u, 1J,. .
r lr
0 .
That d with, the two statesmen had subsided into
long and rrtl talks about other subje . ii
2 mu t ,
( _

tl u m , 9
Jt , , _
.
l} , .
ll, llll, II , I ss m come in handy indeed.

ltl l

'l'he

first fr failure, another meeting at mi_


jstil 11 Tvas decided u. u qtd
ttc,pBo ttll _
lle,tlell}t }lll l .
|I'ha clchotc, ovc4 the mceting was djrd.
:lilo}lllJlcb, (
).


.
It

!g too late for furlher


adjourned. t
,


ession rvas


).

, ckoJrky ( ,
, - JD.

In the USA the presidential election is held every f


rs, the latest hauig held i 1980.
_ )
r. durt duu^ 1980 d.

-r , ir with.
-, - .

r _
i.
With hiBher oil bills to , flnds that its doll
82

'li

,
.

l'CJlbHM r{,


.ll)/li
Nl())l{llo f

1lllx,le , u. tll..)
( l' u uu...)ll /
r,:tt ,

I\l(j)l( r

ll lI

ltlt 1l
],;l l .

I{

,\t olllcial levels, hwr, the Teaction is mr

r-

stid. with diplomats d others expressillg .gympalh!,


his ffs
.lilr the v d sm dmirti

i lhal

lor

rgi.
J) tll{.
/l r Jlrl t lt ts
)/ .
I}l
,l .
ll1.1 l L
llll(l}ll
\,lt,llblM* l] r
(,t,(t|)() , .
' l'c

11

. . l _

,|l: llltt.
,rr.ll ri rt,lKitM, 1973.

l\llll

'With

tllt,r ,frig policy. t1,,,


the leader g, tho not
1lrcssing rdr of business fr the LiberalDemocrats rvill
llt, ( r up the rks in t unity and pick succossof.
l .]. '['lti dealings minimal, with mtigs ig called 7


r( ,

.
The slti calls fr thc withdBwal [ Isli troops
fm occupied tritris. r1'il |r-l
tollob,. (
] ] rl t{_
, z dm u u.
( with .)
r 1.

ld take place as quickly


that the president of
tt until the "_
being riru, the
exact causes which led to the accident will
kw. *3. With the new tis in, the United Nations
tuill f the fist time ild all the mms the
as well as iti's th allies d associates.
z/4. wjth the two tis exchanging wr iss,
th was isig optimism the fgil truce ld trd
into lasting . 5. t to m intense sis, gettig
dw rl the t mrig d eagerly ig lhe wsrs, th was not wd about the st. 6. hig

oyer the iliw, it struck m as bcing fdl


unsatisfactoy. *7. With the gradual, slrig stig
urlig ol Ltrgl the tesulting lfis indicated
astonishing pevasiveness mrti mg the
sidt's political and official associates, 8. |r|ith budget

tvltcll specific day-to-day rlms h to setflod.


l.]. With the tax proposals ut of the w, the plesldent

lttl,nccl to defence and foreign affairs. *14. Members of the

|'lrilctl Nations also g that thi policy i respect of


to which this hrt applies, less th
lll lt:sl)cct of thi metropolitan aleas, must based
lllt, tlc1,1cal iil f good neighbourlinesst d accollt
|,, itt.ti taketl ol' the inteests and wcll-being of thc rst
rrl lltc wld, i social, econornic, d mmril mttrs.
1,1, ll'ith lalks .to rl immdill the sides gd
t|r,, ti(is

llll lt SL'-lr.

xv


l l 0 Oli() ll iL,

ll c|,o ) . . rI

,]l()ll.
(,
,
ll()ll

llcpetIEocT, . .)

h llll ir

otl .
(ll ,
/lllrt ll /l;l]l1,1le I, ,
(,rly,|iteB JI
ll( ll()Jl -
ll., |l().xcem lm m, ?t, t dr t

rt

lt

|lt!llllt

!,

,l. lIil*

his government officials


lrdly have oppo;sed the policy they have been so
irctively promoting, EdBa u !}t ( m
tl), ] -
ltl,Il,
cl, Jlb 0 OI"

'l hc rjm Minister and

but t is atificially isd to s,d up rss that


is
ld contibuting to miit's 1lst troubles.
+l0. t it is attled irnd divitled t,
tt,ilh all
exhausled iistr.|ig grs tl:|,i8 to a,ycrt il ,power
84

8,

'

J c_an 8 . :
checked. .Diplo

O.

mum,l.

, could - al
, ,

.
Yesterday, the J gt d that thc
natiot's rg cisis ld lead to sris recession.
,
r Jrcm um

_
( .
could possibly I , .
We _9oul_d_ t possibly take part i the forthcoming
talks. HuKouM i rc m
,

.
_ could
.
The Republican could almost til haye w that
nomination at the 1952 Republicatl convention.

2 m dum
1952
).

2. m,/might*
might

llll

l|l), tt Il(l |()lltl it, BTopoli.


l';tttt}tIla r could. , m

rl trrihl. . Jl Tsx ,
blll ,lll llltl.t

I.

Nobody tell that the hostages t uBed as


uts in fsh bargaining. ilm ,tm
, ilm
.
\. could, f s, t have sk with thit for
ltis grmt rvith which he has ft in
tlisagreemcnt But he at lest might have helped to
u rk i the door to had he allowed to
(tre ), , ?8d. .
"1Moz

|rllmb
ll,
.
, II Mo}lcHo, 2 , , , .
l} could
ll1,1|)ilalo (l) llll]|llell , 1, m might

]l ll,,l ,

Might
r\l()rl(e , , (, l Itvl()
. llll lll8e _
IllI, it - .
'|'he next transatlantic call came frm Pmis. It was so
l that the .dit might Ilig frm the hotel
alctoss the sq. tul ui
t . rr tl, I
9,
clopoe .
rld slrining down 11 this wds chandelicjr wlrich
tttiyhl ha|c td out f sg icing hung with
;litlc,-blue, pink and yellow blgssoms.
cllcpxy li , |1,1rl. ;(l.|(), l d.tt u
t,t.rl rr -, t tDl O..
7

.lll s, - d-

JO, JI

}I.
,l

t,.t l

.t] should
rl rIOt:
l.

. should q out
'l hc communique also said that interna'tional disputes,
including rd and tcitorial disputes, should
,sdlll peaceful negotiations. xoMMloHKe
,
I O
, dotlclcHy ItoI
ltta.,
Um) I
.

]t|ll.{

mst d
,3.
must need
, I.
must
.
l need
{
l:r -rr

2.

lt dtt t, l, ,
._|0 I)t . .

th.e relations tw the two


countde should yiewed in the light of the l
of \r i the 1egion. R, Q d l -

The senator said that

,
The allies d t perform the same ls t theso
Toles must mlmtr to each thr, rcm ( rc) lm
' ,

l, II

) )

3. , .

4, shall should
Shall 2- 3- ll .
rr shall i
,l ltt ll . ,

lI the

bil1 is signed the president It should 7aw.


,
, mm, m um .

A1l rrs sfial/ r.fri in their internatiol Telations


frm the thrt r use of f against the titil
itgit political indepcndcnce f any state, r
in th m incotlsistcnt witlr tlre urss f
the United Nations. j l
l.i tittldepltcuamc yri l4
99 9

]} , Tvhy, should
l l(: I)c

can't conceive why man of his age and ri


should haye d slcha ldr, ,
/l
.

5. ll { will +
(' tt, t1,1,.t l will * lb I ll)/lIJt .
t

/lill

I[4 O ffi

8I ., mm,m.

diiiiio

Many of those participa

hv sidrd thai

to rvorry about than th


the two NATO mm

'
/lLt,
,

6. would
1. Would

m.

The l who li in that Temote place would t


the only ones_to expect u .i.'i;;;;;;";;
, m, .
, . -

not __1 Y"rld


I
_ i
(um, HllKaK) , irr'
He_just .yould t acc.ept.that tanks could not
operate
alongside_lhe Toads iri the ir-..*, ^"
dike s of Holland as th . u' i"fri-.;?
Fr ind Belgium, ; H;;;i iZ,r", Llm
,
.

l ifl
I ,
i,

_l

17. ,
OI.
I
.

_,.__1:" ill. l ha|!. diqcussed Parliament


dl+g smmr reces. 2. The moii'oi
t;
of couTse, that t f i;;;;; t
"ii q[rd l to

-;;;;,

90

llt,e frig policy - at least in tho regions of the rvotld


whiclt supply it with its rw mtiIs. *3. The pTesident
t,tt11|1| 11p1.\taye md h8 i his tr l stul
Ill;tll thc sudden rml of . fm lhe editorslrip. 4. The
1rlt,siclcnt has damaged such hopes as remained of thc only
stll( tl compromise that might have brought rcL .
5. l; stronger than any other emotion Was the feeling
lllirt .hc could h preveted this tragedy half an hu ago.
il'(l, lL c,ould argued that the . . was dlitl stating
rt ltttwl<ish position to captuTe public support fm the hard_
lirtc opposition block. 7. EveTything was quiet. h might
ltttt,c no talks at all. 8. The government ofrcials yyould
tll disclose when the presidenf s jet wld rri or rvhere he
wtltlld go. *9. If, for some special s, mmr of the
t,t l u t considers that h should t lake part in the decision of
rl 1littiulr oase, he shall so ifrl tho President, 10. Jess
lVlclytl had long vanlshed; and f 1[ she knerv he might t
ltttl,t, t,limbed the tor at a]l. 11. Lord Montgomely would t
,tr,l, llrat tanks would simply sink down into the soft soil,
rtcilher would he belieye it was necessaty to have the infantry
;ltlvaltce with the tanks to l away the anti-nk traps
which the Germans naturally had behind the dikes.
1.1, The Dcjfence Ministe believed that each negotiation
hlllween the two supetpowers ought to produce at least as
ttttlch msurl rt for the w'est as for the Easfl
l ]. Judging tho pas| scepticism m legitimate
illcvitirble. But it qlso 1lremature, |4, These strong
lclings d t haye elressed in this r, but it
(|t,scl-ves respect none the 1ess. *15. Bauestein demanded
1ltlst-rnortem. IJe d't haye d so. Little Wilkins
wlttlcl haye quite tt to let it go as heart disease.
"Ycs," I said doubtfully. "ut we don]t know. Perhaps he
lllrlught it sfr in the long Tun. Some mlght haye talked
;rl'twrds. Then the Home ft Ight haye ordered
cxhtlmation. The rvhole thig would h m out, th,
llllrl hc uld haye i an awkward position, for no
\tl11|| ltat,e belieyed that l of his Teputation could ha,*e
llt,t,lt tlK(:ived it calling it ht disese.(1+16. ThIs was
:,ll cl'licient, so well typed, il might t h- d
ltrlll-p1,olssional. 17. need no ftr all, have g as
l.tr lts llc did to rt with the dmiiststi's ffts
lrl i tho "autongmytalks" before election day. *18. hr
(,(lll,Ies ir point i!r crisis wh the political leaders
illvolvcrl ,yhould disegage from immediate opelations,
,ltuttcl uk and s.s the tvhole situatio afresh.
9|

lr tt}ts .
.
wf its tl i gina l proposals ra s though
r i,,.., -
h d. g],1,1t reachccl, ,
tlr"ibiuinl"iC
.,lcl ll Q_
llrl, dlmuzm }r -

xVI
II
Ll

r I{II-
rt l]iljl()llllll (thc .uhjurlctivc Mood) , tllri\t Iilltll ltll rrjl }l
![ .tli ellctt]ltl,e.ilbHocTr{. _
Jltltl I,1.11!l -rt\tll,
lt"fI{ }l I{ .]l}!.
}I ts l,
l{ ] }I r.]1 ul BpeMetill
{ (,t,l,ut ott tte Bbtc,ttt.l,u,i'1.
. t -,l.l
l,lit.
.qll .Fl coc;Ia :
1) t tt }li IIbIIvt II }II-1 ir]}', fIr r I 0 I l_ wI should. were. had.
Should mi inflatjorr cxceed expectations b.v th
end [ the r, the upsurge f thc ccollon,ly tig,ht
itself lo . curbed lr long. .1.|,d ttt
I rtrlll ArtepltKc u(lJ }, Bo1,|lo.xcHo, uttt t
2 Ltllulllb caMoIt .
Had the trrists arre.sterl th b,ottld haye
exlradi
Tbt .l J)m,
rlK
oHlt trr.
Were lhe
th ,lr/ Jlaye lo
fdmtl iw f the m. .l,llr,
"*"
, l,plllll.ocb t ttur?,ll Itoti )l(Ir.

ll1l l

!,1pl t lql

l|()]).

t) lttlce to wish
l) ll)Nl:

il) |lcl,o fl ( 9

rr,rl. ttltlctl).

l rvislr more of ur l would listento . J,


li l]itlvl uum.
ti; .1g1,o ( Ir

llllli lt)ll0l{).

'l'tlc supporters of the strwis


1ll for their candidate,
()il,
ll .

rr tr i
l4 Il , IiIIJ} r{c_Lle Itsil] C.l/ytllJc,b, ec.lll |_?; ecJlll lr .q . .
2) (jl7(I{, OIl\lt
povided pll )|.,l, as if, as thouglr .

provided h took care l ttl td sensitive rs of


the utr's nationals lrc c,clttld lqke good ambassadr. qtu,t , .

92

lt )
lll)ll l


Jl ).
t1 ;

l lrc gtitrs wish t\ey had t put their signatute to

thc ]umt. ,,
r.l,t,o ocaB\,!/tLt ,
,l) ll rTpocToM , ;
\l(,lt;lc t t, would * O
|l

l 1.I

h ()Jl

'|'ltc ptesence of the teorists in lhe lt Tyould m,

1llit,ctle the situation still mr. _

,l0t)l) 9 r ,lllt O,
ll()lrKy,

l,Iulao

,
,

llll;lllll. tIl),
|llt,l|t| ]la
I l, Il,| |()|' .
l

ll

,yyould I

to send_afact-fiLding
,i,ission io infestigate the incident the spol
ttlritlt ll ) Ium u.mfl
Nlccl() llQ ,
ltcccllted, the l

93

9
, rI
lr , I lr
, ,
:
1) , , , . .:t rg, to suggest, to fequest.
The GrI Assembly urgs that nrore aid should

Sentto

rthquakc

irr Italy.

