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.., ..

2006

621.391.23(075.8)
.., ..
: . . : -
, 2006. 80 .
ISBN 5-8327-0236-0

.
.
, .
. ,

-. .
, ,
552500 , , .
. 3. . 9. .: 49 .
- .

:
- ,
, . . , . . . .. .
.. , ,
- . , .
.. , . . , .
ISBN 5-8327-0236-0


,
2006




(). ,
T
F, , B = TF >> 1 .

() 1940
E. Huttman [1].
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
1946 , [2].
, 1950
[3].
, ,
[4 6].
, ,

, , , ,
.
50- , ,
. , ,
.
, ,
, R. Benjamin.
- [7].
, , C.E. Cook
M. Bernfeld [8].

.. [9], .. [10
12], .. [13 15], .. [16] .
, , , . ,
- ,
3

-
[17].
, ,
.
() , J. Ville 1948 [8]. ,
.

, [18 23].
, , ,
,
.
- , , (). ,
[24, 25].
, .
[24, 25] , ,
, .
,
.
, -
[14].
, , , .
, .

(l , k ) . , 4

- k ,
l.
k-
, l .

. , , .
,
, , () .
:
4 11 .., 1, 2, 12 13 ..,
, 3 .
..

1.
,
, - [17, 27]. , , /
, [8, 10]
q=

2 Ec
,
N0

(1)

Ec = Pc ( ); Pc = 0,5 Ac2
Ac (); (); N 0 = P F (/);
P = 2 (); -

(); F = 1 , ().
(1) , , /, [27]:
q = Ac .

(2)


Ac (2), / .
, , , , , .. -.
,
[, ] ,
m = 0
D = 2 , N (0, 2 ) .
,
/ , .
/.
6

, , ( , F ) , [8]
( , F ) =

x ( t ) x ( t + ) exp ( j 2Ft ) dt .

(3)

X ( f ) , x ( t ) ,
( , F ) =

X ( f ) X ( f + F ) exp ( j 2ft ) df .

(4)

(3) (4) .
, () ,
,
, F F [10 12].
:
( = 0, F = 0 ) ;
;
;
,
, .
()

( , F ) .
2.

()
,
, .
,
[8].
.
7

f 0 ( t ) , f1 ( t ) , f 2 ( t ) , ..., f n ( t ) .

< t <

f n ( t ) f m ( t ) dt = nm ,

nm - , ,
f n ( t ) , Bnm ( , F ) ,

Bnm ( , F ) =

f n ( t 2) f m ( t + 2) exp ( j 2Ft ) dt ,

Bnm ( , F ) Bpq ( , F ) d dF = np mq .

x ( t ) , x ( t ) =

an f n ( t ) ,

n=0

an ( t ) =

x ( t ) f n ( t ) dt

an

n= 0

2
x ( t ) dt .

x ( t ) [8]

( , F ) =

an am Bnm ( , F ) ,

m=0 n=0

cnm = an am

( , F ) Bnm ( , F ) d dF

cnm

m=0 n= 0

ak

k =0

, ,
, ..
( , F ) , ( = 0, F = 0 ) .
8

, , , , , . ,
( , F ) .
3.

, / ,
.
.
, ,
, , ,
.
() ,
.
(Hadamard), ,
,
.
[28], N
( N N ) - H, +1 1 ,
H HT = N I.

(5)

(5) , H .
H . ,
, . H, (5),
(5) , A
,

A AT = N I.

, , .
, ,
H = HT , A = AT , .
H,
1, .
, H1 H 2 ,
H 2 = P H1Q,

(6)

P Q +1 1,
.. P Q
, +1 1.
P (6) ,
Q .
,
+1, .
H- N = 1 , N = 2 , N = 4 ,

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1

.
,
H1 = [1] , H 2 =
H
=
4

1 1 1 1
1 1

1 1 1 1

(7)

, ,
H- N > 2, N 4.
, .. (6),
.
,
[35]:
;
, , ;
() () ;
()
, HH = NI AA = NI.
10

4.

[29], .
N. , H- N > 3, N 4.
aij j- i- ,
N 1

( a1 j + a2 j )( a1 j + a3 j ) =
j =0

N 1

( a1 j a1 j + a2 j a1 j + a1 j a3 j + a2 j a3 j ) =

(8)

j =0

N 1

N 1

N 1

N 1

N 1

j =0

j =0

j =0

j =0

j =0

a12j + a2 j a1 j + a1 j a3 j + a2 j a3 j = a12j = N .

a1 j + a2 j

)( a1 j + a3 j ) (8) -

4, 0, , N = 4t , t = 1, 2, ... , N
4.
H- .
1. H k H m .
H km , H k H k +1 H m
1, .
[30]. H k - k
ahl , 0 h , l k 1 , H m -
m = N bij , 0 i , j N 1 .
,
cst ,
0 i,

s = hN + i,
j N 1,

t = lN + j ,
0 s,

0 h,

l h 1,

t kN 1

, cst = ahi bij .


s1 = h1 N = i1 s2 = h2 N + i2 , s1 s2 .

11

kN 1

N 1 k 1

N 1

k =1

cs t cs t = ah l bi j ah l bi j = bi j bi j ah l ah l = 0.

t =0

j =0 l =0

j =0

l =0

2. N = p + 1, p 3 ( mod 4 ) .

H N - N.
.

(n p)

[31]. n , p,
( n p ) = 1 , n p, ..
n = x 2 (mod p );

( n p ) = 1 ,

n x 2 ( mod p ) .

, :
p 1

( 1 p ) = ( 1)0,5( p 1) ; ( i j p ) = ( i p )( j p ) ; ( j i )
j =0

p 1

(9)

( j i1 )

p ( j i2 ) p = 1; j i1 , j i2 , i i2 .

j =0

aij = +1

p = 0;

(i = 0

j = 0 );

aij = ( j i ) p (1 i p, 1 j p, i j ) ; aij = 1 (1 i p ) .
, i1 i2 ,
p

j =0

j =1

ai1 j ai2 j = ai1i1 ai1i2 + ai1i2 ai2i2 + ai1 0 ai2 0 + ( j i1 ) p ( j i2 ) p =


= ( i1 i2 ) p ( i2 i1 ) p + 1 +
p

+ ( j i1 ) p ( j i2 ) p , j i1 , j i2 .
j =1

[(i2 i1 ) p ]
( i2 i1 ) p = ( 1) ( i1 i2 ) p = ( 1 p ) ( i1 i2 ) p =
0,5 p 1
= ( 1) ( ) ( i1 i2 ) p = ( i1 i2 ) p .

12

(10)

(9) (10),

ai j ai j = 0 . i1 = 0 ,
j =0

a0 j a1 j =
j =0

j =0

j =1

aij = aii + ai0 + ( j i ) p = 1 + 1 + 0 = 0 .

, H N - N , , , .
3. N 2 k ( p + 1) , p
. H N - N- .
. p = 2 p = 3(mod 4) , .
, p 1( mod 4) , k = 1 .
H N -,
a2i ,0 = a2i ,1 = a2i +1,0 = a2i +1,1 = 1 , 1 i p;
a0,2i = a0,2i +1 = a1,2i = a1,2i +1 = 1 , 1 i p;
a2i ,2 j = a2i ,2 j +1 = a2i +1,2 j = a2i +1,2 j +1 = ( j i ) p , 1 i, j p, i j;
a2i ,2i = a2i,2i +1 = a2i +1,2i = a2i +1,2i +1 , 0 i p.

, H N - B
( p + 1) ,
bi 0 = b0i = 1 , 1 i p ;

bij = ( j i ) p , 1 i p , 1 j p , i j ;
bii = 0 , 0 i p,


1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1

+1, 1 0 . , B , , 2.
13

H N aij = cij + dij , 0 i 2 p + 1,


0 j 2 p + 1 , cij dij C D, -

B
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
1 1 , 1 1 , 0 0 0 0 , 0 0 , 1 1

+1, 1 0 . , i1 i2 ,
2 p +1

2 p +1

2 p +1

ai j ai j = ( ci j ci j + di j di j ) + ( ci j di j + di j ci j ) .
j =0

j =0

j =0

(11)

(11) . , i1 i2 , .
, i1 , i2 1.
2 p +1

ci j di j = ci i di i
j =0

12

2 2

+ ci1i2 1di2i2 1 = 2 0,5 ( i2 1) 0,5i1 p .