,r_

:, I Kalta II|.

2) , -.

-, it.
It is rhs not srisig tlrat slrt nreeting sllould
-existing
have. rugtr nothing but l'fimti f
positions. ittl, II }I },II. i
, d ,
.
3) r , :
to wdr, to afraid, fr fear.

'

They did_not go thr at once for fear they should tfid


there the wanted person.
-
.

I il o.1 Ja s hould , ttlzu,.r ,


- il , 1
to. lrl
II
I4I .
.

{t, is d_elirqble", the speaker went on, ..that msr


(should; tk to develop East_Weit tdg''. <<, - , -rr -

>.
, IJ II .
, }r .

,Sltottli mr l parllcipale in the test the slts


llliHht Llc rll convincilrg, Ecltt }l
.||llt(lll0!,l;(1.1o tl:ltl/fr. l)c t},Jll,fitl1,1 tr,"rtll ()

tl, tl-;lee l.tl1,1t llf. (Otr 1JIl .


llt)
ll is s[g -that the neyspapet should have publtshed
thc statement. , ttTo '
l l m/Q .
()
(ir,t

lr.rl<lt

) ltpitilcllclle

HaKrIoHe-

llll
lltl

'F l. The embarrassments caused to the country's main


illllttsliat trs 1 its Ig trade surpluses f Tecent s
t ttttltl palt l-tcside the potential dangers it iL shoulcl lug
llllrl tloo;l ti Tecession. 2. The AmeTicans r i
llrlttlllc. .l'lr.i once-bottomlcss hoaTd of gold jn Ft
t, l|rl\t,lt to I8.000 million, and dollar reserves held the
r,. IJ. l(. ltlld J, if rtd to gold, cOuld slash itby
rr, lrr lt 5() r cent. *3. S enoughrTightfom beginning

llt,,tc

rv;,ts

\ l1,,,t ilt 1

r any isk tlrat

it (the

grls' rlt i

nlight succeed tight It could r have pacified

if mr gils had rallied to iL


llttJ thc Norwegians yoled i fr of t thr can
lt,rlrllt doubt that the Danes would hv d. so as well.
,, Iltctc was good s fi the Dapislr Gmt
,,lt,tltItl tttll ltayc,held its fdr [r tho Noryeglans,
lryllit,h wuld have icre1sed the chances of both joining

lll,, (l)tlt, eyen

ll

l l' ('.| (i. l elccte d hc,t+ould ltoye beetl.see as the guardjan


||r rlld traditions. *7. It
did happelt, the ir force could

r,,

,ll

llt,,lr /,l/,r,to tlre air j the ''hope of establishing the sort of


r the battlereld that,wou|cl l it to si
ll, ,lllll.\, back. 8. The rsidtw|d 1tever havc specifically
lll|,lllil,t!l 90-day deadline Ir frthr I9gtss unless ho
l,,ll,,t,t\l that his envoy could rdu Tesults in time.
,,,. l rl lhe wrl'ul rjght wing of the National t even
llr, r,;rtlliotls rrks the i istr d last week
i,, r,lllL,(l ltn outrager. d if h 11,gnl too 1r too fast he
tttt,,ltt itt,yl .lil himslf out oI job. *10. It is suggested that
, rlltl,t, llle rti should abo|ished ltgth that the
,,llIt|(,IIlilc_v

(, 1r should), -

._ ., ,

O ( O.
94

95

En alien ut. 13. Thb rim lv{inister yesterday echoed,


some mri comment when h suggested that we might
8l frths ahead in negotiations. 14. It is importnt that thic
should d us of thg mr long-torm factors
" involved. 15. But it is already step of some significanoo
that the country which formerly hedged the idea f sh
talks with precondition, would yeady to meet hr neighur for dirt negotiations. 16. The Prirne Minister quiefly
saw to it that the nation's key scientists yyere t obstructed.
J,7. For'months now, public attention in the United States
has riveted rd some personalities, as if thoy
wr immortaI.'

lt

:) l)lll(it, : u 4?m
l|t,()|ll|ll,(.ll tt, ll uzm Iu u
llllll tt()?.ym dum u u ycotlll, m um
ll

ll

(l l

t,

1l

)lll

l ll']Bl

.}. l,tll

lll)t,/(.Il(). ,
lr r l t lt)ilrl

l l:rll1ltlMcp:
{

Ntll . did the ptosecutot ask anything thatmight have

givcn the-old genfleman cause for embarrassment.


l I QII

,lit ,
,l

)cI
}I(E
1.
, O
, . :
AI1 is t go|d that glitters. ,

.ltltlgc Black h t stopped the prosecutor.


li.lt .

,|.
l l l l)

'l'ltr: senatof stressed the perils: "Nvr haye the ohallenges

(cl ur security exceeded in number and gravity those


which we found u taking office." lI

[
0, _ 2
)).
deny that power has rl
Nr
ill out relations. II <<I

()l,

llill .
Ntlr rl the ri s propose at any rt in South-East Asia,

.
2. ,

ltl rft to an independent British position. -

,l()

l( ) r,-. .
Nol ottly haye her island position and hr relation to
llrc siti mainland iflud J greatly, but
lltt: cltaacteristics of the land itself have been im1ltll,ti}rlt, r

, .
.

96

,r

lll lill l, rI: Vr,

llt,ltltcl,, f, not only.


, -,
: << , i ) <

- > , Qa, .

side help.

, , O()/lllao, .

('1t1,1
]il )\l,

"11"1il f sweetness and light ln fuIr Smithos l.[ew


Year thoughts. -
;'
.

They t achieve thoir atrn

uIss they lasort to

.l

l(02


JI tr} , rf
.

5. not util
uut m.
They did f believe the atrocities of the invaders lj/
they saw the devastated land. tl mzd , d .

,J/, until
. , k mzd (d).

Not utill made his famous discovery did scientists


realize this law. mzd, d
, s .
6. nevef .r il a r
u .
In his speech at the Grl ssml he rmfid
the in Angola. _
u }l .

llttllrltt cannot ovot the loss of 31 m in silence, but


disposition to hasty in its reaction. Nor hasiL
1t,tilt ittly attention to the inevitably scattered demands that
,il)lllc()llo held responsible. *5. It Tvas laol util the end of
l l t s tccnth century that F began to rd an rt
llr;tl, iltstcad of echoing the failed glamouT of Il, fltd
llrll livcly, if equally aTtificial, life of Yersailles, 6. Cotton
l1,1l\, tl!,l itdud to Japan frm China utillatet and wool
tt,rts tttlknown. 7. I tms of his personal sfig, tho
Irtosit|ct,tt's visit was uccess. Nor were there obstacles
tll toulls of bilateral relations between the two countries.
' 'l'hc chane between mi then and mi w is
tlrlrl ltttlstAmericans l lgr grd such matters
,r., lyiltg within the scope of thi EuTopean responsibilites.
,l lIlllcss grss votes ,w extension, military aid to
l lttr (,rlu1l1r, must cease at midnight Tuesday. 10. The mri, lrtt /th [t[eetis notin the Mediterranean on holiday ris.
Il. Nr-lws about Japan reached Russia relatively late.
l\|ttl ttttlil the seventeenth tur do we Jld mti of
lrt;,ltrr it-,l Russian sources. 72. Not l does the rise in
lr lt cs ,r/ke the US m at aWkWaId mrt.
r| :;lll)ws

II

lllilr
|rlry

lr,g () -

7. "
i to fail. They failed to reach
agreement { , otlt u ?lu, (( ).

t l ]lli ]lrlIOT
,
,]
-,

l|1,1(, ll
l- l|)\,l(|l (. . -)

llll l|)ll .

llr 19. -

\ll;llllDll.{

l.

l(q, -

l1l(,l\l: ! make, to

7. Not did the prosecutor press point to shorv that


it was just such old gentlemen who had been the executants
.reaction (to de Gaulle's
qd "what is the old m
tion that 11 of the old de
3. But the truth of the
mtt is that the American m does t keep 4|.000 m
in South r fr the sake of South Koreans. 4. The Adminis-

1l(,l

t,

folce, to u, to compel . :

lrc l,cpoTt rks it urgetfor us to rw expTessions


tll' solidarity to the paTty. .

,tllll._O
lllt|)

.'. l(tlll to have to get -

4r

ll IIOCKOJIKO ) ,
tlI JI.
l.Nlil 1,rl, -

il lt

,lll

l l

ll

, II O q

:
) , O _

.
'w'o

musigct more studets to, readthe papef.


,
I.
The J se h themselyes at least partly to Im
for tieir troubles. &
" ru () ,

"r, ur.i ,
- .

.
'. 8
, !l
II; , ,
.
Callers wishing to see tii
to know him, can haye their im
I in the office of that
identification. ,
,
., ru mu,
m oJ|<:tto dm
,
If the callei t t himself satisfactorily id
,he is then considered to in the same categoTy as th
unknown callers. dm drcu,
| mum tlllm ,
)
.

,


. ,
can ,

100

l{ TllcTbeli lt FI lill(ltc, l)LI O KoTol)|,Ix rI, I.Ie|,l\ t.llttIlIl1,1ll l_|lilloJI, T,pcl'lb{-1lpe/[-II()llblll tltl
, tIll() (ttl1, 1lg out 1. tr1},!tltt 1lltl(1r,l1tttc.tlt,lllrr Ilr) ll1,1l)tl),hlte t Bceti IIl(1t tlc.ltoMl, lII(),llJJlrl, ll 1l ,'illl)itK r1llttl rlt tlllir f lllKtl.
|

1|

l( 1l

'|'lrt,l, siticl
tlrcy wero talked ll the robbery the fourth
lttirtt. ll , 2u (Ou) t t t t t t

i t, K1l

l1ltl lt -

ll\|ll I l;ll,()_, . . I,I }l}t,


lll |)(, ltt, llll,crl. , J( JI lt,
ll Il||l lIt li()ll).{ l,
I,t_}I

rl

l1l. llittlpl.tMep; to cheat sl. into doing smth. tItll i| /,(,lrl,attmb (m,um) Ko|o-jl. ll.ytev o,ltatta cde1,1ltlt, Illlll)-,l: to ltighten smb. into accepting smth. .lill
t,t, Illtlt,Illllll lto?o-L um m-1.
I\ltrrlt

ltc

lu.]l
()

,llIl|(,.l|||lll,crlboe ,
,
,,,Ill:ll\ t t,|)llul,

lIl,|)t ]ll\(),r,
J.D( "
1,1|l |()}l

l,rrtl,rll1),

lll,.,sr: n]en ught their w It government


')|lt J] u
Il l )|) i.|l

lt,, slltlcment rd the Italian police for the death


(iirrsscppe Pinelli. the 41 r old hist wh fell
ltt tllh frm the window. J
lll) lllllIt .
,t|1,1l)\lIcTa 41 , 1lu ll,
1,1,1ll(lB

l ll],1.1lt,llll(, 20.

,
. I l l t 0 1,1 ll II .
l

{ )

' l. llc lloultl like lo i Britai

dt+,

il admitlingwhat

, r,t, lIt ttlr hsiti. *2, some [ gmt's


lr, ,,l ltl ll(I\ ill1lol1g tlre wst capiist goyelnnrents lrave
Ir, r,|| r/,rlr ,ll ittltl pttblic expressions oJ'dissocialioz fm the
|,t|, .l l,rltl ;tgailtst Lebanon, 3. Those guests who l-rgt to
lrtttt1. llt,,tl trckets slrould not object to being cluestioned d
t,\, lt /t,lt , lltcit,"s1.ories" checked,4,Heprodcled botll coulries

101

l'l

J'i ii : ;""i;; ;, ;,i 9; ;, in in oi th hous hld


it their umrkd."i. . fJ irJ "!.:t!:1
'!i!ii"i,,**Jil"'iu"tfi'},33",x'
-

i'

who went r'to Grg's camp ano


iltiace gi, *13. But what impressed m
;;;;;---ti"h r chiefly tactical _

sigr filed st
that hr ostrangt
hr it siglg
It was Richard ]

iirrrr,

d. iO.

ii6li.Jy. t iz:

iii;' ;; d;i

"

ii,

lr...)

l)lt , rI _

\,(,

,..

f,,

(t} u, ...

u.

conflict r quite pToduced


isis atmosphere in Washington. _
lllll, u coJtcelte rrrll, oHJ
lc lle , . i
rr

()t)c ll1,I.

t|ttttttblw (cmpaHHbtM),
l

havq
r
ii to h4

failed ro cheat him out t,


q r d u t | olf i t L!

*r" ", _ __,


" .
"rr.
;r;^;i , _
9II-r
li. .
".rriJ
.
- ^-

l|)lIl

t')rr(l JI _

jIll/lll:tlIlrl.

ll ltltl i.g dd is comprehensive hgreement, and the


lr;tlrlcwork of this is provided the United Nations
sscnlbly and Sit Council Tesolutions.
(,( )l, IIillIJeHe
- m m iltlmum du.
()t,l|()I]y t
|)(] }()Jtl
ltC }()II[l.

5.
, j!}]}},, _
D
.
L
, i l,
rl O,
102

llttt,xllct,lcd though it m seemtheit r1 threats


rttll titkcn atface lu. m ilm ?tu-

BI
g:l99

i;;;;

hm-

i|lttt,lt a,g it was deplored, the

tI
II

"

ttltttit,lt ./l m

xlx

as they wh galv iz d one-quarter of

ll;lIll,!lltc; aS though, -

The opposition vo

llli sides

lII

I hil lcNl()I (),


.
t trit tICN'l()I'O l] ,

bUlldoze tlu nIter,

4.

l, i I

mmt i
ltistory. , lt, u
tllltl.l ,lcclllit ilJI JI )l(lI . (: r u l lr

(|(lll

ir l

ily irlto the most monumental political

Il ttlt,I ,'

l llll lllh(, llll


r{,
|l1,1|li,( il llit TIepBoe li\|llI

ll,

119,,.u lilll. /lll( ,l()llllbIx : ,


l li l ,, 1l lr1,111lcltlee . ).
,l, ')rl|llt l, ,
l1ll ll()lll. I gorttnd, 9 m , .., .
l l1,r1

103

Fr from seekigto end the tacialistwhite minoritltegllne


; ;buriry ihe decisions deigned to bolster,up
this system. m

-;i

, _::I,5
?ii """. ,

/. ')rt!tl, II
lll lllll)(,/\Jl , anybody, anyllrlttli rlrIld ll yr. l\ ||lt,/ly l}
. ||ll| |l| )l(0
.
l|illlll()l (), tl
l,

*,:

however * _f(-*_9:9!:
;.,

ir
4 Htl,,,,
u,.,, m u,,, .

b'ttl 11111i7 cease_fire was rhd did the sides start


llt,1l,tlIiatiohS, f |)( )I |,l lttl s.

l Irt, 1lolls show that it is cs uulr as glrrt


ltlts [l at any time since the wr. .

tllr tl , .
Icrll,cIBo ll.ll u
til ltccL .
()tt(lrltllc for long_Iange settlement, hw is as
l1ltlllty as eyer. .
t,Ilt)(llIoo IrI rc

'ulst this m prove to


believe thstrigt precautions could

again, howewr
Here
-^

Jtfi"li
J applied. , (

, l fl u
,

) whatever * ()
, ::51_1l m l

Hu,,,; , m.,.; () u.,.; ,l, l", ,

held,about some of

rtis m
"T|hateyer
,iit. jrithmetic, th r

of

,the Natir

Plan deserves wrm welcome.


,

) who ev r * (Me:]9.1y,j]y:)
ir, m u
Whoeyer the authors m have , they utterly

t. existing situatioh. m t u

tu

(.
Iirr.r not until 1
I
(. l r,rr1, illt ___9.,
ir JI iryTcM, tr 9
Q,

104

l, ( l

l l |,l

Ml/t, zd -u ,

lllrtll, , ,

lll Il(,|l(),/l1.1 l, .

lll Il('ll()/(C
|||

|,l () |l1,1

ll t,rl,t,l,

85...aS
l l l l l l l )(, t( ),
I
:
ll,rlt;,11lg11, as late as 1970
1970 eody, as early as
Il, 1,1 (;ls |tltlg ago s) t 1925 zd"
ti ')rt|l l

1,1|l{,,lllrl
|

]llllllllltN,t ll l not only.." but


t|l, |||!t lllhl .,., u; hardly .,. w'hen (than) edBa ,.,, ;
,,t ilt, t, ly .,. wh edBa .,, q;,t| ... than mnil.., ll()t lnorely.,. ut ,,,,, ll,

tho goyernol just made second vice


l,tcsillont, Dr hewas also given the symbolically imr-,
litrrt tttsk of presenting the new constitution to the
('()ll8css, m II *
|)1,lM l]t(-1 r

t\1,1 tltt1,1,has

(,llNllt()Jl
h()llc,J ,t, .

fri th the State


himself was off on Middle Eastern tr.
/ tlrlrl ll0 , 4 -

lltttll|,1,was the envoy back frm


St,t,rcttll-y

105

,,l,,lttttllt,, w nevetheless contacts that neither side looked


|1|r, ivillg up. 1,4. No sr did the president

9. (:

) do (did)

But ge does (did)


().

rmmr,

xop.ou,to

2) well .

llt,ttt lw<l tlks flew through the ir, landing hmlssl


ll'1ttIl), *|5. ls lg ago as 1841 Royal Commission
rIllt,r lctI thc attention of the British Grmt to
"lltl, tttlvltnlage and facility of establishing decimal
ti1,,lt,llt tll' coinage". 76. As m as th rveeks the
llrtvcl|ct,s spcnt in the jugl.

Itwodd l/m athreattothe security of the country.


(, )

ii-iu

of other left and democratic paTties w r ,

beaten up, their premises idd, thi e_quip_ment d

,na tb"ii'rist books burnbd. 3. Much as

ll,:lll

}a

)llJII,t

lll, lt

,
I lllilll(:llllC , , 3, .
l11lIll]l JlilIl
.

,r
llr,;lt,1111,1"
.
lllllll( tl |l II
||ilt't't)'t t'l Ill'l\llllll.
'

l1,1l

21. ,
.
*7. Far Jrom stoppirg the cut in living.standards rv

inflatibn is"causing, ihe goverriment is striving tb inct


the size of that Teduction. 2. It is the mmuists

()

if if

anything,

if at all, if

l|' tlltlv, i then,

ever,

JIlll}1l lllll lI .
ll 1rrll1t: JI .

ll1rlr II
u, m urfl,llltl Iltllil t, ,l?l rc,
|1,1ll,, ll l,,l.v.| mu, u uuu . .
l\ttltltica'can count on few, if r,, short term gains.
ll ,t|,ttutet ul

llll|,/1,1())l(cIl4 u

nited States' mg m
7. Not I does he want
nal war, he rvats
well. 8. It had he
that ended the tr,
*9. The chance of defeating 1he .senator gladdens
irr. fl- the feeling is Teasoned and so
r-lt
m It
is urisd _i dice. tr
bf
*|0, Crazy.as.it .
fact of explosive polftical potential.
;;;;i,-th;i his ail along^been certain.logig. behi
iJ rri.i"rl to mk public rvhat irtll. eve
J ["w. 11. Exhausted ihoush Jhs wcs h'e w_r

;;ighia t iirfield to
12. was expected to lose

got behind their candidates


'i.|1.iiiikr, , mqtter wu m s ,

ll:l lI . (.:
,,llcll _
lllr fl, lrll>).)

ll lrtty
l|1, 1ll llll(t 1lm m, u m tlm.
ll ,tttttltig, tlris move of NATO cottntries indicates
lrlrtllcllillg of the previous attitude.
(,l|)itll- t-tt,d u udmt llll.'('lll, 'L'O U
9 ,
(,lltc .
107

106

If .anything
, ec/lu t m ,l/l,
m t; ,,. .
If thig, it wil1 in thir interests to follow t
us. q,

rt,.irl intentions. 1( Kaun4 t u uu


!,l|(liIl uu, --

]lt]|lllc

r and mr mris face the dilemma of


d at all, an individual safely exercise

individual judgement,
, , u ilm

t, II r

,|, ('lrtl
i,llll:lll, llil|) admi
tlrlttir,tlIV ll() l)Ltul] d
h((l l , al|egedlY
l
l l l l

2. if* II (/
),
,

In this the party enjoys the powerful, if

us,

support of thg vast bulk of the population.


. , m u
lil u,

l |
|

t l !

1,1tttilltlll.y'

the position of the country lnthe united

Nlrlitltts deteriorated.
llrt.llllo

ulttt 1ll,
.

l tr1l,t,tillt,ltllt, 22. IIt


tI Illlll

ll lII),

Brouillet claimed de Gull was fluent if imperfect,


English and once knew German quitb we[. :
, r , m,fl u
u, - -
.
The president also gave vy?rning, if obliquely,
events in that rt of tire wrld could have
ml effect upon the progless of the s
rrs limilations talks.
, m u ,
I{ ]v{
( l) f
.
3. dII,
WhateveT, however, l
, .

q ,u{,
I,O] KKoti l Htl, ll,l l u, t
{5/hatcver their efforts, the eernies of the republi
t mislead the rvorld public opinion as to
108

j!lltttilt,rltrr;1

11|'

(cnsiot-t. 11.

iii,'lll ill it jtltlgc,

In any other country the Tetirejs moclest news, of

holyeyer mit,

l09

a
htst I to the legal profession. 12, .R.egrettably,.c
lS
,ith inIlationary
-t lms _wig Sughu_ _tr
that-c_gpld dss
fs
mi
i"r--i
-.r

,ll() )1,o i IIQ,


(l]lllll lllitl, -

the. t_

.quaTter. _ J3,_

His

,s9s:

"
ri, f lird. 14. Irlll the
"ii.
"iii jt days after _the watergate col
iia-its d
;--ghi. !5. ir dubious the utm,
will oe,sidcd balance sheet

xxl
I4

l 'lllt

lyl)il /(tltloo -

one Supects.

Il1,111,,,ll(,lll|()l() II JUI -

l ||lll|||\ll lll)/UI ( one suspects

ll, ltlllli, r\!(,(, l()) , llll hl l lllt, /l rl())l(, .


l):tlt,t|rtl ,t what that
I l||il Ill | ( llll||)IC ,

! ]l\||ilt,lt Il()|)0l]


Il /rrll stllllo Arnerican politicians say about detente does

lrrrl t,tllllibute to the cause of . , m li||l1,1c ll


l:ll

//1,1/

r,,
l,

i
, , __19_19':11::
4,
whal _ ,
.", g9199_1l
-

/ ,
'Lyhat
the vladivostok ltmt luts to is
' r...t
guidelines for neBo]i1!9_119t}:.:l,jl:
aims limitation talks.
,
,

.

(m uHoe, ).

^
JI

,
r( .
Suspects this adds up to is move t
What
"
ri system of govemment.
l10

,Ill,| l,||lIt| ()c.ll())I(HeHa

HeKoTopylo
*: 94]I_
9_ g, ::
that, if, whether,

biii

('\l1,1 l ().ll


l)rl)I(,
.

lltc tlsdt expresses the government's view


tltli(c obvious. , m

)lll(y tI)Lt,

.'

l l;lrl7lt, _
l|!lt lrl llc, iayl|lllIlll\llt : mum m, m...; d-

|l||l|

i lllIlli

|lllll|

1,1

ttl m, m..,; l , m,,.; m m,


l;ll()(e ).

1,1ll

llt,,

t<lld is not what the fudrs of the Uited Nall!lll llzped it lyould twely-five years cgo.
l(,l, it llll lillll,t 25 .

l,r'rlll
Wlltrlltl,
l iit1111,11

IlllIl(

II[)/{
,t,()

l-ltl ll|)JI,

lll(1,1 4rl.

llrc

tlucstion iS yyhether the grmt realizes that


lll., (,ommuists haye m too real po|yer t to
l,t rld ylith, , lllllr,llt lt um, m um (u
l,|l.,lll, u u, m fl ullllllllll(!l,

l,

ll1lr1,;it

ltl I
1l1

I , J .

MPlr4 in Angola is savouring

u*hat is ulisutl
grealest lriutphs oJ is existenc,e, ,i "_
l, m l m
u.qLuu. m q
) lmqu.
oJ' the

::IIu_?]_...!9 ,
9 i d.

g
sti
n

rtt them as people who


tU De mole m tne firing line than otheis . 4, la/hat^ tii
hos sh is that i g in rli-r',
referendum, but that the mixture tbe- iwo Obnii,
govetnment the righ_t to take its responsibilities, 5. unli
the senator,, of them belongs i ,iii iit^iii
th turl or habitual siti of the baminiiiibiii
*6. |Y'hat is dd this iiek, "1l,
is "y;;i:
sense that the negotiations are not continling to mrk tii
but are_moving to rtil solutions. 7. stateme
1--

1'ttl|.

ulation,

gt dr
oI w t ridt h.as I ,r had hd
qnrna fg,
orol
d -choulrl
should r/a
do, m
i
W m.s they devise shmds al

-f_.^l-_-__

frm st

)1

$de_d that yyhat was porticularly serious was that the te


ists_had used the chirch as ?rtriJ i ib.ii'o;;;;
8. Precisely whqt the phrase 'freedom to slrik', -;

to wrkrs remains to s. 9. s evidence th;r


do better'', the Communists point to "-*
!Lmmulst
Lommunlst mayof govelns yyhat,is
what,is widely
widelv called
called ''t
st-.ru city i..Italy". 10. The question is irti'li,
lS are wllllg to cooperate. 7I. That the esotial
,]r!t_,!ury it dfficuhles rvas l frm the

^u{ouir.

l}r".W
er th I .woulcl su re the s s}- w
ij"ii
|9th
dfficul,.was
not quite obvious. l. lt's-" agreed
"i that
sldes wlli pless on with what tlte ri iir is oj
lo calI rwl J'ulm glilis,

hr l111|111

ll

llll l

/. 9, <, I

r(cllIll.tatbrlo. ))r-(),ilt,1ll rr . 12,

ll|,|||,(,lt l{,

lll.(lllilNlc


1 tr llt ilNlr.) .

lrll. .l. 1. ,rrra .


lrilNlllitll



.
/lf \l|)l(|)lll,a
,\

\.

ll

1 lltl

rrotry ,
llIl llllllitJ,lbJlo , ,

iil,tltll ,;\0 . 3.
li lilllll1,1Nt , i JI, ,
], Irr:|lJIlD lJ ,

l|L ll\(,) llJIcBo. 7. , ,
l||ll (,ll ll (_.
||lll. |(., l|. IIr ' . 8. .'lll |lll
-

lltlll
llil(l
jlr,lllr,'|
.jIli( l ll ltl lI .

\'ttll, 4, 1.

lLrrll111,,..,..,na

( lr, r tlt,[l_rlltl<aHcKo).

lrl ttltl1l;ttlc , 6. --

,il|,*,l(l\ty, Jl
llllNll\,t\ :tltKOHa .
lti, tr,r.2ll
l\ t I L,I)l11 .
.,

113

. 5.5. , .
6. JI ,
. l, , oll t,J1.1l,
BepHbtN4, l l. < Q
.-
.-, ' _

ttttkrlcl),
O,

, , ,,i',','i,,' i,i,l i,

frl,

)).