(12)

2 p +1

di j ci j = 2 { 0,5i1 0,5 ( i2 1) p } .
j =0

(13)

(12) (13),
2 p +1

( ci j di j + di j ci j ) =
j=0

= 2

{ { 0,5 (i2 1) 0,5i1 p } {0,5i1 0,5( i2 1) p } } .

, p 1( mod 4 )
,

14

(k p)

( k p )

2 p +1

( ci j di j + di j ci j ) = 0 .
1

j =0

(14)

i1 i2 0 1, (14) .
, i1 i2 ,

N 1

ai j ai j = 0
j =0

4. N = 2k p ( p + 1) , p = 3 ( mod 4 )
. H N - ,
N.
. , , p ( p + 1) .
s = h ( p + 1) + i , t = l ( p + 1) + j , 0 h , l p 1 , 0 i , j p .
,
qhl qij ,
ast = uijhl =
1,
1,

qij = ( j i ) p ,

1,

i j;
i = j ,
i = 0 j = 0;
1 i p, 1 j p, i j;
i = j , 0 s, t p ( p + 1) 1.

s1 = h1 ( p + 1) + i1 , s2 = h2 ( p + 1) + i2 , s1 s2 .
i1 i2
p ( p +1) 1

i =1

as1t as2t =

p 1

l = 0,
h1 l , h2 l

+ qi2i1

p 1 p

qh1l qi1l qh2l qi2l =

l =0 j=0
p

qh1l qh2l

j = 0,
j i1 , j i2

p 1

l =0

j=0

qh1l qh2l qi1 j qi2 j =

qi1 j qi2 j +

p 1

qh2l + qh2 h2 + qi1i2


l = 0,

l h2

(15)

p 1
qh1l + qh1h1 .

l = 0,

l h1

15

,
p

j = 0,
j i1 , j i2

qi1 j qi2 j =

qi j qi j qi i qi i
j =0

11

21

qi1i2 qi2i2 =

= 0 + ( i1 i2 ) p + ( i2 i1 ) p + 0;
qi2i1

p 1

qh2l + qh2 h2 = qi2i1 [ 0 1] = qi2i1 ;


l =0,

l h2

qi1i2

p 1

= qh1l + qh1h1 = qi1i2 ,


l =0,

l h

(15) .
, i1 = i2 , h1 h2 .
p ( p +1) 1

t =0

as1t as2t =

p 1 p

p 1

p 1

qh l qij qh l qij = qij qh l qh l + uiih l uiih l =

l =0 j=0

j = 0,
j i

l =0

l=0

p 1

= p qh1l qh2l + qh1h1 qh2 h1 + qh1h2 qh2 h2 + p =


l = 0

= p 1 + ( h1 h2 ) p + ( h2 h1 ) p + p = 0.

, aij .
[29], .
5. N 4 N = 2 k p h + 1 , p . N.
6. N < 200 4,
N, , , N = 92 , 116, 156, 172, 184,
188. [29] , 6
, .

7. N = N * N * 1 ,
N 2r ( p1 + 1)( p2 + 1) ... ( pi + 1) , pi +1 = 0 ( mod 4 ) .

16

8. N 2 = N1 + 4 ,

N1 N 2 1 .

9. N1 N 2 2 ,
N1 N 2 ( p + 1) p , p
.
10. N1 N 2 2 ,
p2 = p1 + 4 ,
N = N1 N 2 p1 ( p2 1) .
11. N = 172 .
12. p2 = p1 + 2 ,
N = ( p1 + 1)2 = ( p2 1)2 .
,
[29, 32].
. m 2. 2 m
, m , +1
1, 2 m m ,
.

m = 2 k i =

k 1

h 2 ; 0 i 2k 1 ,

j=

= 0

h , q

( 0 k 1)

k 1

q 2 ; 0

j 2k 1 ,

= 0

0 1.

H,
k 1

aij = ( 1)

h qk 1

= 0

, i1 =
ai1 j ai2 j = aij ,

i =

k 1

h 2 ,

= 0

k 1

1)

h(

= 0

2 , i2 =

k 1

2)

h(

2 ,

= 0

(16)

(1)
( 2)
h = h h i , -

i1 = i2 .
17

n1 n2 2
n1 n2 , , ..
n1 n2 =

k 1

( n1i n2i )2i ,

(17)

i=0

k 1

k 1

i =0

i =0

n1 = n1i 2i , n2 = n2i 2i .
, aij , 0 j 2k 1 (16)
i = 0, 1, 2, ..., 2 k 1 .

, i1 i2 ,
m 1

m 1

m 1 k 1

j =0

j = 0 = 0

ai j ai j = aij = ( 1)
j =0

h qk 1

=0,

, H- .
b0 , b1 , b2 , ..., bm 1 +1 1. aij b j (0 i m 1 , 0 j m 1) . , 2 m .
MR1 MR 2 , ( 2)
MR1 aij b (j1) , MR 2 aij b j

( 0 i m 1, 0

j m 1) . , -

(1)
( 2)
, , ai1 j b j = ai2 j b j , 0 j m 1 .

(i + 1) - aij b (j1) , 0 j m 1 MR1 :


aij b (j1) = aij ai1 j ai2 j b (j2 ) , 0 j m 1 .

(18)

(16) (17) , (18) MR 2 .


, 2 m aij b j
2 m m m , MR1 MR 2 -

, MR1 MR 2 ,
18

, , MR1 MR 2 ,
.
.
5. ,

, . .
,
. ,
:
H N
H2N =
H N

HN
,
HN

(19)

H N , H 2 N
. H N N = 1, 2, 4
(7). , + .
[33, 34] .
,
[14] , , [14] .
, (
)
+1 1, +1 1.
, +1 1 , .
- 2N, [27]

19

1a 1b 2a 2b

M N M N 1c 1d 2c 2d
M2N =
=
,
M N M N 3a 3b 4a 4b
3c 3d 4c 4d
1a 1b 2a 2b 3a 3b 4a 4b
M N =
=
=
=
,
1c 1d 2c 2d 3c 3d 4c 4d

(20)

(21)

.. M- 2N-
(-) .
, M N - (21) +1,
(20) ,
(19). , (19) (20)
.
, 4- M 2 -,

1a 1b 2a 2b 3a 3b 4a 4b
M2 =
=
=
=
.
1c 1d 2c 2d 3c 3d 4c 4d

(22)

, (20) -
. , 2-, 3- ,
, .

[33] ,
,
. .
-,
.
M N
M 2N [33]:
, ;
M N , ,
M 2N ;

20

M N , ,
M 2N ,
;
M N , ,
M 2N .
, , , M 4 .
:

M
4 ac
M 22bd
= N
N
M N

1a 1b

M N 1c 1d
=
M N 3a 3b
3c 3d

2b

2c 2d
;
4a 4b
4c 4d

(23)

M
4bd
M 22 ac
= N
N
M N

1a 1b

M N 1c 1d
=
M N 3a 3b
3c 3d

2b

2c 2d
;
4a 4b
4c 4d

(24)

M
3ac
M 22bd
= N
N
M N

1a 1b

M N 1c 1d
=
M N 3a 3b
3c 3d

2b

2c 2d
;
4a 4b
4c 4d

(25)

1a

M N 1c
=
M N 3a
3c

1a

M N 1c
=
M N 3a
3c

2b

2c 2d
;
4a 4b
4c 4d

(26)

2b

2c 2d
;
4a 4b
4c 4d

(27)

M
3bd
M 22 ac
= N
N
M N

M
N
4 ad
M 22bc
=
N
M
N

1b
1d
3b
3d
1b
1d
3b
3d

2a

2a

2a

2a

2a

21

M
N
=
M
N

1a 1b

MN
1c 1d
=
M N 3a 3b
3c 3d

2b

2c 2d
;
4a 4b
4c 4d

(28)

2a

M
N
3ad
M 22 ad
=
N
M
N

1a 1b

M N 1c 1d
=
M N 3a 3b
3c 3d

2b

2c 2d
;
4a 4b
4c 4d

(29)

2a

M
N
3bc
M 22bc
=
N
M
N

1a 1b

M N 1c 1d
=
M N 3a 3b
3c 3d

2b

2c 2 d
,
4a 4b
4c 4d

(30)

4bc
M 22 ad
N

2a

, , , M N , , ,
.
1 K ,
(23) (30), .
K
(23) (30), , .
K . , - K.
K = 1 , , , ,
. , , ,
,
, . ,
.
c , .
22

6.