. 8.1. .3.
,
, ).
,

4,

,
< >. ( "The
Beauty and the Beasf',
,
_ r,

_
-, _ ll _
{ : <<, JI
- ?> . ,

-, '
.

lli1,1\ll()ll l}.

Ilt1l.
rllrl{t|,l
r

ill() I'l

'lll
lllllll llx

l l,rllll1,1\l
l lll)||{, ) ro
l

. 10.7. )..,;
,
.

. 11. 3. , , _

,
,
, , ,
. 7. LI:
l|4

.,lI

ll1ltl(1.1IeM

ll r lh ll1,1
lll l l l();l(

l1
t

}llll)l)1,1C
l|| ll| |lill) I , r

|tt|, l4.2. 9
rrl ll1,1IlII
||l||,,| /ll)Ilt

r r|

ffl"ii;

nn"l!glil,,, ,," .;;;;,

ll |1,1,,, ,,1,,.*rJiii,,-,"l,
i
0 ltl4rl roorb ioM,

t\',1ll

||ill
ll

l,!

| ] l, l l

115

,
i r

{_ Y_9_"
l4g
9

. 4. .""-

ir.",?
Koi,
*py.rnoio
ir Hpur,"Te
. 5.
:*fl#:
_
:_:
:9':
"r"r;#ffi;;il;"ki
(
?hlrtr._ ".rr'ii'.r*"
_:}-:l, , HooTpo.iH


.".rr""

rrr,
-.r"r"
,
. 8. * ;;;;ffi;;

, .r*r".i " ,"*.. J
\,I ri- k; ;;;.;
u
.

;;;.'r;

llllllr,,l

rr,lr

Il,\

lll\ I i. 7.

Illl

|.

\,lt

lll ll()l)it,_}

lltl llllllllcckx


||ll1,1ll1,1\ JI ,
9.

,,l\1,1,tll{) lI
hll, ll;l l(()],opoM
}I
llllll1.1llll{I
.

lIl) ||(, ,/()JI
j
f,
rr |rrllr}l l()ll{ , _ 0 1,1

|||\t,l' )'rr ,

, l l llrllllilcTc . 10.
llIl lll{., llllrlMtI ll'r' ,
|,()|()|)()

KOHTPOJI
llil l l|||l||lI .
14,
l,]lllll(,lllIlllX lll,

ll I l | | |( )l IIl| , HiL
rt,,i'tl llrllc , ,
ll lllll()lll
,
ll

.1.1tl)t)(:(),

|]li|i||lllI()J|.I
(| ll1,1l1,1 \.,)
.
1,1llll |)('t'.V,

( )

ttl), l 7.

3. ,

--

ll|||||l\l\ tl;IoKy, J It}. 9. t

Illl h,lli(,tr- Ir }I,


llll ll(, ,/l,())l(

||lll (l ilc,]la, q

.

ltl

|ntl,t

,'

l,t,ccc , N4.

trl Il()/t\/NtTbt

, |,i

\ |,
lIl lll |

I16

t.IlIl rl1,1 Il
,

lll,I ll1,1 l()


, i llll , \. . 6.
tl Illl'|)/|(/lillb,
Zlilil tJ
lil||1l l Il() tIlll <>, '
h |, l lt tllt('('I l]. KOTOP.YIO OKa]BaJlil -

_ -

ltllt)I[i ll .

|,Il'Il(' l()l'O ,

l|

___!.
!_5, 2.r JI

:
i r

llll

l]

li;t._ll,ti
|t) ) l()['() JlC.lIaTb, N,

i lItli l(,lll()l)I!Jlcrl
|.iljl,| (ll tllt

. -


. <<f{ar-

l17


lJI,


)
,

.
HilBttTb
16. -1,I t
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_
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,
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_l#::?fJ fi-#f*.il

_ . 10
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"'_

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.
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,i;';;;-

i cTapoio

1l8

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,, lltlttll, ll

VII -

l1,1ll. ll(,l\v(,c I l}O, ,


lillll |{,hlllctr ()llil ,
I,
ll ll lill((lll )
.
)i ( )lIlllllllo
tllrlllrr

ll l I lt\l, ,l ttl t1.1l , ,
t,Ill1,1(, l, lll() ll

ll l! ll\ | \, r tl,

l tr;,1,111,11.
\

ttll

.)(/. I.

l !l, ll |l(,Nl l(()llKpeTHo . 2.


lIi I i l t i l|)1,1L: l1,1 Jl
l Ilr,11111 l (, ||l,c l lt


|1.1l ll, ll,|\() Il()

,
,l lll l|\lr 11111119 .
7 , l, ll ll1,1 1,1(, lcrl ll
pbiHKa
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,

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|llll llltl;lll ll
<lll llt l\tlll lrrr ).
1l
t|l |, Il h;Illtlt|ltltr , , ,
1,1,1t,l r)l|,l y)l(c lle ,
,l l l l l llltt l liiMittlHM
Illll, l. l{(r lll1l1,1ii rI . 13.
llIll lll lIl(, rlll lllltI ,
lrllr l l1,1(,t,lr llll JI ,
||i IlIl]l rl;ll|:l l t,crl Il
|| ||l l|||llll (, ll()lIlr .
17
||l l|,1,1 |;lllcItl)()B 1974 .

\lll, 'l l. I[ -

t Ill|ll(ll|lt|r(]l|lll

llll\ll llllllll()/Ill l llr-,


irri,|1,1ll|'l\t\'('|'() ll,
.
,llt ( lrrl lllllll;l\lll
Il|t l|l !l l)lIll() lllIl, JI
ll||ll ltIlIllll(l]l())l(ll()My . 7
llll.: ll, ll(l]lll()l\,l()lIl.{r[
,
firl! \lllt,]|{lt,l, t,l ]lMcTb

ltFl|. llllll || ]l{,|)l|()ii tltltlbT. 9
| 1,1l;ll(ll)v l)lt/lycl,
+. l.||ll,
.

lllll| l||,l llNl(, l()l ll(ul ,


l19

f . '
, _
. l0 Hlr lJe.rleo )Io , JI
II O}t
r ], .lt,o ,.l .
15. 1841 Jl
pit l] (
, ]

D).

. 22. L JI

.ll|),ltltl
,, ll r

,,I, ltrl. 4. "

Nt, ll atJ
pyl.I JI
JI}I _LI,
.
. 23. 1 -* , .
, _
"I, ]
il ,trlt\r. 3.
, /ll MolyT ,
ti,
8, , i,
, I,, .
6. ;(-
. ,
,
& tft .

II

l,t,()NID BREZHNEV PUTS

w;rrtting that the state

NEW tN FR

w
of the wrld demanded
pesident

llrrtl,; ltl rm ir."t of wr, Soviet


Soviet
i',l,,iii,r itr.r. eJri launched new

,r,,1 1|1tr.ltl.

"l rllril;ttirlns and reduction of strategic rmmts js


r r t(J
lt IrilIrllllr)tllrt rlm. Fr |ur rt,.wttre
United States
iittr
,',,i,i,,,ii,, rlrc llli'"i tion4
$llltrlttI rlt,lly."
(,ilIl||(l(.llc0 measures
ll,,llll,;,'il,',l'l';

i,l

,r,,lti.y*

in

including advance
ground
troops, had
i
.r.j

ltlt,,r,lt lrr,rr lltil successful,


"tt,l ttrltv wc want to r
lll,:tlt||li,I slltlttltl
"Wl' ltlt' Illt'|)ill'C(l
ll|tll ltl llrl, lISSl(. l

lli,

,,,lrll|l,,|l( (,

/()l'l

ur,

,"

lrr llr, l ,rr lllrsl. wh the v,ietUnion,


l,,,',i,' , ,,l, ,,;lt,ll tllltcr, lyl rzh
llIli,lIl "t\()Ul(| tr;td Ilold 00na

l2l

on confidence-building measures in the Fr East with 11


interested countries."
also pToposed that negotiations stirted with the
U.S, on the limitation and Teduction of strategic weapons,
on the basis of equality and equal security.
But he wrd that "we will not consent to any
agreement that gives unilateral advantage to the U.S.A.,"
and he invited other nuclear powers to join these negotiations at the rrit time.
Brezhnev also offered to m to terms rvith the
U.S. limiting the deployment of new lr submarines
afteT pointing out that when the U.S. went ahead and
built the new Ohio lr smi equipped rMith
TTident missiles, the Soviet Union Teplied building
the h submarine system.
also suggested: ' mrtrim should set on
the deployment in r of w medium-Tange lrmissile weapons of the NATO tis and the Soviet
Union, that is, to freeze the existing quantitative and
qualitative Ievel of these weapons, including the U.S.
forward-based ulr weapons in this region. "The mr_
torium could enter into force at once," he said.
said the Soviet. Union expected that both sides
yould stop 11 preparations fr the deployment of additional
nuclear weapons, including U.S. shig_2 missiles and
land-based strategic Cruise missiles.
Finally, Mr Brezhnev proposed the calling of special
session of the U,N.Sit Council, "with the participation
of the top lds of its member-states in rdr to look
fr keys to improving the international situation, and
preventing Wr."
r Brezhnev also rvarned against the danger of acceptance of milit doctrines claiming that nuclear r
could limitqd and against manoeuvres to Teconcile
l to the idea that such rvar would toleTable.
"That is sheer deception of the peoplesr" he dld.
" 'limited' lr wr as conceived the Americans in,
say, u7 would fm the outset mean the cetairi
destruction of r civilisation. And of s the
United Stiates, too, would not able to escape the
flames of wr."
The Soviet President and Communist Party Gl
Srtr said that since President Reagan took office in
the U.S., "bellicose calls and statements h resounded
|2z

"

lal,.,.,lll|'lll,
'|',,iiitrlrtl

tlttt llrat changes w king place. in.China's


lltl,,ltrrt| 1,,','l,..'r', hc said t time_alo_ne would show to
rrl',,,t , rt,,rrt ilic 1lresent Chinese leadership managed to

[lBl ll,-T "


12

('lltlH1,0ss

Recalling that thc

1l

the Prlmo Mlnlste dlsrnisied as "slandefous

tttt, lllirllls", itsscrtions in the West that the Sovict m


\\ll., llI r,lisis. l]ut he urged rtd fft to im
, llt, tltr itnd rdu wasto.
llt, ;rlstl said that the Soviet Union was Teady to improve
,,,,ttrtlllic ]tis with the U.S. paised the "stru-

||\

,ll)l)l,()ltclr"

,lt,1,1

Parties f rti aspects of


Union, he said Sovlet m
everything they had was ideal.
"W-e close hee
said, "But we

he
which distorts

the

unwittingl does good tr t

ganda."

Brezhnev also dealt'

in the soviet union

f,r_r plan.

and

Not

1. confidence-building m

du

2. dTamatic call u
3. it should not tlr
world 1i... - .
4. Televant negotiations
5. advance notircation
6. to pTopose that the io
to plopose that. negotiations
YI.
7. in, say, u ?!,
2.

MoScoW'SEEKS BIG

The soviet im Ministe


to bring about ''radical im
Iabour productivity. In i
124

of some WesteTn businessmen, but accused


trade fr "unseemly political

llr, ll,S. tll' trying to use


"I

\ \rlt,ict ss spokesman ltr said that the Soviet


l,ttltrll \vlls d to discuss ne\ry U.S.-Soviet gri
,l1|rl lllt,lll. lbllowing the expiTation f the existing fiver,,ll ,ltllccl1,1cnt in Septenrber, which had al|owed the
'rrttl l lltlitttt gutd imts of 8m tonnes f u.s.
||1,1lll .l l,,ltt,. FIc :rdded, however, that if "the U.S. feels
. tlrl tltk, j griz, that's thir business."

rl

lt,t

rtrt,,l,,l t,;rIlcd fOr:

lrr lrrs lrle;lsues fr the Soviet m th im


lrtlltl rcslictions on the consumption of enelgy with

li)l L:conomising set for all ministies and enterprises,


rr|r|r,r [tl save 160m-170m tonnes of fuel and enOIgY

l,rt1l, |,,

Ill

rl\,

l lllr.. lrcxt live YOaIS,


,\ 1llrl1,,t,itlrlmc of mechanisation in

transpoTt, loading,

tlltl,,,t,lrrl1, itllcl storage which wi1l save the lur


lrl, , ll l.,,ltt ;ltltl 2m people 1985.

of

,\ tt, tr, st,stcnt of wholesale is and iffs to


|11|1rrrlllt,rl ltt "dt]e rs" to s scientific d tecbnical

IlIl)yl. ,,, ,ltltl it

the quality of dts, while ,


of Surs. '
\ ;,l,rrt ltl itll the quality and g of rolled
,,lcl

l llll|ll1,1lll, ( l)llscl,vation

llllll

,ll1,1
;rldgts wh tgthr with imrmts
Ill ttt, 1,1l rrlll kitt technology, and the use f w strtul
Iltrlll lllll,., rrrlttltl lnake it possible to save 8m tonnes f
Ill||, ,I lll lll ittttl steel i the giig idust, and
/lll lr ltlItr,,, llt crltlstruction 1985.
l lr,, l't irttc irlister said these and thr measures
ttl,It1,1 lr,, ttr,t,t,,Il, irr the 1981-85 Fi-Y Plan because
lrr'ltt, . tr t('r ;tlttl 90 r cent of the increase in the
lllllllrlr,rl lll( (llll(, is to accounted for 3 increases in
||1, ;,1rr,Ir1, Itt llr rll' l;rllU.
l lr, l rr,, \ r,.t l)littl Lrgets described th Soviet

l',Illt,
tll"t

l\lrltt ,l,

ll

l w itlcntical i all cases to

those

ttt llt,, rlrirl't gui(clinesa fr the t. publishetl


rl l'lr Illlltt rll tltc ccrttral committee i Dmr.

lll1lttlrll,

125

1. unseemly political ds

,rrr,I

u0 Hbt

oLl,l.ttlecnul

2. to h no stake in grain . m

drc

u-

3. the increase... is to accounted for ... um

drc tm dmuzm l...

4. draft guidelines . m ltrcu

1,1

u mu

3.CPUSA GREETINGS SOYIET CONGRESS


Y ND FRIENDSHIP FLOIJRISH

The Central Committee of the Communist Party, USA


praised the spirit of , progress, and friendship
chaacteTizing the 26th Congress of the Cornmunist Party
f the soviet union.

The CPUSA detregation to the congress, headed


General Secretary Gus 11, and including National
hirm r Winston, seit ftrl greetings to the
assembly and to the t1 Comrnittee of the CPSU.
The full text of the statement follows:
'We

count it high honoT and rud privilege to extend


warmest fraternal greetings to the gteat 26th Congress
of the Communist PaTty of the Soviet Union. ur party is
in its profound iti
which the Communist t of
sly makes toward the sluti
ems. Indeed, ur esteem f
the leadership and the id we take in the achievements of the Soviet Union has its own reflection among
the masses of r countrymen.
In the urs of leading the advance of the great
family of the Soviet l twd the histoic goal of
society, Communism, the Communist rt of the Soviet
Union tirelessly endeavors to rally the working class
and peoples of all nations to rt their efforts in the
cause f , of ending the ms r and of banishing
the specter of wr] frorn the eartlr. Scores of millions
f ou1 countrymen share sense of the vastness of thg
constructive efforts which the soviet union and the
CPSU makes in the cause of world and of"tho
126

lllss lrid it renders in support of the national emancipation


l|tlm fr social development and economic ttrlr,,ttl tll' 1looples_in-battle for the itgit of their national
,.i \,l,| (,i,]llty and dignitY.
llrt, mrkl advances registered the soviet
|,",,1,1t- since the last (25th) Congresso togethe with the
r rrr1|;1|1,11[ projections which the 26th Congress will make
rrrll 1,,1t,lrtly add to the existent high mtri1 base and
,r, Ir s;lit,itual quaiity of life of the l. The evident
I lll,.|)(,l()us development of Soviet society stands fth in
,lr,rrlr 1,11;1(;ast to the sunkenjawed economic situatio2
,,rr,t 1iltl<llny propects which the capitalist system holds
,,rll lll lhc working l of the United States today.
r lr:t;tclofizing the economic situation in the united
,,l;tlr,.]
;ls (Ire "wofst mess since the great depressionr" the
| ', ;rlt,sitlcnt observed that the tr was "threatened
1,1 illl tconomic calamity of tremendous proportions."
ilr,, rllrrlttlsday pronouncements about the state of the
, ,,lltll|l\/ was prelude to the imsiti sweeping
, rrll,.lr lilj i 11 the social entitlements'won the masses
llllllll[, ll .ycars of hard struggles. has set in l
, llllllll)(,|, msurs designed to l the burdens
of
lll, ll|,t,I)t,tling crisis on the backs of the wkrs, the
,,1,1,r, ,,,r,tI nationalities, the youth and the rd anti
iIll illl lIli,Iy llliddle strata of the tax-burdened ulr masses.
l lr,, lt,llct
long-established social
,,,

Notes

t]lll','

\\lli(,h
lltr

home is P&ed With

abroad, with massive


l. il lllrll;r.\,s r half-a-million dollars rninute being
r trtl llIlv sllcnt on rms and military installations and
ilr .l,rr,t{ltlll tll' tlto rmd forceS.
\\,i,,lrrlrl,,ltln, now more than ever, has m the
r|,rl, lrrr, lrll ltlilIning threats of military adventures and wr
ilrr",rl.
lir l !)llllilsi, 1hc forum of the 26th Congress heralds
tlr, l l, l llr;rl il is precisely Ndsw - the capital of the
lii,,ll r l.tlrrl tll' Socialism - which is looked to the
iii:r|rrlil1 ,,l lrttttlltllity as the capital of the Tvorld, as
i:, i! rl,, Ill,, lilcltl tt of hope of nations seeking
;,iitlIt,rIt lll llli, 1lttllllcms oro development and escape frm
Ii},i, lIt l,,t, 1, 1v;rttltlcss, racist humiliation and imperialist
[, llr, ,,,,,,

|l ii l l !ll

ll ll ,l

l,
i,l ilr,
l

rll [ltc 1l ancl friendship policy pursued


Ir,l IJllicltl irr world affairs r in the

lrrttl ,
',rrt

Iz7

'

constanfly rising well-being of the peoples who live in


socialism at wrk trd communist future.
Despite 11 sleight_of-hand and anti-peoples actions, the
United States Tuling class will not succeed in overcoming
the contradiction between the worsening condition of the
masses and the demagogic claims upon the future for some
dfrd solution of its deepening crlsis. lrd, the spirit'
of fight-back Tises mg the masses of the l.
And once again rd sections of the majority ate
demanding an end to the alms lace in the name,of the
preservation of the hurnan r: for return to policies
of pursuit f detente, SALT agreements, negotiations fr :
fiendship and trd rather than escalation of frttion and tensions.
The mounting struggles of the U.S. l will link-up
with the world-rvide struggle for and progress.
W-e wish the CPSU and the Soviet Union great new
succoss. fiendship between r peoples flourish,
and solidarity between ur parties further strengthen the
links in the rkl chain of rltri solidarity.

Notes
1. to banish the specter f rvar uzm u
2. sunken-jawed economic situation (sunken jaw .
(( )), . sunken cheeks ll1,
sunken s u ) d lt,
mil .u /t}lu, d u
3. social entitlements u u
4"

ILIR.Y DNSS

FLRS

Since the Second World W, the United States has speri


about $ 1,000 billion _(yes, rnillion millions) on its
military establishment.' With just fraction of this astronomical amount of m the natiorr could have rebuilt2
r slum in tlre ut.
we have seen hwr, how the militarization of tlro
m was ssr if the capitalist system rvas to
suri. But it is only fir to ask whether, rt fi
this economic compulsion, 1hc [Jnited States dtrring th
rs was in such dgr tlrat this expenditure was in
case necessary for the nation's ecurity? And if tho U
l28

,r,t,, ill lltl such danger, if the miiitary ditur was


lllllllilIlly itn cionomic anci not secuity policy, lrow wr
tlr, ,\rrri people conned into paying suh fabulous
,ttttrllIltlSI tl r fr milit machine tlrat wasn't
,,,rllr rtt,ctlcd?
llrt, lttlswer to the first question is: No. The Urrjtccl
',l,rlr,,; sillgc the w has at no time in danger of

.rll,rrlt

l Irr^ Sccond World Wr ended with all the main protagolll,,l,;, (,\ccpt f the United States, enormously damaged

rllrt ,,rllltttsted. The Soviet Union suffered the greatest


;tI tlcstruction of all and lost the greatest propoTtion
,,l ll l !{)Ll 11$ male population, but even fr the wr
, trrl rl llrc mri l wr pefsuaded to look u
|i1,1l ( ()tllll vrith the most profound fear and suspicion.
\ lIrt llt wits conveniently disseminated soon ftr the wr
1 rtt l tl is cven now widely accepted as true) that ftr
llr, \\,ill, tlre Soviet Union (unlike the United States)
l,1,t rls rlli|itary forces intact so that it could ready
l,r ,1rllll|] ttt the throat of disarmed West. In actual
l.t l .r,, l'.M.S. Blackett pointed out in his Studies of War,
tlr, l SSl{ made r big reduction of hr rmd
lrlt, ,. ;l|lcl,tlre wr, reducing them to,25 r cent ot- the
|,ll', ll,,trl,c, rrd to the U.S. reduction to 1 r cent,
i\ |r ltl;rr,kctt, scientific adviser to the British Governrnent,
ill, ,l||Ir;rlll.y knows what he is talking about),
\, llll, rri fears of attack the Soviet Union,
iIli, l,, rrlrlr( Grg F. (frmr U.S. Anrbassador
1,1 lll, ]ilrvic1 Union) wrt in 1956:
l lr,, itttitgc of hostile Russia poised and rig
llr ;tl1,1r L lltc West and deterred ontry r possessior
ril ,1lrl11111, wclll)ons, was 1rgl creation of the Wst
ltttrtl,,tt1,1lrrllt, itgltitlst which sonre of us who wr familiar
illr li rr,,,;i;tlt lllattes trid in vain, the s of
i, ;ll-r. l|, tlt;tlic tlt-t voices hd."
lltt,, ", rt,ltlitl1-1 of the Wst imagination" did notarise
;]l,|llIltltl, ,,t1,1l!,. l( lvas quite clearly jn the interests of thtrse
tr ll,, l, ll tI rv;ts cssential to launch the United States
tIlirllt lt l,rr;lr,rttilitttry expenditure rgrm to estaish
irl,,,1tlrtl,, 1rt:;lil'iclttion. It would diftcult to persuade
ii i]| l]|,lr,,rl \ltlr:ticiln people to support global extension
t,l llllllllll\ |)()wcI, ttl keep the wrld safe fr rri
lii\ ,,iIl l|,, ll w;rs tllr SSr to .convince the
;1 ltt, tlr illl Ill,()|)|(, 1lrtrt they wr in danger, that devilish
1,1rt,.tr

l)9

l29

extefnal enemy was out to overthrow the United States.


And not only the United States - but the tvhole Western
rvorld. The destiny of the United States was to save

civilization.

,,l

,l
l

Notes

l,rltl,; rltlwlt mainly to one thing, the human Ights


1,1,,lllr,lll". l some 30 items (of the 50 devoted to the
r|,ltttt,slit, sccnc, including the econonry, in socialist counlllr ,,l stltt ibs, interviews, comments and reports - ollly
ll llil/(,ll llames r given in rius stories arrd combitt,tItrllts

llrt, litrlcidoscope of the same persons that acquires


rltllltlll[ tt at each twist is evidently designed to give
llt, tlttlltcssion that this is mass phenomenon, that these
ilIl |)l()ccsses of the utmost gravity.
( )|' (,()Lls, we have no inlention whtrl of imposing
llllI visirln developments on IHT, and much less
rlrr \1,(, 1llan to rt2 its editors to the communist
1.1lllr, ll wc note is that th newspaper makes effort
tt ll,tIt,vtl|,I to give its drs . cross section of social
lll, ilr thc socialist counties, that desplte the countless
, l,tlltlli to objectivity, it is hrd to find trthfl reporting
lr

tltll

l llis concerns not only its rtig of the internal life

llt,, srlt,iitlist countries. Whatever question IHT Taises


itlrrltll lllc foreign policy of countries of the socialist
l rrtttttttltli[y, the Soviet Union in rtilr, the principa1
ll lt,tltt rll' the fts, rrts, and comments, is the
',l1,1]l(,sliivc aspirations" of the Wsw t states: flTsb
lr| r lltllsc, military, and then economic. It does not matter
llr,rl lltL:i information with the invariable mysteious
|, |, Ir,ltt:tl to intelligence sources, is contradictory. Evidently,

il,, llrl, llcwspaper's editors see i| the important thing


l. lr,ll litcls (there is wh they can gotten frm)
lrrll lltt, constantJy rtd idea thate the Russians

lllIll,i", that the "Russians r marching".


Wlrcrl one rds this srt f thing one cannot help
tltrltl,rttli that the wsr is deliberately prompting the
rrr|tl |tlsitl1,I that the th would hardly r scene
lll ltl ()ll(, l,illion. Take the rrt that the Soviet Union is
1,1ttlrlllr,.i lt tlul poweI station in Finland. It would
tttrl,,l Itl;.lit,lrl 1 regard this as an indication of expanding
,lI

l l l { ll11,1ltlitlll

between countries with different socia1 systems.

lllrl lllI' ;lrtls different interpretation on it, seeing it as


rr|1 , tll lllo nlost serious econornic threats the soviet

lIllIrttt irl.iltiltst 1lre West." In what way? Obviously it would


llt \l l (,lll() l thc head of any IHT editclr to accuse the
r lllrlirtlt,ll wcst mounting economic assault on tlre
rrr Ir||l:,l \,uLlllIl,ics on 1he sole gruds that the FRG r
l31

or Fr was selling Poland, r Rumania,


t.Jnjoll
czcchoslovakia technologies r fac,
thb sbviet

J, the

USA

lrrd,

They' do not mirrr but distort, exaggerating and deni.


grating at one and the same tirne, They exaggerate shortis and denigrate the achievements of the socialist
ommunity,

Notes
'1.

We have no intention whateyer


the wsr

-m Hu -

dm Hu
l to rt...

mum...

>.
6.

ALcOtioL s FUEL?

the united states do it?