6.1.
, , .. ,
.
, (23) (30)
K = 1 (.. ).
(23) (30) (22)
M 2 = D2 =
1 1
=
=
1 1

1a 1b
1c 1d =

2a 2b 3a 3b 4a 4b
2c 2d = 3c 3d = 4c 4d ,

4 4 ,
, :

D24bd 4 ac

D24bd 3ac

D24bc 4ad

D24 ad 3ad

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
;
=
1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
=
1 1 1

1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
=
1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1
1 1 1
=
1 1 1

1 1 1

1
1
;
1

1
1
1
;
1

1
1
1
;
1

(32)

(34)

(36)

(38)

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
;
=
1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

D24 ac 4bd

D24 ac3bd

D24 ad 4bc

D24bc3bc

(31)

1
1
=
1

1
1
1
=
1

1 1
1 1
1
1

1
1

1 1
1

1 1
1 1

1 1 1
1 1 1
=
1 1 1

1 1 1

1
1
;
1

1
1
1
;
1

1
1
1
.
1

D-

(33)

(35)

(37)

(39)

23

D4 - (32) (38) ,
D- ( ,
, ), (32) [36] .
.
D4 - (38) (39) ,
H- (7) , [36],
,
. H N - N- , (38) (39), D NW -.
H NW -,
(29) (30) D N - (31) D4W (38) (39).
, ,
(32) (37).
D N - D NW - :
, D N - D NW -, [14];
D N - D NW -
D N - D NW - ( , );
D N - D NW - 0,5N ,
,
;
D N - D NW - ,
0,5N, = 0,5 N = 0,5 N + 1
(
);
[14] D N -
D NW - ,

= 0 , 0 0,5 N + 0,5 ;

D N - D NW - 24

, ,
D4 - D4W -,
;
, D N - D NW -, ;
D N - D NW -
M ( N , d ) , N

, M ( N , d ) = 2 d = 0,5 N ,
d (), [30];
, +1 1, , D N D NW - ( N 8 ) D4 - D4W -;
, +1,
+ (.. +1) ,
,
+ = = 0,5 ,

(.. , 1),
,
+ = 0,5 + 0,5 ; = 0,5 0,5 ;

, 1,

+ = = 0,5 ,


+ = 0,5 0,5 , = 0,5 + 0,5 ;

25

, D N D NW , , .. K (n) = 0
n = 2, 4,... , K (n) 0,5 [15];

()
= 1 2 N ,

.. 2 , .
6.2. , , D- D N - D NW -,
-.
- -.
K = 2 . (22)
M 2 = E2 =
1 j 1a 1b 2a 2b 3a 3b 4a 4b
=
=
=
=
=
.
j 1 1c 1d 2c 2d 3c 3d 4c 4d

(40)

, E- 1, 2 4-
, , M 2 N - .
(20)
1 j
M1 = E1 = [1] ; M 2 = E2 =
;
j 1
1 j
1 j
(41)

E2 E2
j 1
j 1

,
M 4 = E4 =
=
j
E2 E2 1 j 1

1
j 1 j
1 = 1 , j = j ; . , , E - K , 1 j.
, E - -

() -, 1 = e j 0 ,
j = e j 2 , 1 = e j , j = e j 3 2 . , -

26

-
,
.
,
M 2 N - (23) (30),
E - :
E N
4 ac
E22bd
=
N
E N

EN
;
E N

E N
4bd
E22 ac
=
N
E N

EN
;
E N

E N
3ac
E22bd
=
N
E N

EN
;
E N

E N
3bd
E22 ac
=
N
E N

EN
;
E N

E
4 ad
N
=
E22bc
N
E
N
E
N
3ad
=
E22 ad
N
E
N

EN
;
E N

N EN
4bc

;
=
E22 ad
N
E

E
N
N
E

N EN
3bc
,
=
E22bc
N
E

N EN

EN
;
E N

, , , E N , , ,
.
, (32) (38), E4 -
4 4 :

E24bd 4ac

E24bd 3ac

1
j
=
1

j
1
j
=
1

1 j
j

j
1 ;
j

1
j
1 ;
j

(42)

(44)

E24 ac 4bd

E24ac3bd

1
j
=
1

j
1
j
=
1

1 j
1 ;
1
j

j
1
1 j
j 1 ;
1 j

j 1

1 j
j
1

j
1
j
1

(43)

(45)

27

E24bc 4ad

1
j
1 j
j 1 j 1
;
=
1 j 1 j

j
1
j 1

E24ad 3ad

1 j 1 j
j 1
j
1 ;
=
1 j
1 j

1
j 1
j

(46)

(48)

E24ad 4bc

1 j 1 j
j 1
j
1 ;
=
1 j
1
j

j 1 j 1

(47)

E24bc3bc

1
j
1 j
j 1 j 1
.
=
1
1 j
j

j 1
j 1

(49)

,
E N -,
[36]:
N
K ( n) =
0

n = 0;
n = 1, 2, ..., ( N 1),

N .
n ,
D N -, 1 , n ,
. 1.
1
D- E-

1
1
j
j

1
1
1
0
0

1
1
1
0
0

j
0
0
1
1

j
0
0
1
1

[15], , () E N -
n, ( N 1) n ( N 1) .
, ,
-, .
, , E N - , [36], 28

E2Nbd 4ac , = 1 , = 1 , = j , = j . ,
[14, 36].
7.

7.1. D- E- D - E - K = 1
K = 2 . ,

.


K, K = 2 p , p = 0, 1, 2, 3, ... ,
p = 0 p = 1 ,
D- E- .
- () ,
- () [37].
[14, 41],
, ,
.
,
, ,
,
[14].

[34, 37, 39, 40]:
() -;
, , ..
.
() , , () ,
, - [34, 36, 37].
6 ()
D- E-
29

, , .
[14],
, , .
, - , . ,
- , .

,
[Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)]
[Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)].
,
( k = 1) .
[14], k- ,
k .
FHSS
( k = 1) , - ,
.
( k = 1)
,

. ,
,
[41].

( k = 2 )
( k = 1) .

( k = 2)

, .
7.2. (), ( k = 2 )
30

.
. - . ,
,
, .. .
,
[37].
() .
1. FK-
K K , K = 2 p
p = 0, 1, 2, 3,
.
FK- K F j ,
1 j K ,
.
F1- 1 K :

F1 = F1 ... F0,25 K 1 F0,25 K ... F0,5 K 1 F0,5 K ... F0,75 K 1 F0,75 K ... FK .

.
FK- F2- 2 K . F2 F1- .
F2- F1- ,
F2-, . F2 , F1 ,
F2- ,
F1- . F2-
2 K :
... F0,25 K 1 F0,25 K ... F0,5 K 1 F0,5 K ... F0,75 K 1 F0,75 K ... FK
F1

F2 =
.
F1
... F0,25 K 1 F0,25 K ... F0,5K 1
F0,5K ... F0,75 K 1 F0,75 K ... FK

,
FK- ,
31

.
,
,
, .
,
.
,
F0,5K-, .. 0,5K K .

FK- ,
0,5 K K
, F0,5K-:
F1 ...F0,25 K 1 F0,25 K ... F0,5 K 1 F0,5 K ...F0,75 K 1 F0,75 K ... FK
F
F1 ...F0,25 K 1 F0,25 K ... F0,5 K 1
0,5 K ...F0,75 K 1 F0,75 K ... FK
F0,25 K ... F0,5 K 1 F1 ...F0,25 K 1 F0,75 K ... FK
F0,5 K ...F0,75 K 1

F0,5 K ...F0,75 K 1 F0,25 K ... F0,5 K 1 F1 ...F0,25 K 1


F0,75 K ... FK
... ... ...
... ... ...
... ... ...
... ... ...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
... ...
...

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
... ... ...
... ... ...
... ...
... ...
...
... ... ...
FK =
.
F ...F0,25 K 1 F0,25 K ... F0,5 K 1 F0,5 K ...F0,75 K 1 F0,75 K ... FK

F1 ...F0,25 K 1 F0,25 K ... F0,5 K 1


F0,5 K ...F0,75 K 1 F0,75 K ... FK

F
...
F
F
...
F
F
F0,5 K ...F0,75 K 1
0,5 K 1
1
0,25 K 1 0,75 K ... FK
0,25 K
F0,25 K ... FK
F0,5 K ...F0,75 K 1 F0,25 K ... F0,5 K 1 F1 ...F0,25 K 1

... ...
... ... ...
... ... ...
... ... ...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
... ...
... ...
...
... ...
... ...
...
... ...
... ...
...
... ...
... ...
...

FK-
K , 0,5K , , , K .
2. -
, 6.
-, M******
2N
(23) (30).
32

3. -
M******
2N
K = 2 N ,

DK-

1 1
M 2 = D2 =
.
1 1

, D2 -
D-, 6.
-
4. LFK ******
K
K K .
A = [ A(ij )] B = [ B (ij )] ,
[38, . 386]
AiB = [ A(ij ) B (ij )] .

ij 1 i k 1 j k , .
-
LFK ******
K
( )
LFK (ij ) = FK (ij ) := [ DK (ij )] ,

:= () DK FK-,
.
- 2K LFK ******
K
,
, ().
- R R ,
5. LFK ******
R
R=K 2q , q = 0, 1, 2,, LFK ******
-
K
M******
-,
2N
(). R = 2S S .
6. (n)
B (n) , LFK ******
-.
R

33


(), ,
:
+1 = ( F j ) ( F j ) = ( F j ) ( F j );
1 = ( F j ) ( F j ) = ( F j ) ( F j );

(50)

0 .

.
1. K = 8

M 2Nac 4bd -,

LF882ac 4bd

LF882 ac 4bd

F1
F
5
F3

F7
=
F1

F5
F
3
F7

F2
F6
F4
F8
F2
F6
F4
F8

F3
F7
F1
F5
F3
F7
F1
F5

F4
F8
F2
F6
F4
F8
F2
F6

F5
F1
F7
F3
F5
F1
F7
F3

F6
F2
F8
F4
F6
F2
F8
F4

F7
F3
F5
F1
F7
F3
F5
F1

F8
F4
F6

F2
.
F8

F4
F6

F2

M82 ac 4bd = LF882 ac 4bd , , q = 2,


2 ac 4bd
LF832
- 32 32 ,
() ,
. A (n) B (n)
2 ac 4bd
LF832
- .2.
( x y ) + ( z w)
x z
w.
(50), 6.
A (n) B (n) (),
2 ac 4bd
LF832
-, , .
34

2 ac 4bd
LF832

(n) B (n)
n
31 9 8 7 1 0 1 7 8 9

(n)=(11)+(1717)
(n)=(21)+(1817)
(n)=(31)+(1917)
(n)=(41)+(2017)
(n)=(51)+(2117)
(n)=(61)+(2217)
(n)=(71)+(2317)
(n)=(81)+(2417)
(n)=(91)+(2517)
(n)=(101)+(2617)
(n)=(111)+(2717)
(n)=(121)+(2817)
(n)=(131)+(2917)
(n)=(141)+(3017)
(n)=(151)+(3117)
(n)=(161)+(3217)

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

64
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

B(n)=(171)+(117)
(n)=(181)+(217)
(n)=(191)+(317)
(n)=(201)+(417)
(n)=(211)+(517)
(n)=(221)+(617)
(n)=(231)+(717)
(n)=(241)+(817)
(n)=(251)+(917)
(n)=(261)+(1017)
(n)=(271)+(1117)
(n)=(281)+(1217)
(n)=(291)+(1317)
(n)=(301)+(1417)
(n)=(311)+(1517)
(n)=(321)+(1617)

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
32
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
32
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 -32
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 32
0 0
0 0
0 0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

-, 7. LFK ******
R
, ,
K, . LFK ******
R / S -, (), .
LFK ******
R / S - 4K , 35

,
().
2. q = 0,
4bd
LF882ac 4bd - LF882 ac
-,
/4
() :

4bd
LF882 ac
/4

F1
F
5
F3

F7
=
F9

F13
F
11
F15

F2

F3

F4

F5

F6

F7

F6

F7

F8

F1

F2

F3

F4
F8

F1
F5

F2
F6

F7
F3

F8
F4

F5
F1

F10

F11

F12

F13

F14

F15

F14

F15

F16

F9

F10

F11

F12

F9

F10

F15

F16

F13

F16

F13

F14

F11

F12

F9

F8
F4
F6

F2
.
F16

F12
F14

F10

2 ac 4bd
-
LF832
2 ac 4bd
LF832
/16 -, K A (n)

K B (n) , . 2 ( ). .
.
8.
,
-

LFK ******
R / S - R R , S = 0,5 R .
() , , ,
.
, (), LFK ******
R / S -,
,
36

, (),
LFK ******
R / S -,
,
.
, , , 4 . B , ,
B = 4 KR .
A (n) - B (n) .
1 , . 2, , , 2 ac 4bd
LF832
/16 -. , B ( n) ,
, . 2,
()
.
. 1, 4,
A (n) B (n) , . 1, 4,
K
2 ac 4bd
M 64
-. , K, -

B (n) , A (n)
.
. , ,
, , n = 0.
, , ().
. 5, 8,
A (n) B (n) , ,
. 5, 8, .
. 9 B (n) K, K,
. ,

A (0) = 128 .
37



. 1. (1*1)+(33*33) (1*y)+(33*w)
K = 1



. 2. (1*1)+(33*33) (1*y)+(33*w)
K = 2



. 3. (1*1)+(33*33) (1*y)+(33*w)
K = 4

38



. 4. (1*1)+(33*33) (1*y)+(33*w)
K = 8



. 5. (1*1)+(33*33) (1*y)+(33*w)
K = 1,



. 6. (1*1)+(33*33) (1*y)+(33*w)
K = 2,
39



. 7. (1*1)+(33*33) (1*y)+(33*w)
K = 4,



. 8. (1*1)+(33*33) (1*y)+(33*w)
K = 8,

K
. 9.
B (n) A (0) = 128
40

,
B (n) , LFK ******
-,
R
=


(2 R 1)( R 1)

(51)

100% .

S LFK ******
R / S -
S =

S
(2 R 1)( S 1)

(52)

100% ,

B (n) ,

,
( ).
S
, .
S (51) (52)
M 2Nac 4bd - . 3.

3
S K R ( )
R

1
(D)
2
(E)
4
8

4
19,05
0
9,52
0
0
0

8
22,86
8,89
9,52
4,44
0
0
0
0

16
22,23
11,06
9,89
4,61
0,86
0
0
0

32
22,94
11,43
9,93
4,87
1,23
0,42
0,198
0

64
22,65
11,38
9,87
4,93
1,35
0,61
0,308
0,102

128
22,46
11,28
9,81
4,92
1,38
0,67
0,33
0,15

256
22,34
11,2
9,77
4,92
1,39
0,69
0,34
0,17

512
22,24
11,16
9,75
4,92
1,4
0,7
0,35
0,175

,
, ,
.
41

S K R = 4 K , K = 2 , R = 2 K .
R = 2 K
K 4.
S R, R 4 K ,
, K.
, ,
0 , R (),
4K.
F (),
,
S, K,

V = FS log 2 d (/c), FS () ; log 2 d () ; d ,
F = 8FS SK ().
V = 64 /c, S = 512, K = 8, d = 2,
F = 2097,152 , , 37 39,5 .
F (), ,
, K, V (/c)
S = 2h ,
h = ]log 2 S '[ ; S ' = F 8FS K S .
V = 64 /c, F = 83,5 , K = 4, d = 2, 2,4 2,4835 , S ' = 40 , , S = 32 .
,
, .
, . 3, .
9.
()

9.1. , - ()

42

, [14].
DSSS.