One sw is that m Brazil can't do it. Producing

tE,

,\l,

rllttll can synthesized frm rl anything that is

ll| l,v(||,was plant, including grg. It can mixed


rr rllr Hltstlline) one rt to nine, to make "gasohol" tr
llllllll;ll.y engines. r it can urd, undiluted' in
lrtlIrlly moclified engines, as in Brazil. Alcohol that is
,lr,trllL,tl liom m, the cheapest potentia1 sur in the

ltlttlt,tl Slates, costs only little mr than gasoline refined


l,,rltt rlil. It may fll competitive the mid-1980s.
lirrl lll twobig catches.
|,llst, it takes g to distill alcohol- usually mr
I l|l l,,\, lhan is gained, F distilleries to fueled directly
,,t tlItlircc[ly oil could irs dependence imports.
llr,r,,rl llciLls this lm burning sugr stalks as
,lr,Irlli,t,y l'uel. But U.S. distilleries prefer to use trl
i],|, ll| l'Llcl oil. Even if they wr required to use electri, rlt trtlttlc liom coal, thr would still risk of increasllll, lll)l)()ts; m utilities must use oil and gas to meet
|,, ltl', ,.ltlc[;1ailu demand,
llrt, sccood catch is mr seTious. Alcohol that would
.,tr1l1r|1 iLrst l0 r cent of U.S. mtr ful would s u.
lrrIlr llitll' the annual American I I. But that is
Itrtlr,,,.,lilllc. dit that much r to fuel would di
tlr. ,llsl ()l'd so high that there would longer
:llll lll |( t. iti to use it f rs.
',trll, lllore modest production-with mr modest
ill|1 ,1l l llrr (bod prices-is thinkable, and m inevitable.
\ rt ,r;,rl( tll[tlrl consultant estimates that 1985 the vlu
,r| | ll||l lls alcohol, adjusted for inflation, will exceed
l|ll1,1\ ,, v;rlr.tc f r as food. This is great news for frml l ( 1,1ll tl()[ the Test of us. Alcohol rdd frm
El:lIll \\,rrrltl clisplace trivial amount of imported rg.
lirrt rtl, l)licc of oil would begin to s as flr fr
llr, 1,rr,, rll tl.
lt r. ltltttl to inragine how this linkage might r\i,ltl. rl tlttlr:ss the tri that rt rhdts into
il|,,,lrr,| ,,rrtltlcrrly develop social conscience. The use of
lil,,,l .t. lrlt.l rtlight fidd law. But that would
ttrrl ;,;, r,,lrl tl[ ll utis fm producing mr alcohol
ll| i!,l\. tll,rl tlt,ive up world food pices-and buying U.S.
t,tlr t,r,lrr II
llr, tl(,\,(,l()l)ing Telationship between food and fue1
ilii;1,1r, , lIrrlllrI llc thought through now, both economically
itilrl rlrrrt,lll\ lllltil it is, the United States shld trying
itl litti lrttt, '.
133

The most obvious step is to stop subsidizing alcohol


production fm edible grains. lhl mufturs
now eligible fr special 20 r cent investment tax dit
as rvell as dit tax breaks equal to $ 1.04 bushel ol'
corn. Wht benefit this produces in reduced oil im.
ports is outweighed the inrpact on food price.s, It m
hard to get people to drive less; it would lot
hrdr to gel thenl to cat less.

Notes
1. turn farmers loose to grw sug drumh

,+l ,m llum rmu

2. the mrl for thr countries will limited -

mu d zu m dm ?u
3, to buy t\m uzm .
7.

MExIco,S IL

Mexico is discovering, to its own astonishment, that


evidently has the rsurs to become of the wo
great oil drs. In the United States lot of
have immediate begun to assume thaI, U.S. depend
on r surs rvill now slrarply decline and that
need for conservation has ended. Both conclusions.
irrt. The Mexican discoveries r greatly to
comed, both fr Mexico's sake and fr its future cul
s. But the development of an irsig U.S.-Mexi
trade in oil, on terms satisfactory both sides of t
rdr, is going to considerablo test of U.S. d
matic ski1l.
The gigantic scale of the Mexican fields has only
ually m rt. Pemex, the Mexican state ol
monopoly, was highly sti in the rrtsr that
sent along to its goverirmen1. As tbr the Mexican g
ment, it felt no obligation to tell the world. But estimato
have steadily risen tlre past two rs, and last
the President announced 1igures 1hat would put Mexico'
potential production jn class with Saudi Arabia's. Thnt
kind of estimate is always speculative, but th is m
than enough evidence to establish that these new fese
r trml ilrrpressive.
]5

The U.S. position in this kind of negotiation is


going 1 mfrtl . U,S. oil consumption
still rlsing rapidly-more rapidly than Mexico is likely
id oil production. The United States tis to
buyer in sellers' market.

Notes
1. m ,.. was highly conservative in the reportS
... u mm daBa,,ta
daHHbte..,

2. 1abor-intensive industries dttu muu

lul/lru

. capital-intensive industry . mu

cmLl

ul

8. UNESCO

tt

tu

u m

ADOPTS INITIATIYES ON MEDIA;


WEST REBUFF,ED

After month of negotiations, the UNESCO Ge


fr agreed on new intenational aid rg
1rgl under the control of UNESCO, to help develo
tris to strengthen thi capabilities in communtcat
and news.

Also, delegates approved several rgrms in


UNESCO budget tlrat seek to promote such concepts
international code of ethics fr journalists, some lc
of "protection fr joumalists", univesal clefinitions
"responsible" repofiing and ways to help st
the gd capability of "liberation moyements"
as the Palestine

Irlt1,1ic, the conference re-elected without opposition


tlr,, lINljSCO dirt-grl, outspoken advocate of
,llrllls to rk what he has called the west's dominance
,,l 1,,lrlllitl communications and the stuctures of internal ll lIl,Il tlcws distribution.
l)t,lcgates also approved 34-r cent increase in the
ll|tl,Iillillg budget of UNESCO, r the "no" votes of the
lIltrli,tl Sttttes, Britain, Australia, Canada and Japan. The
l N ;r,lct-lcy now will have $625 million to spend r the
rl, l lllt,cc rs including substantial is in funds
, ,lllllillliccl fr communications and mass media initiatives.
l lrc llcw intenational aid rgrm was rt
iltt;rrr1|;111gg. Sr1 speakers on Wednesday hailed it as
| "lllllcstone" in the history of the Paris-based United
i\i,rI rrrlls llclucational, Scientific and ulturl Organization
l,, 1,111., it is designed to give practical effect to what up
Il l ||l )\\ Itits largely conceptual capaignl.
l llL, 1)ospct of other specific initiatives was also raised
l,r .rl lt,ltst two items in the UNESCO budget and in sev, r.rl ,,1ll,tlches durig the 1ong debates r the widening
|,,,lrltr ltl issue f what is often called "information Wr",
lllt, Irlclian delegation and two items on the budget
},Iil,,IlI ltt cxtend UNESCO's involvement in the.sensitive
ilrll,, tll slttcllite communication and its regulation. rvoTld
r lrll|i,11,11gg the issue is to held the Geneva-based
lri|,,lrr;tlirltlal Telecommunications Union in 1983 r 1984,
illl|l lll(, cl'lbcts of the campaign at UNESCO 9r 99rl;llll l(, llc lcl1 1here as well,

Notes

Libe

approved,
Soviet r

of the West
ational confere
China,
in 1983 to evaluate'how the mass media are comply
with 1978 UNESCO resolution calling on them to
,rnote , undestanding and human rights, and to
racism, rthid utd "w-tlrgig".
In another lesolution, sponsored Yzul,
gates cailed fr study aimed at dfawing up the basic
ciples of the "new wor]d jrrformation dr,"
rd likely to set the stage lbr another i
struggle r media issues at the next genoral
They

136

()llccptual campaign uduq qLI

,l

ll,] oF,U.s. NGRs DOUBTFUL


\\l(l('GIl, F "TITANIC" HAS DN LOCATED
Il( ),, l ( lN . .-

lh expedition searching for the ''Titanic''

rl ;lrllt h yesterday, and although its rgizs


Ilr|| |r1 |1,,1,, (lrcy have lclcated the wreck of the famed
iii,,,,, llrtt,t,. cictists associated with the vlur were
11 r, |1,

!'lr ,, tl,rllt.
l l,l ,|||l),,|,il|)llos

. ,,,lt,tll

i,it,,

in the rt said that an analysis fl


flooi failecl

lllIilt]u oI 1he Nth Atlantic sea

l17

to rvl conclusive evidence of the hulk. The B82-foot


"Titanic" struck iceberg and ; jBo miles southeast

f Newfoundland.

"We did not find the "Titmti9", expedition geophysicist said in i interview soon after l -ritl docked.
If we
had had better irr, and little ;i; time, wo
would have found it. Another week--out thr +\
and we
Yv v
had it for s}rr. W e ,.i. that close to
L(J LllDdis:lg,hly.
covery2. j.,9l,1..q tbit.+ li
iit r.,,1
^";
he thd
;;
.Tl_. found
fil._,dll"..k?d.I
.:uja
the "Titanic" ui-ri..d ;fi.i"ir'll
l1
|t
proof.
it is to get down there

fd

i,,

llttll to ledge on the side of the large submarine

]ttu

i lll\

lll).

t:ll the area's dynamic geology, there is Iow pro-

lrat the "Titaltic" lies in an urk pie in


lr| ll lcl,t,ai, d high probability that it is either buried
|

,,

tl

ltl

, rI

ll

,,r

tlllttcnt r otherwise obscured the geological fea.

tll ,

,,

Il

is rs to the

casea, project scientists said,


take cameras and magnetometrs to malie
;l l )r l, lt lvc identificatiOn.

rl

rll

rr

lll

1l1,obably

Notes
l
,
{i

s()l"lar m
W were that close

to discovery. tu

lll lhll mmu.


s 1l irroffs d um doxo d

coBceful

i
l

il' tlris rs to tho u Q?tm, m


lll ll| ()()lum u m
on. Ftr has no plans to raise
u expenses through tele-

countered in this summr's


dynamic trri of the sea
s confounded the srhrs

rS.

,"d'.'u, somo of the ledges and


) fr possible shipwrecs. Th;

particular s inlage t_h.at the expediiion ldr


had fPorted aS :rhgyig object t. ,bb-i 1g, iirrt width
and right height the ,iTitanic" tfrinec ;J'-sgr
in_
l

YIi*rllir

rr'u

GIYE

l',\l( IS. - It took the combined efforts of the and


lt,s[ wlrose rdr was founded to rt out hrtis to
t
tltrl ltoman Catholic Church ready to concede oflfi!,,
lt.rll\ thc point that the Earth gces rud the sun
. l lt, l r illg the L7th century heresy trial f strIr
( l,tlllt,rl (ialilei.
l lr,, ttccision to r the trial, announced Thursday
|,\ ! ll,, V irtican, was rd at the express wish of
l , ,ltlt l l . N icholas Copernicus was the first Renaissance
t,llrlll()lllcl,to speculate that the Earth Was not the staitr r|1,1l\ t,1,1t f the universe, hrti1 thesis for whic}r
I r,rl1|, rl lll,tlvide d the rnathematical rs. "Still, it ms,"
rllllll l,,tl (iirlileo ftr recanting to avoid the death senli l]r l,t, lIlc Irrquisition.
l lr.,, ;ltl|)o's m was not sirnply out of desire to
trr,lrIt lltcl lllcst important figure in Polish intelloctual
llr,lrlt\, illr1llicitly condemned lg vyith Galileo. It was
tl.,, llr.', ltlsll l[ campeign - Frh Dominican
l,| l, ,l tt lttl ltitl; cledigatgd himsglf to tho 0u9 of bringing

:l

to 13,000 feet, stretched


ft underwater urrts to ron land. Sr rovealed
s and cataracts, avalanche

0'

lrl

1J9

the church into the modern rvorld and to the ecumenipal


movementl

The said Iast r that Galileo had been wrgl


condemned, but bringing the church to revise the trial
he'ld in 1633 was the culmination of campaign that has
going on since the mrr Napoleon made off with
the treasures of the Yatican, icluding the official transcript
f the trial.
The records of the triaI remained in Fr for two
decades, and after the revolutionary wave had spent itself, the restored Frh mrh returned it to the
Vaticarr, but not without imposing condition that eventually facilitated the trial's revision-that Frh scholars
allowed free access to them.
,So it was no accident that Frh priest, Father
Dominique Durl, should have led the mig2 to
lr Galileo.

Notes

Db

HIM No GooD
'W'r

The urs of the Se cond World


was largely decided the greatest,blunde r made military'intel_
Iigence. It was perhaps ono of the biggest political blunders
of 11 time.
rith rapidly advancing technology the importance of
the part played in wr the sny has increased rmusl.
It is obviously important to know nowadays what secret
weapons the m has up his sleeve, d what kind of
impact they r likely to have.
During the Second \ffrld '!V'r, Grm intelligence
suffered under two major handicaps: fascism and the rigid.
ity of the Prussian military apparatus.
What happened provides an object lesson in the danger
f confining the knowledge gathered frm 11 branches- of
l40

'I; the same way the old German military caste regdgd
lllo Spy as kind of tip-off r] wJrose task should
l il information Jo lit in Tvith the gr1 stafps

lt

l,cady conceived plans,

;r l

Wittr this grud2 the Grrr general


) n5ovj{e$
llitlcr, rlig info
Soviet Union woul
:,l,,icr, wr confident th
the naziblitzkri.g.
,,',,,,.ediately when subje
the supposition that the
on
plans
up
drbwn
wr
l1
lrr lvict iJnion "would m r less dftd in fur
tt t,ql[, and that al1 resistarrce woutrd coase within 17 we9ks,
l r:rr ij, fr the Russian SnoWS could. cted to
,continuation
l , I\r provision was made fr the furthr
t

,,l lltc Wf"

uril movement lru ut


2. it was no accident that Frh priest ... should
have led the campaign - ,
YI.
WY HITLER,S SPIES

t,tl, r W-orse.

t ,r

1.