-
,
(), ,
. ,
.
,
[41 43].
7
, FHSS, , , .
, . ,


, ,
[41 43]. , (), , ,
, .
, , , , (0 1).

. ,
. , ,
()
, , ,
, [wave-length-division multiplexing (WDM)]
43

. , .
,
.
9.2. (),

,
, ,

. (),
,

()

().
,
, + ,
T . T R T = T R , R = 2S , S . T
. , R , () , .
()
() . () ,
.
, ,
+, () + , , ,
() .
, , () , +,
, () , , .
, ,
() ,
.

. ,
() +
, ,
44


.
, () , L
 T . , - .

. ()
L.
Z
() , R ,
K = 2 p R , p = 3, 4, 5,
R = KQ , Q = 2q , q = 0, 1, 2,, , ()
.
, , L Z ,
T.
, -
= 2  T , . . , -

, 0,5 .
9.3. ()
.
- () . ,
, , ,
,
,
()
, .
[43].

()
, , .
,
() ,
45

, , .
() - .
() ,
- . , ()
4K.
10.
()

10.1. () .
1. TK -,
K K .
.
TK - K (. . K ).
- .
T1 - 1 K
T1 = T(1)1 ... T(0,25K)0,25K T(0,25K+1)0,25K+1 ...

... T(0,5K)0,5K T(0,5K+1)0,5K+1 ... T(0,75K)0,75K T(0,75K+1)0,75K+1 ... T(K)K .

1 i K T (i ) , 1 j K
- . T1 . ,
TK - - .
.
TK - T2 - 2 K . T2 - T1 -.
T2 - T1 - , T2 -,
46

.
T2 - ,
T1 - ,
T2 - ,
T1 - . T (i )
, .
T2 - 2 K
... T(0,25K)0,25K
T(1)1
T2 =
T(1)0,5K+1 ... T(0,25K)0,75K
... T(0,5K)0,5K T(0,5K+1)0,5K+1

... T(0,5K)K T(0,5K+1)1

T(0,25K+1)0,25K+1 ...
T(0,25K+1)0,75K+1 ...

... T(0,75K)0,75K T(0,75K+1)0,75K+1 ... T(K)K


.
... T(0,75K)0,25K T(0,75K+1)0,25K+1 ... T(K)0,5K

, TK -
,

.
,
,
, .

,

.

T (i ) ,
.

, T0, 5K -, ..
0,5K K .

TK - ,
0,5K K
, T0, 5K -

47

T(1)1 ...T(0,25 K )0,25 K T(0,25 K +1)0,25 K +1 ...

T(1)0,5 K +1 ...T(0,25 K )0,75 K T(0,25 K +1)0,75 K +1 ...


T
... T
T(0,25 K +1)1 ...
(1)0,25 K +1 (0,25 K )0,5 K
T(1)0,75 K +1 ... T(0,25 K ) K T(0,25 K +1)0,5 K +1 ...

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...
TK =

T(1)1 ...T(0,25 K )0,25 K T(0,25 K +1)0,25 K +1 ...

T(1)0,5 K +1 ...T(0,25 K )0,75 K T(0,25 K +1)0,75 K +1 ...

T(0,25 K +1)1 ...


T(1)0,25 K +1 ... T(0,25 K )0,5 K
T
... T(0,25 K ) K T(0,25 K +1)0,5 K +1 ...
(1)0,75 K +1

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

... T(0,5 K )0,5 K T(0,5 K +1)0,5 K +1 ...T(0,75 K )0,75 K T(0,75 K +1)0,75 K +1 ... T( K ) K

... T(0,5 K ) K
T(0,5 K +1)1 ...T(0,75 K )0,25 K T(0,75 K +1)0,25 K +1 ... T( K )0,5 K
...T(0,5 K )0,25 K T(0,5 K +1)0,75 K +1 ... T(0,75 K ) K T(0,75 K +1)0,5 K +1 ...T( K )0,75 K

...T(0,5 K )0,75 K T(0,5 K +1)0,25 K +1 ... T(0,75 K )0,5 K


T(0,75 K +1)1 ...T( K )0,25 K

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
.

... T(0,5 K )0,5 K T(0,5 K +1)0,5 K +1 ...T(0,75 K )0,75 K T(0,75 K +1)0,75 K +1 ... T( K ) K

... T(0,5 K ) K
T(0,5 K +1)1 ...T(0,75 K )0,25 K T(0,75 K +1)0,25 K +1 ... T( K )0,5 K

...T(0,5 K )0,25 K T(0,5 K +1)0,75 K +1 ... T(0,75 K ) K T(0,75 K +1)0,5 K +1 ...T( K )0,75 K
...T(0,5 K )0,75 K T(0,5 K +1)0,25 K +1 ... T(0,75 K )0,5 K
T(0,75 K +1)1 ...T( K )0,25 K

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

TK - K , 0, 5K , , , K .
2. -
, 6.
48

-, M******
2N
(23) (30).
3. - DK-
M******
2N
K = 2 N , 3 7.
4. LTK ******
- K
K K , 4 7. - 2K , LTK ******
K
- ,
+ -
().
1. K = 8 ( p = 3 ),
Q = 1 ( q = 0 ) M 2Nac 4bd -,
LT882 ac 4bd -

LT882 ac 4 bd

T(1)1

T(1)5
T
(1)3
T(1)7
=
T(1)1

T(1)5

T(1)3
T
(1)7

T(2)2 T(3)3 T(4)4 T(5)5 T(6)6 T(7)7 T(8)8

T(2)6 T(3)7 T(4)8 T(5)1 T(6)2 T(7)3 T(8)4


T(2)4 T(3)1 T(4)2 T(5)7 T(6)8 T(7)5 T(8)6

T(2)8 T(3)5 T(4)6 T(5)3 T(6)4 T(7)1 T(8)2


.
T(2)2 T( 3)3 T(4)4 T(5)5 T(6)6 T(7)7 T(8)8

T(2)6 T(3)7 T(4)8 T(5)1 T(6)2 T(7)3 T(8)4

T(2)4 T(3)1 T(4)2 T(5)7 T(6)8 T(7)5 T(8)6


T(2)8 T(3)5 T(4)6 T(5)3 T(6)4 T(7)1 T(8)2

- R R
5. LTK ******
R
( R = KQ = K 2q ) LTK ******
-
K
M******
-, 2N
+ , ,
5 7.
6. A (n)
B (n) (), LTK ******
-.
R

49

,
,
- .
(), .
i:
+1 = (T(i ) j ) (T(i ) j ) = (T(i ) j ) (T(i ) j );
1 = (T(i ) j ) (T(i ) j ) = (T(i ) j ) (T(i ) j );
0

(53)

j.

, LTK 2Rac 4bd - () , i 0,5N + i ,


1 i 0,5 N . A (n)
B (n) .
7. (),

-,
LTK ******
R
,
1 2.
, () 1
, ()
2 .
LTK ******
R / S -,
(). LTK ******
R / S - 4K
, ,
+ .
2. LT882ac 4bd -
4bd
1 2 LT882 ac
-, /4
()

50

LT88 42ac 4bd

T 1(1)1 T 1(2)2

T 1(1)5 T 1(2)6
1
1
T (1)3 T (2)4
1
1
T (1)7 T (2)8
=
2
2
T (1)9 T (2)10
2
2
T (1)13 T (2)14
T 2
T2
(1)11 (2)12
T 2(1)15 T 2(2)16

T 1(3)3

T 1(4)4 T 1(5)5 T 1(6)6 T 1(7)7

T 1(3)7

T 1(4)8 T 1(5)1 T 1(6)2 T 1(7)3

T 1(3)1

T 1(4)2 T 1(5)7 T 1(6)8 T 1(7)5

T 1(3)5

T 1(4)6 T 1(5)3 T 1(6)4 T 1(7)1

T 2(3)11 T 2(4)12 T 2(5)13 T 2(6)14 T 2(7)15


T 2(3)15 T 2(4)16 T 2(5)9 T 2(6)10 T 2(7)11
T 2(3)9 T 2(4)10 T 2(5)15 T 2(6)16 T 2(7)13
T 2(3)13 T 2(4)14 T 2(5)11 T 2(6)12 T 2(7)9

T 1(8)8

T 1(8)4

T 1(8)6

T 1(8)2
.
T 2(8)16

T 2(8)12
T 2(8)14

T 2(8)10

()
. ,
, 7.
10.2. LTK ******
R / S - R R , , , S = 0,5R .