11.

illtelligence to one peSon" rn German onl Hitler haC


ilccess to r kinil f inteltrigence, and he coutrd not
ttlld anything ihat conflicted rMith his naz\ prgoccupations.
nY spi/ wh defiled this rul would quickly disregard-

I'lris amazing failure Grr intelligence,led to the

llliln rm mrkig on urs which rught it

( it.t

lr r t lllc of the greatest ilitr disasters in history

i,;m t.ttigence was r, but it must not


it rMas l in underestinratl*g the strength

|lt,,rlght that

i,l rl,c Soviet Union. mri and British "experts"

also
l,,,tlr.vc[l that the Soviei Union coutrd l last few weeks
,|!,,lrrtsl the zt rm.
l llc rrr was founded the belief that no socialist

1ii t\., r.
i

,tl

,t

could rsl efficient mrdwith

l,,l l)()wr. The wish WaS fattrrer to the th,ht'._


li rrl lrs ,David h shows in "Hitler's Spies" thr Wr
l

|, r 1.1l l,citsons WhY Grm intelligence should weak.


t,,.t ll,,sillg Grm lack understanding of their enomies
iil Ilt,, lit,c(

r_:

,l ! l r i1, , tl l

:l

,|

(,L].,

.l1,1,1t,SSion,

1,1!\\

which led to

filur : ( 1) unj ustifie d


lose tuh with reality:

stl,rlggle within the fi

i:, l!, l.tl,, Irtlstilc to intelligence


,,i llr, ll;|,/i starte, which gr v
,,
i r rttl l ,t.llr lListr"l,'which deprived GOrm of _? is."

l i r rl ;rilt tllc wrk the Grl inteliigence WaS


ir
.t!tt ,,.! ,l , ;,,lt,;tt lt tilur as in the Soviet Ui.L" E?ch SPY
l l rl lt,l wltli dctectec{, 1rgl rvith th* heip Of filiiJl
|l lrl

l,i

141

Tvhom the Germans regarded as of their most reliable

agents. When spies contacted him for help he handed


them r to the British authorities, r+,ho confronted them
with the alternative"'Work us r shot."
Perhaps the.most renrarkable success for this method
was connected with D-Daya. Using the code mr of
Cato, captured Gm spy, the Bitish intelligence pass_
ed on the irmti tl-rat the invasion of Nrmd was
about to take place. The Allied Command was well wr
that the time the message was decoded it would
too 1ate to f much use to the Gr rm.
But as result of it Cato's prestige rose enormously
in Gm eyes. few days later Cato passed on the
lqg that the main landing would in the Pas de
Calais.
Accordingly the nrain Grm fs wajted thr until,
considerable Allied forces were landed in Normandy, and
Hitle persisted fr weeks in believing tlrat big attack
was coming in the Pas de Calais.

Notes
1, tip-off m ut
2. with this kgrud u ml Iltllu t
3. The wish was father to the thought, -

du t

4. D-day

0 u
12.

LS

RBSORT

WALTHAM, MASS. - "Why do we imprison people?''


That seems easy to answel, doesn't it? Surely we im-

is peopid to get criminals off the streets, punish them


and protect the law-abiding,
But do we really? The mr rI accurate swr
m that offenders most often go to is because
sentencing judges rrl assume that imprisonrTent is the
only ss to rim.
Judge F., widely Tespected authority on crininal
justice, argued that in l]l-|rs rost-instances
nonviolent crime today, imismt m the worst
1hing to do-bolh ussit at-tcl counterproductive. Alitl, slre poirrted out, tlrc Unitcd States inlpisons I
I42

both absolutetry and r capita, than any other


ivilized society; but it lras higher crinre rate than any
rll'[hem-a rir lr so sr that 52 r cent of
l()spondents in Tecent 11 said they had guns in thi
1lcoplo,

ltlseholds "fr ptotection".

r imprisonment, mrr, will demarrd mr prisrlrls. With about half-million convicted persons already
ll| 1lis on given day, the charges r enormous
,r1,,;rit-tst society supposedly gripped in "tax lt" and
rlr tvltich such institutions as the public schools, mental
ll()s|)ital and d-r centers r often strapped for funds.
Yct, fr huge expenditures, Judge F. said, mris
1,, l lt ecidivism rt of about 65 r cent, with rss
rt lrrr ll been imprisoned mr likely to commit crimes
tlr,rrr lhose who have not, Nr, in hr v_iew-not undisputed
,rl lIlc r-is thr rf| that the threat of
rrrt1ll i51111 11gnt dts im.
,ltrtlgc F. said that she rlid as.much as possible on,
r,,,ltlLtlion" the offender to the victim, plus fines. She
,l, ,, rillctl this as not l effective way to deal with
llllllvl()IcllI offenders ut mtt of fairness to the victit,
rr It,l is tllien the forgotten rs in criminal case.and
l,,l tt llrllll imprisonment f the ffd ffrs only rr1
,

rlt,t,tt litlrl , if that2,

l lrrls. ,she said,

fr shoplifter convicted of

pilf'eirrg

lrltt rrrrrlh i merchandise, she might rdr the $100 paid


l, r, l, ,tltrl lcvy fine of $300. r, fr businessman found
|,rttllt r ll t,rllbezzling $ 100,000, the penalty might restill|l1,1lt (rl llrc funds plus $300,000 fine. The result is that

,ll ll lrl rltt,itllct offendeTs stay out of prisorr and avoid


r| ,l, lllllllill]izing efects-which ft 1ead to mr rim,r lrtl, llt,. victim is
repaid and societ Saves lot
1,1.1,1\, l,,' lll()llcy. Sometimes, Judge F. said, when slich
,| l,, l1,1llr ittl,r"rlvccl getting

job fr an offender arrd giving

ltllr, lll ll,,1 los1lonsibilities to meet, it uld even


l, lt

r1,1lrl.rl lll1',".

|'r, r,lrrrl, Itrslicc ., thr leading exponent of "ltrll!llii, ., llll ll(,it)!j," Sllw cotntltunity sri aS another
tt,il lrt| | ,IllIltt, lilt, judes. utltd the case of
l tIllllF ll1,1ll lr,,r,cl llclbt,c in l kind of tul, Whose
1ir ;i lt1:, rll ,|111llll, l()stll(cd ilr the dcath of young Woman.
ll,, ,, , |,,t111,1 ,,rrillv rll'1l ii wliich could have resulted
|ll .l |,ll l lll ,r lllr,l|( . itlstcacl, 1he Judgo senlenced him
itt ,,,,,i Irrr 1,1,rt,, ttl ;t tttlsitlg hm- 1r orestitution
l43

to the community jn case in which it tpas impossible

to make restittion to the victim. d i wlrich imismt


rvould mrl have punished the ffd without rtting society,
The judge saw imprisonment as st of "bottom line'3
{r [fdrs who failed h given thenr ltrtive sentences. cstimated that about 30 r cent
those he had given such scntcnces failed i some way to
ry them out and ultimately wr jailed-which suggest
that the thr 70 r ccnt- did t rqir the ris sLences they might havc rcceived in some th rt.
rd fss W. tid that ltrti stencing had not yet sufficiently cvaluated t trd
restittllion "immensely appealing." saw it m l
as alternative to rti th to is but pointed
<lut that it both mstd the victim d idd
s[I itrti jn ffdr's hi fr he
she went to is.
Dcputy ttr Grl R. made rhs the essen_
tial point. Sentencing judges, hc said, ought to view irrti as last rsrt thr than the llrst i trying to
il the goals f punishing im, protccting society,
salving the victim and drig tlrc ffd.

N otes
1,

Nor .,. js tlr f...*. VII

/l>,

<<-

2. .,.f whonr ilrislt fr the ffdr ffs


only ml satisfaction, i that 0 ? tlt
.4!l! llllulum, ec/lu lt dttll t ttt

.|,

d l m

3, bottom

ry

t L!

, lll

Jine .

13.

STORY

dm, d

1980 ELEcTIoNs

Tt happened just as conservatives had dleamed d as


Iiberals had dreaded-a nrassive voter uprising that shattrd traditional rt lines l carried Republican it
thc White }Iouse.
The biggest iurnabout in thr decacles did much more
than sweep the Democrats out the presidency. F'inal
Ietttns j the Nmr l980 ballotjng g9 Republrcans
l44

Notes

|l

t",,
ittt ,lr r lttlll llllrt ", wutl rzr-ls

^lIlllIlll1,1

\ llllllll t,t bttlttlllDttlllOB lllll paBltbl

145

.,..1;#,.i:l9"ti,.sidt ... to.be denied

tr * *or.
14. U.S.

rffi

}j,,nn'

"

r_
i;;;;;

STUPIES PLAN SINK


NULEAR
----]WASBS IN ocEAN

llllttom foT about 500 rs, the id of geatest heat and


rirtlioactivity, Each projectile could hold the equivalent of
rlltc spent fuel assembly frm l powel plani

Notes
l, although tests r at least 20 rs away m u, 20 rcm
2. the deep seabed ffs s of the most stable,
,lttt,it,lt[ d otherwise useless il sites on Earth z
tttt,t tivdym ud

lllll, l)l(?(lIla dmm d u drc


llll ll l(lllaftle m'd u (md)
l whcn the political ss does come to
lllI l ll lll

tl

lt(ckoe du lm u

15.

GUIDED

RASH' F IRLINR TEST


ANTIMISTING FUEL2

\\'l\Sl llNGTON.-The Fd1 Aviation dmiistlltltt rlt.,t,lrlscd Thursday that it was planning rmt-

l l t r ll l r.l l l'l igh t and rh of Boeing z20 jtlr in 1984 to


lt| "l|lllIllllstirlg" fuels that r dr development rl tests,
||;1, 11g,,11, 1, s;ritl, indicate that sh ls could help t
IHlrll lrtl llttt,t, l'is duing otheMise "sril" accidentsa.
l lt, ,rll,,ttt,.y's administrator told House subcommittee
[ll, irr lrltrttrtlitting the tes| the agency had considered the

t r lt

I thc most ul

wastcs cncasctJ in'sinlcss vision ot' scabed cmplacementlnl,o nlissilc-shaned citnis(crs;i;;;',,;,l i"..t. would ui

wtde, Tltcsc tv<ru!.I


l46.

,,ut-'l)t long
fbot
"iiir",,,"u,.,.. in and
the

llltllllrpu ,ll ;r sllccial committee of who h been


|ltlttlrlr tr,,tvs tll'cLlbing plane fis and explosions fr two
just been made public.
It,,rr ltrrtlillgs
rt',
'_ llt ltto lr,;lrltt, tIleh
agency panel5 said- that successful
lIllll,,lll rrl ltrt(imisting fuels "couldpove to the single
tlgtttllrrllrl sitlbty immt to rd the postlll,,lt,ruirlrl."
r|pr,111,y ;rlsrl clisclosed that, as rslt of rt
lllgr ,rtrrl lt t,tltsh in Saudi ri last month in wlrich
.llll! |||r,(|, lrccclcated testing had begun the
rll lt,rttrl lrclt| l'ir cxtinguishers on ilirs.
lll t rlIltr t;rls s;titl that because of the relatively few
t llll,,1,1l l,t, sttch l'is and s of stringen_t new
lllll l ||ll,J|\lIl(,S tllkcl1 tr an irlir sh in
U/ l. llt, t lt;lrl ll'.,ttlltllbc assutned that the rlm
||1r,r \\,r,, tt,r,ll ttlttl trl.
ll r t,t,,lt tv;ts lt,ltcctl to fi belieyed to have
|47

rejult, fifig f
smoking banned in

the Saudi
dump l in
r whth the
_

4. sril idt(rsh) ll, l lm


ill ti u l
.5, agcncy panel lu m L! Kanotvt-/l,
ilGllmm

mtmt

mgd at hig i

16.

EUROPE: NEED

Ol'

CRISIS?

LONDON,-Some s ago, Western r

mgd

its wst stwi_rs, and_ now theie iiEni


[' new Is. Mainly the sillt of .increased oil iis.
is rising, mlmt
lf!lil l_fllllE,,
rlgtmL S
has [
not Iallen,
fallen, economlc
economic
is slowing.
llu
lpe does face cisis t it is not mil economic:
economic;
lr political and,
*, r
in the
}u rrrr
final qqJJrJ,
analysis, llal
ltrf clltl
d lll(rl.
mrd]
r,.
first
firs|
political
the
sytem's
system's
weakness,
the
..Ots
lJily to sist conllicting d, mands f is seciions
i0.clcty, and, second, the clash between the urg f mr
(l(l and the need fr m rd.
iti is the showcase, but to certain dg all u(ltis have treen ftd. Most of the Tecent
[l,! i!, ltitain and Fr h against the state.
ll tlrc sld questions [ the mid-1970s still beset
lrln societies. Some U. S. observers predicted then
ic lcfiward swing. swing to the [eft, dmti
|s hs t k place, t this is t to say that the
trt,tics have been any m successful in coping
l-i,lTt

Lc

c_]ilicultics.

ilc's tl is

that nothing mh has happened,


lltls lwrd grtr unity has petered out i
[,tl0, lt is argued that Fu has as much unity as it
[lf!1l tl.ocds, but nothing could m misbken.
[.llllitcd r, tt nationalist rilis r
.gllil d to rmrg, d as the nationalism
$O{lt rotrsserts itself so does sepaatism f the mir,r)ttclltric difficulties have created new obstacles to

Notes
1. guided crash B.1.1 e-tl . ( m
u ully ) u
ng fuel' ill rl,
),i i',,i n zv u| a.lt
.,
:,.1!!r--isti
-,?
lLlllu

";i,
3 rtt-t.ttrllld llight rct,
J)al/lebtti )-

[1ltity. lklr thc gwig disparity has thwaTted most

tt dltmutt
t4E

lsr ti. The tris have m


lrd in domestic pTeoccupation_s. In frig
ln dcfcnse policy, the-impote'nce f tit
I ycstcrday as " gt civilian w' has
.ltlo rlhviotts. Thtl, to give bul t ml, i
lrJttl criscs, rvhich h lrad rjr and

|trlt

t t

il

l49

dirt impact the contineni's fulture, Europe's voice is

,r hrd.

The eclipse of the United States in wrld ffirs could

sion. r crises,
excedingly rr, and he
also paid that like
, they could have positive
results, lsig
ividuals and mases that
no one had expected. Such passions r good insofar as
they show vitality and creativity.
Seen in this light, the ur convulsions of the
1970s do not constitute 1 crisis; they have not generated
strong passions r frsh gis. ur is still in
tl lgl of its orvn making.2

mind t confusion. In short, might better off


with real crisis.