() . () () , () , LTK ******
R / S -, , , () ,
LTK ******
R / S -, ,
.
() + .
, , , . , , , , B = 4T .
, (53)
, A (n)
-
B (n) .
() S ,
(51) (52) .
51

B (n) - .
,
, .
S .
F ()

F = FS Rk ka SL log 2 d = 2 FS k ka S 2 L log 2 d ().

k , ka [42].
S = 512, FS = 64 000 , d = 2, L = 4,
k = 1 , ka = 1 , F = 134 219 728 134,22 .
, , [42], k = 0,1 ka = 0, 25 . S,
FS , d L F 3, 6 .
, , F
, FS
d, S, -
().
, , , , ,
,
()
. ()
,
()
. ()
.
11.


,
, 52

. [10 12, 17].


. , , , [8, 27].
, ,
T ,
.
T  T < T  T . , - [44].
, , N yi , N
xi , H N N, [29, 45, 46]
N

y = yi = (t NT ) .

(54)

i =1

(54) , . ,
H N (N = 1, 2, 4, 8, ... ,
)
, ,
(7) (19).
1. H N
(7) (19)
Rad(1) ,
l = 0,5 N + 1 , N = 2, 4, 8, ...
2. H N

m = log 2 N .

(55)
53

3. Rad(k )
H N p = 2k 1 l, ,

l = ( N 2k ) + 1 .

(56)

4. Rad(k )
H N Q = 0,5 N ( ) ,
,
Rad(k ) ( )
QA = Qm = 0,5 N log 2 N .

5. H N N ,
Rad(k )
,
N = 1 1 2k .

(57)

6.
H N H N ,
H 2N (7) (19),
( N + 1) 0, 1 2.
7. , H 2 ,
, Rad(1) ,
( H1 ), (), H 2 .
,
, .
1. /,
. 54

, H N

i , N = ] i [ ,
][ ,

N = 2m , m = 1, 2, 3, ...
H N
1 5 (55) (57)
Rad(k ) .
, m . 0,5N ,
Rad(1) .
H N QA BA ,
BA = 0,5 N log 2 N .

(58)

2. , ,
.

- () ,
,
.
3. T . .
6
H 0,5N H 0,5N , H N . 0,5N
, (0,5 N + 1) . , H 0,5N , H 0,25N H 0,25N ,
, H 2 , H1 = [1] H1 = [ 1] .

55

7
H 2 , .
.
. ,
, , N.
4. , , ,
.
N , (2 N 1) . ,
, , , , ,
N 2 [27, 44].
5. , ,
(54). - , N 2 .

, N ,
.
.
.

T , ,
.
,
. , .
. , 1, N = 8 , , , (58) BA = 4 log 2 8 = 12 , , QA = 12 .
H8 (7) (19)

56

1
1

1
H8 =
1

1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1

1
.
1

1
1

2, 3 4, Q, m , Rad(k ) .
(55) Q = 4 , m = log 2 8 = 3 ,
, (56), l = { 2, 3, 5} .

Rad(1) ,
H8 ,

, S1 = {1, 1, 1, 1} .

,
5 (57) 4T + .
Rad(2) , H8 ,
, S 2 = {1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1} . -

,
3T , 5 (57) 6T + .
Rad(3) , H8 ,
, S3 = {1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1} .


,
2T , 5 (57) 7T + .
.
2 , , -
.
57

3 . 6.
H8

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1
H = 1 1 1 1 ,
H4 =
4
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1

, H 4
H 4 ,
, S1 ,

h1 = {1, 0, 0, 0, 1} ; h2 = {1, 2, 2, 2, 1} ;

h3 = {1, 0, 2, 0, 1} ; h4 = {1, 2, 0, 2, 1} .

. H 4
1 1
1 1
H2 =
H2 =
,

1 1
1 1

, H 2
H 2 ,
, S2 ,

h5 = {1, 0, 1} ; h6 = {1, 2, 1} .

7 ,
h7 = {1, 1} h8 = {1, 1}

58

, S3 , ,
H8 .
6 7 {h1 , ..., h8 } S1 , S 2 , S3 , { x1 , ... , x8 }, H8
x1 = h7 S3 = {1,

1,

x2 = h8 S3 = {1, 1,
x3 = h5 S2 = {1,
x4 = h6 S2 = {1,
x5 = h1 S1 = {1,
x6 = h2 S1 = {1,
x7 = h3 S1 = {1,
x8 = h4 S1 = {1,

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

1};
1};
1};
1};
1};
1};
1};
1},

.
4 .
{ y1 , ... , y8 } { x1 , ... , x8 }
{ x1 , ... , x8 },

y1 = x1 x1 = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1} ;
y2 = x2 x2 = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1} ;

y3 = x3 x3 = { 1, 2, 1, 4, 1, 6, 1, 8, 1, 6, 1, 4, 1, 2, 1} ;
y4 = x4 x4 = {1, 2, 1, 4, 1, 6, 1, 8, 1, 6, 1, 4, 1, 2, 1} ;
y5 = x5 x5 = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 5, 8, 5, 2, 1, 4, 3, 2, 1} ;

y6 = x6 x6 = {1, 2, 1, 4, 3, 2, 3, 8, 3, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 1} ;
y7 = x7 x7 = { 1, 2, 1, 4, 3, 2, 3, 8, 3, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 1} ;
y8 = x8 x8 = {1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 5, 8, 5, 2, 1, 4, 3, 2, 1} ,

() .
59

5 (54),

y = { 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 64, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0} .

, -, (54).
12.


12.1. /
,
/ , [7 17].
,
, .
[24, 27, 33], , (23) (30), (32) (39).
.
,
N , -
N [27].
.
,
[25].
N ,
N N , , N [25]:

60

x1 (1)
x (1)
2
X=
...

xN (1)

x1 ( N )
x2 (2) ... x2 ( N )
.
...
...
...

xN (2) ... xN ( N )
x1 (2)

...

(59)


H N N :
h1 (1) h2 (1)
h (2) h (2)
1
2
H=
...
...

h
N
h
(
)
2 (N )
1

hN (1)
... hN (2)
.
...
...

... hN ( N )
...

(60)


, [24, 27],
Y = HX

(61)

, hi ( j ) ,
i, j = { 1, N } xi ( j ) , i, j = { 1, N },
(, F ) = (0, 0) .
, (..
Y) , N 2 .
[24], , H = XT (.. ).
[27] , .
,
, .. , .
.
12.2.
(),
[25].
61

,
: , .
, ,
(). ,
(0 )
.
:
;

, ..

i ( x) j ( x)dx = 0

i j ,

;
F ;
F 0 -
F, = 0 .

, N (2 N + 1) [25]
XM =

1' (1)

'2 (1)
'
(1)
N

x1 (1)
x2 (1)
xN (1)

1'' (1) + 1' (2)


''2 (1) + '2 (2)
''N (1) + 'N (2)

1'' ( N )

x2 (2) ... ''2 ( N 1) + '2 ( N ) x2 ( N ) ''2 ( N ) ,

xN (2) ... ''N ( N 1) + 'N ( N ) xN ( N ) ''N ( N )

x1 (2)

...