.
1. imPOtent

I\otes
lttz

mLl (.

is
_ 2 ul

owrf ntaking,

Huu, dttl.
t7.

t| J.t)!-

PRESIDENT"]

- jn row to denied

cstions about the way

mis cho
top ldrs.
Becon-iing i
hat the ls of the
job and hostile ltt making ,it rrl impossible
fr any pesident to survive ir-l olIice long enougli to see
;rruch of his plogranr take lrold,
l /[

ll()n.

new president also finds that he is heading vast


l)ur* that, vr the rs) has beconre less rs-

,,ive to Wlrite

oNa {oRE "DISPOSABLD

The defeat
two fll terms

ll;lts warn that confusion and lost momentum r


rll,,villtll[c when leadership changes hands so frequently.
Ilrrsirloss executives say they sr get ttd to
,rrlllliltistration'S mi policies than rth comes i
rvlllt an til diffrt philosophy. Fig officials
l ()lll|)ltlin tlrat qdil zigzags in U. S, foreign poljcy
ll,:lvc Ihom mystified.
|'ublic l of the iumt peaks shorfly ft
1lrt,sident takes office and drifts downward until it bottoms
lrrlI itt his third r fourth r.
W hy is decline in ulit so predictable?
While the tendency to blame pesident f anything
lIrlrl s wrg lras irsig, his wr to influence
I vcllts significantly lras been dig, , one with the
rrlr,ltl sws to hd lms will l'ind himself hampered
lr,,, imsts which he lras Iittle tl.
(igss, f is, lras k away mh f si_
,It,ltl's wr ! act his owrr in such key rs as nalional
,,i,1,1it d the m. l-{c mtd action,,tlch as specific ts in the budget-but getting gss's
.,;tllroval has r trml dil ris.
mrs [ pesident's w t lg
t;tll Iid on f sut. In the glow f substantial
victory, Republicans in Congress r piedging loyalty to the
lrcw White House leader. tsut the decline of rt discipline
tlt t s leaves them to go thi w way. when
1rs&l interests clash with the pesident's.
Single-inteest grus3 have ld to mobilize thi
t tlnstituencies so effectivcly that sidts [l
rltl match for thr in influencing the urs of legisla-

House diection.

Untii rtl, there existed at least one r whr

1lcsident's authority was seldom qestioned: foreign policy.


No m.

prcsident's powers to wage wr, impose sanctions

rrcgotiate with ligrl glts w gtl diluted


('()llgss ftr tlre Vitm W. I] the dll,
lrrighty weapon i the dut f U, S. fig policy, has
|,:sI much of its lut rd.

llrlir presidents boastect of hiddetl w-th ability

ttl rally sympathetc ui i sulpport of'a tilr cause.

111

sollre S hencer irl the ftr [ tilc National


rlrtic t (NPD) which, durig thc ]969 clcction,
,,ll1,1111,1| 1.2 million votes-4.3 r cent f the tottrl-and
,,rlr,, within hir of seating bloc of deputies ilr tlre

l)

on such issues as Vietnam and Watergate have cost


presidency dearly in terms of tst.

the

shls rd about the pesident's gowing


vulneability and what m see as tendency to cast
turl. Sorne thitis want to
trm to six s and r him frm
th, this wou|d give the Chief
implement lris policies while fig
him frm campaign politics,
hs the burdens have m so great tha| r
time, president will judged adequate in the eyes of
most ts.

The slt could Jong string of -trmrs, such


as the nation id in the decaCes fr the Civil
W and again rd the tu of the tu.
Not_es

umu

4. uru zdmtl m
5. "bully pulpif' , u mu
Is. GROWING MENAE

NEO-NZISM

MUNICH.-Those who h watched developments in

postwar West Gm long ugh know that the ttr


has been cyclical.
uently outlawed
In tlre l
decade and thd
soialist Reich

rI l960s

suci,essor ancl
incidents.

tically Tenamed

and anti-semitic

Thcn the tm riglrI s;comcd to disintegate, only to

l52

ttttlt

iIt,

ltrlrrrlt,stltg.

Irrll clcctions ltr, i ,l976, its sh [ the

rrl

;lul;t

l tlrcc:-tenths l .t. With _thc 1lal,t_l,


,. lllrtltlll dlul and almost
kul, it sccmed2 that thc
,1,1,1\\il rightist thrcirt in Wcst Gr-, had IinalIy
lrll, lt'cd.
lttlt that mfrtig notion has been disabused rtl
l,r t,ct tlr rsrg of rightist extre_mist gs and
.r, llvi[ics. Given the i and ttr of tlre last th
lll Iil(les, that in itself would litfle cause f .
( itlne. f the lst
t, t all, the gitis-tll
llrrrt| I(eich [s altd lrl_srs str.,_,:t.
l lre s, th r still ugh thenl to ltold
l,, lirldic rcvivals such as the gthigs is ss l,,rllr {|59, |w lmiis occasionally disitd as
1,ttr:sls ol'lr' hosts who. el,ell i[ tIley don't know
lltt li w t_'s hist, ought at least to h t
,,

1, disposable rsidt dtt tta du


2. the fifth president ... to denied two full terms. XI 1 7,
>.
3. single inteest gus z, d tuu

lIl|)(

\r,ils

(}l]]m Sense.

llans r, Hitlc,s chief pilot and

Nazi since
Neu Ulm the other day f the
l,rti of the ,first East-W-est fliglrt
;l(,l()SS the tlti.
l]t considering that thc law of biology will soon catch
tr1l with all [ t|renr, i_t shouldn't rll ltt.
What clocs lnattL-P. hr,, is that the neo-Nazi r,ir,l
,,l lhe late l970s, a|l too slowly hig gizd as suclt
tlrtlse i w and thit, is stikingl_v tlil'l'.t. l1 is
rttrlvcment youth, to thc point f bcing adolesc,-.nl.
lt is steeped i t ig, bccausc l _t,s Wcst
( il|l,lllan schools have il,d to teach ut llitlcr's is to
l)()wef r the Nazi . And it is lmigl violent.
The t lras been inundated with books and rrdrllgs only thinly disguised as historical documentariesrvhich gloTify iflr and the hid Reich.
l]t l dislig, thc "w ight" is not l
ll,stig to the lcthods ol'thc old witlr clandcstine
t,,rramilitay tiig camps and stt dmstti irr
rrlrdlted versions SS and SA ills. It is atlopting l,he
t.rctics [ the trrist le11 tllrbillg baltks, stealirlg wgils
ll()lll rl ls,,d usirlg expIosives.
]

hs.

llrt: ,l l920s, was invitecl to


,,()[lt is

l -5

hir slogans, rumts and ainrs r izr and


fightig, "It's good that the trti camps have
srl as lus[lls"' sit1l5 15. mist l'
rightist 8 jll llttrug. "Tltitt way they [re used
again without gt additiolral cost when we to w."
hir ms r few- i43 grs with 18,300 mmrs,
dig to 1he most tlt grt estimates, the
NPD's remaining l0,000 irTcluded. But tlre fig is isig.
Equally ryism is pcrsistent inclirration on the t
o[politicians and llils to belittlc ig th hm, let l t to seek alltl tleal with its causes. At time
when all eyes secm itd l arrd imagined thls
frm the fr left, they r to g blind to the growing
m' fm the fr right.
That syndrome is l'tili-d thfr deeply troubling
to those who rmmr r know the history of the Wimr
Republic during which police and authorities sat with eyes
trd away and hands folded wh Nazis rmgd
but used every truh available and the ll w of
law to quell distubances generated tlre left.
Bonn is certainly not Weimar. But what kind of republic
is it when, as happened two weeks ago, t in Stuttgart
rules that the NPD is "not party inimical to basic democratic
and constitutional dr."
And what kind of ut is it in which last weskend's
mass demonstrations in Cologne against the rightist Isgence gets hdtr mention in thc media?

Notes

1. Then the extrerrre right seemed to disintegrate, only


Io some rs h... - . XI
r Kolt >>.
2. With tlre itil defunct d almost bankrupt,
it seemed... - . IV < l >.
3. Given the i and ttr...-.
<< l(rI >.
4. Gone, f the most t, afte r all, r the geriatrics.,, . XIX < >.
5. What does mtt...-
do. . XIX ),
1-1

I54

19.

DIL LNGUG

llr,, ,,rIllcssi(),l "diplomatic 1gug'' is used to clenote


, llrllt,lL,l)[ tlrings. I its fist sense it signifies the actual
l,ttrl,t1.1,,,, 1wllclhor it Latin, Fh, or English) which is
, rltlrlll1,t,tl lly diplonratists in their converse oI ccirrespondi ||l l rvt(ll cach other. In its second sense it means 1hose
llrr,

llll1 |)l()vocative r impolite.

|)l-()posc

in this htr to begin discussing the last

rrl lltt.sc thr meanings, then to examine shrtl the actual


llllllillilgc employed diplomatists, and at the end to
1rrrlt itlc glss of the mr urrt technical terms used
l l r tl i1llomatic itrs.

"l)iplomacy", as it was once said, "is the application of


lrrlr,lligence and tact to the conduct of official relations
l,,,llvcr.,n the govenments of indepencient states.'' The need
r rl ilrtclligence is self-evident, but the equallyvital need
of tact
l.. lll'tcn disregarded.

llr;llttl
1rlrrils
\{,|sc.
t,iso

Jlr

It is this lttr need which has led


r Ir of conventionalized
hard coins of rdir-m
human con-

affable though they

value.

,2

'l'hus, if statesman or diplomatist informs th


l,(lvcrnment that his own government '.cannot rmi intllllt to" some internationa1 trrs, he is lrl
rrlltlcstood to imply that the trrs is in which
lri:; $rlt will til itr. If in his communit;t(
some such hrss aS.'His Majesty's
( itl
.r" r "view with g cont (,l,
all tlratthe ttris one in which the

t55

Notes
;;il].

.l 1 ,t;lIl

,
l

(,Il1,1

t]llcy of conventionalized phrases -

J, Ill,., ll l |, I()(il!

{)

,rl|;rlrIt,though they m appear-cM. XIX


,,l l, |,, r,,,rl )d), >.
i l,,r,I tlbliged to formulate expfess reservations...
. ti:llJl,t1,1ll ttcrxodutytblM m ,..
l lrl claim free hd mum d
il,

tllt,llll

i1,

20.

regarded
"The aS an ultimatum.

tion

is

advantage of this conventional frm of communica_

that it itis an atmosphere of calm, while

enabling statesmen to convey serious_warnings to each. other

*t i.h i1l not risudrtd. The disadvantage is that


and sometimes the statesmen th_ernselves,
the public
-acquainted
with the actual value, in diplomatic
r not

RoBoTs ARE coMING

lrl, science of robotics1 is virtually in its infancy.


,rlrcirdy robots r performing such tasks as welding,
iiilillllllll,, lifting, assembling and testing finished products.
l1,1tt,, cven st_ out defective drugs and pills, rm
i,,t,,t)ll) materials2 frm powders and check to make sr
llrlrt llrlttles r rrl labeled and filled.
|,vcn rnole complicated rls r seen in years ahead.
ii, r,,lrlists and engineers r developing robots that can see,
1u,,l. ltcaI and r1 instructions. Someday, Japanese

illrl

they will handle cleaning and laundry in


lll,, ltome, serve tea, help hospital nurses tend patients
irrrtl ;rid in the r of handicapped persons.
ltLrt even the nrost sophisticated robots now in use r
il l;ll, ry rm humans. Most of what Japanese call ts
;rrrtlrtll,ities say,

public is apt to assume frm


ilsed tlrat the crisis cannot as grave as "the alarmists"
had given them to suppose.
of diplornatic
Ii extreme cases,-moreovei, the habit leads
to actr4al
udersiatemont,
diplomatic
ambiguity, r of -I
mmr before the w reading
luui"iddig.
despatch frm sorne sul-Gl i whic
the-Foreign Office that of the Yice-Con
charge "does not,I much rgrt to | take
hlh which his meclicai tliss would
Th. ' man \MaS, in fact, in the last stages of deliium
trms

illl, lllere mechanical rms that can frm simple repetitive

irllls i factory such as lifting objects and placing them.


In American terminology, these devices r not
,,l,rssilied as robots but as autornated machines. whatever
lll(,s0 mechanical devices r calle.d, their performances r
tllllilzing. Tobot rr loads too heavy f human,
rlrlore seabeds r handle tiny electronic components that
tr,rttld fumbled human hands.
What makes rt different frm an ordinary machine
i, its electronic 1i - rrrimutr that can glillIlcd to do an assigned tsk repeatedly, at the same
;r;rr afid accuracy. Once programed, robot needs 1ittle
,rt rto hm supervision. In the mid-1980s, it is expected
llrlrl- industrial robots will l to change their
r,|,;,,where.

tltvtt rts.

I one Japanese plant that makes robots, during the day


workers tend the machines that t out Tobot }ttcltts and numerical-control devices that direct itre
l()()

poSseSS"
156

l57

motions of machine use of punched r magnetlo


tapes. At night, the factory operates with only trl.
rm supervisor and"a security grd duty. The use [
robots is spreading both in America and r.

combination of problems srrd the rt revolutioh


Japan. The 1973 oil rh fd manufacturers to
look f ways to tr the ballooning costs of g,
hr was worsening shortage of technical ,wrk,
Robob provide at least partial answer to 11 of these r._

in

blems. Fr instance, one rt can do the rk


sl humans, says spokesman fr the
m: "In r lr-V plant five component-insetio0
robotso. tended
ed
fr
fur wkrs,
wkrs- can do the same amou
mt

of woTk frmrl done 44 humans."


Robot production has m major industry in J
with mr than 130 companies competing in the
grwig field.
As an ml of what future robots may l
do: visitors to show at Tokyo's National Science
last November saw S9-inch-tall Tobot l of walki
to the right left, singing song and telling story in Tesponse to voice cornmands.
Yet scientists point out that thr is limit to
capabilities. In the wds of the Gl Manager of
Japan Industrial Robot Association: "Anything q
creative thinking r emotion cannot expected of
These will rmi the exclusive spheres of hm3.

uu !du m

0-

N otes
L.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Tobotics mmuu uu
foreign materials ud Im
fr ry frm mum m
oil rh m uu

. .

. JL
. , BicunbeBa
. .
li, . u
. , z,

component-insertion ts : robots that


components - . II <
>.

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