1'' ( N 1) + 1' ( N )

x1 ( N )

(62)
xn (k ) = ( xn (k ) max ) ,
xi ( j ) , (59); xn (k ) max
;
,
62

,
, ; 'n (k ) ''n (k ) ,
,
; 1 k N ; 1 n N .
X M (62)
H M (2 N + 1) N :

HM

0
0
h (1) h (1)
2
1
0
0

h (2) h2 (2)
= 1
0
0

0
0
h ( N ) h ( N )
2
1
0
0

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

hN (1)
0

hN (2)
,
0

0
hN ( N )

0
0

(63)

hn (k ) (63) hi ( j ) (60),
.
,
X (62) H
(63) K N (4 N + 1) :
K=
0 w' (1) V (1)
w1'' (1) + w2' (1) ... V
1
1

= 0 w1' (2) V1 (2) w1'' (2) + w2' (2) ... V

0 w' ( N ) V ( N ) w'' ( N ) + w' ( N ) ... V


1
1
1
2

...
VN (2)
0 ,

''
'
''

... wN
(
N
)
w
(
N
)
V
(
N
)
w
(
N
)
0
+
1
N
N
N

...

''
'
wN
1 (1) + wN (1)

''
'
wN
1 (2) + wN (2)

VN (1)

''
wN
(1)

''
wN
(2)

(64)
Vn (k ) xn (k ) ; wn' (k )
wn'' (k ) ,
hn (k ) (63)

63

'n (k ) ''n (k ) (62) ; V

. ,
.
K
:
K = K odd + K even ,

K odd

0 0 V (1) 0 ... V
1

= 0 0 V1 (2) 0 ... V

0 0 V1 ( N ) 0 ... V

0 0

... 0 VN (2) 0 0 ,

... 0 VN ( N ) 0 0

... 0

VN (1)

(65)

K even =
''
'
''
0 w1' (1) 0 w1'' (1) + w2' (1) ... 0 ... wN

1(1) + wN (1) 0 wN (1) 0

''
'
''
.
= 0 w1' (2) 0 w1'' (2) + w2' (2) ... 0 ... wN
+
(2)
w
(2)
0
w
(2)
0
1
N
N

'
''
'
''
'
''
0 w1(N) 0 w1(N) + w2(N) ... 0 ... wN1(N) + wN (N) 0 wN (N) 0

(66)
K odd ,

. K even ,
, .
, ,
N

M (, F ) = iM (, F ) ,

(67)

i =1

iM (, F ) , (64).
, (65) (67), , . ,
= 0
.
64

K even (66) .
(, F ) ,
, .
,

1 .
(67),
, , (59) 1.
, ,
, . X M N (2 N + 1)
XM =
' (1)
1
'
= 2 (1)

N' (1)

x1 (1)
x2 (1)
x N (1)

''

'

1 (1) + 1 (2)
''
2 (1) +
''
N (1) +

'
2 (2)
'
N (2)

x1 (2)
x2 (2)

...
...

x N (2) ...

''

'

1 ( N 1) + 1 ( N )
''
2 (N
''
N (N

1) +
1) +

'
2 (N )
'
N (N )

1 ( N )

.
''
x2 ( N ) 2 ( N )

''
xN ( N ) N ( N )

x1 ( N )

''

(68)
,
X M
.
(2 N + 1) N ,
H M (63) 1, ..
hn (k ) = hn (k ) ,

HM

0
0
h (1) h (1)
2
1
0
0

(2)
h
h
2 (2)
= 1
0
0

0
0
h ( N ) h ( N )
2
1
0
0

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

0
hN (1)
0

hN (2) .
0

0
hN ( N )

(69)

65

(68) X M ,

H M (69),
K N (4 N + 1) :

K=
0 w ' (1) V (1)
w1'' (1) + w2' (1) ... V
1
1

'
''
'
= 0 w1 (2) V1 (2) w1 (2) + w2 (2) ... V

'
''
'
0 w1 ( N ) V1 ( N ) w1 ( N ) + w2 ( N ) ... V

.
''
'
''
... wN 1 (2) + wN (2) VN (2) wN (2) 0

''
'
''
... wN 1 ( N ) + wN ( N ) VN ( N ) wN ( N ) 0

...

wN'' 1 (1) + wN' (1)

VN (1)

wN'' (1)

(70)
(64) (70) , V .
(70) , ,

K = K odd + K even ,

K odd

0 0 V (1) 0 ... V
1

= 0 0 V1 (2) 0 ... V

0 0 V1 ( N ) 0 ... V

0 0

... 0 VN (2) 0 0 ,

... 0 VN ( N ) 0 0

... 0

VN (1)

(71)

K even =
0 w ' (1) 0 w '' (1) + w ' (1) ... 0 ... w '' (1) + w ' (1) 0 w '' (1) 0
N
N
N 1
1
1
2

'
''
'
''
'
''

= 0 w1 (2) 0 w1 (2) + w2 (2) ... 0 ... wN 1 (2) + wN (2) 0 wN (2) 0 .

0 w1' ( N ) 0 w1'' ( N ) + w2' ( N ) ... 0 ... wN'' 1 ( N ) + wN' ( N ) 0 wN'' ( N ) 0

(72)
(71) , (65). , ,
,
, , ,
.
(65) (71)

66

2N

K = K odd + K odd = ioddM (, F ) .


i =1

(66) (72) , ,
,
, . , , (66) (72), ,
2N

K = K even + K even = ievenM (, F ) 0 .


i =1

(, F )
2N

2N

i =1

i =1

K = K + K = ioddM (, F ) + ievenM (, F ) =

0 ,
= iM (, F )
= 0 < ( N 1) .
i =1
2N

(73)

, X M X M , - , ,
X M X M .
.
.
+1 1,
[25].
, , , (38).
, D , ,
, D24 ad 3ad = H 24 ad 3ad , (62),
X D 49 [25]:
67

XD =
1'

1'
=
'
2
'
1

1'' + 1'

1'' '2
''2 + 1'
1'' + 1'

II
I

1'' '2

II

''2 + 1'
1'' + 1'
1'' + 1'

I
I

II

''2 + 1'

1'' + 1'
1'' + 1'
1'' '2

I
I

I
II

1''

1''
,
1''

1''

(74)

I II , - (, F )
; 1' , '2
; 1'' ''2 .
I II .
, (63), H D 94:

HD

0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1
= 0 0 0 0 .

1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0

(75)


(74) , (75), (64)
K D 417:

KD

68

0 w1'

0 w1'
=
'
0 w2

'
0 w1

w1''

w2'

w1' + w1'' w2'

I II

w1'' w2' w2''

II
I

w2' w2'' + w1' II + I


w1''

2w1' + w1'' w2' w2''


w1'

II

3w1' + w2' w2''

II

3w1' + w2' w2''


3w1' + 2w1'' + w2' w2''
3w1' + w1'' + w2'

2 I II
I

w1'

w2'

w2''

w2''

w1''
2w1'' + w1' w2'

3 I + II

3w1'' w2' + w2''

II

3 I + II

3w1'' w2' + w2''


w1' + 3w1'' + w2''
2w1' + 3w1'' w2' + w2''

II

3 I + II
3 I + II

II + I
0
0

w2''

I II

w2''

+ w1' + w1''
w1'
w1'
w1'' w2' w2''

I
2 I II

w1''

w1''

w1''

II

w2''

0
.
0

, - K D 117:

K D = 0 w1' w2'

2 w1' + w1'' 2 w2' w2''

I II

2 I 2 II

3w1' 3w2' + 2 w1'' 2 w2'' 3 I 3 II 12 w1' + 3w1'' + 4 w2' 3w2'' 12 I + 4 II


3w1' + 12 w1'' 3w2' + 4w2'' 3 I 3 II
w1' + 2w1'' w2' 2 w2''

I II

2 w1' + 3w1'' 2 w2' 3w2''

w1'' w2''

2 I 2 II

0 .

(76)

, ,
. ,
X D 49:
'2 II

'2 II
XD =
'
I
1
'
2 II

''2 '2 II

''2 + 1'

''2 + 1'

1'' '2

1'' '2

II

''2 '2 II

1'' '2

II ''2 '2

''2 '2 II ''2 '2


''2 '2 II

''2 + 1'

II ''2

II ''2
.
II ''2

I
1''

(77)

H D
94:

69

HD

0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1
= 0 0 0 0 .

1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0

(78)

(77) , (78),
K D 417:
0 w2'

0 w2'
KD =
'
0 w1

'
0 w2

w2''

w1'

II

w2' + w2'' w1'

II I

w2'' w1' w1''

w1' w1'' + w2'

I + II

2w2' + w2'' w1' w1''

II

w2''

w2'

3w2' + w1' w1''

3w2' + w1' w1''


3w2' + 2w2'' + w1' w1''
3w2' + w2'' + w1'

2 II I
II

II

3 II + I

3w2'' w1' + w1''

3 II + I

3w2'' w1' + w1''


w2' + 3w2'' + w1''
2w2' + 3w2'' w1' + w1''

3 II + I
3 II + I

II
2 II I

w2' w1' w1''

I + II

w1'' + w2' + w2''

II

w2''

w1''

w2'

II

w2''

w2''

w2'

II

w2''

2w2'' + w2' w1' w1''

II I

w2'' w1' w1''

w1''

0
.
0

, - K D
117:

70

K D = 0 w2' w1'

2 w2' + w2'' 2 w1' w1''

II I

2 II 2 I

3w2' 3w1' + 2w2'' 2w1'' 3 II 3 I 12w2' + 3w2'' + 4w1' 3w1'' 12 II + 4 I


3w2' + 12w2'' 3w1' + 4w1'' 3 II 3 I
w2' + 2 w2'' w1' 2 w1''

II I

2w2' + 3w2'' 2w1' 3w1'' 2 II 2 I

w2'' w1''

0 .

(79)

, -
(79) , , , - (76),
. , (76) (79), -
117
K D = K D + K D = [ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 w1' + 16 w2'
16 I + 16 II

16 w1'' + 16w2''

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ].

, D- . (, F ) ,
= 0 . ,
, ,
.
13.


13.1. , , ,
, , .
,
, , . Pc P < 1 , 71

, , .
,
. ,
.
[47],
Pc P  1 .
1 x(t ) > 0,
signx(t ) =
1 x(t ) < 0.

(80)

/ , , 1 [47].
, [48],

,
.
,
.. ,
,
( Pc P  1 ) [49].

,
- (80),
1' (1) x1 (1)
1'' (1) + 1' (2)
x1 (2) ...

'
''
'
X M = 2 (1) x2 (1) 2 (1) + 2 (2) x2 (2) ...
'
''
'
N (1) xN (1) N (1) + N (2) xN (2) ...
... 1'' ( N 1) + 1' ( N )
x1 ( N ) 1'' ( N )

... ''2 ( N 1) + '2 ( N ) x2 ( N ) ''2 ( N ) = X M ,

... ''N ( N 1) + 'N ( N ) xN ( N ) ''N ( N )

(81)

, ; X M
, (62).
72

(81) H M , H M -
(63),
K = K ,

K , (64).
12,
K .
, (, F ) , , .
,
, ,
(81)
1. X M

X M

' (1) x1 (1) '' (1) + ' (2) x1 (2) ...


1
1
1
'
'
''

= 2 (1) x2 (1) 2 (1) + 2 (2) x2 (2) ...

N' (1) xN (1) N'' (1) + N' (2) xN (2) ...

1 ( N )

''
'
''
... 2 ( N 1) + 2 ( N ) x2 ( N ) 2 ( N ) = X M ,

''
'
''
... N ( N 1) + N ( N ) xN ( N ) N ( N )

...

''

'

1 ( N 1) + 1 ( N )

x1 ( N )

''

(82)

X M , (68).
(82) H M , H M (69),
K = K ,

K , (70).
, (, F )

73

K = K + K = K + K =
2N

2N

i =1
2N

i =1

= ioddM ( , F ) + ievenM (, F ) =

0 ,
= iM (, F )
= 0 < ( N 1) .
i =1

(83)

(83) (73) , ,
.
= 0 , .
13.2.
.
, , : .

,
(81) (82):
X M = X M X M = X M ,

(84)

, , .
(84) , H M - H M (63) (69),
K = K K = K .

(, F )
K = K + K = (K + K ) =
2N

2N

i =1

i =1

= ioddM (, F ) + ievenM (, F ) =

74

2N

0 ,
= iM (, F )
= 0 < ( N 1) .
i =1

(85)

(85) (73) ,
.
13.3. , , .
(84). (84) ,
(62) (68),
.
, ,
= 0 .

75


,
. ,
.
, , .
, , , ,
.
.

,
. ,
. ,

. , ,
,
, .

, , .

76


1. Huttman E. German Patent 768068, March 22, 1940.
2. Sproule D.O., Hughes H.J. British Patent 604429, July 5, 1948.
3. Cauer W.A. German Patent 892772, December 19, 1950.
4. Dicke R.H. US Patent 2624876, January 6, 1953.
5. Darlington S. US Patent 2678997, May 18, 1954.
6. 146803 25
1956 / .. . . 9, 1962.
7. Benjamin R. Modulation, Resolution and Signal Processing in Radar Sonar and Related Systems. Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1966. ( :
.
/ . .; . ... .: , 1969. 256 .)
8. Cook C.E., Bernfeld M. Radar Signals. In Introduction to Theory and
Application. Academic Press. New York, London. 1967. ( :
., . :
/ . .; . ... .: . , 1971. 568 .)
9. .. . .: . ,
1970. 256 .
10. / . ... .:
. , 1970. 560 .
11. .. . .: . ,
1974. 360 .
12. .., .. . .: . , 1981. 416 .
13. .. . .: . , 1970.
376 .
14. .. . .: . , 1978. 304 .
15. .. . .:
, 1985. 384 .
16. /
. ... .: . , 1973. 424 .
17. / .
... .1. .: . , 1963. 424 .
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19. ., . / . .; . ... .: , 1978. 848 .
20. . . . 1. .:
, 1996. 144 .
21. .. . .: , 1984. 240 .
77

22. / . ., ., .. / . .; .
... .: . 1989. 472 .
23. / . ., .,
.. / . .; . ... .: ,
1993. 416 .
24. .., .., .. // . . 1990. .34. 4. . 3742.
25. .. // . . 1998. 2. . 4451.
26. .. (l , k ) - // . XLIX . : - , 2004. 1
(36). . 3637.
27. .. : . . . 4.
: - , 1998. 94 .
28. . / . .; . ..
... .: , 1970. 454 .
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. .: , 1977. 234 .
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31. .., ..
// . 1966. . 2. . 2532.
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vol.12, p. 311320.
33. ..
// : . .: . .., 1990. . 1821.
34. ..
// . 2001. 7. . 7375.
35. .., .. . .: . , 1975. 208 .
36. . // . 1961. 4. . 319.
37. Lityuk V.I. Ensembles Synthesis of the Complementary Code Sequences for the Asynchronous Address Communication Systems // Proc. of
3GWireless`2002 & WAS`2002, 2002 International Conference on Third Generation Wireless and Beyond, May 28-31, 2002, San Francisco, CA, USA.
P. 732737.
78

38. ., . / . .; .
... .: , 1989. 655 .
39. 2182403. / .. . . 13, 2002.
40. 2219668. / .. . . 35, 2003.
41. .., .., ..
. .: , 1968. 271 .
42. .., ..
. .: , 1985. 248 .
43. / .., .., ..,
... .: , 1986. 304 .
44. ..
// . 2004. 4. . 7073.
45. ..
. .: . , 1972. 352 .
46. 2107926. / .. . . 9,
1998.
47. .. // . 1962. . 7, 7.
. 10731076.
48. .., .., .. . .: , 1971. 240 .
49. ..
, - // :
. . II. , - . : - ,
1998. . 166167.

79


............................................................................................................3
1. .............................................6
2. ............................7
3. ............9
4. .......................................................................11
5. ,
................................................................19
6. ..........................23
7.
...............................................................29
8. ,

........................................................................................36
9.
()
................................................................42
10.
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11.
...........................................52
12.
.........................................................................60
13.
.........................71
.....................................................................................................76
...........................................................................77

80